9.4 Progressivism Under Taft

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					  9.4 Progressivism Under Taft
• Gifford Pinchot
• American interest in preservation of
  country’s wilderness intensified.
• Middle ground between preservationists and
  business, which wanted unrestricted
  development of land
        William Howard Taft
• Roosevelt won election 1904.
• Pledged not to run for reelection 1908.
• Handpicked successor - Secretary of War,
        Democrats nominated
• William Jennings Bryan for third time
• Slogan: “Let the people rule.”
• People ignored Bryan’s call for federal
  income tax
• lower tariff
• new antitrust laws
     “Vote for Taft this time,”
• Republicans said: “You can vote for bryan
  any time.”
• People voted for Taft
• Gigantic man--6 feet tall and 350 pounds--
  captured easy victory.
        Payne-Aldrich Tariff
• Lowered rates on many manufactured
• Conservative Republicans eliminated most
  of the cuts.
• Taft signed anyway, amid cries of betrayal
  from progressive wing of his party.
   Disputing Public Lands, 351
• Taft angered conservationists by appointing
  Richard Ballinger Secretary of the Interior--
  wealthy Seattle lawyer who disapproved of
  conservationist controls on western lands.
 Removed 1 million acres forest
 and mining lands from reserved
    Approved sale to Seattle
  businesses of several million
acres of coal-rich land in Alaska.
   Businesses sold land to NY
  bankers, including JP Morgan
• Western entrepreneurs delighted
Department Interior official fired
for protesting Ballinger’s action.
• Fired worker published muckraking article
  against Ballinger
• Pinchot accused Ballinger of letting
  commercial interests exploit natural
  resources of public
President Taft fired Pinchot from
       US Forest Service
• Pinchot wrote: “The more successful the
  Forest Service has been in preventing land-
  grabbing…the more ingenious, devious and
  dangerous these attacks have become.”
     The Republican Party Splits
•   Progressives sought change
•   Conservatives did not
•   Roosevelt: “I believe in strong executive.”
•   Taft restrained.
•   Republican party fragments (comes apart.)
      Problems within the Party
• Conservatives and progressives split over Taft’s
  support of political boss Joseph Cannon, Speaker
  of the House of Representatives.
• Poker-playing, rough-talking, tobacco-chewing
  “Uncle Joe.”
• Appointed himself head of Committee on Rules,
  decides what bills Congress would consider.
• Dictatorship over progressive bills.
Reform-minded Republicans and
• Stripped Cannon of his power March 1910.
• Geore W. Norris, Nebrask presented
  resolution that called for entire House to
  elect Committee on Rules.
               Election 1910
•   Republican party in shambles.
•   Voters concerned over rising cost of living.
•   Blamed on Payne-Aldrich Tariff.
•   Taft believed against conservation.
•   Republicans lost election
•   Democrats gained control of House of
    Representatives - first time in 18 years.
        The Bull Moose Party
• Roosevelt to Africa to shoot big game after
  Taft’s election.
• Returned in 1910 to hero’s welcome.
• People sang, “When Rough and Ready
  Teddy Dashes Home” and “Mr. Roosevelt,
  Our Country Calls for You.”
• Roosevelt decided to run for third term
      Taft Incumbent - in office
• Taft’s supporters refused to seat Roosevelt
  delegates .
• Formed new third party--Progressive Party and
  nominated Roosevelt.
• “We stand at Armageddon,” invoking Biblical
  battle between good and evil.
• “We battle for the Lord.”
• Progressive Party became known as Bull Moose
  Party after Roosevelt’s boast he was “as strong as
  a bull moose.”
           Bull Moose Platform
    Direct election of senators
•   Adoption of all states of initiative referendum and
•   Women’s suffrage
•   National workman’s compensation
•   8-hour workday
•   Minimum wage ofr women
•   Federal law against child labor; federal trade
    commission to regulate business.
  Democrats first real chance at
   White House since Grover
   Cleveland elected in 1892.

• 1912 - Woodrow Wilson, reform governor
  of NJ.
              Election 1912
• Under Governor Woodrw Wilson’s
  leadership NJ legislature passsed reform
• Wilson endorsed rpogressive platform
• New Freedom--demanded stronger antitrust
  legislation, banking reform, reduced tariffs.
Split between Taft and Roosevelt
• Turned nasty--Taft labeled Rosevelt
  “dangerous egotist.”
• Rooseveltbranded Taft “fathead” with brain
  of “guinea pig.”
• Wilson: “don’t interfere when your enemy
  is destroying himself.”
      Several choices in election:
•   Wilson’s New Freedom
•   Taft’s conservatism
•   Roosevelt’s progressivism
•   Socialist Party policies Eugene V. Debs.
•   Roosevelt and Wilson: stronger
    government role in economic affairs,
    differed on strategies.
      Roosevelt, Wilson, Debs
• Roosevelt: Government action to supervise big
  business; did not oppose all business monopolies.
• Wilson: supported small business and free-market
  competition. All business monopolies - evil
• Debs: called for end to capitalism.
• Wanted to use government to regulate business
  and bust trusts but to distribute national wealth
  more equally among all people.
     Wilson - 42% popular vote
• Won electoral victory; Democratic majority in
• Roosevelt defeated Taft in popular and electoral
• 75% vote to reform candidates - Wilson,
  Roosevelt and Debs.
• Wilson mandate (he was required to) break up
  trusts, expand government’s role in social reform.