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Bike-and-Pedestrian-Safety-for-bus

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					  Capital Metro
Safety Presentation
 by Mark Ostertag
 Why should we be interested in
 bicycle and pedestrian Safety?
• People who walk and ride bikes
  instead of use their cars reduce the
  amount of traffic and congestion on
  the road, making our job easier.
• They make cities healthier by
  reducing the amount of air pollution
  created.
• Bicyclists can easily travel greater
  distances to bus stops, thereby
  increasing our “capture zone”.
Why should we be interested in
bicycle and pedestrian Safety?
• Bicycle and pedestrian collisions are not as
  common as other accident types. However, they
  are frequently among the most expensive,
  probably because these accident participants
  don't have a metal shell (or safety cage) around
  them for protection. In other words, these
  types of accidents have a lower frequency rate,
  but a high severity rate. A single accident
  can cost potentially over a million dollars
 Why should we be interested in
 bicycle and pedestrian safety?
• Walking in the United States is dangerous
  business. Per mile traveled, pedestrians are 36
  times more likely to die in a collision than drivers.
• Nationwide, 5.4 % of all trips are made on foot,
  but 13 % of all traffic fatalities are pedestrians.
• Pedestrian fatality rates in the United States are far
  higher than in other industrialized countries. In
  both Germany and the Netherlands the fatality rate
  was 26 deaths per billion kilometers walked, while
  in the United States the rate was 364 deaths per
  billion kilometers walked — or fourteen times
  greater.
 Why should we be interested in
 bicycle and pedestrian safety?
• The situation is getting worse. Urban sprawl has
  often left pedestrians stranded. Wide roads have
  been built without sidewalks or frequent
  crosswalks, and high-speed traffic makes these
  roadways particularly deadly. In many areas,
  intersections with crosswalks may be as much as a
  half-mile apart, leaving pedestrians with no safe
  way to cross the street. Of the pedestrian deaths
  for which information is recorded, almost 60
  percent (59.1%) occurred in places where no
  crosswalk was available.
  Why should we be interested in
  bicycle and pedestrian safety?
• We are obligated to share the road with them, and
  It’s the Law:
• The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
  (ISTEA) of 1991 requires transit agencies to work
  towards incorporating different transportation modes
  (like biking) into transit systems.
• In 1998, the Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st
  Century (TEA-21) reinforced this mandate.
• The Texas Vehicle Code has several laws dealing
  with bicycles and pedestrians.
Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
     pertaining to bicycles
• Sec. 551.101(a) A person operating a bicycle has
  the rights and duties applicable to a driver
  operating a vehicle…
• Sec. 551.103 (c) Persons operating bicycles
  on a roadway may ride two abreast.
• Sec. 551.103 (b) A person operating a bicycle on a
  one-way roadway with two or more marked traffic
  lanes may ride as near as practicable to the left
  curb or edge of roadway.
Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
     pertaining to bicycles
• Sec. 551.103(a) a person operating a
  bicycle on a roadway who is moving
  slower than the other traffic on the
  roadway shall ride as near as practicable
  to the right curb or edge of the roadway;
  unless (1) the person is passing another
  vehicle…(2) the person is preparing to turn
  left at an intersection or onto a private road
  or driveway; or...
Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
     pertaining to bicycles
• Sec. 551.103(a) (cont.)... (3) a condition on
  or of a roadway, including a fixed or
  moving object, parked or moving vehicle,
  pedestrian, animal, surface hazard, or
  substandard road width lane, prevents the
  person from safely riding next to the
  right curb or edge of the roadway.
Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
     pertaining to bicycles
• This section of the vehicle code means that,
  in the opinion of the cyclist, if it is not safe
  to ride to the right side of the road, they are
  not required to stay right and are entitled to
  take up the entire lane. It is your
  responsibility to yield to them in this
  circumstance, so overtake them with
  caution.
       Statistics for Bicyclists
             National Statistics

•  In 1997, 813 bicyclists were killed and
  58,000 were injured in traffic crashes.
  Bicyclists accounted for 2 percent of the
  deaths and injuries of all the people killed
  and injured in traffic collisions.
• 88% of bicyclists killed were males and one
  third of all bicycle fatalities were between
  the ages of 5 and 15. 53% of bicycle
  injuries are between the ages of 5 and 15.
          Statistics for Bicyclists
Major causes of collisions between motorists and bicyclists:
22.3% - The motorist failed to yield to the bicyclist
16% - Bicyclist failed to yield to motorist at the intersection
12% - Motorist turned or merged into the path of the bicyclist
11.8% - Bicyclist failed to yield to the motorist midblock
8.5% - Motorist overtaking bicyclist
7.6% - Bicyclist turned into the path of the motorist
All other causes under 3%
                        State Statistics
In 1997, Texas ranked third in the nation behind Florida and
   California in bicycle fatalities, with 55 killed.
Safe Driving Practices Around
          Bicyclists
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• As stated in our Safety Rules
  Handbook, Chapter 2, sec. 2.29
  and reiterated in the Operator's
  Alert dated April 1, 1999,
  Operators should kneel the bus
  for cyclists placing their bikes
  in the rack, place the bus in
  neutral and apply the parking
  brake. This picture shows the
  problems for the cyclist when
  the bus isn’t keeled.
   Safe Driving Practices Around
             Bicyclists
• Bicycles that have large boxes or other
  items on the bike that obscure the driver’s
  view should not be placed in the bike racks,
  and those riders denied service.
 •For liability reasons, we do not assist bicyclists
 with the loading or unloading of their bikes
 on the racks.
 •Remind the bicyclist when they are
 boarding the bus to let you know when they are
 getting off.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Keep an eye out for bicyclists. They're not
  as easy to see as a car or truck and you are
  more likely to be looking for other motor
  vehicles. Keeping your windshield clean,
  as required by your CDL, is one of the best
  things that you can do to avoid collisions.
  Also, to reduce glare, keep papers off of the
  dash.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Remember that bicycles may have the same
  rights as a motor vehicle, but they differ
  from motor vehicles; there're smaller and
  can't move as fast. But they can change
  direction more easily, stop faster and move
  through smaller spaces.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Pass cyclists with care. Give them plenty of room.
  Look ahead when you drive, plan and anticipate
  passing bicyclists quickly and efficiently. Also, if
  you are planning to turn right immediately after
  passing a bicyclist, make sure you give them
  enough lead out that you don't cut them off. Many
  drivers do not realize how fast a bicycle can travel,
  and think they have time to turn in front of them.
  Cyclist can travel 15 to 30 mph.
   Safe Driving Practices Around
             Bicyclists
• Save your horn. Some bicyclists are startled by
  honking, and it could cause them to have an
  accident, or unexpectedly cause them to veer into
  the path of your vehicle.
• Lights. When approaching a bicycle, your high
  beams can be blinding. Although many of you
  rarely use them, remember that they need to be
  dimmed for cyclists as well as other motorists.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Road conditions can affect a cyclists'
  behavior. Cars parked along the side of the
  road will cause them to ride farther out in
  traffic, because they are worried about car
  doors opening. Hitting an open car door
  may not hurt much when you’re in a motor
  vehicle, but it can cause very serious injury
  to a cyclist.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Sewer gratings, soft shoulders, construction areas,
  broken glass, gravel and other debris are no big
  deal for a motorist, but are serious hazards for a
  cyclist. They can cause cyclists to ride farther out
  into traffic or cause them to swerve unexpectedly
  out into traffic. When approaching a cyclist, learn
  to assess the road hazards the way the cyclist
  would and you will be better equipped to
  anticipate their actions.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Be extra cautious around cyclists that don't
  wear helmets. Head injuries cause 75% of
  all bicycling fatalities, and most cyclists
  know this. The City of Austin has had a
  helmet use ordinance (for children only)
  active since 1996. Riders that don't wear
  helmets are demonstrating that they are not
  safety conscious, and may be more likely to
  break traffic laws or act unpredictably.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• The same holds true for cyclists
  wearing headphones, as they need to
  be aware of their surroundings,
  especially sounds of traffic, and can't
  hear them if they are listening to
  music.
 Safe Driving Practices Around
           Bicyclists
• Be alert to cyclists during left-hand
  turns. Surprisingly, a cyclist is four
  times more likely to be hit by a motor
  vehicle that is turning left than by one
  that is turning right. Many drivers find
  that turning left is more difficult and
  their peripheral vision to the left (for
  approaching cyclists) is strained.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Watch out for bicyclists that ride up along
  the right side of the bus as you are
  approaching a stop (a frequent occurrence).
  You could open the doors right onto them,
  or let your passengers out right in front of
  them, causing a passenger-cyclist collision.
  For this reason, please curb your vehicle
  (even when there is a bike lane) so that
  cyclists either wait behind you or pass to the
  left.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Be alert for "midblock rideout", which
  occurs when a bicyclists enters the
  roadway from a driveway, alley or
  curb without slowing, stopping, or
  looking for traffic. This is the most
  frequent crash type for young riders,
 so when you see a child on a bike just off
 the roadway,expect them to dart out
 and be ready.
 Safe Driving Practices Around
           Bicyclists
• Similar to this is the "stop sign rideout",
  where the cyclist enters an intersection
  without observing the stop sign or traffic
  signal. 62% of child bicyclist-motor vehicle
  accidents are due to the cyclist failure to
  yield right-of-way to the motorist. 71% of
  teenage bicyclist-motor vehicle accidents
  are due to wrong way bicycling or bicyclist
  error at an intersection.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Watch out for the “draft”, or wake of air created
  by your vehicle. It can cause the cyclist to swerve
  unexpectedly.

•Rear engine vehicles, like transit buses, can
 sneak up on a cyclist. Many cyclists depend on
hearing a vehicle approaching from the rear, and a
rear engine vehicle is usually a lot closer by the time
they hear it. This can startle them, causing
unpredictable behavior.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
            Bicyclists
• Be appreciative when you encounter a
  cyclist following the rules of the road,
  yielding the right-of-way, or otherwise
  politely sharing the road with other traffic.
• Give them a friendly wave, a smile or tell
  them thanks when they ride responsibly.
  After all, we want to encourage that type
  of behavior.
• At a stop light, both the bicycle and bus
  move on green. After crossing intersection,
  Operator said they assumed bike was
  turning on to sidewalk. Collision occurred
  as side of bus hit the cyclist (11/11/99).
• Cyclist states he was hit by bus forcing him
  into parked cars when bus switched into left
  lane on one-way road (12/14/99).
Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
    pertaining to Pedestrians
• Sec. 552.001 (b) A pedestrian facing a green
  signal may proceed across a roadway within a
  marked or unmarked crosswalk unless the sole
  green signal is a turn arrow.
• Sec. 552.002 (c) A pedestrian may not start to
  cross a roadway in the direction of a "Don't Walk"
  signal or a "Wait" signal. A pedestrian who has
  partially crossed while the "Walk" signal is
  displayed shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety
  island while the "Don't Walk" signal or "Wait"
  signal is displayed.
Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
    pertaining to Pedestrians
• Sec. 552.003 (a) The operator of a vehicle shall
  yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian crossing a
  roadway in a crosswalk if no traffic control signal
  is in place or in operation; and the pedestrian is on
  the half of the roadway in which the vehicle is
  traveling; or approaching so closely from the
  opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger.
• d) Sec. 552.003 (b) A pedestrian may not suddenly
  leave a curb or other place of safety and proceed
  into a crosswalk in the path of a vehicle so close
  that it is impossible for the vehicle operator to
  yield.
 Significant Texas Vehicle Codes
     pertaining to Pedestrians
• Sec. 552.005. A pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to a
  vehicle on the highway if crossing a roadway at a place
  other than in a marked crosswalk or in an unmarked
  crosswalk at an intersection.
• Sec. 552.008. Drivers to Exercise Due Care.
  Notwithstanding another provision of this chapter, the
  operator of a vehicle shall: (1) exercise due care to avoid
  colliding with a pedestrian on a roadway; (2) give warning
  by sounding the horn when necessary; and (3) exercise
  proper precaution on observing a child or an obviously
  confused or incapacitated person on a roadway.
       Statistics for Pedestrians
                National Statistics

• In 1998, 5,220 pedestrians died in traffic crashes,a
  decrease of 24% from the previous decade.
• 69,000 pedestrians were injured in traffic
  accidents in 1998, a decrease of 18% from 1988.
• 85% of all nonmotorist fatalities are pedestrians.
• 78% of pedestrian fatalities occur at non-
  intersections.
• 88% occur in normal weather conditions and 64%
  occur at night.
      Statistics for Pedestrians
              National Statistics
• Walking is far more dangerous than flying
  or driving, per mile traveled:
• 0.16 deaths per 100,000,000 miles aboard
  an airplane.
•1.4 deaths per 100,000,000 miles in a car.
                                              .


•Almost 50 deaths per 100,000,000 miles walked.
      Statistics for Pedestrians
 Ranking the major causes of pedestrian accidents

1 Midblock Dart Out       2 Intersection Dash
3 Vehicle Turn or Merge   4 Multiple Threats (A
                             stopped vehicle at a
                             crosswalk blocks the
                             view of another driver
                             approaching)
5 Backing Up              6 Bus Stop Related
7 Vendor Related
     Statistics for Pedestrians

  State Statistics
 461 pedestrians were
   killed in vehicle
  accidents in 1998.
  Again, just as with
bicycling statistics, we
   were third in the
     nation behind
California and Florida.
Safe Driving Practices Around
         Pedestrians
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians

• Increase your defensive driving "scan and search"
  to include pedestrians along the road and on the
  sidewalks. They're not as easy to see as a car or
  truck and you are more likely to be looking for
  other cars.
• Keeping your windshield clean, so that pedestrians
  are more visible, is one of the biggest things you
  can do to reduce pedestrian accidents. Pollen, dirt
  and debris can increase glare and reduce visibility.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Be alert to pedestrians during left-hand turns. Just
  as with cyclists, a pedestrian is four times more
  likely to be hit by a motor vehicle that is turning
  left than by one that is turning right. As shown in
  driver work load studies, the left turning maneuver
  is more demanding, particularly for older drivers,
  and drivers appear to have problems with visual
  search and detection of pedestrians.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Children under 8 years old are not capable of
  safely navigating around traffic. The American
  Academy of Pediatrics reports that a young child's
  awareness of sounds and the direction from which
  they emanate, their peripheral vision, their focus
  and concentration levels are not sufficiently
  developed until after 8 years of age. One study
  showed that 90% of street crossings made by
  children in K through 3rd grade were in error. If
  you expect children under 8 near the street to cross
  incorrectly, you will be right 9 out of 10 times.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Areas around colleges and
  universities should also receive special
  attention at all times. Expect students to be
  darting out, not paying attention to signals
  or traffic, or trying to catch the tail end of a
  walk signal, ending up still in the road when
  the light turns green. The same holds true
  for public schools during peak hours in the
  morning and afternoon.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Slow down! Especially in schools zones
  and other areas rich with pedestrians.
• If a car going 20 mph hits a person, there is
  a 95% chance that the person will survive.
• If the car is traveling 30 mph, the person
  has slightly better than a 50% of survival.
• At 40 mph, only 15% of people struck at
  this speed can be expected to survive.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• During the summer months, Operators on
  routes that drive by pools and parks should
  increase their alertness for children darting
  out and more people crossing mid-block.
  Also, routes that go near Austin’s popular
  hike and bike trails should be alert,
  especially around the “hot” times - early
  evening and weekends.
 Safe Driving Practices Around
          Pedestrians
• Everybody knows to be alert when a ball comes
  bouncing out in the street, but statistically the
  same or more caution should be exercised
  when approaching an ice cream truck or
  other street vendor.
• Joggers are a special hazard. Some of them
  violate traffic rules because they don't want to
  slow down or break their stride at intersections
  and many of them wear headphones, which takes
  away their ability to hear traffic noises.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Older pedestrians walk slower, which
  makes them more difficult for the eye to
  pick up. They also need more time to cross
  the street. Older pedestrians account for
  13% of the population but 22% of all
  pedestrian fatalities. They have the highest
  death rate of any age group. Areas around
  retirement homes, senior centers, and
  nursing homes present an increased hazard.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Developments and neighborhoods that
  don't have sidewalks force kids to walk
  and wait for school buses in the streets,
  increasing the hazard. This problem is
  compounded in the winter months,
  when the low angle of sunlight, and the
  tendency to wear darker clothes makes
  them more difficult to see.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Entertainment areas, like 6th street, are another
  potential hazard. 31% of all pedestrian fatalities
  involved an intoxicated pedestrian. Drunk drivers
  are involved in only 12% of pedestrian fatalities,
  less than half the amount. Some people think that
  if they are too drunk to drive home, they will just
  walk, which turns out to be not much safer.
  Concerns about the inebriated also apply at
  transient areas like Riverside & Congress,
  and Lamar & Rundberg
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Be alert to unusual pedestrian behavior around
  Construction areas, which are dangerous locations
  for pedestrians. One reason is that many times
  construction areas or activities force the pedestrian
  to walk out into the street. Another is that the
  pedestrian is distracted because they are watching
  the construction activities and not paying attention
  to traffic.
  Safe Driving Practices Around
           Pedestrians
• Exercise caution while making a Right Turn
  On Red. One significant cause of
  pedestrian fatalities is a turning vehicle in a
  crosswalk striking a pedestrian.
• Bus making a left turn from 8th on to
  Colorado and struck a pedestrian in the
  crosswalk, injuring the pedestrian’s wrist
  and knee(1/22/98)
• While pulling away from a bus stop at 5th
  and Congress, Operator hit lady walking in
  crosswalk. Lady’s upper arm was hit by
  front of bus before she fell on to sidewalk.
  (3/2/98).
For bike and pedestrian accident
           prevention,
Give the road your full attention.

				
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