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					           Raed Musa 060361 –U210A- TMA02

                          FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES
     Course No: U210ACourse Title: English Language Past, Present & future TMA

Part (I): STUDENT INFORMATION (to be completed by student)
1. Name: Raed S. Musa                                    2. Registration No:060361

3. Section No:                4. Tel. : 0799701395       5. E-mail:
I confirm that the work presented here is my own and is not copied from any source.
Student's signature:

Part (II): TUTOR'S REMARKS (to be completed by tutor)
Tutor name:                                          Signature:
Date TMA received:                                   Date returned:


    Mark                                         STUDENT MARK
  Allocated      For language & communication errors a maximum of 20 marks will be deducted
   to TMA        from students' mark on level-1 & level-2 courses and 30 marks on level-3
                  For Content    Marks deducted              Mark          Earned Mark (out of
   17.5%         (mark out of       (for lang. &          out of 100              17.5)
                     100 )        communication                          [Mark out of 100 x 17.5
                                       errors)                               divided by 100)
Raed Musa 060361 –U210A- TMA02

TMA 02

Rhetoric is a powerful tool that exemplifies the strategies used to make
language in use most effective. In an extract from the video cassette VC1 band
3, Martin Luther King, a social rights activist, outlined dissatisfaction with
broken promises on August 28, 1963, in his famous speech I have a dream.
Identify, with reference to the extract below, the linguistic and stylistic tools
that are employed by public speakers to influence their audience (Block theme:
language in use).

“One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still crippled by the
manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One
hundred years later, the Negro still lives on a lonely island of poverty
in the midst of an ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years
later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society
and finds himself an exile in his own land”

Beginning of TMA response,

Generally speaking whenever we use language, we have an intention
to deliver a message or to communicate or a goal to achieve. Rhetoric
is a tool that helps discovering all available means of persuasion
functions on a topic.

 It is the art of using speech to persuade, influence, or please. (One of
the four points in course book 2 p122)

In fact Rhetoric is simply the intension of us of language to influence
the audience.

Since the extract above considered being a political speech which is
defined in the course book 2 p124 as the design of speech to hold the
attention of the members of the audience and gain their approval and
support for the politicians.

My understanding to the public speeches is that the speaker must
find ways structuring the language his speech by systematically
inventing phrases that is influential in his topic in most effective way
by using the best choice of words (diction, imagery, metaphor) ,
sentences and paragraph length

I believe was Martin King focused on the aim of his speech
concentrating on the audience commonality by choosing the best
media at that time which is TV and Radio and talked about the very
sensitive subject which is the „Negros‟ sufferings.
Raed Musa 060361 –U210A- TMA02

Within the context, I believe King incredibly attracted his audience
and gained credibility and reliability by professionally implementing
Rhetoric tools.

Stylistic & linguistic devices used by King to inspire and persuade his

Throughout the speech, King repeats words and sentence ,repetition
not only makes it easy for the audience to follow what the speaker is
saying, but also gives a strong rhythmic quality to the speech and
makes it more memorable. In the extract, for example, King uses the
words “I have a dream” many times. This repetition helps to achieve
the function of coherence in discourse and the function of
reinforcement in mood and emotion, expressing the speaker‟s strong
emotion of longing for freedom, justice, righteousness and a much
more united nation of all of God‟s children.

The phrase “one hundred years later” has been repeated three times,
seemingly indicating that it is really a long time for the Negro to wait
for the coming of the time of justice and righteousness.

Use of Parallelism, which is exact repetition in equivalent positions. It
differs from simple repetition in that the identity does not extend to
absolute duplication; parallelism means the balancing of sentence
elements that are grammatically equal. To take them parallel, balance
nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, prepositional phrases with
prepositional phrases, clauses with clauses, and so forth.

Martin Luther King uses parallelism to create a strong rhythm to help
the audience line up his ideas. example:

By the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination (two
parallel noun phrases)

Parallelism is used for the purpose of emphasizing and enhancing in
speech, the ideas expressed by the speaker (or author in written
versions), thus always encouraging and inspiring the audience.

King also made extensive use of similes and metaphors for example, ,
he speaks of “the manacles of segregation and the chains of
discrimination,” comparing segregation and discrimination under
which the Negro people live to the manacles and chains once used on
slaves. Therefore, it is very clear that the using of similes and
metaphors make it easy for the readers or audience to understand.
Raed Musa 060361 –U210A- TMA02

 (One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty
in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. (Metaphors)

Use of Contrast

Although maybe a rhetorical device instead of a stylistic one, contrast
has also been used effectively, like repetition, in this speech, achieving
the function of making clear the ideas of the speaker.


Course Book 2
A123 block 1

End of TMA02