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					                   METADATA FOR NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
                                    IN THAILAND




Project: STRENGTHENING THE NATIONAL STATISTICAL SYSTEMS IN SELECTED
               COUNTRIES IN THE ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION
                                        supported by the
                  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)




                                 Center for Agricultural Information
                                  Office of Agricultural Economics
                               Ministry of Agriculture and cooperative

                                      Abbreviations and Acronyms



CAI                Center for Agricultural Information
OAE                Office of Agricultural Economics
MOAC               Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives
NSO                National Statistical Office

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MOPH               Ministry of Public Health
DOF                Department of Fisheries
DLD                Department of Livestock Development
DOAE               Department of Agricultural Extension




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                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                        PAGE

CHAPTER 1: National System of Agricultural Statistics

1.1 Legal Framework and Statistical Advisory Bodies .................................
1.2 Structure and Organization of the major Agricultural Statistical Agencies
     1.2.1 The National Statistical Office (NSO) .......................................
     1.2.2 The Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) ............................
     1.2.3 Others Agencies .......................................................................
1.3 Outputs and Dissemination of Agricultural Statistics .............................
     1.3.1 Contact information of the focal point of dissemination .............
            (including telephone, fax number and e-mail) of the .................
            responsible agencies ................................................................
1.4 Dialogue with Data Users and Cooperation with International Organization
1.5 Strategic Framework .............................................................................

CHAPTER 2: Major Domains and Selected Indicators of Agricultural Statistics

2.1 List of Major Domains and Selected Indicators .....................................
2.2 Metadata for each of the Major Domains .............................................
       2.2.1 PRODUCTION
       2.2.1.1 Concepts, Definitions and Classifications .............................
       2.2.1.2 Coverage and Availability .....................................................
       2.2.1.3 Data Processing, Estimation and Revision Methodology......
       2.2.1.4 Other Reference Information ................................................
       2.2.2 TRADE
       2.2.2.1 Concepts, Definitions and Classifications .............................
       2.2.2.2 Coverage and Availability .....................................................
       2.2.3 PRICES
       2.2.3.1 Concepts, Definitions and Classifications .............................
       2.2.3.2 Coverage and Availability .....................................................
       2.2.3.3 Data Processing, Estimation and Revision Methodology......
       2.2.4 INPUT STATISTICS
       2.2.4.1 Labor and Employment.........................................................
       2.2.4.2 Coverage and Availability .....................................................
       2.2.5 OTHERS
       2.2.5.1 Concepts, Definitions and Classifications .............................
       2.2.5.2 Other Reference Information ................................................


CHAPTER 3: Major Data Sources for Agricultural Statistics
3.1 List of Major Agricultural Censuses, Surveys and Registers .................
3.2 Metadata for Agricultural Census ..........................................................



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CENSUSES
      3.2.1 Overview..................................................................................
      3.2.2 Design .....................................................................................
      3.2.3 Conduct Operations and Data Quality Control.........................
      3.2.4 Statistical Report (link to domain) ...........................................
3.3 Metadata for Each of the Major Surveys ...............................................
      3.3.1 Overview..................................................................................
      3.3.2 Design .....................................................................................
      3.3.3 Conduct Operations and Data Quality Control .........................
      3.3.4 Statistical Report (link to domain) ...........................................
3.4 Metadata for Each of the Major Administrative Register .......................
      3.4.1 Source / Responsible Agencies ...............................................
      3.4.2 Description of Contained Information ......................................
      3.4.3 Data Source / Units Providing Information for the Records .....
3.5 Others Information.................................................................................
      3.5.1 Price Reports ...........................................................................
      3.5.2 Crop Forecasting .....................................................................
3.6 Data quality control................................................................................
      3.6.1 Data source and collection methodology .................................
      3.6.2 Data processing, estimation, and revision methodology ..........




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                   METADATA FOR NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
                                    IN THAILAND

Chapter 1: National System of Agricultural Statistics

1.1 Legal Framework and Statistical Advisory Bodies
        In Thailand the National Statistical system was established in1915.
        Then there are The Statistics Prediction Act of B.E. 2479 (1936) ,The Statistics
Act of B.E. 2495 (1952) and the latest the Statistical Act of 1965.
        Under section 5 of the Statistical Act of 1965 the National Statistical Office is the
core body responsible for Thailand's statistical activities including the collection and
compilation, dissemination of basic statistical data, providing recommendations on
statistical-related matters, organizing training courses in statistical methods and
computer data processing as well as serving as the statistical data bank of the country.
       From 1966 to 1975, the NSO conducted annual countrywide crop surveys for rice,
kenaf and maize. However, after the establishment of the Centre for Agricultural
Statistics under the Office of Agricultural Economics in 1979, agricultural statistics were
transferred to that centre, now known as the Centre for Agricultural Information.
        According to the Statistical Act of 1965, the national statistics committee consist
of committee nominated by the cabinet and representative from every ministry.
Secretary General of National Statistics Office is the secretary of the committee. The
responsibility of the committee are 1) advice and comment about statistic and
information policy and plan of National Statistics Office 2) advice and comment about
statistic and information coordination between National Statistics Office and the other
agencies.


1.2 Structure and organization of major agricultural statistical agencies

         1.2.1 The National Statistical Office (NSO)

       The National Statistical Office, under section 5 of the Statistical Act of 1965 is
authorized to perform the following statistical activities:

              1. To compile statistics from all statistical agencies,
              2. To plan and to conduct all censuses,
              3. To promote and develop government as well as private statistical activities,
              4. To plan, co-ordinate and direct technical aspects of all statistical projects
                 and activities of the government,
              5. To collaborate with and participate in the coordination of the work of
                 statistical agencies in the assembling, compilation and analysis of
                 statistics,
              6. To make recommendations or advise other statistical agencies on plans,
                 methodology, forms, questionnaires, as well as other documents such as
                 handbooks and instructions to be used for statistical purposes,



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              7. To conduct or direct sample surveys, or to collect, abstract, compile, and
                  analyze statistics relating to the basic conditions of the country obtained
                  from censuses and surveys,
              8. To supervise statistical agencies in the technical aspects of planning
                  sample surveys, or in collecting analyzing statistics,
              9. To conduct or direct research on statistical techniques,
              10. To issue periodicals and to publish statistical data,
              11. To maintain a library of books and documents relating to statistics, and to
                  exchange the said books and documents,
              12. To direct and promote the study of and training in statistics,
              13. To cooperate with, and participate in the coordination of the work of
                  foreign states or international organizations.

            The coordination of statistical activities is an important role which involves the
following :1) coordination with the statistical producers to prevent duplication of work,
thus helping save budget as well as ensuring statistical standard. 2) coordination with
statistical users so that the office will be aware of their needs and thus provide statistical
data to suit their requirements. In planning of surveys and censuses, the representation
of other government agencies concerned were invited to be the members of the
Steering Committee as well as the Working Group. 3) coordination with the information
providers (households or establishments) 4) coordination with foreign statistical offices
and organizations in the exchange of statistical techniques, statistical data and technical
assistance. 5) organization of special surveys for other agencies as requested.

           The NSO also provides technical advice and consultant to other government
agencies and private sectors on statistical methodologies, sampling design,
questionnaire design, estimation of statistical measures, data analysis and report
preparation to ensure that the preparation of each agency's statistical data is of high
quality in compliance with recognized statistical standards. This helps promote and
develop the national statistical system of Thailand as a whole.

             In NSO there are 469 professional staff 729 support staff in head office
and 396 professional staff 1,777 support staff in regional office.




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                                                             National Statistical Office


                                                                                             National Statistical Committee
       Administrative Development Group


               Internal Audit Group


                                                         Central Administration                     Local Administration



                                                                                                75 Provincial Statistical Office




Information and Communication Technology Center                                   Economic and Social Statistics Bureau



          Policy and Statistical Techniques Bureau                                Statistical Forecasting Bureau



                   Field Administration Division                                       Public Opinion Division



                                                         Office of the Secretary




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      1.2.2 The Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE)

       OAE is the prime office responsible for collection and dissemination of
agricultural statistics. It is also the organization in charge of the economic and social
research and other studies including monitoring and evaluation for the purposes of
agricultural policy recommendations, and agricultural development planning.

      In 1979 Thailand legislated "Agricultural Economics Act of B.E. 2522" From this
act The office of Agricultural Economics was established to perform the following duties;

       1) Analyze the agriculture policy and agriculture and cooperative development
           plans for submission to the Committee
       2) Study and analyze agricultural production planning and sources of cultivation
           and livestock production according to climatic conditions, types of farming,
           major income of farmers and internal market demands and report to the
           Committee for consideration to designate the agricultural economics areas
       3) Study and analyze the formulation of marketing and transport system and
           development of farm products markets in an efficient manner as well as
           analyze the prices of and demand for farm products
       4) Study and analyze sources of agricultural resources, analyze utilization of
           resources as well as study and analyze production economics and formulate
           crop cultivation and livestock production systems in an efficient manner
       5) Compile statistical information of all kinds crop and livestock production,
           agricultural production situations, farm income and expenses, farmers
           indebtedness conditions, market situations of farm products and other
           agricultural economics information necessary of analysis of agriculture policy
           and agriculture and cooperative plans and publication of statistics papers
           concerning agricultural economics for distribution and publicity of agricultural
           statistics information
       6) Analyze and evaluate outcome of investment made in agricultural projects
           including follow-up and evaluation of success and progress of the projects
           and operating plans of work units under the direction of the Ministry of
           Agriculture and Cooperatives as well as propose to the Committee
           recommendations on guidelines for boiling down the problems and obstacles
           which require urgent action
       7) Analyze other sector of economic development including international
           agricultural economics conditions required for formulation of agriculture and
           cooperative development plans
       8) Develop register in regard to agricultural enterprises, by categories, types of
           groups of each sector
       9) Coordinate work with the various, related government agencies and state
           enterprises in establishing agriculture policy and agriculture and cooperative
           development plans, as well as maintain contact with the Office of the
           National Economic and Social Development Committee
       10) Perform any other action specified by law as function of the committee or of
           the Office of Agricultural Economics.
                                            8
     The organizational structure of OAE comprises of 5 bureaus/centers and 9 agro-
economic zones as follows:
     1. Office of the Secretary
     2. Center for Agricultural Information (CAI)
     3. Bureau of Agricultural Economics Research
     4. Bureau of Policy and Agricultural Development Plan
     5. Center of Economic Project and Program Evaluation
     6. Agro Economic Zones 1-9
       Currently, there are about 1,000 officials and permanent employees in the OAE
of which about 300 positions work at Regional agro-economic offices. The official
response about agricultural statistics and information are 48 professional staff 93
support staff in headquarter and 30 professional staff 59 support staff in regional offices.
       Regarding the compilation and dissemination of agricultural statistics, the main
responsible unit under OAE is the Centre for Agricultural Information (CAI). It major
duties can be summarized as follows:

     1. Generate information on production and marketing of crops, livestock and
        fisheries
     2. Make forecasts on production and prices, including assessment of the impacts
        of natural calamities
     3. Develop geographical information system in its application to agriculture
     4. Develop information network system

     Organizational structure of CAI comprises 10 divisions and one administration unit
as follows:
     1. Field Crop Production Information Division
     2. Horticultural Crop Production Information Division
     3. Livestock and Fisheries Production Information Division
     4. Agricultural Economics Information Division
     5. Agricultural Information Technology and Database Division
     6. Agricultural Forecasting Division
     7. Geographic Information System Division
     8. Agricultural Input and Price Information Division
     9. Agricultural Information Management Division
     10. General Administration

       1.2.3 Others Agencies

      In addition to the above two agencies, following agencies of the MOAC are also
compiling and publishing agricultural statistics.

      1) Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) : compiles the statistics on area
and production of various crops from the reports of its local officers. These agencies
have their own agricultural extension officers in every Tambon.
      2) Department of Livestock Development (DLD) : undertakes collection and
publication of figures on number of animals raised and slaughtered, dying from
                                             9
epidemic diseases, vaccinated and number of beasts of burden (elephants, horses,
mules and asses). These figures are compiled from the reports of its local officers
stationed in every district.
      3) Department of Fisheries (DOF) : collects and publishes all fisheries statistics.
The Amphoe (District) Fisheries Office is the lowest administrative level of the DOF.
      4) The Cooperative Promotion Department is responsible for promoting all
cooperatives in the country, as well as implementing activities according to the
Cooperative Act BE 2511 (1968) and the Land Allocation for Livelihood Act BE 2511
(1968) on matters relevant to land settlement cooperative promotion and related laws.
Agricultural cooperatives are established to enable farmer members to engage in
business together, thus helping one another in times of crisis as well as gaining for
themselves a better livelihood and quality of life.
      5) The Department of Internal Trade, one of the departments in the Ministry of
Commerce, issues monthly and annual reports on retail and wholesale prices and price
indices of various commodities, including food and agriculture products.

1.3 Outputs and Dissemination of Agricultural Statistics
      1.3.1 Contact information of the focal point of dissemination (including telephone,
fax number and e-mail) of the responsible agencies

      Contact person :
      1. Family name:      Treetipbut
         First name        Ms.Thananoot
         Institution:      National Statistical Office
         Title             Secretary General
         Address           Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100 Thailand
         E-mail
        Telephone          66 2 2810333
        Tel Fax            66 2 2813815

      2. Family name:       Netsaengtip
        First name:        Rajana
         Institution:      National Statistical Office
        Title:             Chief, Household Economic Statistics Group
         Address           Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100 Thailand
         E-mail:           raja@nso.go.th
        Telephone:         66-2281-0333 Ext. 1206

      3. Family name:      Jongsakul,
         First name        Apichart
         Institution:      Office of Agricultural Economics
         Title             Secretary General
         Address           Kasetsart University Complex, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 Thailand
         E-mail
        Telephone          66-2940-5550 - 1

                                           10
4. Family name:   Karnchansathan
    First name:   Dr.Supan
   Institution:   Center for Agricultural Information, Office of Agricultural
                  Economics
  Title:          Director
  Address         Kasetsart University Complex, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900
                  Thailand
  E-mail:         supan@oae.go.th
  Telephone:      66-279-3607 Fax 66-2940-5521

5. Family name:   Srichada
   First name:    Ms.Jiraporn
   Institution:   Agricultural Information Management Division
                  Center for Agricultural Information, Office of Agricultural
                  Economics
  Title:          Director
  Address         Kasetsart University Complex, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900
                  Thailand
  E-mail:         prcai@oae.go.th
  Telephone:      66-2940-6641 Fax 66-2561-2870




                                  11
        1.3.1 Major publications / statistical reports


                                                                                               Release
    Title of Publication     Domain/Main contents        Medium        Format    Frequency
                                                                                              Calendar
 Statistical Yearbook,                                   Thai        Book        Annual      June
                             Production Statistics
 Thailand
 Key Statistics of                                       Thai        Book        Annual      June
                             Production Statistics
 Thailand
 The Household annual                                    Thai        Book        Annual      June
                             Input Statistics
 Socio - Economic
 Survey
 Report of the Labor                                     Thai        Book        Annual      October
                             Input Statistics
 Force Survey,
 Report the Population                                   Thai        Book        Annual      July
                             Input Statistics
 and Housing Census
 2000
 Intercensal Survey of                                   Thai        Book        Annual      No specific
                             Production Statistics
 Marine Fishery Marine                                                                       calendar
 Shrimp Culture
 The Intercensal Survey                                  Thai        Book        Annual      No specific
                             Production Statistics
 of Marine Fishery                                                                           calendar
Agricultural statistics                                  Thai        Book ,pdf   Annual      September
                             Production Statistics
yearbook
Agricultural foreign trade                               Thai        Book        Annual      September
                             Trade Statistics
statistics yearbook
Agricultural Economics                                   Thai        Book        Annual      March
Indicators
Basic Information of                                     Thai        Book        Annual      January
Agricultural Commodities
Agricultural    production                               Thai        Book        Quarterly   March June
                             Production Statistics
forecasting journal                                                                          September
                                                                                             December
                                                                12
                                                                                        Release
    Title of Publication    Domain/Main contents    Medium       Format   Frequency
                                                                                       Calendar
Agricultural survey                                 Thai        Book      Annual      No specific
                            Production Statistics
reports on crop and                                                                   calendar
livestock production
  Farm gate price                                   Thai        Book      Weekly      Thursday
                            Price Statistics
  statistics

 Agricultural price index                           Thai        Book      Monthly     10th of each
                            Price Statistics
                                                                                      month
 Agricultural production                            Thai        Book      Monthly     10th of each
                            Production Statistics
 index                                                                                month




                                                           13
1.4 Dialogue with Data Users and Co-operation with International Organizations

        There are many active forums for dialogue between agricultural statistics
producers and users. State planning organizations such as National Economics and
Social Development Board (NESDB) and Bank of Thailand (BOT) regularly set
meetings to discuss with OAE about economics and agricultural production situation
before publishing GDP and other economic indicators. OAE also coordinates with
private sector such as Cassava Trade Association, Farmer Association and Agricultural
Industrial Representatives for information exchanges.
        At International level, OAE has collaborated with JICA, FAO, and SEAFDEC.
OAE and JICA jointly established the Agricultural Statistics and Economic Analysis
Development (ASEAD) Project from 2003 to 2007 to improve the capacity in OAE. The
basic activities are 1) to improve the data collection methodology 2) to establish the net
work system between OAE headquarter and Regional Offices 3) to develop the
methodology of agricultural analysis and improve the forecasting methodology of
agricultural production and 4)to implement the training for capacity building in OAE.
Under this project, OAE staff have learnt and practiced to conduct crop-cutting survey,
area survey and food consumption survey, develop data processing by using web
application, constructed input-output table. Various training courses about statistics and
information technology have been organized for OAE staff. At regional level, OAE is the
Thai national focal point in FAO ’s Project, the Strengthening Regional Data Exchange
System on Food and Agricultural Statistics in Asia and Pacific Countries. OAE is also
the implementing agency of the ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS)
Project while the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), Japan is the
donor through ASEAN Trust Funds. The overall objectives of AFSIS are to facilitate
food security planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation in ASEAN through
the systematic collection, organization, management, analysis and dissemination of
food security data and information. Project activities focus on capacity building for
statistical personnel of all ASEAN member countries in two dimensions: human
resources development and development of information network systems
        .
1.5 Strategic framework

     To improve agricultural statistics and information system in Thailand OAE now plan
to
     1)       Integrate statistic information Other agencies organize under MOAC
collecting the same data by difference standard of methodology and definition.
Sometime the result of the collecting data has conflict. Example is para rubber statistics
has two organizations collecting data (Rubber Research Institute Department of
Agriculture, OAE) by using difference methodology and type of production.
        2)    Construct data warehouse In the present situation there is various kind of
database and software use in OAE that make OAE has problem to linkage database
and network. So OAE is in procedure to construct data warehouse and use new
software to manage database.
      3)      Improve Geo-Informatics system. After applied Geo-Informatics
technology for area survey, OAE plan to use it for Management Information System in
OAE and MOAC.

                                           14
Chapter 2: Major Domains and Selected Indicators of Agricultural Statistics

2.1 List of Major Domains and Selected Indicators
              Domain                         Statistics/Indicators
  PRODUCTION
         Crops                   Volume of paddy production
                                 Volume of field crop production (other than
                                 paddy)
                                 Vollume of perrenniel crop production
         Livestock & poultry
                                 Volume of livestock & poultry production
         Fishery                 Volume of fishery production (commercial,
                                 aquaculture)
         Macroeconomic           Gross National Product
         indicators              Gross Domestic Product
                                 Gross Value Added in Agriculture
  TRADE                          Total value of exports & imports
                                 Total volume of agricultural exports and
                                 imports
                                 Total value of agricultural exports and
                                 imports
  PRICES                         Average monthly prices of selected
                                 agricultural commodities
                                 Producer price index for agriculture
  INPUT
         Fertilizer              Prices
         Pesticides              Prices
         AGRICULTURAL            Number of agricultural machineries (tractor,
         MACHINERY               harvester, shelter, etc.)
         Land Use                Total farm area
                                 Irrigated area
         Labor & Employment      Area planted/area harvested of crops
                                 Rural population
                                 Labor force in agriculture
                                 Total employment
                                 Employment in agriculture
  OTHERS                         Farm household income
                                           15
                                   Agricultural credit




2.2 Metadata for Each of the Major Domains

     2.2.1 PRODUCTION

        2.2.1.1 Concepts, Definitions and Classifications


CROPS
Volume of production - is expressed in million metric tons; average per hectare
production is expressed in metric ton.
Area Planted - refers to the total area planted to permanent crops. This also refers to
the area of multi-harvest temporary crops.
Area Harvested - actual area from which harvests are realized; excludes crop area
totally damaged.
Yield - indicator of productivity derived by dividing total production by the harvested area.
Crop forecasts - on production, area harvested and yield.
“Forecast” refers to harvests for the next two quarters:
Monthly distribution of production - refers to the relative (percent) monthly distribution of
production.
Crop year - refers to the annual cycle of crop production in which there is a re-current
period of growth, ripening and harvesting. In most crops, this starts in May and ends in
April of following year.
Permanent Crops - are plants grown/harvested which lives for an indefinite number of
years.
Production - refers to the growing of crops; this also refers to the volume
harvested/picked.
Temporary Crops - are the crops grown seasonally and whose growing cycle is less
than one year.
Yield - is the production per unit of measure.


Livestock and Poultry
Volume of livestock & poultry production – the volume of meat produced during an
accounting period. The commodities accounted for are the following:, cattle, swine hog,
goat and milk under livestock; chicken, duck and eggs under poultry. Presented in
metric tons (total farms).
Production – refers to the volume of animals disposed for slaughter in live weight
equivalent including weight gained within the reference period (i.e. including meat
equivalent of exported live animals and excluding meat equivalent of landed weight of
imported live animals);.


                                             16
Total Milk Production (in the farm) – refers to the aggregate milk produced by dairy cow
in the farm during the reference period. It is inclusive of milk delivered to cooperatives,
sold to others, consumed at home and milk fed to calves.
Milk Production – amount of milk produced by dairy cow including suckled or fed to
calves from calving to the dry period.
Dairy Farm – is where dairy animals are raised for milk production: a) Full-time dairying
– operators engaged in dairying all throughout the year; b) Incidental dairying –
operators engaged in dairying occasionally and/or incidental to the giving birth of dams.


Fishery
Volume of fishery production (commercial, municipal, and aquaculture) – quantity of fish
harvested/produced; expressed in kilograms.
Inland Municipal Fishing – the catching of fish, crustaceans, mollusks and all other
aquatic animals in inland waters like lakes, rivers, dams, marshes, etc.
Aquaculture production – is the volume and value of fish harvested/produced in
aquaculture farms (aquafarm).
Aquaculture – fishery operations involving all forms of raising and culturing of fish and
other fishery species in fresh, brackish and marine water areas.

Macroeconomic Indicators
Gross National Product – the Gross Domestic Product adjusted with the net factor
income from the rest of the world. It refers to the aggregate earnings of the factors of
production (nationals) plus indirect taxes (net) and capital consumption allowance.
Gross Domestic Product – the value of all goods and services produced domestically;
the sum of gross value added of all resident institutional units engaged in production
(plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the values of their
outputs).

       2.2.1.2 COVERAGE AND AVAILABILITY

Production Statistics
      Crop production statistics covers major economics crops such as paddy, maize,
cassava, palm oil, rubber, soybean, coffee, sugar cane, pineapple, durian, mangosteen,
rambutan. The items in each crop production statistics are planted area, harvested area,
production and yield at both National and provincial levels.
       Livestock production statistics covers swine, broiler, cow, cattle, poultry and
poultry rat. The items in each commodity are production and inventory at both National
and provincial levels.




                                            17
      All of production statistics are conducted on an annual basis.

                                                                         Responsible
 Statistical / Indicators   Coverage     Availability   Data Source
                                                                          Agencies
Volume of field crop   provincial      1981 – 2006      Field crop       OAE, DOAE
production, harvested  regional                         survey
area and field per rai and
                       national
                       level
Volume of perrenniel    provincial     1981-2007        Perrenniel       OAE, DOAE
crop production          regional                       crop survey
                            and
                         national
                           level
Volume of livestock     provincial     1981-2006        Livestock and    OAE, DLD
and poultry production   regional                       poultry survey
                            and
                         national
                           level
Livestock inventory     provincial     1981-2007        Livestock and    OAE, DLD
                         regional                       poultry survey
                            and
                         national
                           level
Volume of fisheries     provincial     1971-2005        Fisheries         DOF,OAE
production               regional                       survey
(Commercial aqua            and
culture)                 national
                           level
Gross National Product National        1981-2006        Source             NESDB
                           level                        Agencies
Gross Domestic          National       1981-2006        Source             NESDB
Product                    level                        Agencies

       2.2.1.3 DATA PROCESSING, ESTIMATION AND REVISION METHODOLOGY

Crop, Livestock and Fisheries Production
      There are 2 methodologies applied, including Stratified Two-stage Random
Sampling, and Stratified One-stage Random Sampling. The details of each
methodologies are as follows:



                                            18
Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling Techniques

(1) Surveyed commodities :
     They are major rice, second rice, maize, sorghum, cassava, mung bean,
groundnut, soy bean, kenaf, cotton, para rubber, coffee, pepper, durian, longan,
mangosteen, sunflower, rambutan, coconut, oil palm, non-commercial livestock, and
land use.


(2) Variables used for frame construction :
         -   Crop survey uses planted area within village boundary,
         -   Land use survey uses number of households in the village,
         -   Non-commercial livestock survey is included in other surveys such as land
             use survey, major rice survey.
(3) Frame construction :
      Survey sampling frame is updated from previous year frame undertaken by
respective Agro-economic zone.


I.       Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling
     Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling is used for the survey of each agricultural

     commodity. The villages, where surveyed crop is planted, is stratified into strata by

     using total planted area in the villages. Those information is obtained from agro-

     economic zone office. The surveyor then lists all households, who plant surveyed

     crop, in the sample village. Sample households are then random selected and

     interviewed for data collection.


      In conclusion, Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling comprises 2 steps:
         -Primary Sampling Unit (select village)
         -Secondary Sampling Unit (select household)

                   
Total estimation (  )
                                   nh

                                    M y
                          L                   mhi


         
                          Nh        m
                                         hi
                                                     hij
               =        h1 n h   i1   hi   j 1
                                                                               (1.1)
Where by
         
               = total estimation

                                                           19
       y hij       = value of characteristic of household j from village i, stratum h
       M hi        = number of households listed from village i, stratum h
       mhi         = number of sample households of village i, stratum h
       Nh          = total number of village, stratum h
       nh          = number of sample village, stratum h
      h            = 1,2,3.........L
      i            = 1,2,3......... n h
      j            = 1,2,3......... mhi
      Mhi/mhi = expansion factor at primary sampling unit level
      Nh/nh = expansion factor at stratum level
                          
Estimation of Variance [V Y ]              
                        L
                             N h  nh  sb
                                          2 L
                                               N                nh
                                                                      M hi  mhi  sw
                                                                                     2

                        N  N  n  nh
                             2
                                                                M  M  m
                                                                     2

      V Y  =
                                     h h 1 h                                 hi
                             h                                       hi
                       h 1                                     i 1
                                   h                                         hi
                                                                                         (1.2)
where by
                                                    2
                              1 nh
       sb2
                                    y  yh 
                                       
                            nh  1 i1 hi
                                          
                   =                                                                     (1.3)

                                                       
                                          mhi               2

           2
                              1
                                    y  yhi
                            mhi  1 j1 hij
                                            
       s   w       =                                                                     (1.4)
                                  nh

       
       yh
                            1
                            nh
                                 y
                                         hi
                   =              i1                                                    (1.5)
                                   mhi

          
          yhi
                             1
                            mhi
                                  y       hij
                                   j 1
                   =                                                                     (1.6)

Stratified One-stage Random Sampling Technique

(1) Surveyed commodities :
   Oil palm, onion, and commercial livestock
(2) Variables used for frame construction :
      -         Crop survey uses planted area of respective household (except oil palm of
                which the sampling frame is separated in accordance with type of business
                such as company, cooperatives, private),
      -         Commercial livestock survey uses number of livestock raised by respective
                household.
(3) Frame construction :
      It is updated from previous year frame undertaken by Agro-economic zone.
                                                                20
II.   Stratified One-stage Random Sampling
            Stratified One-stage Random Sampling includes the stratification of
Sampling Unit and the selection of Sampling Unit for data collection.
                         
      Total estimation (  )
                                  nh

                                 
                  L



                  Nh                       y hi
     =          h1 n h         i 1
                                                                      (2.1)


where by
      
                = total estimation of character of study
      Nh         = total sampling unit, stratum h
      nh         = number of samples, stratum h
          y hi
                 = character to be estimated of sample i, stratum h
      i          = 1, 2, 3, …, nh
      h          = 1, 2 ,3, …, L
      Nh/nh = expansion factor


Estimation of Variance [Var(y)]

                       2  N  nh  s h
                      L               2

                     N n
                      Nh  h      
      V Y 
               = h1       h    h                                 (2.2)
                                                   2
                     1 nh
       sb2
                           y  yh 
                              
                   nh  1 i1 hi
                                 
                 =                                                    (2.3)
                           nh

       
                   1
                           y
                                      hi
       yh        = nh      i1                                        (2.4)
      nh         = number of sample of stratum h
      h          = 1,2,3,…,L




                                                       21
Macroeconomic Indicator


       2.2.1.4 OTHER REFERENCE INFORMATION

  Farm product            Product form            Farm price by commodity grade
1. Rice          Major and second paddy         Weighted average prices for the 5%
                 already threshed at 14%        major non-glutinous paddy, major
                 moisture content               long-grain glutinous paddy and
                                                second non-glutinous paddy at 14%
                                                moisture content
2. Major rice    Major paddy already      Weighted average prices for the 5%
                 threshed at 14% moisture major non-glutinous paddy and the
                 content                  major long-grain glutinous paddy
3. Second rice   Second paddy already
                                          Second paddy at 14% moisture
                 threshed at 14% moisture
                                          content
                 content
4. Maize         Maize grains at 14%      Maize at 14% moisture content
                 moisture content
5. Sorghum                                Weighted average prices for the
                 Sorghum grains at 14%
                                          white and brown sorghum
                 moisture content
6. Mungbeans     Mungbeans and black
                                                Large mungbeans, mixed at 14%
                 matpe beans at 14%
                                                moisture content
                 moisture content
7. Cassava       Fresh cassava roots            Fresh cassava roots, mixed

8. Industrial    Fresh sugarcane stalk          Industrial sugarcane
Sugarcane        without leaves and top

9. Soybeans      Soybean grains                 Soybeans, mixed

10. Groundnuts   Dry groundnuts in shell        Dry groundnuts in shell, mixed
11. Sunflower    Sunflower grains at 14%        Sunflower, mixed at 14% moisture
                 moisture content               content
12. Oil palm     Oil palm fruits attaching      The oil palm fruits with bunch
                 to the bunch                   weighing more than 15 kgs.
13. Sesame       Black sesame seed,             Weighted average prices of black
                 white sesame seed and          sesame, white sesame and brown
                 brown sesame seed              sesame, ungraded
14. Coconuts     Mature coconut fruits          Large coconuts


                                           22
 Farm product                 Product form                   Farm price by commodity grade
15. Castor
                       Dry castor beans, shelled           Dry castor beans, mixed
beans
16. Kenaf              Retted kenaf                        Retted kenaf, mixed

17. Cotton             Cotton lint with seed               Cotton lint with seed
                       Garlics in dry condition
18. Garlic                                                 Dry garlic, mixed
                       for 90 days
19. Baby corn          Young corn in husk                  Young corn in husk, mixed
                       Shallots in dry condition
20. Shallot                                                Dry shallots, mixed
                       for 7 days
                       Onions with their crowns
21. Onions                                                 Onions, mixed
                       cut for 7 days
22. Chilli             Chilli in dry condition             Dry chilli, mixed

23. Potatoes           Fresh potatoes                      Industrial potatoes, mixed
                       Fresh pineapple fruits,
24. Pineapples                                             Industrial pineapples, mixed
                       crowns and stems cut
25. Coffee
                       Coffee matters                      Coffee matters, mixed
beans
26. Para rubber        Un smoked rubber sheets Un smoked rubber sheets, grade 3

27. Pepper             Black pepper seeds                  Black pepper seeds, mixed
28. Tobacco,           Virginia tobacco, green
                                                           Virginia tobacco leaves, mixed
Virginia               leaves
                                                           Hogs, each weighting 100 kgs. and
29. Hogs               Live hogs
                                                           over
30. Broilers           Live broilers                       Live broilers

31. Ducks              Young live meat duck                Grower meat duck, medium size

32. Hen eggs           Fresh hen eggs                      Fresh hen eggs, mixed

33. Duck eggs          Fresh duck eggs                     Fresh duck eggs, mixed

      The conversion rates for Thai measurement units to international units
               1 hahp                  =         60 kilograms
               1 rai                   =         0.16 hectare, or = 0.395 acre
               1 hectare               =         6.25 rai
               1 acre                  =         2.5 rai
                                                   23
     2.2.2. TRADE

       2.2.2.1 CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS

Volume of agricultural exports and imports – refers to the quantity of goods
exported/imported expressed in kilograms (kg) for most items; live animals in heads;
coconut in number of nuts; and abaca in bale.
Imports – means all the goods which enter Thailand and are cleared by the customs
officials, or whose duty or deposit has been paid, inclusive of all the goods placed in
customs bonded warehouses, but exclusive of the goods awaiting customs clearance in
the warehouses. No distinction has been made between imports for home consumption
and imports for re-export ;
Exports – means both the goods wholly produced in Thailand and the goods previously
included in the import statistics but changed in form or condition so as to increase their
value, excluding the goods with minor adjustments, such as sorting, cleaning, re-
packing or blending;
Re - exports – means all the goods which were previously included in the import
statistics and are exported from Thailand in the same condition as when imported.
Minor adjustments, such as sorting, cleaning, re-packing or blending, do not affect the
status of re-exported goods; and
Direct – Transit – means all the goods which are brought into the customs limit for the
sole purpose of transport to another contracting country. These goods are primarily
under customs custody while in Thailand.
Classification of Commodities – The classification of commodities is based on the
Harmonized System.
Values – In general, values are based on the declarations made by importers and
exporters and subsequently verified by the customs officials.
        For imports, C.I.F. values at the port of destination are used.
        For exports, F.O.B. values at the port of departure are used. F.O.B. values are
drawn from documents of sale for the actual amounts received in terms of national
currency, including export duties, if any.
Country of Origin – is the country where the commodity is grown, mined or
manufactured. Further processing or material added to it in another country must bring
about a material transformation to render such country as the country of origin. It should
remain unchanged if the commodity is subjected to mere sorting, grading, cleaning,
packaging or similar processing.
Country of Destination – is the country of ultimate destination/shipment. It is not
necessarily the country where the commodity/shipment is to be unloaded, as in the case
of shipment unloaded from one ocean liner but is destined to a country that is
landlocked. In which case, the country of destination is the landlocked country.




                                           24
       2.2.2.2 COVERAGE AND AVAILABILITY

      This category includes the quantities and values of agricultural import and export.
The data are collected monthly.


     Statistical /                                                               Responsible
                        Coverage       Availability        Data Source
     Indicators                                                                   Agencies
Agric. export:         International   1970 –         Foreign Trade Statistics    Customs
quantity                (by country    2006                                      Department
                       of origin and   (annual
                        destination)
                                       1991-
                                       2007
                                       (monthly)
Agric. export: value   International   1970 –         Foreign Trade Statistics    Customs
                        (by country    2006                                      Department
                       of origin and   (annual
                        destination)
                                       1991-
                                       2007
                                       (monthly)
Agric. import:         International   1970 –         Foreign Trade Statistics    Customs
quantity                (by country    2006                                      Department
                       of origin and   (annual
                        destination)
                                       1991-
                                       2007
                                       (monthly)
Agric. import: value   International   1970 –         Foreign Trade Statistics    Customs
                        (by country    2006                                      Department
                       of origin and   (annual
                        destination)
                                       1991-
                                       2007
                                       (monthly)




                                            25
     2.2.3 PRICES

       2.2.3.1 CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS

Average monthly prices of selected agricultural commodities – average prices of
agricultural commodities computed monthly at farmgate, wholesale and retail levels.

A.      Farm gate Prices – refer to payments received by farmers for the sale of their
produce at the first point of sale regardless of whether sold in the farm or elsewhere.
Prices are generally quoted in a single standard account which is in the Philippine
currency (peso) per standard unit of weight (kilogram). For other commodities, farm
price is bared on the following: ornamental crops are on per dozen except for euphorbia,
which is sold per pot; egg is for piece while chicken fighting cock is on per head basis.
        Farm gate Prices means the price in which farmers sell their own products at the
following sites:
         Crop: farm gate price earns at a farmer’s house, field, barn, and orchard,
         Livestock: farm gate price earns at a farmer’s farm, except the price of cattle
          and buffalo earned at the central market, while the broiler price is set up
          independently at individual farms.
         Cultured Fishery: farm gate price earns at the farm or pond.
         Marine Fishery: farm gate price earns at a fishing port.

Wholesale Prices – prices which can be either wholesale buying and/or wholesale
selling prices. Prices are quoted in Philippine currency (peso) per standard unit of
weight. Unit of measure used depends on the commodity being monitored. Commodity
groupings like cereals, commercial crops, vegetables, fish, etc. are expressed in peso
per kilogram while the other commodities like banana, muskmelon, papaya, pineapple,
watermelon and chicken egg are quoted in peso per piece.
Traders - buy and sell goods or commodities.
Wholesalers - are those who buy in bulk from farmers/raisers/fishermen and fellow
traders.
Wholesale Market - a place where large volume of commodities coming from production
areas are assembled, traded and transported to other markets within and outside the
province. This type of market involves heavy volume of transactions between sellers
and buyers of goods for further distribution to other areas/markets.
Retail Prices – is the price at which retailers sell their goods or commodities to
consumers in the marketplace. Prices are quoted in Philippine currency (peso) per
standard unit of weight. Unit of measure used depends on the commodity being
monitored. Commodity groupings like cereals, vegetables, fish, meat, etc. are
expressed in peso per kilogram while the other commodities like banana, papaya,
pineapple, coconut and eggs are quoted in peso per piece.
Retailers - sell directly to consumers and 1-2 small “carinderias” (eateries).
Consumers – are end-users; they acquire goods or services for direct use or ownership
and not for manufacture or resale.
Simple averages - were estimated by adding all the prevailing prices collected for each
commodity and divide it by the number of respondents.
                                            26
Producer Price Index for Agriculture – refers to the index numbers which show the
change over time (relative to a base period) on the prices received by farmers for the
sale of their agricultural products.
Index number – defined as a ratio of one number to another, generally expressed as a
percent.
Base period – usually a year, is the reference period of the index number. It is the
period at which the index is set to 100.

        2.2.3.2 COVERAGE AND AVAILABILITY

Price Statistics
       Farm gate prices are collected weekly while prices of agricultural inputs are
collected every month.


    Statistical /                                                                      Responsible
                           Coverage         Availability         Data Source
     Indicators                                                                         Agencies
Producer prices         weekly, monthly,      Survey           market, provincial,        OAE
                            yearly                                 national
Agric. input prices     monthly, yearly       Survey           market, provincial,        OAE
                                                                   national


        2.2.3.3 DATA PROCESSING, ESTIMATION AND REVISION METHODOLOGY

A. Farm Prices for agricultural crops, livestock and poultry

Data Processing

Estimation and/or compilation procedure

At the provincial level, the estimate is weighted by volume sold, while in the
regional/national level it is weighted by volume of production. The following are the
formula for the different levels of estimates.




                                            27
Provincial Farmgate Price


                                   n

                                   
                                   j 1
                                              ij


                          =              n



where : 
  i - refers to average farmgate price for commodity i
 xij - refers to farmgate price for commodity i example j
                                                          th
 n - refers to the number of sample respondents of the i commodity in provincial
      level.



National/Regional Farmgate Price



                                       w x
                                       i 1
                                                   i   i


                              =           wi


 where:

  - regional or whole kingdom farmgate price.
                                                           th
 x i - refers to provincial farmgate price for i province.
 n - refers to the total number of producing provinces

 w i - refer to weighted number for province ith


 The computation for Regional Farmgate Price follows the same procedure as that for
 the National Farmgate Price but with provinces limited only to the provinces in the
 particular region.

 B. FARMGATE PRICE INDEX

 Data Processing

 The compilation of regional and national PPIs is done at the Central Office. Production
 and price data obtained from different units are inputted in an MS Excel worksheet to
 come up with semestral and annual indices.

                                                           28
Estimation and/or compilation procedure

PPI for agriculture adopts the theoretical Laspray Formula where current volume of
production is used as the weighting factor. In its aggregative form, it is expressed as
follows:


                     PPI 
                             P Q     o
                                           (100)
                             PQ   o   o



                     Pt   = price in the current year

                     Po   = price in the base year

                     Qo   = volume of production in the base year

                   The base year in the current system is 1994 but rebasing to 2000 is
                   ongoing.

PPIs for agriculture are computed in semi-annual basis; 3 months after the reference
semester for the national PPI and 9 months after the reference semester for the
regional PPIs. Average semi-annual prices are computed by adding the 6 average
monthly prices and dividing the result by 6. The volume of production for the current
period is used as weights in generating the index for commodity groups and for the
whole agriculture sector.

For the annual index, the total semi-annual values are added to account for the year’s
total values.

Selection of commodities in the market baskets

The commodities included in the current PPI basket are based on the value of
production of all agricultural commodities in 1994. Commodities contributing 95% to
total value of production were included with ranking done by commodity group and by
region.

Procedures in selecting commodities for the Regional Market Basket:
   a. compile data on production and price of agricultural commodities
   b. compute the individual total values of all commodities (volume of production x
      average farmgate price)
   c. rank the commodities by group according to their value
   d. establish the cut-off point at 95% per commodity group
   e. validate the baskets through the commodity/subject matter specialists (PASOs
      and RASOs)
   f. prepare the “final” market baskets

                                             29
 Market Basket composition

 In the selection of commodities, there are cases when items in the PPI market basket
 are not monitored in the current FPS. There are also cases when particular crop,
 livestock or poultry item is not covered in some provinces. To suit the needs of the PPI,
 the regional and provincial FPS coverages are adjusted. FPS commodity coverage by
 province was revised to include the PPI commodities.

 Seasonality of price and production data

 If there is a price but no data on production, only a 1st semester PPI which will be
 considered also as the annual PPI.

 In case both production and prices data are available only during the season of the
 crop. Thus during off-season, there will be no PPI computed. The available PPI will
 also be the annual PPI.

     2.2.4 Input Statistics

       2.2.4.1 LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT

Rural population – total number of individuals living in the rural areas. These areas
which include all poblacions or central district and all barrios that do not meet the
requirements for classifications as urban. (expressed in thousand persons)

Employment - persons in the labor force who are reported either at work or with a job or
business although not at work during the reference week. (expressed in thousand
persons)

Farm Wage Rate - is an indicator of progress and welfare of farm workers. It tells us the
rate of pay received by farm workers on the basis of some units of payment for services
rendered in the farm operation.

Nominal Wage Rate - amount of wages a farm worker actually received and is
measured in current prices.

Real Wage Rate - is the nominal or money wage deflated by the consumer price index.


LAND USE

Irrigated area – the total area within the service area of an irrigation system served in a
particular season – wet (1st crop) and dry (2nd crop) seasons including any third crop.
This refers to the area served during the wet season plus any area submerged during
the wet season that is served in the dry season.



                                            30
Irrigation – the controlled application of water to arable lands to supply water
requirement not satisfied by rainfall or it is the artificial method of conveying water to the
plant which the plant needs for its growth.

Fertilizer - a substance (as manure or chemical mixture) used to make the soil more
fertile.

Fertilizer Prices (Dealers’ Prices) – are the selling prices of dealers of agricultural inputs
and/or fertilizers. Prices are quoted in Philippine currency (peso) per sack of 50
kilograms.

Pesticides - substances or any mixtures of substances intended for preventing,
destroying or controlling pests, including vectors of human or animal diseases,
unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with
the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural
commodities, wood or wood products, or animals feed stuffs.

Insecticides – chemical compounds used to control insects. Subdivided by different
modes of action.

        2.2.4.2 COVERAGE AND AVAILABILITY

Input Statistics
       Important information on agricultural inputs includes irrigation, land use and labor
forces. Irrigation statistics is reported yearly at provincial level while the survey for land
use and agricultural labor forces are normally conducted every two years at provincial
level.

      Statistical /                                                               Responsible
                            Coverage         Availability      Data Source
      Indicators                                                                   Agencies
       Land Use           Provincial and    1950 – 2005      Socio Economic          OAE
                          National level                         Survey

        Fertilizer        National level     2001-2006            Report              DOA
        Pesticides        National level     2001-2006            Report              DOA

        Agricultural      National level     2001-2006            Report              DOA
        machinery
        Labor &           National level     2001-2006       Socio Economic           NSO
        Employment                                               Survey




     2.2.5 OTHER


                                             31
     SOCIO ECONOMIC INFORMATION

       2.2.5.1 CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS

       Agricultural Household Income means the total amount of earned and unearned
money received in a year, before any taxes, by people in nation. This includes the
following sources of income:
      (1) Employment of all types (full and part time), service, and bonus,
      (2) Net profit from agricultural or other businesses,
      (3) Property investments, e.g. land and house rental, copyrights, interest, and
          dividends,
      (4) Financial aid, e.g. retirement allowance and pension,
      (5) Non-cash income, i.e. values of goods and services earned as a part of wage
          or salary; goods or foodstuff values made for household consumption
          (including an assessment of own household), or anything earned without pay,
      (6) Other sources of cash income, e.g. all types of insurance, lottery, and the like.

      Agricultural Household Expenditure means the total amount of money that family
spends during a particular period. This included expenditure from
      (1) Total amount of money a family spends for subsistent living.
      (2) Values of goods and services earned as a part of wage or salary; goods or
          foodstuff values made for household consumption (including the assessment
          of own household), or anything a family earns without pay.
      (3) Other types of expenditure, e.g. taxes, donation, insurance premium, lottery,
          and interest payment, include other non-consumption expenditure.

Agricultural credit – comprises all advances and/or loans given to farmers to finance
activities relating to the agriculture sector which includes crops, livestock and poultry,
fisheries and forestry. The activities include production, processing, storage and
distribution. (expressed in million Pesos)

Family Income

Total family income - includes primary income and receipts from other sources received
by all family members during a specific calendar year as participants in any economic
activity or as recipients of transfers, pensions, grants, etc.

Primary income - includes salaries and wages, commissions, tips, bonuses, family and
clothing allowance, transportation and representation allowances, honoraria, and other
forms of compensation and net receipts derived from the operation of family-operated
enterprises/activities and the practice of a profession or trade.

Income from other sources - include imputed rental values of owner-occupied dwelling
units, interests, rentals including landowner's share of agricultural products, pensions,
support and the value of food and non-food items received as gifts by the family (as well
as the imputed value of services rendered free of charge to the family). Expressed in
peso per year.
                                           32
       Besides OAE conducts Socio-economic of agricultural household survey every 2
years .From this survey not only the information of input statistics such as land use, its
also included land holding and land utilization ,Characteristics of farm household,
Income and expenditure both in farm and off-farm, Credit and indebtedness situation of
farm household and Farm assets.

Rural Services Statistics
      For Rural Service Statistics NSO conducts annual Infrastructure Survey and
monthly employment both in provincial and national level.

           2.2.5.1 Other Reference Information

The detail is shown in the following tables.

SERVICES RURAL STATISTICS
    Statistical /                                                                 Responsible
                   Coverage                    Availability       Data Source
    Indicators                                                                     Agencies
Rural             National level               2001-2006         Socio Economic      NSO
Infrastructure                                                       Survey
Rural             National level               2001-2006         Socio Economic       NSO
Employment                                                           Survey

Agricultural             Provincial and       1980 - 2005        Socio Economic       OAE
Credit                   National level                              Survey



Agricultural Household Socio-economic and Labour Survey. The survey is conducted
every 2 year period and the results are reported at provincial, regional and national
levels. The survey coverage includes agricultural villages and households. Agricultural
household socio-economic and labour data are separated as follows :
       -     Land holding/ land utilization/ crop cultivation,
       -     Crop cultivation, income obtained from crop product sale and distribution,
       -     Livestock farming, income obtained from livestock product sale and
             distribution,
       -     Crop agricultural cash expense,
       -     Livestock agricultural cash expense,
       -     Income obtained from other agricultural cash and non-agricultural products,
       -     Other agricultural cash and non-agricultural expenses,
       -     Agricultural household debt, credit and loan payment,
       -     Agricultural household farm and non-farm properties,
                                                33
       -   Job and labour transfer of household members,
       -   Group membership, training, job, and income of household’s members,
        The data are processed by using own-developed software and the results are
distributed and publicized in the form of report/ document.


Utilization of the Results

       -   for revising the CPI weighting patterns,
       -   for studying the distribution of income,
       -   for analyzing the variation of levels of living and disparities among households
           in different socio-economic groups, geographical areas and community types,
       -   for evaluating the impact on household living conditions under existing plan
           and development programs,
       -   for estimating private consumption expenditure component in the national
           accounts.
Data Processing

       Data processing is undertaken by using computer because sample survey needs
to be estimated in accordance with survey methodology. The method of data processing
includes :
       -   survey result reported at provincial/ regional/ national levels,
       -   total estimation undertaken by using Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling.

Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling

        Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling is used for the survey of each agricultural
commodity. The villages, where surveyed crop is planted, is stratified into strata by
using total planted area in the villages. Those information are obtained from agro-
economic zone offices. The surveyor then lists all households, who plant surveyed crop,
in the sample village. Sample households are then random selected and interviewed for
data collection.
       In conclusion, Stratified Two-stage Random Sampling comprises 2 steps
              - Primary Sampling Unit (select village)
              - Secondary Sampling Unit (select household)




                                             34
                   
Total estimation (  )
                                                 nh

                                             M y
                               L                           mhi


       
                               Nh            m
                                                      hi
                                                                            hij
                    =        h1 n h        i1      hi    j 1
                                                                                       (3.1)
Where by
       
                    = total estimation
       y hij         = value of characteristic of household j from village i, stratum h
       M hi          = number of households listed from village i, stratum h
       mhi           = number of sample households of village i, stratum h
       Nh            = total number of village, stratum h
       nh            = number of sample village, stratum h
       h             = 1,2,3.........L
       i             = 1,2,3......... n h
       j             = 1,2,3......... mhi
       Mhi/mhi = expansion factor at primary sampling unit level
       Nh/nh = expansion factor at stratum level


                          
Estimation of Variance [V Y ]              
                 L
                       N h  nh  sb
                                    2 L
                                         N                 nh
                                                                 M hi  mhi  sw
                                                                                2

                  N  N  n  nh
                      2
                                                           M  M  m       2

V Y  =
                               h h 1 h                                  hi
                      h                                                     hi
                 h 1                                      i 1
                             h                                          hi
                                                                                       (3.2)
where by
                                                                2
                                1 nh
       sb2
                                      y  yh 
                                         
                              nh  1 i1 hi
                                            
                     =                                                                 (3.3)

                                                                   
                                                                        2
                                1 mhi
        2
                                      y  yhi
                              mhi  1 j1 hij
                                              
       sw            =                                                                 (3.4)
                                    nh

       
       yh
                              1
                              nh
                                   y
                                           hi
                     =              i1                                                (3.5)
                                     mhi

           
           yhi
                               1
                              mhi
                                    y       hij
                                     j 1
                     =                                                                 (3.6)




                                                                                  35
      Problem

       Lack of sampling frame of target group due to budget constraint. The existing
frame is obtained from the Ministry of Interior which is unable to separate to be
consistent to target population. Agricultural policy and planning therefore have not
resulted the improvement of agricultural sector.

Chapter 3: Major Sources of Data in Agricultural Statistics

3.1 List of major agricultural censuses, surveys, registers and others
          1)   Agricultural Census
          2)   Agricultural Commodity Production Survey
          3)   Cost of Production Survey
          4)   Price Reports
          5)   Crop Forecasting
          6)   Area Frame Survey
          7)   Socio-economic Survey
          8)   Farmer Registers

3.2 Metadata for Agricultural Census

     3.2.1 overview

       The National Statistical Office conducted the First Agricultural Census in 1950,
the Second in 1963, the Third in 1978 and the Fourth in 1993. To obtain timely statistics
of agricultural structure data for policy-making, monitoring and evaluation of the
agricultural development projects and in accordance with the recommendations of the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Fifth Agricultural
Census was thus conducted in 2003 in order to collect the data on structure of
agriculture obtained from the agricultural holdings throughout the country. The
processing of the large volume of census data will take about 10-12 months. The NSO
has thus published this advanced report to present the census result for some major
characteristics based on one percent sample of agricultural holdings by region and the
whole kingdom. It is expected that this report would serve the needs of various users
before the completion of the final report which will present the census result from all
agricultural holdings. ..
       The objectives of the agricultural census were as follows:
           1. To collect data on agricultural structures such as number and area of
       holdings, land use, land tenure, planted area of crops, number of inland fishery
       establishments, water area under fresh water culture, number of livestock, the
       use of fertilizer and pesticide, machinery and equipment, etc.
           2. To provide data for small administrative units.
           3. To provide a frame for other agricultural surveys.
           4. To study changes of agricultural structures in 10 years.
       In addition, NSO and the Department of Fishery also jointly conducted Marine
fishery censuses in 1967, 1985 and 1995. This is to accommodate the requirement in

                                           36
accurate and timely statistics for policy planning in the rapidly developed fishery sector
during recent years

        3.2.2 Design To collect data NSO use close segment concept. The 2003
Agricultural Census covered all holdings which their agricultural activities were
cultivating crops, rearing livestock and culturing fresh water.
        3.2.3 Conduct operations and data quality control The face to face interview was
the method of date collection for the 2003 Agricultural Census. The field work was
carried out during May 13 to June 10, 2003. Around 2,500 enumerators were recruited
from village health volunteers and 5,000 supervisors were recruited from local officer of
Department of Agricultural Extension. The enumerators were sent out to interview all
heads of household using listing form to find out agricultural holders. Approximately 5.8
million agricultural holders were interviewed for detailed information using enumeration
form subsequently.

          3.2.4 Statistical report (link to domain) From the census and survey the domain
    they get are number and area of holdings, some Characteristics of Holdings such as
    holding's activity and size of total Area of holding and holding's activity and size of total
    area of holding, area of holding by land use and land tenure ,fertilizer and
    pesticide ,demographic characteristics and activity status, income and debt of holder's
    household and employment on agricultural workers.

3.3 Metadata for each of the major surveys

        3.3.1 overview

       OAE annually conducts production surveys for major crops, livestock, cost of
production and socio-economic for agricultural households.
       For crop production survey , it cover villages and households cultivating those
crops in each province. The data collected for each crop comprise:
             1) Planted and harvested areas
             2) Production
             3) Existing planted area and productive area of tree crops
.
        For Livestock Production Survey, the farms are currently divided into two types
namely commercial and non-commercial (backyard farms) farms. The livestock includes
cattle, buffalo, swine, chicken, duck and dairy cow. The production survey of livestock
takes place on 1 January and 1 July in each year.
        We also carried out Cost of Production Survey annually. The sample farmers for
this survey are mostly the sub-sample of the crop production survey. The information
collected is divided into two major items which are variable and fixed cost. Each cost
item is broken down into cash cost and imputed cost. The commodities to be covered in
the survey are varied year by year depending on the need for updating of physical
coefficients in the process of cost computing.
           1) The Socio-economic Survey is a multi-purpose survey which has been
               conducted every two years.


                                                37
       A survey design applied for this survey is a stratified two-stage sampling. The
sampling units are the villages which are stratified according to the number of
households in the village. The second stage sampling units are the farm household
which are listed in the sample villages. The sample households are randomly selected
from the list.
     3.3.2 Design
      Data collection of each crop is undertaken separately in accordance with the
characteristic factors, for example variety, planting method and technology, crop stage,
irrigation supplies,
      Beside by the ordinary farm visit and farmer interview, in 2004, OAE started to
conduct rice and cassava production surveys by using crop cutting survey method.
      The Department of Agricultural Extension also compiles the statistics on area and
production of various crops as reported by their field officers
      In order to reduce errors in data collection, OAE has introduced the Geo-
Informatics Technology to estimate planted area and production of various crops. The
area frame survey technique combines mapping approach and statistical method. Base
on the observation of sample points by using satellite imageries and aerial photograph,
the specific areas under investigation can be computed. The statistical methods for yield
estimation such as crop cutting technique are used in this approach for the calculation
of a certain crop production.

     3.3.3 Conduct operations and data quality control

     3.3.4 Statistical report (link to domain)
      The content of information to be collected in the survey generally covers the
following:

3.4 Metadata for each of the major registrations

     3.4.1. Source / responsible agencies. Office of Agricultural Economics response
agricultural registration such as farmer

     3.4.2 Description of contained information Farmer registration project was
conducted for the whole country during February-March 2002 by the two main agencies,
OAE and DOAE. The target farmer was about 5.64 million household. The farmer
concerned the project must held one or more agricultural activities in as the year 2001.
       The objective of the project was to get farmer information for database and to
give farmer’s smart card for contracting.
     3.4.3 Data source / units providing information for the records

3.5 Others Information

     3.5.1 Price Reports
       Weekly farm-gate prices and daily wholesale prices of agricultural commodities
are collected at the Center for Agricultural Information, OAE. The weekly bulletin reports

                                             38
of commodities production situation, marketing and farm-gate prices are published and
distributed to the general public every Monday.

     3.5.2 Crop Forecasting
       OAE has practiced crop production forecasting by using an econometric models.
At present, it is making quarterly forecasts of about 20 commodities at provincial level.
The main items in forecasting are planted area, production and yield. OAE has also
created national aggregate model and produce mid year outlook report for 65
commodities. The forecasted data are adjusted time by time according to field
observation and other exogenous information such as government policy, etc.

3.6 Data quality control
        For quality control OAE conduct sample check after field survey. The sample
check is to be undertaken by the annual work plan. We also supervise and train
enumerators to make understanding in our survey. For accuracy control the coefficients
of variation (CV) of the estimates available is used.

     3.6.1 Data source and collection methodology

        3.6.1.1 Sampling Method
        The Stratified Two-stage Sampling Method is utilized by using the list frame to
create the classification of population or farmers by size of land holding. The villages of
farmers in each land holding size will be selected by using Simple Random without
Replacement Method. After that, farm households in the sampled villages will be listed
and randomly selected for interview by the staff from OAE’s regional offices. The
questionnaires for farmer interviews generally consist of e.g. planted areas, production,
yields, varieties and irrigation systems. Additionally, in 2004, OAE introduced the Crop
Cutting Technique for yield surveys of important crops such as rice, cassava and
sugarcane.

        3.6.1.2 Rural Rapid Appraisal: RRA
        The RRA is used to quantitatively and qualitatively appraise the production
condition and direction as well as marketing circumstance of crops. The staff will
periodically conduct surveys to investigate the situations and clarifications in agricultural
sector and make reports for further analysis.

        3.6.1.3 Modeling Method
        The Modeling Method is used to estimate planted areas and production of crops
before the times of occurrences. The significant independent variables of each
occurrence will be identified to create the forecasting models. The usual independent
variables for planted areas and production of crops are for example prices and rainfall.

        3.6.1.4 Geo - informatics (GI) Technology
      GI Technology is the coordination of mapping approaches and statistical
methodologies. It utilizes the technologies in Remote Sensing, Geographic Information
                                           39
System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS). OAE has been using GI
Technology since 1999. It helps to indicate locations and areas of the production of
various crops such as rice, pineapple, oil palm, rubber, cassava and shrimp. In 2005,
OAE enlarged the use GI Technology in conducting the Area Frame Survey by
coordinating with the statistical methodologies.

       3.6.1.5 Reports
        Reports gathered from other agencies are the sources of information especially
the prices of farm products at different levels. OAE is using these reports to produce
Price Index which is an important agricultural economics indicator and to disseminate to
public.

     3.6.2 Data processing, estimation, and revision methodology
     OAE makes use of advanced technology in computer hardware and software in
combination with the ICT in data processing system. Central and regional offices are
computerized and provided with necessary software. The related officers have been
regularly trained to improve their knowledge and skills.
     The data processing of OAE divided into three types as follows:
     1) Data Processing at Regional Offices: The data which have been collected from
farm surveys by regional offices will be processed at the regional offices themselves.
The data are, for example, production of crops, livestock and fisheries. The results of
data processing will be sent to central office through OAE’s intranet.
     2) Data Processing at Central Office: The central office is responsible for
processing data derived from the survey by using Geometric Information Technology.
The results are spatial data or the areas of the different types of land use. In order to
estimate the production of certain crop, the data on yields have to be compiled through
farm survey.
      3) On-line Data Processing: The on-line data processing was designed for
processing data derived from Crop Cutting Technique. The Crop Cutting Technique has
been recently introduced for implementation in OAE. The on-line data processing allows
central office to closely monitor the progress and performance of the staff at regional
offices. If there is any thing need to be improved, the experts in Bangkok can provide
assistance on time.




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