Immune Response

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					Specific Immune Response
           And
        Non Specific
    Immune Response



                   Sobia Gulshan
              Objectives
 At  the end of the session learners
  will be able to learn:
 Specific Immune Response
 Non Specific Immune Response
 T Cells and B Cells function
 Role of skin and mucous
  membrane
        Immune Response
 The immune response is the ability
 of the body to recognizes and
 defends itself against bacteria,
 viruses, and substances that appear
 foreign and harmful to the body
   Types of Immune Response
       Specific Immune Response
 Third line of defense
       Non Specific Immune Response
 First line of defense
 Second line of defense
   Specific immune Response

   Definition:
 It is Involved in production of
  antibodies and generation of
  specialized lymphocytes against
  specific antigen.
    Specific immune Response

      Two kinds of lymphocytes :
 T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes,
 T lymphocytes are made in the
  thymus gland.
 B lymphocytes are made in bone
  marrow.
 The T and B lymphocytes migrate to
  other parts of the lymphatic system,
  such as the lymph nodes, Payer's
  patches, and tonsils.
           Memory cells
 Afterthe invader has been
 neutralized, some T cells remain
 behind. These cells, called memory
 cells, impart immunity to future
 attacks by the virus. Once a person
 has had chickenpox, memory cells
 quickly stave off subsequent
 infections. This secondary immune
 response, involving memory cells, is
 much faster than the primary
 immune response e.g. small pox
            Helper T cells

 HelperT cells are a subset of T-cell
 lymphocytes which play a significant role
 in both the cell-mediated and antibody
 immune responses. Helper T cells are
 present in large numbers in the blood and
 lymphatic system, lymph nodes, and
 Payer's patches.
B cells and the antibody response

  they are primary players in the antibody
  response.
 B cell is activated by antigen it begins to
  divide.
 These dividing B cells are called plasma
  cells.
 The plasma cells, in turn, secrete
  antibodies,
Nonspecific Immune Response

Definition.
    Nonspecific or Innate Immune Response
    protects us against all antigens. This Innate
    immunity involves barriers that keep
    harmful materials from entering our body.
           Mechanical barriers

 Portalof entry represent the first line of
  defense for the body. These defenses are
  normally part of the body's anatomy and
  physiology
 Skin
 Mucous membrane
            Chemical Barrier

 It involves the secretions of lubricating
glands
• Sebum
• Gastric juice
• H.Pylori
• Semen
• Vaginal secretion
• Normal flora
          Genetic barriers
 The  hereditary characteristics of an
  individual are a deterrent to
  disease.
 For example,
• Humans suffer HIV infection
  because their T-lymphocytes have
  the receptor sites for the HIV
oDogs, cats, and other animals are
  immune to this disease because
  they do not possess the receptor
  sites.
                     Conti…
    Humans do not suffer canine distemper
    because humans lack the appropriate
    receptor sites for the virus that causes the
    disease
              Inflammation

 Inflammation   is a nonspecific response to
  any trauma occurring to tissues.
       Signs and symptoms:
 that include heat, swelling, redness, and
  pain.
 Inflammation mobilizes components of
  the immune system, phagocytes come to
  the area and destroy any microorganisms
  present.
                Fever

 It develops in response to
 numerous traumas.
 Fever is initiated by circulating
 substances called pyrogens.
 Although excessive fever can be
 dangerous,
              Conti…
 It retards the growth of
 temperature-sensitive
 microorganisms (for example,
 leprosy bacilli),
 It increases the metabolism of body
 cells while stimulating the immune
 reaction and the process of
 phagocytosis
                Interferon

  Interferon is a group of antiviral
  substances produced by body cells in
  response to the presence of viruses.
 It may be alpha-interferon, beta-
  interferon, gamma-interferon.
 The interferon do not directly inhibit
  viruses.
                   Conti…
 Instead,   they stimulate adjacent cells to
  produce substances that inhibit the
  replication of viruses in those cells
 . Interferon produced in response to one
  virus will protect against many other types
  of viruses, and for this reason, interferon is
  considered a nonspecific form of
  defense.
                 Phagocytosis
 Phagocytes  are form of WBCs(leukocytes)
 Leukocytes usually increases during
  infection.
      Leukocytes
             WBC count
 Differential
 Plasma-fluid contains formed elements &
  proteins.