Specific Immune Response And Non Specific Immune Response Sobia Gulshan Objectives At the end of the session learners will be able to learn: Specific Immune Response Non Specific Immune Response T Cells and B Cells function Role of skin and mucous membrane Immune Response The immune response is the ability of the body to recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful to the body Types of Immune Response Specific Immune Response Third line of defense Non Specific Immune Response First line of defense Second line of defense Specific immune Response Definition: It is Involved in production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigen. Specific immune Response Two kinds of lymphocytes : T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes are made in the thymus gland. B lymphocytes are made in bone marrow. The T and B lymphocytes migrate to other parts of the lymphatic system, such as the lymph nodes, Payer's patches, and tonsils. Memory cells Afterthe invader has been neutralized, some T cells remain behind. These cells, called memory cells, impart immunity to future attacks by the virus. Once a person has had chickenpox, memory cells quickly stave off subsequent infections. This secondary immune response, involving memory cells, is much faster than the primary immune response e.g. small pox Helper T cells HelperT cells are a subset of T-cell lymphocytes which play a significant role in both the cell-mediated and antibody immune responses. Helper T cells are present in large numbers in the blood and lymphatic system, lymph nodes, and Payer's patches. B cells and the antibody response they are primary players in the antibody response. B cell is activated by antigen it begins to divide. These dividing B cells are called plasma cells. The plasma cells, in turn, secrete antibodies, Nonspecific Immune Response Definition. Nonspecific or Innate Immune Response protects us against all antigens. This Innate immunity involves barriers that keep harmful materials from entering our body. Mechanical barriers Portalof entry represent the first line of defense for the body. These defenses are normally part of the body's anatomy and physiology Skin Mucous membrane Chemical Barrier It involves the secretions of lubricating glands • Sebum • Gastric juice • H.Pylori • Semen • Vaginal secretion • Normal flora Genetic barriers The hereditary characteristics of an individual are a deterrent to disease. For example, • Humans suffer HIV infection because their T-lymphocytes have the receptor sites for the HIV oDogs, cats, and other animals are immune to this disease because they do not possess the receptor sites. Conti… Humans do not suffer canine distemper because humans lack the appropriate receptor sites for the virus that causes the disease Inflammation Inflammation is a nonspecific response to any trauma occurring to tissues. Signs and symptoms: that include heat, swelling, redness, and pain. Inflammation mobilizes components of the immune system, phagocytes come to the area and destroy any microorganisms present. Fever It develops in response to numerous traumas. Fever is initiated by circulating substances called pyrogens. Although excessive fever can be dangerous, Conti… It retards the growth of temperature-sensitive microorganisms (for example, leprosy bacilli), It increases the metabolism of body cells while stimulating the immune reaction and the process of phagocytosis Interferon Interferon is a group of antiviral substances produced by body cells in response to the presence of viruses. It may be alpha-interferon, beta- interferon, gamma-interferon. The interferon do not directly inhibit viruses. Conti… Instead, they stimulate adjacent cells to produce substances that inhibit the replication of viruses in those cells . Interferon produced in response to one virus will protect against many other types of viruses, and for this reason, interferon is considered a nonspecific form of defense. Phagocytosis Phagocytes are form of WBCs(leukocytes) Leukocytes usually increases during infection. Leukocytes WBC count Differential Plasma-fluid contains formed elements & proteins.