NUTRITION There are many training factors that are involved in maximizing athletic performance through training. Strength and Conditioning Nutritional Program Proper Recovery/Rest Of the three factors listed, nutrition is the foundation for the other two. You can follow the best workout ever designed, but if you are not eating properly, your athletic gains will suffer. The food you eat is your body’s fuel. The better the food, the better the body will perform. The subject of nutrition and diet is saturated with misconceptions. To eliminate the greatest misconception about diet and its effects on training, there are no miracle foods or supplements that will generate fantastic training gains. The effectiveness that diet has on training is achieved by following basic sound nutrition stemming from the basic food groups. The basic food groups of meat, fruit, vegetables, grain and dairy products supply the following six nutrients that are essential to body functioning; 1. Carbohydrates 4. Vitamins 2. Fats 5. Minerals 3. Protein 6. Water CARBOHYDRATES: The primary source of fuel the body uses during intense activities. Carbohydrates provide energy for basic body functions, nerve transmissions and muscular contractions. They also assist in the digestion and assimilation of food. FATS: Provide the body with a sustained source of energy utilized during moderate activity. They act as carriers for fat soluble vitamins and supply the body with essential fatty acids needed for growth and healthy skin. PROTEIN: Necessary for tissue growth and development. It acts in the formation of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Protein can also be used as a source of energy by the body when carbohydrate stores are depleted. VITAMINS: Act as regulators and catalysts for body functions. They also assist in the utilization of other nutrients. MINERALS: Act as catalyst for body functions. Included in these functions are muscle response, nerve transmission, digestion and utilization of other nutrients. WATER: Probably the most important of the six. Water is essential in the digestive process and aids in the transportation of nutrients in the body. It functions as a dilute and medium of elimination of toxic waste as well as being a regulator of body temperature. Drink a gallon of water every day. Some basic guidelines to keep in mind are as follows: Consume less saturated fat, sugar and alcohol. Eat a majority of your carbohydrates in the morning and at noon. Your day should go as follows: A.M.- Carbohydrates; Lunch- mixed carbohydrates and protein; P.M.- mostly protein. EXAMPLE: Breakfast Bowl of high fiber cereal Skim Milk Orange Juice/grapefruit juice (calcium fortified) Lunch Baked chicken breast or Turkey sandwich Vegetable and fruit or 2 slices wheat bread Baked or sweet potato/pasta 1 slice cheese Water Vegetable and fruit Water Dinner Chicken/Fish/Turkey or Omelet, Scrambled Eggs Vegetable Water Water Eat 6-7 small meals daily instead of having only 2 to 3 meals. Eating to much at one sitting will cause sharp fluctuations in your blood sugar and insulin levels. Too much insulin in the bloodstream means a higher storage of fat. Never skip breakfast. Your body will go into the starvation response. This is when you have not eaten over a period of time (after dinner until the following day at lunch: 14-15 hours); your body will tend to store even “good food” as fat for future need. Try not to eat after 7:00 pm. If you have to, eat fruit or a protein snack, but no simple sugars/fats, such as ice cream, pizza and burgers. In general, many athletes consume a diet that is slightly higher in protein, lower in refined sugars and lower in fat. The diet may be divided into the following: RDA VARIATION Protein 10-12% Protein 30-35% Carbohydrates 55-60% Carbohydrates 40-50% Fat 25-30% Fat 15-20% Drink at least 8-8 ounce glasses of water daily. This is the average population requirement. Athletes have a much greater need for water. ½ gallon to 1 gallon of water is a good goal. The more the better. Be aware of hidden calories in drinks: Soda- 12 oz. can 140 calories Beer- 12 oz. 140 calories Iced Tea- 12 oz 100 calories Wine- 6 oz. 120 calories Orange Juice- 8 oz 102 calories Margarita- 12 oz. 740 calories 2% Milk – 12oz 170 calories Rum- 6 oz. 395 calories 2% Chocolate Milk- 12 oz. 245 calories Stw. Daquir- 12 oz. 375 calories Lemonade- 12 oz. 100 calories Latte- 12 oz. 250 calories Kool Aid- 12 oz. 140 calories Hot Chocolate- 8 oz. 100 calories Avoid: Drinks with caffeine/ephedrine Colas Tea Ultimate Orange Sport “high energy” drinks To lose 1 lb. a week. Decrease your daily caloric intake by 500 calories. Reduce diet by removing 3 soda’s….450 Seven Days a Week………………………..x 7 Equals…………………………………………….3150 calories To gain 1 lb. a week, increase your daily caloric intake by 500 calories. Add 2 Lean Baked Chicken Breast w/o skin…450 Seven Days a Week…………………………………….x 7 Equals…………………………………………………………3150 calories Quick Tips Stay away from fried foods: fried chicken, fried fish, fried shrimp, fried turkey, bacon, fried pork chops, French fries, fried onion rings, fried mushrooms, fried cheese, etc. EX: Food that is high in saturated fat is like a drug. How much better could you be if you ate right? Limit your consumption of meats high in saturated fat: hamburgers, cheeseburgers, fried meats and dark meat. Intake more lean meats such as: baked chicken w/o skin, baked turkey w/o skin, baked fish, boiled shrimp, tuna in water. Think of alternative forms of protein: eggs (whites), red beans, black beans, baked beans, white beans, yogurt, cottage cheese, low-fat/fat-free cheese. Eat whole grain wheat breads instead of traditional white bread. It has more fiber and will convert to sugar at a slower rate than white bread. This includes other starches such as brown rice instead of white rice, wheat pasta instead of white pasta. Low Glycemic Index Foods High Glycemic Index Foods Sweet Potato White Potato- Mashed Potato Brown Rice White Rice Whole Grain Bread White/Honey Wheat Bread Whole Wheat Pasta Traditional Pasta Broccoli Carrots Peas Corn Bran Cereal Frosted Flakes You don’t need to over indulge in carbohydrates at night because their purpose is to replenish energy stores. It only takes a small amount of carbohydrates to restore your needs. Any excess is stored as fat. Proteins however, can help to rebuild muscle tissue that has been broken down during activity. Any food in excess (good-[fruit] or bad – *fried food+) is stored as fat. That is your body’s way of protecting itself from starvation. Portion control is one of the most important keys to dietary success. If you look good on the outside, it doesn’t mean you look good on the inside. When you think you look good and your body fat is still high, there are 2 possibilities: you store fat internally (organ fat) or you are dehydrated. Never skip meals. It will always cause a more drastic spike in your insulin levels when you finally eat. Understanding your body fat numbers: Fat-Free Mass- Total in pounds of how much lean body mass you have. This includes bones, organ, muscle and fluids. Fat Mass- Total in pounds of how much fat you have. This includes superficial body fat that is more obvious (belly) and internal body fat (around organs or around joints for protection). Fat Ratio- this ration tells you how much fat-free mass. Ideal is 7:1 for males TBW- Total Body Water tells you in pounds how much fluid you carry. This number works into a formula that gives you your total level of hydration. Ideal is 60-70% for males. SAMPLE MEALS TO MAINTAIN, GAIN AND REDUCE WEIGHT Proper nutrition is essential for the athlete who seeks to attain success. Athletes need to realize the direct relationship between proper sports nutrition and SIZE, STRENGTH, ENDURANCE and CONDITIONING. Listed below are sample meals that you can use as a guide to help you reach your specific caloric level. Meals are divide into WEIGHT MAINTENANCE, WEIGHT GAIN and WEIGHT REDUCTION categories. BREAKFAST BREAKFAST BREAKFAST TO MAINTAIN: TO GAIN: TO REDUCE: Apple, 1 Orange juice, 1 cup Apple, 1 Cereal, 2 cups Pancakes, 6 Toast w/ jam, 1 Toast w/ margarine and jelly, 2 Syrup, ¼ cup Cereal, 1 cup 2 % milk, 1 cup Margarine, 2 pats Skim Milk, 1 cup Low-Fat Milk, 2 cups Breakfast Items: Breakfast Items: Breakfast Items: Fresh Fruit Cinnamon Toast Skim Milk Canned Fruit Pancakes Water Cold Cereal 2% Milk Hot Cereal Toast w/ Margarine, Jelly LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH TO MAINTAIN: TO GAIN: TO REDUCE: Baked Chicken (light), 1 piece Turkey Breast, 6 ozs. Chicken Breast, 1 piece Noodles/Pasta, 1 cup Whole Wheat bread, 4 slices Baked Potato, 1 med. Peas/Green Beans, 1 cup Lite Mayonnaise, 2 tbl. Margarine, 1 pat Oatmeal cookie, 1 Grape juice, 2 cups Apple, 1 Skim Milk, 1 cup Fruit Yogurt, 1 cup Iced Tea Water Lunch Items: Lunch Items: Lunch Items: Baked Chicken Whole Wheat Bread Fruit Juice Turkey Breast Baked Potato Iced Tea Tuna (Water Packed) Fresh Fruit Lite Mayonnaise Spaghetti Fruit Yogurt Margarine DINNER DINNER DINNER TO MAINTAIN: TO GAIN: TO REDUCE: Chicken Breast, 1 cup Cheese/Veggie Pizza, 1 med Spaghetti w/ tomato Baked Potato, 1 med Low-Fat Milk, 2 cups Sauce, 2 cup Mixed Vegetables Grape Juice, 2 cups Italian Bread, 2 pieces Margarine, 1 pat Skim Milk, 2 cups Tossed Salad, 2 cups Water Iced Tea Dinner items: Dinner Items: Dinner Items: Baked Chicken Whole Wheat Bread Fruit Juice Basked Fish Baked Potato Iced Tea Fresh Mixed Veggies Fresh Fruit Soup Spaghetti Fruit Yogurt Margarine **Drink a gallon of water every day! SAMPLE MENU CONTAINING SIX MEALS Breakfast 7 to 8 A.M. Toast Multigrain bagel or toast with honey or jam Bran or multigrain cereal – 1 ½ to 2 cups One banana and/or any other fruit Nonfat milk-one cup Two cups of water 800 calories Snack 10 to 10:30 A.M. One cup Low-fat Yogurt – or one protein shake Snack bar/bagel/fruit Two cups of water 450 calories Lunch 1 to 1:30 P.M. One bowl of any soup Chicken, Turkey, Tuna or egg salad sandwich or wrap Raw vegetables Any fresh fruit or vegetabl One cookie Two cups or water 800 calories Snack 2:30 to 3 P.M. After weights before practice Any juice and/or low-fat yogurt or protein shake Snack bar/bagel/fruit Two cups of water 325 calories Dinner 7 P.M. (Should be the most nutritious meal of the day) CHOOSE ONE ENTREE Shrimp, chicken pork or beef stir fry Spaghetti with meat sauce Baked chicken, turkey or fish Whole grain bread Salad and/or fresh vegetables Two cups of milk Two cups of water 1,250 calories Snack 9 P.M. (NO FAST FOOD!) Toasted English muffin or whole wheat toast with peanut butter or 1 cup low-fat yogurt, or one protein shake Two cups of water SHOPPING LIST PROTEINS CARBOHYDRATES VEGETABLES Chicken Breast Sweet Potato Broccoli Turkey Breast Baked Potato Cauliflower Lean Chicken Deli Meat Brown rice Green Beans Lean Turkey Deli Meat Wild Rice Green Peas Lean Roast Beef Deli Meat Whole Wheat Pasta Green/Red Pepper Lean Turkey/Chick Hot Dog Quaker Instant Oatmeal Mushrooms Lean Ham Deli Meat Whole Wheat Bread Tomato Salmon-can or fresh Whole Wheat Buns Carrot Chicken-can (in water) Black Beans Celery Tuna-can (in water) Red Beans Cabbage Swordfish White Beans Zucchini Halibut Refried Beans Cucumber Crab Baked Beans Onion Shrimp Corn Lettuce Lobster Strawberries/Blueberries Asparagus Venison Melon Collard Greens Red Apple/Pear Mustard Greens Flank Steak Orange/Grapefruit Spinach Ground Turkey Breast Banana Artichoke Ground Chicken Breast Peach/Plum Kidney Beans Top Round or Sirloin Steak Grapes- Red or Green Mixed Vegetables Egg Whites/Egg Substitute Fat-free Yogurt Low-fat Cottage Cheese Spaghetti (whole wheat) SNACKS Low-fat Peanut Butter White/Brown Rice Pretzels Low-fat/Fat-free Cheese Waffles (whole wheat) Baked Tortilla Chips French Toast Baked Lays CONDIMENTS English Muffins All Fruit Fat-free Mayonnaise Raisin Bran Fat-free Yogurt w/ fruit Mustard Total/Wheaties Low-fat Cottage Cheese w/ fruit Ketchup Pancakes Salsa Wheat Bread DESSERTS Fat-free/Low-fat Sour Cream Italian Bread Jello Margarine Angel Food Cake Butter Substitutes: DRINKS Oatmeal Raisin Cookie Molly McButter Gallon of Water each day Chocolate Pudding Promise Ultra Light 2%, Low-Fat or Skim Milk Sherbert Benacol Light Crystal Light- Sugarfree Frozen Yogurt Take Control Orange Juice w/ calcium Diet Soda HOW TO GAIN WEIGHT HEALTHFULLY In order to gain weight, you have to consume more calories than you burn off. Theoretically, this means eating an additional 500 calories per day to gain one pound per week. Some thin people, however, have difficulty gaining weight and have to consume far more than that. To take in the extra calories: You can eat an extra snack, such as a bedtime peanut butter sandwich with a glass of milk. Larger-than-normal portions at mealtime divided into 5-6 meals a day instead of three. Eat higher calorie foods. Many people who try to gain weight think that a high protein diet will help them to bulk up. This is false. Although you may need a little extra protein to build muscle, your normal diet undoubtedly offers more than enough. The average American easily eats two to three times the recommended amount of protein. Hence, you do not need to spend money on protein powders, pills and special supplements. Instead, spend your money on wholesome, high calorie foods. When you take your food selections, keep in mind that fats are the most concentrated form of calories. One teaspoon of fat (butter, oil, margarine and mayonnaise) has 36 calories, whereas the same amount of carbohydrate or protein has only 16 calories. Since most protein foods generally contain fat (such as the cream that’s in cheese, grease in hamburger or oil in peanut butter), these foods tend to be high in calories. However, some fats can also be bad for your health – such as the saturated fat that’s in cheese, beef, chicken skin, butter and bacon. Hence, you should try to reduce your intake of these and focus instead on the more heart-healthful fats, such as corn-oil margarine, olive oil, old-fashioned peanut butter, and oily fish such as salmon and mackerel. The following are suggestions to help you boost your calorie intake: JUICE: Apple, cranberry, cranapple, grape, pineapple and apricot have more calories than grapefruit, orange and tomato juice. To increase the calories in frozen OJ, add less water than the directions suggest. FRUIT: Bananas, pineapple, raisins, dates, fried apricots and other dried fruits have more calories than watery fruits such as grapefruit, plums and peaches. MILK: To boost the calorie value of milk, add ¼ cup powered milk to one cup of regular milk. You can also add malt powder, Ovaltine, Carnation Instant Breakfast, Nestlé’s Quick or other flavoring. If you mix these up by the quart, they’ll be ready and waiting for you in the refrigerator. You can also make blender drinks such as milk shakes, fruit smoothies and frappes. HOT CEREAL: By cooking cereal with milk, instead of water, you’ll add both calories and nutritional value. Add lots of mix-ins, such as powdered milk, margarine, peanut butter, walnuts, sunflower seeds, wheat germ and dried fruit. COLD CEREAL: Choose dense cereals (as opposed to flaked and puffed types), such as granola, muesli, grape-nuts and wheat chex. Top with raisins, bananas and other fruit. TOAST: Spread with generous amounts of peanut butter, margarine and jam. SANDWICHES: Select hearty, dense breads (opposed to “fluffy” types), such as sprouted wheat, honey bran, rye and pumpernickel – the thicker sliced, the better! Generously stuff with tuna, chicken and other sandwich fillings. Good old peanut butter and jelly is inexpensive, healthy and high calorie choice. MEATS: Although beef, pork, and lamb tend to have more calories than chicken or fish, they also tend to have more saturated fat. Hence, you should eat them in moderation, taking care to select the leanest cut. You can boost the calorie value of lean meat, chicken or fish by sautéing them in safflower, corn or olive oil, as well as adding bread-crumb toppings. SOUPS: Hearty Lentil, split pea, minestrone and barley soups have more calories than brothy chicken and beef types – unless these are chock-full of veggies and meat. To make canned soups (such as tomato and chowder) more substantial, add evaporated milk in place of water or regular milk, or add extra powered milk. Garnish with parmesan cheese and croutons. BEANS, LEGUMES: Lentils, split pea soup, chili with beans, limas and other dried beans are not only high in calories but also are an excellent source of protein and carbohydrates. VEGETABLES: Peas, corn, carrots, winter squash and beets have more calories than greens beans, broccoli, summer squash and other watery vegetables. Add generous amounts of margarine, slivered almonds, grated cheese or sauces. SALADS: What may start out being low-calorie lettuce can be quickly converted into a substantial meal by adding cottage cheese, garbanzo beans (chicken peas), sunflower seeds, assorted vegetables, chopped walnuts, raisins, tuna fish, lean meat, croutons and liberal dousing of salad dressing (preferably olive oil based or low fat alternative). POTATO: Add generous amounts of butter extra powered milk to mashed potatoes. Use sour cream and gravy sparingly. Although they add significant amounts of calories, they also add heart-unhealthful saturated fat. DESSERTS: By selecting the desserts with nutritional value, you can enjoy a treat as well as nourish your body. Try oatmeal-raisin cookies. Fig Newtons, rice pudding, chocolate pudding, stewed fruit compote, pumpkin pie, carrot cake. Even blueberry muffins, corn bread with honey, banana bread and other sweet breads can double as a dessert. SNACKS: A substantial afternoon and/or evening snack is an excellent way to boost your calorie intake. If you don’t feel hungry, just think of the food as a “weight gain medicine” that you have to take. Some helpful snack choices include fruit yogurt, cheese and crackers, peanuts, sunflower seeds, almonds, granola, pretzels, English muffins, bagels, bran muffins, pizza, peanut butter crackers, milk shakes, Instant breakfast drinks, hot cocoa, bananas, dried fruit and sandwiches. SECRETS TO LOSING WEIGHT AND KEEPING IT OFF Well, summer’s right around the corner and my guess is there are no more than a few of us who could use some help at losing a few pounds. You see, you might think of summer as our final exam in our overall development. It’s where your body is put to the test to take our fitness to another level. Too do this we must be in a state of optimal functioning. For us to obtain this ultra-high level of preparation we must fine-tune our nutrition in order to fine-tune our bodies. It is important that you understand that fat is a athlete’s worst enemy. Being over weight and carrying around extra pounds slows you down and will prevent you from performing well when the game is on the line. Size matters in the trenches but fatter is not bigger. No matter how big and strong you are, when you’re really tired and sucking wind late in the game nothing else really matters, does it? Whatever the case, the fact of the matter is summer’s almost here, and some of us have got a lot of catching up to do. So below is a list of “must do’s” for you to do in order to be the lean, muscular, freak of an athlete you dream of being. 1. You need to feed your body frequently, eat at least 5 meals a day. What I’m talking about is feeding your body constantly throughout the day or “grazing”, like a thoroughbred horse. Horse’s graze; they eat small amounts consistently throughout the day. And as you’ve probably noticed our hoofed friends have virtually no fat, they are practically sold muscle. Of course, athletes are a lot different, in many ways, than horses, but the point is, if we want to get leaner and more muscular, you need to eat smaller more frequent meals and not binge or should I say, “eat until you explode!” It is important to understand that when you consume large meals your metabolism actually slows down and you cannot properly digest and use the additional calories for recovery and ultimately, gains in speed, strength and conditioning. 2. Cut back on empty carbohydrates. Cut back on low-nutrient carbs (how many times have you heard that?) by eliminating bread, pasta, candy, juice, chips and deserts from your diet. Eating an excess of “empty” carbs causes a spike in insulin. It’s a known scientific fact that your body has trouble burning fat when your insulin levels are high. Lots of carbohydrates in the evening are more likely to be converted to body fat and/or reduce the amount of fat your body may burn during sleep. A common- sense approach for keeping within daily allotment of carbs is simply using the palm of your hand or your clenched fist for gauging portion sizes. If it won’t fit in the palm of your hand don’t eat it! In addition, focus on eating “low-glycemic-index carbohydrates”, such as black beans, brown rice, sweet potatoes and oatmeal (remember, glycemic index determines how fast a food raises blood sugar during digestion). High-glycemic carbohydrates like white potatoes, white rice, past, candy, juice and white bread cause a rapid increase in blood sugar, requiring your body to produce large amounts of insulin to metabolize the sugar! (Here we go again!) When this happens your metabolism slows down and you stop burning fat! 3. Consume more protein. Experts seem to agree that one of the most important aspects of a healthy fat-loss nutrition plan is making sure you’re consuming enough quality protein. Studies show the anabolic (muscle building) effects of intense training are increased by a high-protein diet. When you’re losing fat, you need even more protein because your body burns more protein for energy on a reduced- calorie diet. 4. Limit fat intake to 20% of your total daily calories. This is one so obvious it’s hardly worth mentioning. Studies indicate that people who are successful at losing fat and maintain the loss are those who keep their fat intake to approximately 20 percent of their daily calories. It seems logical to think that the body is more efficient at converting fat calories into body fat than it is at converting carbohydrates or protein into body fat. Less fat in the mouth equates to less fat around the waist, period! 5. Keep alcohol to a minimum. Alcohol doesn’t contain any fat. The fact is alcohol is loaded with carbohydrates and empty calories. (Again, remember rule #2) Just 1 gram of alcohol contains 7 calories, nearly as much as a gram of fat. Consuming just a couple of beers equated to about a forth of the calories you should be taking in for an entire day if your goal is to lose body fat. 6. Drink plenty of water. Healthy muscle is comprised of more than 70% water. Water is also an essential transport mechanism for a vast array of nutrients like vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates. It serves an important role in all cellular activity. If your water intake is low, your ability to transport nutrients becomes compromised and you’ll loose strength and feel sluggish because of the build up of ammonia, urea, acid and a whole host of other junk you don’t want hanging around in your body. Drinking water can also help control your appetite. If you find that the portions of food you’re eating doesn’t quite satisfy you then water will fill this void. 7. Expect failure, but keep trying! Many people fail the first time and then quit trying. Rome wasn’t built in a day and neither were you! THE PERFORMANCE FORMULA LEAN MASS = MUSCLE MUSCLE = FORCE PRODUCTION FORCE PRODUCTION = INCREASED PERFORMANCE Sample Meal Breakdown Fats 15% Complex Carbs 50% Protein 35% NUTRITION FOR WEIGHT GAIN Many football players at collegiate level realize that they need to gain weight in order to compete with others at their same position and on the opposing team. However, some athletes have an easier time gaining weight than others. Gaining weight is a matter of consuming more calories than you burn. Many athletes feel as though they eat “enough” but sometimes they need more than enough. Athletes may need anywhere from 4,000-6,000 calories each day to maintain weight. Weight gain is a whole different story. Here is a little science behind weight gain. 1 pound of body weight = 3,500 calories For a 1 pound weight gain per week, an athlete should consume an extra 500 calories each day So, if you need 5,000 calories each day to maintain weight, you should consume 5,500 calories per day for a weight gain of 1 pound per week What should I eat to gain weight? There is one major misconception when it comes to weight gain…more protein=more weight gain. That is a myth. Ideally, your body uses carbohydrates for energy and protein for building and sustaining muscle mass. When you over consume protein and under consume carbohydrates, your body begins to use protein as energy rather than as a muscle builder, which is never a good thing. That is what your diet should look like when you are trying to gain weight. 55-60% carbohydrates 15-20% protein 25% fat So for our athlete that needs 5,500 calories/day for weight gain, his diet should look like this: 5,500 x 0.6=3,300 calories from carbohydrates 5,500 x 0.15= 825 calories from protein 5,500 x 0.25=1,375 calories from fat Now, don’t feel as though you need to count calories. An easy way to get enough carbohydrates is to eat a snack between meals that is carbohydrate rich with a little protein and fat. See attached sheet for details. It seems as though many more calories should come from protein, but remember, we are using carbohydrates as energy, not protein. Ten Ways to Gain 1. EAT BREAKFAST!!! This is an easy way to add an additional 1,00 calories to your diet and you don’t have to make it difficult Things you need to know: -2 packets instant oatmeal, PB&J sandwich, one Gaining weight does not happen in one cereal bar, 16oz OJ, 8 oz milk meal You need to be diligent and be =1,00 calories, 37 grams of protein consistent each and every day. 2. Snack/eat at least every 2 hours One pound equals 3,500 calories. So to -These snacks should be high in calories but gain 1 pound a week you need to also high in nutritional value. consume an extra 500 calories each day. 3. Do not substitute shakes and bars for meals. Eating really lat at night but skipping -They are meant to SUPPLEMENT, not replace other meals will not “make up” for what real food. you missed earlier in the day. 4. Drink your calories during the day. Consuming excessive amounts of protein -milk, juice and sports drinks will help add extra will not help you gain lean mass. Your calories to your daily intake. But still make sure body can only use so much and the rest you are hydrating with water during the day as will be turned into fat. well. 5. Increase your portion sizes. -East seconds and use a bigger plate. 6. Add extras to meals High Calorie Shopping List -Add promise soft margarine to veggies and bread, extra dressing to salads (oil based Fig Newtons dressing), shredded cheese to salads and Trail Mix veggies, marinara sauce to pasta Almonds and walnuts 7. Do not drink water with meals Dried fruit -Water may make you feel full faster. Stick with Chocolate/yogurt covered raisins milk, juice, and sports drinks. But remember, Granola water during the day is a good thing. Big Sur Bars 8. Eat a substantial snack about 1 hour before bed Honey Stinger Protein bars -PB&J with a tall glass of milk, large bowl of Ensure, Boost granola cereal with milk. Make it high calorie but Bagels stay away from late night fast food trips. You want to put on lean weight, not fat. 9. Get a recovery snack after workouts -This is a time when your body WANTS to build muscle so feed it! 10. Be diligent. -Weight gain does not happen one day out of the week. Power Breakfast for Weight Gain Day 1 -2 cups cooked oatmeal or grits 1,480 calories -16 oz fruit juice 46 grams of protein -3 slices of whole wheat toast with peanut butter -1 banana -16 oz milk Day 2 -2 scrambled eggs with cheese 1,430 calories -2 waffles with butter and syrup 50 grams of protein -16 oz fruit juice -16 oz milk -2 cups cold cereal Day 3 -Breakfast bagel sandwich (eggs, ham, cheese) 1,480 calories -1 orange 52 grams of protein -16 oz fruit juice -breakfast potatoes -16 oz milk -1 banana Day 4 -Breakfast burrito (flour tortilla, eggs, ham, 1,480 calories Cheese, veggies) 62 grams of protein -16 oz fruit juice -16 oz milk -2 scrambled eggs with cheese -fresh fruit Day 5 -3 slices of French toast with syrup and butter 1,380 calories -16 oz fruit juice 54 grams of protein -16 oz milk -2 scrambled eggs with cheese -Fresh fruit Day 6 – on the go -2 cereal bars 1,480 calories -2 PB&J sandwiches 32 grams of protein -16 oz fruit juice -1 apple Seven Foods that will help pack on the extra pounds for healthy weight gain. Gaining weight can be a difficult whole balancing your sport and school. For you to get the calories that you need for weight gain/maintenance, it will be important for you to choose foods that are high in calories and packed with the nutrients you need to stay healthy. You should plan on packing these snacks with you on road trips, during a normal day and have them stashed in your dorm or cabinets. These foods will help you get the most “bang for your buck”. ***NOTE: All foods on top in each box is the higher calorie option Food Calories Serving Size Heartland Granola 435 calories ¾ cup Special K 120 calories ¾ cup Wheat Bagel 270 calories 1 large bagel Slice of wheat bread 140 calories 2 slices of bread Fig Newtons 440 calories 8 cookies Pretzels 110 calories 16 mini pretzels Chocolate/yogurt covered raisins 190 calories ¼ cup Raisins 130 calories ¼ cup Trail Mix 600 calories 1 cup Chex Mix 200 calories 1 cup Almonds 170 calories ¼ cup Popcorn (SmartPop) 8 calories ¼ cup Dried Fruit 280 calories ½ cup Apple 80 calories 1 medium size ***NOTE: The food that are on the bottom of each box are still healthy and can fit into a healthy eating plan. NUTRITION FOR WEIGHT LOSS Preparing for the transition into college and into athletics can be overwhelming if you are not prepared physically. There are times when it is important to lose fat in order to be at the physical level of others at your position. Here is a little science behind losing weight 1 pound=3,500 calories For 1 pound weight loss per week an athlete should decrease his caloric intake by 500 calories per day Therefore, if an athlete needs 5,00 calories per day to maintain Weight, he/she should consume 4,500 calories per day to lose weight It takes great self-discipline and accountability to lose weight. This is probably one of the most difficult hurdles to overcome in sports. You may have to sacrifice fast food for a while, skip out on the large pizzas and give up drinking soda and juice. How to Lose Weight 1. EAT BREAKFAST! -This is a great way to kick start your metabolism and give your body fuel to burn. You don’t need much more than about 500 calories to do this. 1 ½ cup cold cereal with 8 oz milk, 1 slice wheat toast with peanut butter, banana=480 calories, 25g protein 2. Prevent large gaps between meals -You should have a small, healthy snack or a meal every 3 hours. Large gaps between meals will cause bingeing and overeating later in the day. It will also cause your metabolism to slow down. 3. East well balanced meals -This includes a lean source of protein, carbohydrates and some fats 4. Incorporate snacks into your day -But a snack is just that…to hold you over until your next meal. It has a beginning and an end (2 servings of crackers, cereal, etc.). you should NOT grab from the bag and dig in. 5. DRINK WATER with your meals -This will help you feel full faster 6. Watch what you drink -Soda, juice and sports drinks can add useless calories. A 32 oz soda has ~ 500 calories 7. Skip the late night fast food trips and stop eating 2 hours before bed 8. Snack healthy at night 9. Watch portion sizes -Do not allow yourself heaping plates of food. Also, if you drink often and put your fork down between bites, you will feel full faster. It will give your brain time to connect to your stomach that you have had enough. 10. Don’t deprive yourself -Allow yourself to have a treat from time to time. If you deprive yourself, chances are that over time you will give in and binge. Just remember to balance it out with plenty of fruits, veggies and whole grains. Things you need to know: Healthy Snack Shopping List Eating only 1-2 meals a day will Fresh fruit *90 calories granola bar NOT help you lose weight. It will Raw veggies *reduced fat crackers only slow your metabolism and Fat free pudding *fat free yogurt or smoothies decrease your energy levels Sugar-free Jell-O *sugar free popsicles You are NOT on a diet, you are Pretzels *Rice cakes just eating healthy for optimal Smart Pop popcorn *2% milk string cheese performance Fad diets work in SHORT term but ****NOTE: These are healthy alternatives but you still need have a negative effect on energy to pay attention to portion sizes levels and long-term health Diet pills are never safe NUTRITION FOR WEIGHT MAINTENANCE AND HEALTHY EATING TIPS Eating healthy with such a busy schedule is sometimes very difficult. If you want to have the most energy, maintain your weight and even do better in class (i.e. stay awake and pass tests….), then you need to pay closer attention to your general nutrition habits. Snacks are a very important part of your day. Getting snacks between meals can help prevent excessive hunger during the day, during practice or games and can help decrease your body fat. “Backloading” is a term used to describe a certain type of eating habit. It consists of a day when a person does not each much during the earlier times of day and then “backloads” on calories in the evening, eating anything and everything in sight. Oftentimes when a person backloads he/she has a tendency to crave sweets, salty snacks and fried, fatty foods. Backloading is a bad habit to begin so stop it before it starts. Backloading can also significantly increase your body fat levels so if one of your goals is to decrease body fat, check your eating habits. So you get home from classes, practice, lifting, studying and socializing and you realize that you have not eaten since 8:00am this morning. Suddenly you are starving and you head to the refrigerator, freezer and pantry looking for anything to eat. Before you know it, you have eaten 4 slices of pizza, a large salad, 3 cookies and a bowl of ice cream and there is no sign of stopping. What you have just done has a name…it is called “Backloading”. “Backloading” is when you consume a small amount of calories during the day and “make up” for those missed calories in the evening. Oftentimes, we do not make the best choices when we are starving, thus the cravings for surgary, sweet and fatt foods. In order to perform your best in classes, practices and competitions, you need to plan ahead in order to prevent Backloading and insatiable hunger. Tips to Prevent Backloading Tips to Prevent Backloading PACK A LUNCH-Most likely you are on EAT BREAKFAST!!!-there is no excuse. campus all day. Freeze a water bottle for the Make things that are fast and easy to eat, next day and put it in your backpack with or things that are portable. cold snacks. By doing that, you will have a handy cold pack and beverage. Fresh fruit or fruit cups, granola bar or cereal bar, PB&J sandwich, whole wheat toast with peanut butter, bagel with a slice of low-fat Turkey or ham sandwich, PB&J sandwich, pita cheese, Carnation Instant Breakfast, meal pocket sandwich, sandwich wrap, Campbell’s replacement shake or Boost, Energy bar, soup at hand, salad, bagel sandwich, Tuna with cereal with milk, multi-grain toaster waffles crackers, low-fat yogurt, yogurt smoothies, string topped with fresh berries cheese, low-fat yogurt smoothie BE CONSISTENT-by eating consistently SNACK DURING THE DAY-snacking during the during the day, your metabolism day helps keep your energy level up, provides increases, your body fat decreases, you you with the extra edge for practice and preserve more lean muscle, your body competition and prevents overeating later in uses protein more efficiently and your the day. Make sure you eat at least two appetite decreases. snacks everyday. Remember, snacking has a beginning and an end, so portioning out your snacks might be a good idea. Fig Newton’s, trail mix, granola bars, fresh fruit, canned fruit, pretzels, animal crackers, pudding cups, crackers, low-fat yogurt, dry cereal, energy bar, cheese cubes, mini bagel with peanut butter, baked chips, rice cakes, low-fat yogurt smoothies, otameal Your best option for a snack is something that contains both protein and carbohydrates. This will keep you satisfied for a longer period of time and prevent excessive hunger between meals. SNACK PROTIEN SOURCE CARBOHYDRATES SOURCE Low-Fat Yogurt w/granola yougurt granola Saltines w/peanut butter peanut butter saltines Apple or Banana w/peanut butter peanut butter apple or banana 1 cup oatmeal (1/2 cup dry) pecans oatmeal w/ ¼ cup pecans Cheese cubes w/pretzels cheese cubes pretzels Low-fat yogurt smoothie yogurt smoothie banana and a banana ½ cup trail mix nuts raisins, M&M’s Low-fat yogurt and a yogurt granola bar Chewy granola bar Low-fat cottage cheese w/ cottage cheese peach Fresh cut up peach Cinnamon swirl rice cakes yogurt rice cake, fruit Topped w/ yogurt and Fresh berries Chocolate chip rice cakes peanut butter rice cakes w/ peanut butter Low-fat cottage cheese w/ cottage cheese graham crackers Graham crackers String cheese and wheat thins string cheese wheat thins Being an athlete is difficult. You have to manage practice, lifting, competitions, homework, classes, tutors, community service and social time. Because of these busy schedules, we forget about one major part of our lives and health…EATING! Below are lists of foods that are easy to snack on while walking to class, getting ready for practice or just any other time. Snacks for your backpack: Refrigerated Snacks: These are Bagel convenient to have at home or in Low-fat Muffin the dorm Raw veggies Graham crackers Cheese cubes w/crackers Almonds and walnuts Milk/flavored milk PB&J sandwich Low-fat yogurt w/cereal Fig Newton’s Bagel w/cream cheese Dry cereal Cottage cheese w/fruit Granola bars/cereal bars Turkey/cheese sandwich Pretzels Fat free pudding cups Animal crackers String cheese Peanut butter crackers Applesauce and fruit cocktail cups Rice cakes Vending Machines: Supplement bar (Balance, Triple When you’re stick in a rut, choose these Threat, Mojo, Gatorade) items in the vending machines Fresh fruit Rice Krispie treats Dried fruit Cheese and crackers Pudding cups Graham crackers Zoo animals Peanut butter crackers Dried fruit/trail mix Chocolate milk Pretzels Granola bars Twizzlers NOTE: The vending machine ideas are only for those times where you have no other choice. Some of them are not ideal foods but they are better choices than Fritos, Snickers or Potato chips. Bread, Cereal and Grains Protein Foods Wheat Bagel (great for making sandwiches) Eggs Sandwich bread (Nature’s own double fiber) Beans (black, pinto, kidney) Crackers (Graham crackers, saltines, Triscuits) Ground beef (93-97% lean) Cookies (Fig Newton’s, vanilla wafers) Chicken Breast (boneless, skinless) Cereal (Cheerios, Raisin Bran, Corn Flakes, Fish (canned tuna, salmon, fresh Kashi, honey bunches of oats, or frozen) Frosted mini wheats) Nuts (walnuts, almonds) Dinner Rolls Shellfish (shrimp, crab) Granola bars (Nature valley, Quaker chewy, trail Soy products (tofu, nuts, soy milk) mix, Fiber one) Peanut butter Hot Cereal (Oatmeal, cream of wheat, grits) Steak (filet, sirloin, NY strip) Rice (white or brown minute rice) Edamame beans (frozen food section) Pasta (white or wheat) Deli lunchmeat (turkey, ham, roast beef) Potatoes (white, sweet or yams) Pizza Crust (white or wheat) Vegetables Popcorn (Smart Pop) Carrots (bagged baby carrots are Pretzels convenient) Tortillas (wheat or low-carb or corn) Corn Tortilla chips (multi-grain or corn chips) Green beans Lettuce (romaine, spring mix, spinach Fruit leaves) Apples Pasta sauce, salsa Bananas Peas Dried fruit (raisins, apricots, apples, bananas, Any and all frozen veggies raisins) Tomatoes (including tomato sauce and Frozen fruits (berries, mangos) diced tomatoes) Fruit juice Oranges Extras Pineapple Avocado Fresh berries Fruit, spread, jam Peaches (canned, frozen or fresh) Ketchup, mustard, pickles Canned fruit (it’s own juice or light syrup) Salad dressing (oil based, not cream) Soups (vegetable, chicken, beef) Dairy Pudding, Jell-O Cheese (string cheese, reduced fat or part Trail mix skim) Cottage cheese (reduced fat) Frozen Foods Milk (non-fat, 1% or low-fat chocolate) Quesadillas Yogurt (non-fat, low-fat, frozen) Healthy Choice, Lean Cuisine Sandwiches Shredded cheese (reduced fat, part skim) Birds Eye steamer meals Cheese slices (2% milk or fat free) Lean pockets Cheese cubes (2% milk) Multi-grain waffles Ore-ida steam and mash potatoes Healthy Choice, Lean Cuisine, Smart Ones, Kashi Entrees EATING BREAKFAST If you heard it once, you heard it a million times, “breakfast is the most important meal of the day.” Well, it’s true. Far too often athletes do not eat breakfast because they don’t have time, are you not hungry, don’t know what to make, etc. Breakfast will help get your metabolism fired up, get you energized, prepare your body for workouts and prevent the feelings or fatigue, nausea and dizziness during lifts, conditioning and practices. For those who need to gain weight, breakfast is the prime time to get at least an easy 1,00-1,200 calories. For those trying to lose weight, a small breakfast of about 500 calories will get your metabolism started and will help you from feeling excessively hungry later in the evening. Below are some examples of carbohydrates, protein and hydration ideas for breakfast. CARBOHYDRATES: These are essential to an athlete’s diet and must be included in each meal. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy and play a vital role in hydration (water “clings” to carbohydrates). Examples: Fruit, whole wheat toast, oatmeal, cream of wheat, whole grain cereals, pancakes and waffles (use fruit toppings instead of butter and syrup). These items are easy to digest and are less likely to be stored as fat. PROTIEN: Breakfast is a good time to include a protein source. Lean protein provides the building blocks necessary for muscle growth and recovery. Examples: egg whites, lean ham, turkey bacon, yogurt, cottage cheese and milk. HYDRATION: Breakfast is a good time to start the hydration process. Just 12-16 ounces during this meal can help increase recovery and reduce fatigue. Examples of good items for hydration: water, milk, fresh fruit, fruit juice (if you are trying to lose weight, stick with fresh fruit and skip juice) Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. The benefits of eating breakfast include: Better performance on tests Better concentration Increased lean mass (lower body fat) Less calories consumed later in the day Perform better in training and competition Breakfast does not have to be elaborate or something long thought out. Below are different breakfast ideas to make sure you are properly fueled for a long day of activity. Traditional Ideas Non-Traditional Flavored Milk and juice English muffin pizzas Pancakes Leftover pizza, sandwich, burrito Eggs Grilled turkey/ham and cheese Waffles sandwich French Toast Bowl of soup Toast with butter and jelly Lean pocket Breakfast burritos/tacos Hot Chocolate made with skim or Omelet 1% milk Canadian bacon/ham Leftovers from the night before Fresh or canned fruit Cold cereal with milk Oatmeal, cream of wheat, Grits Low-fat muffins Quick on-the-go fixes Cereal bars or granola bars PB&J sandwich on whole wheat Carnation instant breakfast bread Fresh fruit Ensure, Boost or other nutrition Whole wheat bagel w/ Peanut butter shakes 2 slices whole wheat toast w/ PB Glass of chocolate milk Low-fat yogurt smoothie low-fat yogurt w/ ½ cup dry cereal Fruit cup or applesauce RECOVERY NUTRITION AND HYDRATION Recovery nutrition is vital for improved athletic performance. After workouts, it is important to replenish your body with carbohydrates and protein. Carbohydrates are important to replace the glycogen (stored carbohydrates) you depleted during the workout and protein is essential to rebuild and recover the muscle from damage done during the workout. A recovery snack should be consumed within 30 minutes to 1 hour after exercise. Many athletes struggle to stay hydrated during games, practices, conditioning and lifting. Maintaining an adequate fluid intake is necessary for providing energy, preventing fatigue and injury prevention. When you are dehydrated, your body temperature rises and thus your internal thermometer continues to rise. When this happens, health risks such as dizziness, fainting, unconsciousness, cramping and possibly death can occur. Dehydration also has a very negative effect on concentration levels. When you can’t concentrate properly, your risk of injury is much higher. Some athletes can lose up to 3 liters of fluid during one practice! So, make sure you drink at least 4-6 liters of fluid each day. Examples of good hydration sources: water, sports drinks, soups, milk, juice, fresh fruit, shakes and smoothies NOTE: If you have weight issues (too heavy), stick with water, G2, Propel and low-fat or skim milk The best fluids to consume before and during exercise are sports drinks and water. Drinking soda or fruit juices before an event may cause cramping or bloating and may give that “slosh” feeling in the stomach After a workout, it is important to replenish carbohydrates and protein sources. What you eat directly after a workout can effect how you feel for the rest of the day and how you perform the next day. This is what happens during exercise: Carbohydrates Are emptied from your liver and working muscles, thus your body needs to replace them This will help with energy levels for the remainder of the day and prepare your body for your next workout Protein Small micro tears occur during exercise and these need to be repaired Some protein after exercise will accelerate the healing process RECOVERY NUTRITION SNACK IDEAS Sports drink and Trail mix Peanut butter and jelly sandwich Rice cakes with peanut butter Graham crackers or saltines with peanut butter 2 cereal bars with a glass of milk Energy bar and sports drink Nutrition shake and a piece of fruit Nutrition shake with graham crackers Turkey and cheese sandwich on wheat and a banana Oatmeal (Quaker weight control is good because it has more protein) with fruit String cheese/cheese cubes with crackers Vanilla wafers and milk Mini bagel with peanut butter and a glass of milk Smoothie with added protein powder Low-fat yogurt with granola or other cereal Cottage cheese with fruit Apple or banana with peanut butter Bowl of cereal with milk English muffin with peanut butter Glass of chocolate milk and graham crackers Staying hydrated may be one of the most difficult tasks during intense practices and competition. However, keeping yourself hydrated can help maintain appropriate body temperature, maximize performance, prevent cramping and fatigue and help give you that extra push you need to succeed. How Fluids are Lost Signs of Dehydration Urine Dizziness Respiration-breathing Fatigue Skin-sweat Light headedness Digestion Nausea Cramping Decreased frequency of urination Rapid resting heart rate Dark yellow urine Loss of consciousness Hydration Recommendations Weight loss Drink at least 16oz of fluid 2 hours Thirst Before practice or event Drink an additional 8oz of fluid 15 minutes before practice or event Hydration Top Tips Drink 8-10oz every 10-20 minutes Carrying a water bottle with you throughout of exercise. If this is not possible, the day and refill it often take advantage of time outs, Don’t rely on thirst. If you are thirsty, you substitutions and change in quarters, are already dehydrated! halves, etc. Drink Gatorade for activity lasting more than Drink a MINIMUM of 24-32oz 60 minutes or for very intense exercise Within 2 hours of exercise lasting 30-45 minutes (intense conditioning If at all possible, weigh in before sessions) practice or event Check your urine, it should be light yellow Drink 16-20oz of fluid for every pound (the color of lemonade) lost during practice or an event. So if Stay away from carbonation, caffeine and you lost 3 pounds during practice, you fruit juices during and right before exercise. should consume 48-60oz of fluid These can cause stomach aches during During the course of the day, consume activity soups and fruit to help rehydrate If you do not like sports drinks, take a gulp of a sports drink and follow it with a gulp of water. Then you will get the benefit of electrolytes and carbohydrates without the “cotton mouth” feel Inflammation can occur when your body undergoes stress from workouts, injury, surgery and illness. It can also happen if you overtrain, if you have improper recovery techniques and if you lack rest. Symptoms include pain, heat, swelling and sometimes fever. Diets that are high in saturated fat (fast food, for example) can aggravate inflammation. It is important to eat the right foods, recover properly from exercise and get adequate rest to help fight the negative consequences of inflammation. TIPS FOODS THAT HEAL Stay hydrated!!! You should pee Omega-3 fatty acids-salmon, tuna, every 90 minutes walnuts, olive oil, almonds, flax Eat a diet that includes many Antioxidant sources-sweet potatoes, fruits, veggies and whole grains oranges, tangerines, straw-berries, Take a multi-vitamin if you know cherries, blueberries, blackberries, your eating habits are less than raspberries, spinach, broccoli, avocado, ideal carrots, yellow squash, yellow, red and Increase your intake of foods green peppers that are bright in color (yellow, Whole grains-brown rice, wheat pasta, orange, red, blue) and high in wheat bread, oatmeal, whole grain antioxidants (vitamins C, E, cereals carotenoids) B-vitamin sources- cereals, bread, eggs, Increase your intake of Omega-3 wheat pasta, tomatoes, low-fat yogurt, fatty acids milk, potatoes Increase your intake of B- vitamins (found in whole grain foods) NCAA BANNED SUBSTANCES AND SUPPLEMENTS The use of supplements has always been an item of interest for athletes. the desires to be bigger, stronger and faster has overtaken the need to find a safe, legal and legitimate product. The NCAA has specific requirements that athletes have to meet when making supplement choices. Many nutritional products contain NCAA banned substances and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not strictly regulate the supplement industry. Therefore, when you purchase a supplement at your local store, you cannot guarantee that it is safe or legal. If you are interested in taking a supplement or currently taking a supplement and are unsure of its safety and effectiveness, please contact a member of the Strength and Conditioning Staff. Creatine is one supplement that many collegiate athletes use. According to research, creatine, if taken correctly, is a safe product that usually shows positive results. However, it is very important to take proper dosages and to stay hydrated at all times. Carrying a water bottle with you during the day, drinking extra fluids at meals and at night while relaxing can help prevent dehydration while taking creatine. The most common side effects of creatine are muscle cramping, muscle tightness, pulls and dehydration.