Definition: A group of words
expressing a complete thought that
contains at least a noun and verb.
Ex. I enjoy eating cheese.
The thought expressed- I like to
If a group of words does not
express a complete thought, it is a
Sentence Fragment ( a fragment of
Ex. Melted or on crackers.
The thought expressed- ????
What is melted or on crackers?
Run On Sentences
Definition: Two or more sentences
separated only by a comma or by no
Ex. Where are Riff and Raff those cats won’t
come when I call.
Corrected: Where are Riff and Raff? Those
cats won’t come when I call.
Ex. That is because cats are dumb and ill-
tempered they are pretty haughty for animals
who lick themselves clean and poop in a box in
front of the whole family.
Corrected: That is because cats are dumb
and ill-tempered. They are pretty haughty
for animals who lick themselves clean and
poop in a box in front of the whole family.
Practice: Determine which of the groups of
words below are sentences, sentence
fragments or run on sentences.
Cheese comes in many different
These colors include white, yellow
Marbled, a mix of yellow and white.
My favorite type of cheese is Gouda it
is tasty and good.
Covered with mold.
I like to make cheese fondue and I
Every sentence must have a SUBJECT
and a PREDICATE.
Subject: The part of the sentence about
which something is said. (the noun)
Simple Subject: The main noun
Predicate: The part of the sentence which
says something about the subject. (the
Simple Predicate: The main verb
The yellow cheese melted in the sun.
Subject= The yellow cheese
Simple Subject= cheese
Predicate= melted in the sun.
Simple Predicate= melted.
Wow! Your toes are really shiny!
Subject= Your toes
Simple Subject= toes
Predicate= are really shiny!
Simple Predicate= are
How to Find the Subject
Easiest way to find the subject of a
sentence is to find the verb and then ask
“who” or “what” before the verb.
Ex. The cook sprinkled cheese over the
What’s the verb? Sprinkled
Who sprinkled? The cook
The subject is the cook.
Things To Remember About
The subject is NEVER in a prepositional
“There” is never the subject of a sentence.
Questions will invert normal sentence order,
putting a verb before a subject or subject
between verb parts.
So, the steps for finding a subject are.
1. Cross out all prepositional phrases first,
before you look for your verb.
2. Cross out “there”.
3. Restate questions so they are statements.
Most of the cheese was good.
The giant cheese wheel rolled under
(giant) CHEESE WHEEL
She threw the cat into the tree.
Was the cat angry?
Find the simple subject and simple predicate
of each sentence.
Oregon is haunted by
legends of the fearsome
S: Oregon, P: is haunted
This legendary humanlike
creature secludes itself in
heavily forested areas.
S: Creature, P: secludes
shaggy coat of hair
looks like a bear’s pelt.
S: Coat, P: looks
Bigfootis gentle and shy
by nature, avoiding contact
S: Bigfoot, P: is
Complete Subjects and Predicates
Complete Subject: The main noun
and all of the words that modify it.
Complete Predicate: The main verb
and all of the words that modify it.
Ex. Her ugly toes made me extremely
Complete Subject= Her ugly toes
Complete Predicate= made me extremely
In sentences that are requests or
commands, the subject is usually not
stated. It is understood to be you.
Ex. Please answer the phone. (you)
You, please answer the phone.
Ex. Listen carefully to the instructions. (you)
You, listen carefully to the instructions.
Sometimes a request/ command
includes a name. These are called
NOUNS OF DIRECT ADDRESS.
Nouns of direct address identify the
person spoken to, BUT you is still
the understood subject.
Ex. Erin, listen carefully to the
Subject : you
Compound Subjects and Verbs
Compound Subject: Two or more
subjects that are joined by a conjunction
AND have the same verb.
Ex. Shamrock and Ginger fought for the
Compound Subject: Shamrock and Ginger
Compound Verb: Two or more verbs that
are joined by a conjunction AND have the
Ex. Shamrock barked and ran.
Compound Verb: barked and ran.
Sentence Structure Cont.
Usually, sentences follow this order:
subject + predicate
The cheese melted in the sun.
However, sentence can be inverted:
In the sun sat the melting cheese.
Or, the subject can be in the middle of the
In the sun, will the cheese melt?
PRACTICE: For each sentence, identify
the subject and predicate. Tell me if the
subject is compound or understood and if
the verb is compound.
Moles and bats supposedly have
very poor eyesight.
S: Moles and bats, compound
Dachshunds and terriers
often run and jump.
S:Dachshunds and terriers,
P: run and jump, compound
Throw that rotten tomato.
S: You, understood
Shamrock growled and
pawed the ground like a bull.
P: Growled and pawed,
Today, you should have taken notes on:
Sentences: Definition and structure
Sentence Fragments: Definition
Run On Sentences: Definition
How to find a subject
Review your notes and make sure you
didn’t miss anything!