Presentation DMACC edu by MikeJenny

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									Chapter 10




             Violent Crime
Introduction

       Expressive violence: acts the vent rage, anger, and frustration
       Instrumental violence: acts that improve a financial or social
        position
The Causes of Violence

•   Personal Traits and Makeup
      Neurological impairments
      Low intelligence
      Abnormal personality structures
The Causes of Violence

•   Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct
      Eros: the life instinct
      Thanatos: the death instinct
      Aggression and violence are inborn instincts
      Violence is committed primarily by males
The Causes of Violence

•   Substance Abuse
      Psychopharmacological relationship: between drugs and crime
      Economic Compulsive Behavior: drug ingestion may cause
       economic compulsive behavior
      Systemic link: occurs when drug dealers turn violent in
       competition with rival gangs
The Causes of Violence

•   Socialization and Upbringing
      Children exposed to violence at home, school, and environment
       are more likely to use violence themselves
      Parents who fail to set adequate limits reinforce a child’s coercive
       behavior
      Physical punishment may lead to anger and defiance
The Causes of Violence

•   Abused Children
      Abused children are likely to later engage in delinquent behaviors
      Abused children are likely to physically abuse siblings
      Abused children are likely to engage in spousal abuse
The Causes of Violence

•   The Brutalization Process
      Lonnie Athens links violence to early child abuse
      Classified people into: nonviolent, violent, and incipiently violent
      Four types of violent attacks: 1) physically defensive, 2)
       frustrative, 3) malefic, and 4) frustrative-malefic
The Causes of Violence

•   Exposure to Violence
      People who are constantly exposed to violence may adopt violent
       methods themselves
      Girls are more likely to be victims of sexual abuse and boys are
       more likely to participate in fights, stabbings or shootings
      Crusted over: refers to children who do not express their feelings
       (vulnerable to the lure of delinquent gangs)
The Causes of Violence

•   Cultural values/Subculture of Violence
      Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti formulated the concept of
       a subculture of violence
      Violence is legitimized by norms and customs
      Violence is higher in subculture areas within urban areas
The Causes of Violence

•   Peer Group Influences
      Gangs are more likely to own guns and weapons
      Gang violence may be initiated for:
        • Display of toughness
        • Retaliation for actual or perceived grievances
        • Protection of ownership (graffiti)
        • Protection of turf
The Causes of Violence

•   Regional Values
      Raymond Gastil found a significant relationship between murder
       rates a residence in the South
      Gastil contends the southern culture promotes violence
      UCRs support the higher rates of murder in the South
The Causes of Violence

•   National Values
      National characteristics are predictive of violence:
         • social disorganization
         • economic stress
         • child abuse rates
         • violence by government
         • political corruption
         • inefficient justice systems.
Forcible Rape

•   Common law definition: “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly
    and against her will”
Forcible Rape

•   History of Rape
      Men staked claim to women by rape
      “Heiress stealing” involved men trying to force wealthy women
       into marriage
      Peasant women and married women could not be victims of rape
       until the 16th century
Forcible Rape

•   Rape and the Military
      Rape has been associated with armies and warfare (spoils of
       war)
      Rape has been used to intentionally impregnate women
      Rape is used as “weapon of war”
Forcible Rape

•   Incidence of Rape
      94,000 rapes/attempted rapes were reported in 2003 (UCRs)
      Rape has been in a decade-long decline
      Population density influences rape
      About 46 percent of rape offenders are under 25 years of age
      NCVS estimates rapes in 2003 were about 200,000
Forcible Rape

•   Types of Rape and Rapists
      Some rapes are planned and some are spontaneous
      Nicolas Groth suggested every rape encounter contains either
       anger, power, or sadism
      Power rapist (55 percent)
      Anger rapist (40 percent)
      Sadistic rapist (5 percent)
Forcible Rape

•   Gang versus Individual Rape
      Women subjected to rape by multiple offenders are more likely to
       experience violence such as beatings or the use of weapons
      Gang rape victims are more likely to resist than those attacked by
       single victims
      Gang rape victims are more likely to report the rape
Forcible Rape

•   Serial Rape
      Serial rapists tend to be White males
      Rape may be “blitz” styled or “captured”
      Some use personal or professional relationships to gain access
       to their targets (I.E. police officers)
Forcible Rape

•   Acquaintance Rape
      Date Rape: is estimated to affect 15 to 20 percent of all college
       women
      Marital Rape: almost every state recognizes marital rape as a
       crime
      Statutory Rape: sexual relations between underage minor female
       and an adult male, which an be consensual or forced
      About 50 percent of rape involves acquaintances
Forcible Rape

•   The Causes of Rape
      Evolutionary, biological factors: rape is instinctual
      Male socialization: men socialized to “no means yes” (virility
       mystique)
      Hypermasculinity: expression of male anger toward women
      Psychological abnormality: narcissistic personality disorder
      Social learning: learned through interaction with peers (Nicholas
       Groth)
      Sexual motivation: Notion that rapists prefer younger victims.
       (most criminologist reject this view)
Forcible Rape

•   Rape and the Law
      Sexist treatment by the legal system
      Police may be hesitant when no obvious signs of violence has
       occurred
      Aggravated rapes are prosecuted more frequently
Forcible Rape

•   Proving Rape
      Jurors are often swayed by the notion the rape was victim
       precipitated
      Prosecutors must establish the act was forced and violent
      The victims demeanor is crucial to successful prosecution
      Consent: essential to prove the act was involuntary
      Rape Shield Laws: protect women from being questioned about
       sexual history
      Violence Against Women Act in 1994: allows women to sue in
       federal court (civil rights violations)
Murder and Homicide

•   Definition of Murder: “the unlawful killing of a human being with
    malice aforethought.”

•   Degrees of Murder
      First-degree murder
        • Premeditation
        • Deliberation
      Second-degree murder
        • Wanton disregard
      Manslaughter
        • Voluntary (heat of passion)
        • Involuntary (negligent)
      Born and alive
        • Feticide
Murder and Homicide

•   The Nature and Extent of Murder
      About 16,300 people killed in 2003
      Almost one-quarter of homicides occur in cities with populations
       of more than 1 million
      Murder victims (75 percent) and offenders (90 percent) tend to be
       male
      About 49 percent of all victims are African Americans
      Infanticide (about 500 per year)
      Eldercide (less than 5 percent per year)
Murder and Homicide

•   Weblink:
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/elders.htm
Murder and Homicide

•   Murderous Relations
      Stranger homicides typically occur during commission of a felony
      Acquaintance homicides are more common involving family and
       friends

•   Spousal Relations
      Men may kill spouses or partners for fear of losing control and
       power
      Most females murder after suffering repeated violent attacks
      Some people kill mates out of jealousy (love triangles)
Murder and Homicide

•   Personal Relations
      Most murder occurs between people who are acquainted
      David Lukenbill suggested murder follows a sequential pattern
       after the victim makes what is considered an offensive move

•   Stranger Relations
      Stranger homicides occur most frequently during rapes, robberies
       and burglaries
      Impact of habitual criminal statutes


•   Student Relations
      90 percent of schools with 1000 or more students experience
       violence each year
      Many offenders have history of being abused or bullied
Murder and Homicide

•   Serial Murder
      There are more than one type of serial killer
         • Thrill killers: sexual sadism or dominance (most common)
         • Mission killers: to reform the world
         • Expedience killers: for profit or protection
Murder and Homicide

•   Serial Murderers and their Motivations
      Violence begins in childhood
      Mental illness, sexual frustration, neurological damage, child
       abuse, and neglect
      Most experts view serial killers as sociopaths
Murder and Homicide

•   Female Serial Killers
      10-15 % of serial killers are women
      Males are more likely to use violence than women
      Females are most likely to poison the victims
      Education levels are below average and they are likely in low
       status positions, if employed
Assault and Battery

•   Definition of battery: requires offensive touching (i.e slapping, hitting,
    or punching)

•   Definition of assault: requires no actual touching, but involves wither
    attempted battery or intentionally frightening the victim by word or
    deed.
Assault and Battery

•   Nature and Extent of Assault
      Road rage
      857,000 assaults reported in 2003
      Most arrests are young White males (80 percent)
      Assault rates highest in urban areas during the summer in the
       South and the West
      Most common weapons are blunt instruments
Assault and Battery

•   Assault in the home
      Women face the greatest risk of assault


•   Child Abuse
      Child Abuse (85 percent of fatalities were younger than six years
       of age)
      Neglect (59 percent)
      Physical abuse (19 percent)
      Sexual abuse (10 percent)
      Emotional abuse (7 percent)
Assault and Battery

•   Causes of Child Abuse
      Family violence is perpetuated
      Abusive parents were abused themselves
      Blended families
      Parents isolated from friends, neighbors, or relatives
Assault and Battery

•   Sexual Abuse
      Women suffer some form of sexual violence (1 in 5)
      Recent studies suggest incidence of sexual abuse is in decline:
        • Effectiveness of prevention
        • Overlooked cases
      Children who have been abused experience life-long symptoms
Assault and Battery

•   Parental Abuse
      The younger the child the higher the rate of Child-to-parent
       violence
      Children are more violent to mothers
      Boys hit parents more than girls do
Assault and Battery

•   Spousal Abuse
      Occurred throughout recorded history


•   Nature and Extent of Spousal Abuse
      Observers suggest 16 percent of families experienced husband-
       wife assaults
      Factors associated with spousal abuse include: alcohol, hostility,
       excessive brooding, social approval, socioeconomic factors,
       flashes of anger, military service, having been battered as a child,
       and unpredictableness
Robbery

•   Definition of robbery: “the taking or attempting to take anything of
    value from the care, custody or control of a person or persons by
    force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in
    fear.”
      In 2003, the FBI recorded 413,000 robberies compared to 554,
        000 by the NCVS
      Northeastern states have the highest rates
      There has been a decade-long drop in rates
Robbery

•   The Armed Robber
      Unlikely to be a professional rather opportunistic
      Robberies seem to peak during the winter months
      Choose vulnerable victims
Robbery

•   Acquaintance Robbery
      Victims are often reluctant to report acquaintance robbery
      Some robbers are motivated by street justice
      Because the robber knows the person, they will have inside
       information
      Acquaintance robbers frequently target people in close proximity
       because of the convenience
Robbery

•   Rational Robbery
      Most robbers are opportunistic
      Patterns of robbery suggest it is not a random act
      Robbers choose vulnerable victims and times
      Women robbers may feign sexual interests to lure a victim
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence

•   Hate Crimes are violent acts directed toward a particular person or
    members of a group merely because the targets share certain racial,
    ethnic, religious, or gender characteristics
         • Thrill-seeking hate crimes (sadistic thrills)
         • Reactive hate crimes (defensive stand)
         • Mission hate crimes (duty bound)
      Retaliatory hate crimes are committed in response to hate crime
       whether real or percieved
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence

•   The Nature and Extent of Hate Crime
      During 2003, 9,100 offenses were reported
      Racial bias accounts for nearly 49 percent
      Religious bias accounts for 17 percent
      Ethnicity or national origin bias accounts for 14 percent
      Bias against physical or mental disability accounts for 0.5 percent
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence

•   Controlling Hate Crimes
      Most state have enacted some form of legislation to combat hate
       crime
      39 states have laws against bias motivated violence
      19 states have mandates regarding the collection of hate crime
       data
      Some suggest bias crimes should be punished more severely
       due to the likely chance of violence

•   Legal Controls
      Virginia v. Black (2003) upheld by the Supreme Court prohibiting
       cross burning as intimidation
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence

•   Workplace Violence
     Considered the third leading cause of occupational injury or death
     More than 2 million people are victimized each year


•   Creating Workplace Violence
      Factors include: management style, romantic relationships, and
       irate clients and customers

•   The Extent of Workplace Violence
      18 percent of all violent crime
      Assaults are the most common (1.3 million)
      Police officer are the greatest risk, along with correctional officers,
       taxi drivers, and bartenders
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence

•   Stalking
      Affects 1.4 million victims annually
      Most stalking stops within one to two years
      Most victims know their stalker
      Women are most likely to be stalked by an intimate partner,
       whereas men are stalked by strangers or casual acquaintances
Terrorism

•   What is Terrorism?
     International terrorism involves citizens or territory of more than
      one country
     Typically involves a type of political crime to promote change
     Some terrorists seek to bring about economic or social reforms
      (labor or wearing fur disputes)
     Terrorist and Guerilla terms used interchangeably but they are
      different (terrorists have urban focus)
Terrorism

•   A Brief History of Terrorism
      Assassination of Caesar considered terrorism
      Became popular during the French Revolution (1700s)
      The Irish Republican Army (1916)
      Resistance to German troops during WW II
Terrorism

•   Contemporary Forms of Terrorism
      Revolutionary Terrorism: Use violence in an attempt to replace
       the existing government
      Political Terrorism: Is directed shaping political or religious
       ideology
      Nationalist Terrorism: Ethnic or religious groups wanting its own
       independent homeland
      Cause-Based Terrorism: Use violence to impose their social or
       religious code on the world
      Environmental Terrorism: Is directed at slowing down developers
       believed to be threatening the environment
      State-Sponsored Terrorism: Repressive government regime
       forces its people into oppression and stifles political dissent
      Criminal Terrorism: Incorporates crimes such as drug dealing,
       kidnapping, and selling of nuclear materials
Terrorism

•   What Motivates Terrorists?
     Socialization to violence
     Extreme ideological beliefs
     Feelings of alienation and failure (psychological disturbances)
Terrorism

•   Responses to Terrorism
      Increased intelligence gathering (globally)
      1994 Violent Crime Act (authorized death penalty for terrorists)
      USA Patriot Act ( investigation tactics)
      The Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force (2001)
Terrorism

•   Law Enforcement Responses
      FBI and creation of the Cyber Division
      Homeland Security
        • BTS (Borders and Transportation Security)
        • EPR (Emergency Preparedness and Response)
        • S&T (Research and development of WMD)
        • IAIP (Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection)

								
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