Best Practices in Protecting the Technology Systems Revolutionizing Healthcare White Paper by dawpow


									                                              A White Paper from the Experts
                                              in Business-Critical ContinuityTM

Best Practices in Protecting the Technology
Systems Revolutionizing Healthcare
Executive Summary
Technology systems such as electronic medical records and digital imaging are revolutionizing
healthcare by streamlining processes, eliminating waste, improving accuracy and, most
importantly, improving patient outcomes. As these systems become seamlessly woven into
the fabric of how healthcare is delivered, their continuous operation becomes increasingly
critical. Yet, the explosive growth of healthcare IT applications is making it more difficult
to achieve continuous operation both in the data center and throughout the hospital.

While today neither electrical code nor the hospital accreditation standards of the Joint
Commission require healthcare organizations to use uninterruptible power supplies (UPS),
most have begun doing so to protect vital equipment and systems. Currently it is common
practice for healthcare facilities to install UPS backup at the device level, such as an MRI
machine or computer server. As the number of UPS units located throughout the facility
grows, however, so does the complexity of managing them to keep the devices they protect
continuously online. Additionally, device-level protection does not enable the ability to add
loads as critical systems spread throughout the hospital, particularly in the operating rooms,
patient rooms and nurses stations.

This paper outlines an approach to power protection that addresses the problems that
accompany the distributed approach. The centralized approach to power protection presented
here enables healthcare organizations to achieve higher availability and scalability for future
growth at lower cost and should be considered for all new healthcare facilities and, whenever
possible, in retrofit situations. Emerson Network Power has developed three centralized UPS
configurations specifically for healthcare settings, which we recommend based on the level
of protection and seamlessness of operation desired.

Introduction                                            •	Picture archiving and
                                                          communications systems
Information technology is being integrated                Picture archiving and communications
throughout healthcare operations to improve               systems (PACS) provide faster access
patient care, service levels and operating                to diagnostic information, reduce the
costs. Through the use of technologies such               need for film and film storage, virtually
as digital diagnostic equipment, electronic               eliminate the problem of lost films,
medical records and patient RFID, the                     and increase radiologist and physician
healthcare industry is benefiting significantly           satisfaction and productivity. Because of
from increased accuracy and efficiency.                   the efficiencies and cost saving associated
Consequently, these innovations have                      with their use, the size of the U.S. market
become vital tools on which medical and                   for PACS should reach $8.6 billion by
other staff increasingly rely to perform                  2011, which represents 76 percent
their roles in the healthcare system.                     growth over its size in 2007.2

A walk through an endovascular hybrid                   •	Wireless communications
operating room, for example, reveals a                    While healthcare is often behind other
sophisticated control center incorporating                industries in adopting new technologies,
monitors, workstations and communications                 it has been a leader in the use of wireless
equipment along with diagnostic and                       technology. Clinicians are ready users
treatment devices. This ability to integrate              of mobile devices, and hospitals have
and comprehensively control equipment,                    moved quickly to deploy IP telephony
information and environments is being                     and wireless LANs to save money and
replicated on varying scales throughout                   more effectively provide connectivity
healthcare facilities because doing so makes              in older buildings. As a result, wireless
patient care safer and more efficient, which              healthcare applications have become
improves outcomes.                                        key to optimizing the benefits of EMR.

Healthcare Technology Trends                            •	Pharmaceutical barcode/RFID technology
                                                          Pharmaceutical barcode/RFID technology
The desire to improve patient care, as well as            is designed to ensure the right patient
factors such as federal government initiatives            gets the right dose of the right medication
and physician attraction and retention                    at the right time. It aids compliance with
strategies, are driving the deployment of                 state and federal regulations requiring
new technologies throughout healthcare                    additional product tracking to curb
information systems. Among the most                       drug counterfeiting and improve patient
important of these technologies are:                      safety and integrity. According to a 2008
                                                          study of RFID trends, 76 percent of larger
  •	Electronic medical records                            healthcare organizations have invested
    Implementing electronic medical records               in RFID-based solutions.3
    (EMR) makes healthcare workflows more
    efficient, improves the quality of patient        Within the new digital healthcare
    care and reduces costs. The use of EMRs           environment, IT is the link connecting
    is expected to grow 14 percent annually           the facility’s medical staff (whether they
    through 2011.1                                    are located in the OR or a patient’s room)

with patient data stored on servers in the data         When implementing a UPS system it’s
center. This link can be broken when problems           important to understand future requirements
in the data center, such as brownouts, shut             and ensure a growth plan is in place to cost-
down the system; or when the power supply               effectively meet those requirements. Providing
inside the hospital is disrupted because of             just the capacity required today – with no
weather disturbances, voltage surges or                 growth plan – can constrain future growth
other abnormalities.                                    and increase the cost and disruption of future
                                                        technology. As availability requirements
The tremendous growth in the use of                     rise, power system redundancy is often
technology is having an impact both in the              implemented to reduce single points of failure,
data center, where technology systems have              enable future growth and increase operating
traditionally been housed, and in the facility          flexibility.
itself, which now must support a complex,
interrelated network of technology systems that         For more information on high-availability
extend from the data center to the bedside.             data center power protection, refer to the
                                                        Emerson Network Power white paper, Power
Supporting IT Growth in the Data Center                 Management Strategies for High-Density IT
                                                        Systems and Facilities, available at
Reliance on IT to diagnose and treat patients 
and improve organizational efficiency brings
a new set of concerns for healthcare IT                 Cooling
management in meeting rising expectations               Proper environmental control – temperature,
from surgeons, doctors, nurses and patients.            humidity and air quality – plays a key role
The required increase in computing capacity,            in overall continuity. As more servers and
file storage and performance creates a                  storage systems are added to the data center,
corresponding need to have greater control              the existing cooling system may be unable to
over the IT infrastructure in order to assure the       keep temperatures in safe operating range.
continuous operation of technology systems.             When sensitive electronics operate at higher
                                                        than normal temperatures, their short-term
In the data center this means transitioning to          reliability is compromised and long-term
an infrastructure that can support “always on”          viability is significantly decreased.
operations while scaling to support continued
growth in server and storage capacity as well as        Cooling system scalability can be
changing with new technologies and methods.             accomplished via supplemental refrigerant
The key areas of the IT infrastructure that             or chilled water cooling systems, such as the
hospital IT executives must consider as they            Liebert XD™ system, that bring cooling closer
retrofit existing data centers or plan for new          to the source of heat. This allows cooling to
data centers are:                                       be focused where it is needed most and can
                                                        be added to, rather than displace, the existing
Power                                                   cooling system.
The data center needs disturbance-free,
uninterrupted power to do its job. An online            For more information on data center cooling,
double conversion uninterruptible power                 refer to the Emerson Network Power white
supply (UPS) is the only such system that               paper, Blade Servers and Beyond: Adaptive
protects against the full range of power                Cooling for the Next Generation of IT Systems,
disturbances and is the best practice                   available at
for mission-critical applications.

Monitoring                                               The Joint Commission 2009 chapter on
The third line of defense in keeping a data              Emergency Management establishes
center up and running is effective monitoring            standards to ensure that healthcare
and automated data analysis. A centralized               organizations have documented response
approach to monitoring power and cooling                 procedures to be without utility power for
systems can increase visibility into system              96 hours. The chapter on Environment of
performance, enable more effective preventive            Care includes several standards impacting
maintenance and speed response to                        power continuity, including:
equipment problems.
                                                          •	EC 02.05.01: The [organization] manages
For more information on data center                         all risks associated with its utility systems.
monitoring, refer to the Emerson Network                    Elements of Performance include
Power white paper, Managing Critical Systems                mapping the power distribution systems,
for Higher Availability and Reliability, available          documenting procedures for responding
at                                         to outages and documenting procedures
                                                            to perform clinical interventions
Supporting IT Growth in the Hospital                        during disruptions.

While the changes that are occurring in the               •	EC 02.05.03: The [organization] has a
data center are evolutionary, the changes                   reliable emergency power source. This
occurring on the facility side are revolutionary            standard recommends the essential
and may dictate a completely new approach                   electrical distribution system complies
to healthcare power protection. With the                    with National Fire Protection Association
increased dependence on technology,                         (NFPA) 99.
a power disruption inside the hospital
or healthcare facility can lead to:                       •	EC 02.05.07: The [organization] inspects,
                                                            tests and maintains emergency power
  •	Lost patient data                                       systems. The testing procedure must
  •	Corrupted diagnostic images                             conform with NFPA 110.
  •	Patients and staff waiting for IT reboot                  – Test the generator 12 times a year
  •	Comprised patient safety                                    for 30 minutes at 30 percent of load
  •	Hospital staff dissatisfaction and                        – Test all automatic transfer switches
    reluctance to use IT                                        12 time a year
  •	Damage to expensive equipment                             – Test the generator once every 36
  •	Lost revenue because equipment is                           months for 4 hours on 30 percent load
    unavailable (e.g., during MRI recharge)
                                                         Depending on transfer equipment design,
Article 517 of NFPA 70, National Electrical              complying with the monthly testing standards
Code, requires hospitals to have a power                 could cause hospitals to have outages 24 times
transfer switch and a quick-start backup                 a year (once when switching to generator and
generator that will be available to carry load in        once when switching back to utility for each
10 seconds. Recognizing the risks to patient             generator test). While the tests are conducted
safety posed by power outages within the                 at the least critical times, every outage at
environment of care and under emergency                  minimum causes unprotected IT systems to
management situations, the Joint Commission              reboot and electronic equipment throughout
has established standards for power continuity           the hospital will need to be reset.
that augment what is required by code.4

While the Institute of Electrical and Electronics       small servers is a management nightmare
Engineers is not an accrediting agency, it              and reduces power system reliability and
does recommend as a best practice the use of            scalability (each new device requires an
transient voltage surge suppressor products             additional UPS). As a result, virtually all data
(TVSS)5 and uninterruptible power supply                centers now employ a centralized UPS system,
systems in healthcare facilities.6 Typical              because that is the only way to achieve the
applications recommended for backup support             high availability required.
include sensitive laboratory and diagnostic
equipment, life-support equipment in intensive          Hospitals have been deploying UPS units
care units, data processing systems, and for            to protect individual diagnostic devices for
illumination in life-support areas.                     years. A typical deployment of UPS systems on
                                                        the critical branch is shown in Figure 1.
While the IEEE recognizes using UPS                     The telephony system and the MRI machine
backup in healthcare facilities as a best               each is protected by its own UPS (likely
practice, there also are best practices in              purchased with the equipment the UPS is
how to deploy a UPS system.                             protecting), but the nurses stations and
                                                        operating rooms are left unprotected and
The Move to Centralized                                 susceptible to power surges, voltage sags
Power Protection                                        and interruptions. With the proliferation
                                                        of technology that is occurring today, this
The changes in healthcare IT are mirroring              approach has become less practical, less
changes that occurred in the data center 10             economical and more risky.
to 15 years ago. When servers were first being
deployed in data centers it was common for              Instead of providing protection at the device
each server or server rack to be configured             level, hospitals will find they can achieve
with its own UPS. As servers continued                  much higher power availability and simpler
to proliferate, that approach became less               management by moving power protection
practical. Besides the growing cost of adding           upstream. For smaller facilities this may
multiple UPS systems, maintaining multiple              mean providing a single, large UPS directly

                                                                      UPS1              Data Closet

                      ATS           Distribution                      UPS2                 MRI

    Source                                                                            Nurse Station
                                                                                      Patient Rooms

  ATS = Automatic Transfer Switch
  UPS1 = Small Uninterruptible Power Supply
  UPS2 = Midsize Uninterruptible Power Supply

Figure 1. A typical critical branch with a distributed UPS configuration that provides UPS backup
for devices such as the MRI and the wireless telephony system, but leaves the nurses stations and
operating rooms unprotected.

downstream of the Automatic Transfer                   standards regarding backup power. These
Switch to the facility; larger facilities may          configurations are presented for reference
require multiple critical branches with a single       purposes only and a professional engineer
large UPS on each branch. In either case, a            should always be involved when configuring
centralized UPS which resides upstream of              power protection for any life-critical application
power distribution can provide protection              for which our equipment is installed.
for multiple devices in the facility, creating a
power protection system that is more reliable,         Each configuration is based on an online
more scalable and more manageable than the             double-conversion, three-phase UPS,
distributed approach.                                  such as the Liebert NX™ or Liebert NXL™
                                                       product families. Online double conversion
As illustrated in Figure 2, the centralized            UPS systems provide the highest degree of
approach provides UPS backup to all loads              protection of any UPS system. By converting
inside the hospital and supports the ability to        incoming power to DC and then creating a
add loads for future operating rooms and other         clean AC waveform from the DC power, online
critical spaces and equipment. This ability to         double conversion systems remove every type
add/grow loads enables hospitals to implement          of power disturbance, effectively isolating
redundant operating rooms where surgery                downstream equipment from the incoming
suites are being powered by different critical         power source and are less dependent on the
branches of the hospital’s power system.               alternate AC power source (typically a diesel
                                                       genset) for power conditioning.
Recommended UPS Configurations
                                                       Three-phase UPS systems provide greater
Emerson Network Power has defined three                flexibility in distributing power downstream
levels of UPS configuration suitable in life-          and generally support higher capacities, deliver
critical applications for healthcare facilities        greater reliability and enable more advanced
that are in compliance with Joint Commission           monitoring than single-phase systems.

  Genset      Genset                                                   Nurse

                                   Large                               Data
                       ATS                        Distribution        Closet

                                   Large          Distribution                                  MRI
                                    UPS                                                        Suites
                                                                      Future         CT
                       ATS         Large          Distribution
   Utility                                                            Patient
   Source                                                             Rooms

 ATS = Automatic Transfer Switch
 Large UPS = Large Uninterruptible Power Supply with a maintenance bypass

Figure 2. The centralized approach to UPS installation utilizes a large UPS system at each critical
branch to provide protection for all loads inside the hospital.

In each case, UPS backup power can be                 special disposal requirements because they
delivered by either a battery system, as is           do not contain hazardous materials.
typically used in data center applications, or a
flywheel system. The flywheel system provides         Lastly, regularly scheduled preventive
energy efficient, short-term backup power and         maintenance is required for all UPS systems
is ideal for use in applications with fast-start      operating in healthcare facilities. The
generators. According to the Electric Power           recommended schedule is every three
Research Institute (EPRI), 98 percent of all          months for systems with batteries, once
outages last less than 10 seconds. Flywheel           a year without batteries.
units can provide instant ride-through power
and voltage stabilization for up to 13 seconds        Basic Configuration for a Hospital’s
(or other combinations of power and time) —           Centralized UPS
more than enough time to switch to generator.
Flywheel units are parallelable for additional        The minimal configuration for centralized
capacity and/or redundancy.                           power protection in a life-critical healthcare
                                                      environment is shown in Figure 3. The UPS
Compared to batteries, flywheels have a low           is connected downstream from the Automatic
installation cost, take up minimal floor space        Transfer Switch that transfers utility power
and have a design life of 20+ years. Flywheels        between the utility and generator. As noted
also have a smaller environmental footprint           previously, this switchover has traditionally
than batteries. They do not need special              created a 10-second interruption in power
ventilation or air conditioning, and have no          availability as the generator starts up;

                                                                             Basic Safety
            Utility                                                            Interlock


                                                                ATS        I


    ATS = Automatic Transfer Switch              ES = Energy Storage
    UPS = Uninterruptible Power Supply           MBS = Maintenance Bypass Switchboard
    R = Rectifier                                MBB = Maintenance Bypass Breaker
    I = Inverter                                 MIB = Maintenance Isolation Breaker
    SS = Static Switch

Figure 3. With the basic centralized configuration, the UPS is connected downstream from the
Automatic Transfer Switch that transfers utility power between the utility and generator, and
maintains power availability during this process. Diagram is for reference purposes only; not all
inputs, breakers and TVSS products are shown.

however, the UPS allows power availability           event of a UPS failure. Should that occur,
to be maintained continuously during the             the length of the outage will depend on
transition from utility to generator power and       how quickly someone can get to the MBS
from generator back to utility. By deploying a       and transfer power. However, without a
UPS, power availability can be elevated from         redundant UPS, the UPS still represents a
the 98.8 percent provided by the utility to          single point of failure.
approximately 99.999 percent for the total
power system.                                        Intermediate Configuration for a Hospital’s
                                                     Centralized UPS
The UPS does represent a single point
of failure between the utility/generator             The intermediate configuration, shown in
and downstream equipment. Therefore,                 Figure 4, replaces the manual bypass with a
it is imperative to have at least a manual           combined automatic open transfer function
bypass, provided by the maintenance                  and manual bypass, separate from the
bypass switchboard (MBS) – including a               upstream automatic transfer switch (ATS).
safety interlock to prevent both breakers            This MBS can also detect an interruption in
being manually closed at the wrong time –            UPS output power and automatically switch
connected to the UPS to route utility power          to utility (or genset) power through ATS.
around the UPS during UPS maintenance.               Unlike the high-speed Static Transfer Switch
A maintenance bypass also provides a                 used in the High Availability Configuration
basic level of protection in the unlikely            discussed next, this MBS switchover takes

                                                                     Auto-open Transfer Switch
                                                                      to MBB with UPS failure


                                                               ATS        I


    ATS = Automatic Transfer Switch           ES = Energy Storage
    UPS = Uninterruptible Power Supply        MBS = Maintenance Bypass Switchboard
    R = Rectifier                             MBB = Maintenance Bypass Breaker
    I = Inverter                              MIB = Maintenance Isolation Breaker
    SS = Static Switch

Figure 4. The intermediate configuration delivers the same projected availability as the basic
configuration, but substantially reduces the risk that a catastrophic UPS failure could cause
an outage of greater than 10 seconds. Diagram is for reference purposes only; not all inputs,
breakers and TVSS products are shown.

about 0.5 seconds to automatically transfer           sensitive downstream equipment to continue
power, so downstream equipment will                   operating without interruption in the event
experience a momentary interruption                   of UPS failure.
in power that will cause electronic systems
to shut down and restart. This configuration          This configuration delivers the high
delivers the same projected availability as the       availability power protection offered in the
basic configuration, but eliminates the risk          basic and intermediate configurations while
that a catastrophic UPS failure could cause an        protecting against the possibility that UPS
outage of greater than 10 seconds. Return to          failure will cause an outage. For that reason,
UPS output power is by a manual switchover            this configuration is recommended for most
of the MIB and MBB breakers.                          healthcare facilities employing technology-
                                                      based diagnostic or patient-care systems. If
High Availability Configuration for a Hospital’s      the STS is located close to the UPS, because
Centralized UPS                                       it has the needed circuit breakers built in, it
                                                      can also serve as the maintenance bypass. If
The high availability configuration (Figure 5)        the STS is physically separated from the UPS,
uses a Static Transfer Switch (STS) in place          a separate maintenance bypass (MBS) should
of the MBS automatic function used in                 be configured with the UPS.
the intermediate configuration. The STS
switches power seamlessly between the                 Table 1 summarizes, in the unlikely event of a
UPS and utility to enable even the most               total UPS failure, whether the load would be

            Utility                                                                    STS



                                                                 ATS        I


    ATS = Automatic Transfer Switch              SS = Static Switch
    UPS = Uninterruptible Power Supply           ES = Energy Storage
    R = Rectifier                                STS = Static Transfer Switch
    I = Inverter

Figure 5. The high availability configuration uses a Static Transfer Switch to switch power
seamlessly between the UPS and utility, enabling all downstream equipment to continue
operating without interruption in the event of a total UPS failure. Diagram is for reference
purposes only; not all inputs, breakers and TVSS products are shown.

dropped or maintained depending on which                   2. Does a maintenance plan with clear lines
power protection configuration is deployed.                   of responsibility exist to keep multiple UPS
                                                              units spread throughout the facility
Benefits of Centralizing Healthcare                           in good working order through
Power Protection                                              monitoring and battery maintenance?

The benefits of a centralized UPS are significant          3. Will equipment and systems that require
and make it an easy choice for new facilities.                UPS protection continue to be added,
Existing facilities that are already well down                rendering a device level approach more
the distributed UPS path face a tougher                       costly than a distributed strategy without
decision, as their current approach may remain                creating benefits such as the ability to
feasible for the short term. However, these                   protect all loads inside the hospital?
organizations should look for opportunities
to push power protection upstream. Anytime               In summary, the advantages of a centralized
new technology initiatives are being deployed,           power protection strategy compared to the
or facility upgrades or expansions are being             distributed approach include:
planned, is a good time to evaluate the
power (and cooling) infrastructure.                      Higher Availability
                                                           •	All loads inside the hospital are on
Following are some questions to help                         uninterruptible power, so critical medical
determine whether an existing facility                       equipment and information systems do
has reached the limits of the protection a                   not go down for 10 seconds when the
distributed approach can provide and may                     power goes out. Loads are protected
be putting patient care at risk:                             from transients as well as outages.
                                                           •	Depending on the chosen centralized
  1. Can the facility, especially critical-life              configuration, availability ranges from
     areas such as operating rooms and                       99.99964 percent to 99.99979 percent –
     catheterization labs, be without power for              throughout the hospital.
     10 seconds while waiting for the generator
     to power up during a utility outage? What           Scalability
     is the impact of the 10-second outage                 •	New technology is protected simply by
     on patient safety and confidence, and                   plugging it into the protected outlet.
     surgeon satisfaction?                                 •	With today’s large, scalable UPS systems,
                                                             loads can be added without having to add

                                               Catastrophic UPS Failure?
   Configuration            Manual            Automatic                  Load               Load
                           Bypassing          Bypassing                Dropped            Maintained
 No UPS (ATS only)            Yes                    No                   Yes                 No
 UPS + MBS                    Yes                    No                   Yes             Manual xfer
                                                                                          with break
 UPS + MBS xfer               Yes                   Yes                    Yes             Auto xfer
                                                                   (0.5 seconds only)      with break
 UPS + STS                    Yes                   Yes                    No                 Yes

Table 1. The UPS with automatic bypass to STS maintains the load in the unlikely event of a total
UPS failure.

    more UPS modules, thereby protecting                      Simpler Management and Maintenance
    the initial investment in power protection.                 •	With far fewer, larger UPS modules,
  •	And, when significant additional power                        there is less to monitor and maintain.
    is needed, modern UPS systems can be                        •	While a large UPS creates a bigger
    configured to be easily expanded with                         footprint, it is in an out-of-the way
    minimal or no interruption to UPS power.                      electrical room instead of in prime real
                                                                  estate, as is often the case with device
Greater Reliability                                               level UPS protection.
 •	Reliability is increased when UPS                            •	If flywheel technology is used instead
   monitoring, testing and battery                                of batteries, maintenance needs are
   replacement are centralized.                                   dramatically reduced. Flywheels also
 •	With everything inside the hospital                            take up less floor space.
   protected by UPS systems, the monthly
   generator test can be conducted at                         Improved Efficiency
   100 percent load instead of only                             •	Large UPS systems such as the Liebert
   30 percent load and will not                                   NXL, can be up to 94 percent efficient,
   cause outages.                                                 while smaller UPS units may have
                                                                  efficiencies under 90 percent.
        Initial Purchase and Five-year TCO                      •	If the centralized system uses
                    (4) 100kvA UPS      (1) 400kvA UPS            flywheels, they are significantly more
                                                                  energy efficient than batteries, and
                                                                  have a much better overall
                                                                  environmental profile.

                                                              Lower Cost
                                                                •	The initial cost of deploying a large
                                                                  UPS is lower than deploying a few small

                                                                  UPS units; and as small UPS deployments
                                                                  grow, the total cost of ownership will
                                                                  be significantly higher than a large
                                                                  UPS system, as illustrated in the
                                                                  example in Figure 6.
                                                                •	Higher costs are incurred for
                                                                  monitoring, testing and replacing
           Year 1                    Five-year TCO                batteries for multiple small UPS units.
                                                                •	Increased local heating where small
Figure 6. The initial cost of four 100kVA UPS
                                                                  UPS units are deployed requires
units is twelve percent more than the cost of one
                                                                  investment in more comfort cooling.
400kVA UPS. The five-year TCO on the 400kVA
module is 26 percent less than the TCO for the                  •	If flywheel technology is used, it pays
four smaller units. (Unit price, battery, battery                 for itself soon after the first battery
cabinet, shipping, start-up, unit maintenance                     replacement and provides savings
and battery maintenance are included in the                       over batteries for the rest of the
cost calculation. Costs related to cooling, real                  UPS systems life.
estate and battery replacement are not included;
however, each of these would increase the five-
year TCO for the four 100kVA UPS installation.)

Conclusion                                                  References
                                                             1. Kalamora Information, 2007.
Hospitals and other healthcare facilities are                   U.S. Market for EMR Technologies.
turning into data centers, with increasing                   2. Datamonitor, 2007. Digital Imaging:
reliance on digital technologies to help                        Reducing Medical Error and Improving
improve patient care, increase efficiency and                   Diagnostics.
lower costs. To ensure continuous availability               3. Spyglass Consulting Group, 2008.
of life-critical information and equipment,                     Trends in RFID 2008.
hospitals can turn to proven power protection                4. The Joint Commission, 2009.
strategies used in 24/7 data centers delivering                 Hospital Accreditation Program.
high 9s availability. When compared to the                   5. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
device level approach, deploying a centralized                  Engineers. IEEE Std 1100-2005. IEEE
UPS system allows hospital IT management to                     Recommended Practice for Powering
maximize power protection at the best cost,                     and Grounding Electronic Equipment
while enabling future growth.                                   (Emerald Book).
                                                             6. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Note: Materials sold hereunder cannot be used in                Engineers. IEEE Std 602-2007. IEEE
the patient vicinity (e.g., use where UL, cUL or IEC            Recommended Practice for Electric Systems
60601-1 is required). Medical Applications such                 in Health Care Facilities (White Book).
as invasive procedures and electrical life support
equipment are subject to additional terms and

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                                                                          While every precaution has been taken to ensure
                                                                          accuracy and completeness in this literature, Liebert
                                                                          Corporation assumes no responsibility, and disclaims all
                                                                          liability for damages resulting from use of this information
                                                                          or for any errors or omissions. Specifications subject to
                                                                          change without notice. ©2009 Liebert Corporation. All
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                                                                          Network Power logo are trademarks and service marks
                                                                          of Emerson Electric Co. ©2009 Emerson Electric Co.


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