9.4 Progressivism Under Taft • Gifford Pinchot • American interest in preservation of country’s wilderness intensified. • Middle ground between preservationists and business, which wanted unrestricted development of land William Howard Taft • Roosevelt won election 1904. • Pledged not to run for reelection 1908. • Handpicked successor - Secretary of War, Taft. Democrats nominated • William Jennings Bryan for third time • Slogan: “Let the people rule.” • People ignored Bryan’s call for federal income tax • lower tariff • new antitrust laws “Vote for Taft this time,” • Republicans said: “You can vote for bryan any time.” • People voted for Taft • Gigantic man--6 feet tall and 350 pounds-- captured easy victory. Payne-Aldrich Tariff • Lowered rates on many manufactured goods. • Conservative Republicans eliminated most of the cuts. • Taft signed anyway, amid cries of betrayal from progressive wing of his party. Disputing Public Lands, 351 • Taft angered conservationists by appointing Richard Ballinger Secretary of the Interior-- wealthy Seattle lawyer who disapproved of conservationist controls on western lands. Removed 1 million acres forest and mining lands from reserved list Approved sale to Seattle businesses of several million acres of coal-rich land in Alaska. Businesses sold land to NY bankers, including JP Morgan • Western entrepreneurs delighted Department Interior official fired for protesting Ballinger’s action. • Fired worker published muckraking article against Ballinger • Pinchot accused Ballinger of letting commercial interests exploit natural resources of public President Taft fired Pinchot from US Forest Service • Pinchot wrote: “The more successful the Forest Service has been in preventing land- grabbing…the more ingenious, devious and dangerous these attacks have become.” The Republican Party Splits • Progressives sought change • Conservatives did not • Roosevelt: “I believe in strong executive.” • Taft restrained. • Republican party fragments (comes apart.) Problems within the Party • Conservatives and progressives split over Taft’s support of political boss Joseph Cannon, Speaker of the House of Representatives. • Poker-playing, rough-talking, tobacco-chewing “Uncle Joe.” • Appointed himself head of Committee on Rules, decides what bills Congress would consider. • Dictatorship over progressive bills. Reform-minded Republicans and Democrats • Stripped Cannon of his power March 1910. • Geore W. Norris, Nebrask presented resolution that called for entire House to elect Committee on Rules. Election 1910 • Republican party in shambles. • Voters concerned over rising cost of living. • Blamed on Payne-Aldrich Tariff. • Taft believed against conservation. • Republicans lost election • Democrats gained control of House of Representatives - first time in 18 years. The Bull Moose Party • Roosevelt to Africa to shoot big game after Taft’s election. • Returned in 1910 to hero’s welcome. • People sang, “When Rough and Ready Teddy Dashes Home” and “Mr. Roosevelt, Our Country Calls for You.” • Roosevelt decided to run for third term Taft Incumbent - in office • Taft’s supporters refused to seat Roosevelt delegates . • Formed new third party--Progressive Party and nominated Roosevelt. • “We stand at Armageddon,” invoking Biblical battle between good and evil. • “We battle for the Lord.” • Progressive Party became known as Bull Moose Party after Roosevelt’s boast he was “as strong as a bull moose.” Bull Moose Platform Direct election of senators • Adoption of all states of initiative referendum and recall. • Women’s suffrage • National workman’s compensation • 8-hour workday • Minimum wage ofr women • Federal law against child labor; federal trade commission to regulate business. Democrats first real chance at White House since Grover Cleveland elected in 1892. • 1912 - Woodrow Wilson, reform governor of NJ. Election 1912 • Under Governor Woodrw Wilson’s leadership NJ legislature passsed reform measures. • Wilson endorsed rpogressive platform • New Freedom--demanded stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, reduced tariffs. Split between Taft and Roosevelt • Turned nasty--Taft labeled Rosevelt “dangerous egotist.” • Rooseveltbranded Taft “fathead” with brain of “guinea pig.” • Wilson: “don’t interfere when your enemy is destroying himself.” Several choices in election: • Wilson’s New Freedom • Taft’s conservatism • Roosevelt’s progressivism • Socialist Party policies Eugene V. Debs. • Roosevelt and Wilson: stronger government role in economic affairs, differed on strategies. Roosevelt, Wilson, Debs • Roosevelt: Government action to supervise big business; did not oppose all business monopolies. • Wilson: supported small business and free-market competition. All business monopolies - evil • Debs: called for end to capitalism. • Wanted to use government to regulate business and bust trusts but to distribute national wealth more equally among all people. Wilson - 42% popular vote • Won electoral victory; Democratic majority in Congress. • Roosevelt defeated Taft in popular and electoral votes. • 75% vote to reform candidates - Wilson, Roosevelt and Debs. • Wilson mandate (he was required to) break up trusts, expand government’s role in social reform.