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SENTENCES

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					     SENTENCES
Definition: A group of words
expressing a complete thought that
contains at least a noun and verb.
Ex. I enjoy eating cheese.
      The thought expressed- I like to
eat cheese.
    Sentence Fragments
 If a group of words does not
  express a complete thought, it is a
  Sentence Fragment ( a fragment of
  a sentence).
 Ex. Melted or on crackers.
      The thought expressed- ????
  What is melted or on crackers?
           Run On Sentences
   Definition: Two or more sentences
    separated only by a comma or by no
    punctuation mark.
       Ex. Where are Riff and Raff those cats won’t
        come when I call.
         Corrected: Where are Riff and Raff? Those
           cats won’t come when I call.

       Ex. That is because cats are dumb and ill-
        tempered they are pretty haughty for animals
        who lick themselves clean and poop in a box in
        front of the whole family.
          Corrected: That is because cats are dumb
           and ill-tempered. They are pretty haughty
           for animals who lick themselves clean and
           poop in a box in front of the whole family.
Practice: Determine which of the groups of
words below are sentences, sentence
fragments or run on sentences.
  Cheese comes in many different
   colors.
  These colors include white, yellow
   and blue.
  Marbled, a mix of yellow and white.
  My favorite type of cheese is Gouda it
   is tasty and good.
  Covered with mold.
  I like to make cheese fondue and I
        Sentence Structure
Every sentence must have a SUBJECT
  and a PREDICATE.
Subject: The part of the sentence about
  which something is said. (the noun)
  Simple Subject: The main noun
Predicate: The part of the sentence which
  says something about the subject. (the
  verb)
  Simple Predicate: The main verb
         Examples! Hooray!
   The yellow cheese melted in the sun.
       Subject= The yellow cheese
          Simple   Subject= cheese
       Predicate= melted in the sun.
          Simple   Predicate= melted.


   Wow! Your toes are really shiny!
       Subject= Your toes
          Simple   Subject= toes
       Predicate= are really shiny!
          Simple   Predicate= are
How to Find the Subject
   Easiest way to find the subject of a
    sentence is to find the verb and then ask
    “who” or “what” before the verb.

    Ex. The cook sprinkled cheese over the
      pizza.

       What’s the verb? Sprinkled

       Who sprinkled? The cook

       The subject is the cook.
    Things To Remember About
             Subjects
    The subject is NEVER in a prepositional
     phrase.
    “There” is never the subject of a sentence.
    Questions will invert normal sentence order,
     putting a verb before a subject or subject
     between verb parts.
So, the steps for finding a subject are.
1.   Cross out all prepositional phrases first,
     before you look for your verb.
2.   Cross out “there”.
3.   Restate questions so they are statements.
         Practice
 Most of the cheese was good.
  MOST
The giant cheese wheel rolled under
  the table.
(giant) CHEESE WHEEL
She threw the cat into the tree.
SHE
Was the cat angry?
CAT
PRACTICE GAME
Find the simple subject and simple predicate
of each sentence.
      Oregon  is haunted by
       legends of the fearsome
       creature Bigfoot.


       S: Oregon, P: is haunted
This legendary humanlike
 creature secludes itself in
 heavily forested areas.

 S: Creature, P: secludes
    shaggy coat of hair
 Its
 looks like a bear’s pelt.

 S:    Coat, P: looks
 Bigfootis gentle and shy
 by nature, avoiding contact
 with strangers.

 S:   Bigfoot, P: is
Complete Subjects and Predicates
    Complete Subject: The main noun
     and all of the words that modify it.

    Complete Predicate: The main verb
     and all of the words that modify it.
        Ex. Her ugly toes made me extremely
         angry.
           Complete Subject= Her ugly toes
           Complete Predicate= made me extremely
            angry.
      Understood Subjects
 In sentences that are requests or
  commands, the subject is usually not
  stated. It is understood to be you.
Ex. Please answer the phone. (you)
  You, please answer the phone.

Ex. Listen carefully to the instructions. (you)
  You, listen carefully to the instructions.
 Sometimes a request/ command
  includes a name. These are called
  NOUNS OF DIRECT ADDRESS.
 Nouns of direct address identify the
  person spoken to, BUT you is still
  the understood subject.
Ex. Erin, listen carefully to the
  instructions.
Subject : you
Compound Subjects and Verbs
    Compound Subject: Two or more
     subjects that are joined by a conjunction
     AND have the same verb.
        Ex. Shamrock and Ginger fought for the
         cheese.
             Compound Subject: Shamrock and Ginger
    Compound Verb: Two or more verbs that
     are joined by a conjunction AND have the
     same subject.
        Ex. Shamrock barked and ran.
             Compound Verb: barked and ran.
Sentence Structure Cont.
Usually, sentences follow this order:
  subject + predicate
  The cheese melted in the sun.
However, sentence can be inverted:
  predicate+ subject
  In the sun sat the melting cheese.
Or, the subject can be in the middle of the
  sentence:
  In the sun, will the cheese melt?
PRACTICE: For each sentence, identify
the subject and predicate. Tell me if the
subject is compound or understood and if
the verb is compound.

   Moles and bats supposedly have
    very poor eyesight.

    S: Moles and bats, compound
    P: have
 Dachshunds  and terriers
 often run and jump.

 S:Dachshunds and terriers,
 compound
 P: run and jump, compound
 Throw   that rotten tomato.

 S: You, understood
 P: Throw
 Shamrock growled and
 pawed the ground like a bull.

 S: Shamrock
 P: Growled and pawed,
  compound
              REVIEW
 Today, you should have taken notes on:
Sentences: Definition and structure
  Sentence Fragments: Definition
  Run On Sentences: Definition
  Subjects: Definition
     How to find a subject
     Understood
     Compound
  Predicates: Definition
     Compound
  Review your notes and make sure you
  didn’t miss anything!