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					                                                           basic
v1.52
              Water Profile Calculator (basic)
              user input
              calculated data

            weight unit         kg
           volume unit           l


water and blending

              simple water test
                 GH         KH                                          calcium         0     ppm
                                          dH                         magnesium          0     ppm
        or        0             0         ppm CaCO3                    alkalinity       0     as CaCO3



              detailed water test and blending
              Water A percentage               100         %                            0.0   ion balance (%)
                Water A   Water B             analysis         mix
  calcium        0.0            0              mg/l            0.0    Ca mg/l
 magnesium       0.0            0              mg/l            0.0    Mg mg/l
   sodium                       0              mg/l            0.0    Na mg/l
    sulfate                     0              mg/l            0.0    SO4 mg/l      *
  chloride                      0              mg/l            0.0    Cl mg/l
    bicarb                      0              mg/l            0.0    HCO3 mg/l               * select SO4 or
 alkalinity      0.0            0         ppm CaCO3            0.0    CaCO3 mg/l              SO4-S based on
                                                                                              what is given in
                                                                                              your water report
                                     Residual alkalinity       0      ppm as CaCO3



              pH change from water            #DIV/0!          pH     (based on base water and beer info)


mash and beer info
              Water use                                                             malt weight
          total water                     l                                        grist weight        kg
         Strike water                     l                                     mash thickness #DIV/0! l/kg
        Sparge water            0         l

              beer color and roasted malt
                      beer color                      SRM         roasted %                   %
           estimated DI mash pH               #DIV/0! (at 25 C / 77 F)
 #DIV/0!

                                                         Page 1
                                                  basic




salt and acid additions

          salts                               salts added to          mash only

                                       Calcium     Magnesium               Chalk
 Gypsym    Epsom      Table Salt       Chloride     Chloride Baking soda undissolved
 CaSO4     MgSO4                        CaCl2        MgCl2
 ·2H2O     ·7H2O         NaCl           ·2H2O        ·6H2O    NaHCO3       CaCO3        unit
   g         g            g               g            g          g           g          g

          ERROR: total water volume needed when adding salts in g

          acids
                     strength
                        %                            unit
         lactic acid   88.0                           ml
    phosphoric acid     10                            ml
          acid malt      3                            g


pH change from acids and salts         #DIV/0! pH



          resulting water profile                     for         overall water
 range*
 50-150      0.0     Calcium (mg/l)                  residual alkalinity #DIV/0! ppm as CaCO3*
  10-30    #DIV/0!   Magnesium (mg/l)              pH shift from DI pH #DIV/0!
  0-150      0.0     Sodium (mg/l)                 estimated mash pH #DIV/0! (at 25C/77F)
  0-350      0.0     Sulfate (mg/l)               * residual alkalinity is for mash water only
  0-250    #DIV/0!   Chloride (mg/l)                          lactic acid       0      mg/kg (malt)
             0.0     Bicarbonate (mg/l) *                                       0      mg/l (water)
             0.0     Alkalinity ppm as CaCO3




amounts to be added

          salts
                                       Calcium     Magnesium               Chalk
 Gypsym     Epsom     Table Salt       Chloride     Chloride Baking soda undissolved    unit
   g         g            g               g            g          g           g          g
                                                  Page 2
                                                        basic
   0.00           0.00          0.00          0.00           0.00        0.00        0.00      mash
   0.00           0.00          0.00          0.00           0.00        0.00        0.00      sparge
   0.00           0.00          0.00          0.00           0.00        0.00        0.00      total

              sparge water acidification
             (only for eliminating alkalinity of the base water)
     lactic acid (88 %)          0.0 ml           OR         posphoric acid (10%)                     0.0 ml




Kai Troester, braukaiser.com, content available under Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial license
for license details see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
*) source: John Palmer, “How To Brew”



units supported for acid additions
ml
g
lb
% grist

units supported for salt additiond
ppm
mg/l
g

units for sulfate content
SO4 mg/l
SO4-S mg/l

units for salts to be added
g
tsp

supported volume units
l
gal
qt

supported weight units
kg
lb

"salts added to" options
mash and sparge

                                                       Page 3
                          basic
mash only
         0
"water profile" options
overall water
strike water only




                          Page 4
basic




Page 5
basic




Page 6
basic




Page 7
basic




Page 8
                                                  basic


                                             instructions



enter the units you want to use for entering weights and volumes. The weight of the salts will always
be expressed in gram

Use this section to enter analysis results from a simple “at home” water test. Those tests, which are
commonly used for aquarium water, measure total hardness (GH) and alkalinity (KH). Depending on
the test, hardness and alkalinity are reported either as German Hardness (dH) or ppm as CaCO3. If
you enter the result as dH the ppm as CaCO3 values will be calculated. Once filled in, the
spreadsheet estimates Calcium and Magnesium content of the water and uses them along with the
measured alkalinity in subsequent sections. If you have a more detailed water report, skip this and
use the following section.


Use this section to enter the starting water profile. If you have a water report, enter the values into
the column for water A. If the report lists both alkalinity and bicarbonate you may enter only alkalinity
since this is used anyway. Bicarbonate is only used to calculate alkalinity if alkalinity is not specified.
If you wish to dilute with reverse osmosis or distilled water, use E18 to enter the percentage of water
A that you want. The rest will be the water specified as water B where you can leave the fields
D20:D26 = 0 if distilled or RO water is used for the dilution. Light Blue fields that contain formulas
may be overridden.

The resulting water profile and its residual alkalinity will be calculated. An interesting field is the
balance field which gives the ion balance in %. Ideally it should be 0 (i.e. there are as many
equivalents of cations as there are anions) but if the water contains a substantial amount of ions that
are not listed here (i.e. Potassium or Phosphates), the ions may not add up. The reported balance
will be wrong if only GH and KH were specified for the water profile.

A note on the sulfate content (SO4). Some water labs, like Ward Labs for example, report SO4-S. If
your water report shows that select "SO4-S mg/l" from the drop-down menu for this unit

The amounts of water given are used to calculate the salt additions and the mash thickness.
The grist weight is needed to calculate mash thickness which in turn is needed to estimate the pH
shift caused by the water, salt and acid additions. It may be omitted if the pH shift is not of interest


This section allows you to enter beer color as SRM and use it to predict the acidity of the grist.
Together with the residual alkalinity of the water and acid additions it allows for a crude mash pH
prediction. The mash pH prediction uses the mash thickness which means that grist weight and strike
water volume need to be specified in the section above. The fields “roasted %” allows you to specify
how much of the beer's color is contributed by roasted malts. E.g. if a beer is brewed with 90% 2-row,
7% 60 Lovibond cara malts and 3% 500 Lovibond roasted malts, the roasted malt portion of the color
is 3%*500/(7%*60+3%*500)=78% (this neglects the color from the 2-row) . The formula used for this
estimation is explained here:
http://braukaiser.com/wiki/index.php?title=Beer_color%2C_alkalinity_and_mash_pH
                                                 Page 9
The predicted distilled water mash pH value is that of a room temperature mash sample
prediction. The mash pH prediction uses the mash thickness which means that grist weight and strike
water volume need to be specified in the section above. The fields “roasted %” allows you to specify
how much of the beer's color is contributed by roasted malts. E.g. if a beer is brewed with 90% 2-row,
7% 60 Lovibond cara malts and 3% 500 Lovibond roasted malts, the roasted malt portion of the color
is 3%*500/(7%*60+3%*500)=78% (this neglectsbasic the color from the 2-row) . The formula used for this
estimation is explained here:
http://braukaiser.com/wiki/index.php?title=Beer_color%2C_alkalinity_and_mash_pH
The predicted distilled water mash pH value is that of a room temperature mash sample


Use this section to change the water profile by entering the desired amout of salts of salts. The drop
down menu under "unit" allows you to select different units. If "g" is selected for unit a total water
amount needs to be given in D36.




In this section enter the acids you want to add to either the mash water or the grist. Various units are
supported.




The resulting water profile in detail. The left most column shows the recommended ranges for the
individual ions.
Aside from the water profile this section also reports the pH shift that can be expected from the water
and its treatment as well as a prediction for the mash pH if grist information is available. The
predicted mash pH is for a room temperature (25 C / 77 F) mash sample.
The lactid acid content can be used to asses of the added lactic acid may cause noticable flavor
changes.




The weights of the individual salts needed to treat the water. They are given for strike and sparge
water as well as the total water.



                                               Page 10
                                                basic




The volumes of acids and weight of acid malt. The lactic, phosphoric acid and acidulated malt
addition to the mash is based on the values entered in E57:E59, while the sparge water acid addition
is only enough to create sparge water with a residual alkalinity of 0. Acidifying the spatrge water too
much can lead to an excessively low boil pH.




                                               Page 11
     A        B             C             D              E           F          G            H               I          J    K        L
1
2                       Water Profile Calculator (advanced)
3                       user input
4                       calculated data
5
6                      weight unit        kg
7                     volume unit          l
8
 9                      simple water test
10                         GH           KH                                    calcium        0        ppm
11                          0            0        dH                       magnesium         0        ppm
12                 or       0            0        ppm CaCO3                  alkalinity      0        as CaCO3
13
14
15
16
17                      base water and blending
18                      Water A percentage             100       %                          0.0       ion balance (%)
19                       Water A     Water B          analysis       mix
20       calcium           0.0          0               mg/l   0.0     Ca mg/l              0.0       Ca dH
21       magnesium         0.0          0               mg/l   0.0    Mg mg/l               0.0       Mg dH
22       sodium            0.0          0            mg/l      0.0     Na mg/l              0.0       Na dH
23       sulfate           0.0          0            mg/l      0.0    SO4 mg/l              0.0       SO4 dH
24       chloride          0.0          0            mg/l      0.0     Cl mg/l              0.0       Cl dH
25       bicarb            0.0          0            mg/l      0.0   HCO3 mg/l
26       alkalinity        0.0          0         ppm CaCO3    0.0   CaCO3 mg/l             0.0       alkalinity dH
27                      Residual alkalinity           0     as CaCO3                        0.0       dH
28
29                          pH change so far          #DIV/0! pH            (based on base water and beer info)
30
31                      Water use                                                         malt weight
32       total water                      0       l                         total grist weight           0     kg
33       Strike water                     0       l                         mash thickness             #DIV/0! l/kg
34       Sparge wate                      0       l
35
36                      beer color based mash pH estimation
37                      beer color        0       SRM
38                      roasted %         0       %                        estimated DI mash pH #DIV/0! pH
39
40        #DIV/0!
41
42
43
44
45
46
47                      water modification using salts                       added to            mash only

                                                      Calcium    Magnesium               Chalk           Chalk
48         Gypsym         Epsom      Table Salt       Chloride    Chloride Baking soda undissolved     dissolved
           CaSO4          MgSO4                        CaCl2       MgCl2                               CaCO3 +
49         ·2H2O          ·7H2O        NaCl            ·2H2O       ·6H2O    NaHCO3       CaCO3            CO2         unit
50           g              g             g             g            g           g           g             g           g
51           0              0             0             0            0           0           0
52          0.00                                       0.00                                 0.00         0.00           0        Ca
      A       B            C           D             E         F             G             H J K       LI
53                        0.00                               #DIV/0!                       #### Mg
54                                   0.00                          0.00                      0      Na
55          0.00          0.00                                                               0      SO4
56                                   0.00     0.00    #DIV/0!                              #### Cl
57                                                                 0.00    0.00     0.00     0      HCO3
58           pH shift from salts    #DIV/0! ERROR: total water volume needed when adding salts in g
59
60
61
62                     water treatment with lime
63                                                         to convert all alkalinity and carbonic acid to CO 32-
64             water pH before treatment             8              lime needed          0     ppm
65             water amount to be treated            0     l
66
67                        GH after treatment               dH           Ca surplus         0      ppm
68                        KH after treatment               dH
69
70                                                  OR
71
72                     water treatment with boiling
73
74                       estimated alkalinity       0.0    ppm as CaCO3
75                       estimated calcium          0.0    mg/l
76                water amount being boiled                l
77                                                  no     water is boiled to precipitate alkalinity
78                 KH after boiling (optional)             dH
79
80            pH change so far      #DIV/0! pH             after salt additions and lime/boiling treatment
81
82                     acid additions            (strike water or mash only)
83                              strength           amount
84                                 %                             unit
85                  lactic acid   88.0                0.0         ml
86             phosphoric acid     10                 0.0         ml
87                   acid malt      3                 0.0         g       pH shift from acids #DIV/0! pH
88
89        pH change after water treatmemt and acids          #DIV/0! pH
90
91                     resulting water profile                  for             overall water
92         range*
93         50-150            0.0 Ca mg/l                         0.00   Ca dH               0.00 mEq/l Ca
94          10-30       #DIV/0!   Mg mg/l                    #DIV/0!    Mg dH           #DIV/0! mEq/l Mg
95          0-150            0.0 Na mg/l                         0.00   Na dH
96          0-350            0.0 SO4 mg/l                        0.00   SO4 dH
97          0-250       #DIV/0!   Cl mg/l                    #DIV/0!    Cl dH
98                           0.0 HCO3 mg/l
99                           0.0 as CaCO3                        0.00 alkalinity dH         0.00 mEq/l
100               RA    #DIV/0!  as CaCO3 (mash only)        #DIV/0! dH                 #DIV/0! mEq/l
101
102       pH shift      #DIV/0!                             estimated mash pH           #DIV/0!
103
104
105                    necessary salt additions
      A        B              C             D               E            F             G         H            I           J   K   L

                                                         Calcium    Magnesium               Chalk           Chalk
106         Gypsym         Epsom        Table Salt       Chloride    Chloride Baking soda undissolved     dissolved   unit
107           g              g             g               g            g              g         g          g            g
108          0.00           0.00          0.00            0.00         0.00           0.00      0.00       0.00       mash
109          0.00           0.00          0.00            0.00         0.00           0.00      0.00       0.00       sparge
110          0.00           0.00          0.00            0.00         0.00           0.00      0.00       0.00       total
111
112                     sparge water acidification
113                    (only for eliminating alkalinity if desired)
114            lactic acid (88 %)          0.0 ml            OR                    posphoric acid (10%)           0.0 ml
115
116
117                     necessary salt additions for lime treatment
                                                         Calcium    Magnesium
118         Gypsym         Epsom        Table Salt       Chloride    Chloride                               lime
119           g              g             g               g            g
120          0.00           0.00          0.00            0.00         0.00                        lime      0        g
121                                                                                     as 5% lime milk      0        g
122
123                                   dissolving chalk
124                                      water            conc. min CO2 pressure
125                                        l               ppm     bar      psi
126                          mash                        #DIV/0! #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!
127                         sparge                       #DIV/0! #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!
128                           total                      #DIV/0! #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!
129
130
131
132
133                     concentrated chalk water
134               batch volume                       l                               chalk concentration #DIV/0! ppm
135                chalk weight                      g                              chalk water for mash         l
136                  OR                                                            chalk water for sparge        l
137         chalk concentration                      ppm                                 chalk water total       l
138                                                                                CO2 pressure needed #DIV/0! bar
139                                                                                CO2 pressure needed #DIV/0! psi
140
141
142       Kai Troester, braukaiser.com, content available under Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial license
143       for license details see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
144       *) source: John Palmer, “How To Brew”
145
146
147
148       units supported for acid additions
149       ml
150       g
151       lb
152       % grist
153
154       units supported for salt additiond
155       ppm
156       mg/l
157       g
158
      A        B           C          D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L
159       units for sulfate content
160       SO4 mg/l
161       SO4-S mg/l
162
163       yes
164       no
165
166       units for hardness/alkalinity
167       mEq/l
168       ppm as CaCO3
169       dH
170
171       units for salt additions
172       g
173       tsp
174
175       units for weight
176       kg
177       lb
178
179       units for volumes
180       l
181       qt
182       gal
183
184       "salts added to" options
185       mash and sparge
186       mash only
187
188       "water profile" options
189       overall water
190       strike water only
                                                            M
1
 2 instructions
 3
 4
 5
 6 enter the units you want to use for entering weights and volumes. The weight of the salts will always be
 7 expressed in gram
 8
 9 Use this section to enter analysis results from a simple “at home” water test. Those tests, which are
   commonly used for aquarium water, measure total hardness (GH) and alkalinity (KH). Depending on the
10
   test, hardness and alkalinity are reported either as German Hardness (dH) or ppm as CaCO3. If you enter
11
   the result as dH the ppm as CaCO3 values will be calculated. Once filled in the spreadsheet estimates
12
13 Calcium and Magnesium content of the water and uses them along with the measured alkalinity in
   subsequent sections. If you have a more detailed water report, skip this and use the next section.
14
15
16
17 Use this to enter the starting water profile. If you have a water report, enter the values into the column for
18 water A. If the report lists both alkalinity and bicarbonate you may enter only alkalinity since this is used
19 anyway. Bicarbonate is only used to calculate alkalinity if alkalinity is not specified.
20 If you want to dilute with reverse osmosis or distilled water, use E10 to enter the percentage of water A that
21 you want. The rest will be the water specified as water B which you can leave at 0 if distilled or RO water is
22 used.
23 The resulting water profile and its residual alkalinity will be calculated. Don't worry much about the grayed
24 out values given in degrees German Hardness.
25 An interesting field is the balance field which gives the ion balance in %. Ideally it should be 0 (i.e. there are
26 as many equivalents of cations as there are anions) but if the water contains a substantial amount of ions
27 that are not listed here (i.e. Potassium or Phosphates), the ions may not add up
28
29
30
31 The amounts of water given are used to calculate the salt additions and the mash thickness.
32 The grist weight is needed to calculate mash thickness which in turn is needed to estimate the pH shift
33 caused by the water, salt and acid additions. It may be omitted if the pH shift is not of interest
34
35
36 This section allows you to enter beer color as SRM and use it to predict the acidity of the grist. Together with
37 the residual alkalinity of the water and acid additions it allows for a crude mash pH prediction. The mash pH
38 prediction uses the mash thickness which means that grist weight and strike water volume need to be
39 specified in the section above. The fields “roasted %” allows you to specify how much of the beer's color is
40 contributed by roasted malts. E.g. if a beer is brewed with 90% 2-row, 7% 60 Lovibond cara malts and 3%
41 500 Lovibond roasted malts, the roasted malt portion of the color is 3%*500/(7%*60+3%*500)=78% (this
42 neglects the color from the 2-row) . The formula used for this estimation is explained here:
43 http://braukaiser.com/wiki/index.php?title=Beer_color%2C_alkalinity_and_mash_pH
44 The predicted distilled water mash pH value is that of a room temperature mash sample
45
46
47 Use this section to change the water profile by entering the desired amout of salts of salts. The drop down
   menu under "unit" allows you to select different units. If "g" is selected for unit a total water amount needs to
   be given in D32.
48

49
50
51
52
     menu under "unit" allows you to select different units. If "g" is selected for unit a total water amount needs to
     be given in D32.




                                                              M
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62   If alkalinity reduction with slaked like is desired, this section is used to calculate it. Test the current water pH
     or leave it at the default 8.0. If a pH is given the estimation of the lime needed will be more accurate. Then
63
     enter the amount of water that will be treated. Since it is larger than the amount of brewing water there is a
64   separate field for this. If the Calcium surplus is less than 10 ppm, add more calcium salts (gypsum or
65   calcium chloride) in the “water modification using salts” section above. Once that is complete use the
66   “necessary salt additions for lime treatment” box below to figure out how much salts and lime to add to the
67   water. Once the water has cleared, test it with a GH&KH test kit to determine the new general hardness
68   (GH) and alkalinity (KH). Since most of these kits report these values as German Hardness, that unit is
69   accepted as the only input.
70
71
72 Alternatively, alkalinity can also be precipitated through boiling and this sections estimates the possible
   alkalinity reduction. Since the amount of water that is boiled will be more than what is used for brewing a
73
   seperate field exists for the treated amount. If the reported calcium level is below 10 ppm the water's
74
   calcium needs to be boosted throug the addition of calcium salts in B50 or E50. Note that these salt
75
   additions are calculated for the water volume that is boiled (E75) when this type of water treatment is
76
   selected. Select "yes" for E76 to select this water treatment. If the GH and KH values of the treated water
77
   are known, enter them into E77 and E78. Otherwise keep the fields blank and the estimtate is used instead.
78
79
80
81
82 In this section enter the acids you want to add to either the mash water or the grist. Various units are
83 supported. The entered strength is also used for the sparge water acidification suggestion below.
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91 The resulting water profile in detail. The left most column shows the recommended ranges for the individual
92 ions. Mineral concentrations are also given in units of German hardness and mEq/l but you don't have to
93 worry about those. Water volume and grist weight is needd for a pH shift estimate. If grist information is
94 given a mash pH estimate is also available.
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105 The weights of the individual salts needed to treat the water. They are given for strike and sparge water as
    well as the total water. Which of these weights you use depends on your brewing practice. Dissolved chalk
    will have to be dissolved with CO2 until the water is clear again.
                                                              water. They are given for strike and sparge water as
      The weights of the individual salts needed to treat the M
      well as the total water. Which of these weights you use depends on your brewing practice. Dissolved chalk
      will have to be dissolved with CO2 until the water is clear again.
106
107
108
109
110
111
112   The volumes of lactic acid and weight of acid malt. The lactic acid and acidulated malt addition to the mash
113   is based on the desired mash pH while the sparge water acid addition is only enough to create sparge water
114   with a residual alkalinity of 0. Acidifying the spatrge water too much can lead to an excessively low boil pH.
115
116
117 This should be used instead of the “necessary salt additions” section to determine the amount of salt to be
    added to water that will be treated with slacked lime or is bolied for alkalinity reduction. When precipitating
118 chalk it is always useful to add some (~1/2 tsp per 20l or 5 gal) chalk as well. This chalk will not dissolve but
119 it will aid the precipitation of chalk by providing nucleation sites.
120
121
122
123 For those who decide to dissolve the chalk amounts given in I113, I114 and I115 this calculator allows to
124 calculate the minimum CO2 pressure needed to dissolve that chalk. Just enter the amount of water you
125 want to dissolve the chalk in and the pressure will be calculated. Note that that pressure is an absolute
126 pressure which means 1 bar or 14.5 psi is 100% CO2 at atmospheric pressure. The CO2 gauge on the
127 regulator, however, measures pressure in excess of the atmospheric pressure. If the calculation returns 1.5
128 bar or 22 psi you need to set the regulator to at least 1.5 – 1 = 0.5 bar or 22 – 14.5 = 7.5 psi.More does not
129 hurt. It should also be noted that the needed pressure increases very quickly with the chalk concentration
130 that needs to be dissolved. As a result there is a practical limit to how little water can be used to dissolve the
131 chalk needed for the desired water profile
132
133 This is an option that is useful for brewers who decide to create a larger batch of dissolved chalk water (i.e.
134 in a corny keg under CO2 pressure). It allows you to either enter the water volume and chalk weight of the
135 initial batch or the chalk concentration in that batch. The output are volumes of chalk water that need to be
136 part of the strike, sparge and/or total volume.
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
          A       B
 1   version    date
 2   1.0       1/24/09
 3   1.1       1/26/09
 4   1.2       1/28/09
 5
 6   1.3       1/29/09
 7   1.4       3/18/09
 8   1.4i      3/31/09
 9   1.5i      7/29/2009
10   1.6        08/24/09
11
12
13   1.7        12/03/09
14
15
16   1.8        01/02/10
17
18   1.9        01/24/10
19   1.10       01/24/10
20   1.11       02/10/10
21   1.12       02/11/10
22   1.13       02/24/10
23   1.14       03/01/10
24   1.15       03/16/10
25   1.16       03/20/10
26
27   1.17      4/30/2010
28   1.18       05/28/20
29   1.19       06/06/10
30   1.20       6/7/2010
31   1.21       6/8/2010
32
33   1.5       1/19/2011
34
35
36
37   1.51       3/1/2011
38
39   1.52      3/14/2011
                                                              C
 1   change
 2   initial version
 3   removed RA as HCO3 as this is useless
 4   added water profile as mEq/l
 5   Changed CaCO3 alkalinity contribution to 0.5
 6   added acid malt additions
 7   fixed some comments
 8   created mobile version
 9   minor format changes
10   added support for dissolved chalk and mash
11   thickness dependent pH shift; merged mobile
12   and desktop version
13   added simple water analysis support
14   added support for the use of acids
15   added pH estimation from beer SRM
16   fixed the salt calculations which didn't take US units into account
17   fixed the effect of acids on the bicarbonate concentration and the alkalinity
18   fixed the lactic acid amount that was not carried over to the advanced sheet
19   the addition of acid was considered for more than just the bicarbonates which caused the pH shift calculation being incorre
20   added a check that the mash thickness is in range for mash pH prediction
21   changed the algorithm for mash pH prediction to cover a larger range of mash thicknesses.
22   added reference to the article that explains the mash pH estimation
23   added support for lime treatment of brewing water
24   fixed the way the GH&KH analysis is incorporated into the starting water analysis
25   fixed a bug in the acid calculation
26   added labels to the intermediate water profile in the “salts” section
27   the detailed calculations for lime treatment were not looking at the GH and KH measurements from the post treatment wat
28   fixed the copyright
29   fixed the names of the ions shown on the right hand side of the salt treatment section. CO4 and CL were reversed
30   fixed the calculation of the acid amount which was not taking the unit conversion into account
31   sparge water acid additions are only for compensating alkalinity
32   reduced the amount of acid needed by 1/2 since experiments seem to indicate that
33   major layout update
34   added support for phosphoric acid
35   changed the way pH changes are reported
36   added support for boiling water
37   added support for mash only salts
38   update of instructions
39   updated the wording for roast %
                         D          E
                  1
                  2
                  3
                  4
                  5
                  6
                  7
                  8
                  9
                 10
                 11
                 12
                 13
                 14
                 15
                 16
                 17
                 18
                 19
  shift calculation being incorrect
                 20
                 21
                 22
                 23
                 24
                 25
                 26
                 27
 s from the post treatment water
                 28
                 29
and CL were reversed
                 30
                 31
                 32
                 33
                 34
                 35
                 36
                 37
                 38
                 39
                                     A                                             B                  C
 1
 2
 3                                                         total water used             0.00 l
 4                                                               strike water           0.00 l
 5                                                             sparge water             0.00 l
 6                                                          strike/total ratio          1.00
 7                                                        sparge/total ratio            0.00
 8
 9                                                               grist weight           0.00 kg
10                                                         mash thickness        #DIV/0!     l/kg
11
12                                                                       spH     #DIV/0!       pH*l/mEq
13                                                     grist buffer capacity     #DIV/0!       mEq/(pH*kg)
14
15 pH change from base water
16
17                           total residual alkalinity in base mash water               0.00 mg CaCO3
18                                                                                      0.00 mEq
19                                                                pH change      #DIV/0!     pH
20
21
22 salt additions converted to ppm
23
24                                        water amount for salt additions               0.00   l
25                                                                    gypsum            0.00   mg/l
26                                                                epsom salt            0.00   mg/l
27                                                                  table salt          0.00   mg/l
28                                                         calcium chloride             0.00   mg/l
29                                                    magnesium chloride         #DIV/0!       mg/l
30                                                              baking soda             0.00   mg/l
31                                                      chalk (undissolved)             0.00   mg/l
32                                                        chalk (dissolved)             0.00   mg/l
33
34                                                Ca Hardness from salts                0.00   mEq/l
35                                                Mg Hardness from salts         #DIV/0!       mEq/l
36                                                      alkalinity from salts           0.00   mEq/l
37                                            residual alkalinity from salts     #DIV/0!       mEq/l
38
39                                      total residual alkalinity from salts     #DIV/0!       mEq
40                                                               pH change       #DIV/0!       pH
41
42 common info for lime treatment or boiling
43
44                                                 Starting Calcium content             0.00 ppm
45                                              Starting Magnesium content       #DIV/0!     ppm
46                                                         Starting Alkalinity          0.00 mEq/l
47                                                                Starting pH           8.00
48
49                                                  Calcium atomic weight              40.00 g/mol
50                                                Magnesium atomic weight              24.30 g/mol
51                                                     lime molaric weight             74.10 g/mol
                               A                                          B               C
52
53                                             Calcium hardness                0.00 mEq/l
54                                           Magnesium hardness         #DIV/0!     mEq/l
55
56    lime treatment
57                             total water volume treated with lime             0.00 l
58
59                                             Carbonic acid pKa1               6.40
60                                             Carbonic acid pKa2              10.30
61
62                                                                r1            0.03
63                                                                r2          199.53
64
65                                              [H2CO3 and CO2]                 0.00 mmol/l
66                                                      [HCO3-]                 0.00 mmol/l
67                                                        [CO3-]                0.00 mmol/l
68
69
70                     [OH] needed to convert everything to [CO3-]              0.00 mmol/l
71                            lime needed for this amount of [OH]               0.00 mmol/l
72                                             lime concentration               0.00 mg/l
73
74                                                     lime needed              0.00 g
75
76                                                       Ca surplus             0.00 mmol/l
77                                                       Ca surplus             0.00 ppm
78
79                                  resulting hardness (measured)               0.00 mEq/l
80                                   resulting alkalinity (measured)            0.00 mEq/l
81
82                                                new Ca hardness       #DIV/0!     mEq/l
83                                            new calcium content       #DIV/0!     ppm
84                                    post lime treatment alkalinity           0.00 mEq/l
85
86    water boiling
 87
 88                                     water amount being boiled               0.00 l
 89
 90                                                alkalinity - CH              0.00   mEg/l
 91                                   estimated post boil alkalinity            0.00   mEq/l
 92                                                alkalinity drop              0.00   mEq/l
 93                                        estimated post boil CH               0.00   mEq/l
 94                                                   CH surplus                1.00   mEq/l
 95
 96                                                   measured KH               0.00       mEq/l
 97                                              post boil alkalinity           0.00       mEq/l
 98                                         post boil alkalinity drop           0.00       mEq/l
 99                                                    post boil CH             0.00       mEq/l
100
101
                                          A                                              B                C
102 after salt additions and lime treatment/boiling
103                                                                 final alkalinity          0.00   mEq/l
104                                                            final Ca hardness              0.00   mEq/l
105                                                                 Mg Hardness        #DIV/0!       mEq/l
106                                                             residual alkalinity    #DIV/0!       mEq/l
107
108                total residual alkalinity in mash water after adding salts          #DIV/0!       mEq
109                                                                    pH change       #DIV/0!       pH
110
111
112
113 acid additions
114
115                                                            lactic acid density           1.20    kg/l
116                                                  lactic acid solution weight             0.00    g
117                                   lactic acid weight from liquid lactic acid             0.00    g
118                                                   lactic acid from acid malt             0.00    g
119                                                         total acid malt power            0.00    mEq
120                                                       total lactic acid weight           0.00    g
121                                                       lactic acid per kg grist           0.00    mg/kg
122                                                        lactic acid per l water           0.00    mg/l
123
124                                                     phosphoric acid density              1.08    kg/l
125                                             phosporic acid solution weight               0.00    g
126                             phosphoric acid from liquid phosphoric acid                  0.00    g
127                                                      phosphoric acid power               0.00    mEq
128
129                                     mash pH change from acid additions             #DIV/0!       pH
130
131                                                              acid malt weight            0.00 kg
132
133                                          acid neutralization in mash water                0.00   mEq/l
134                     total alkalinity in the mash water after adding acids                 0.00   mEq/l
135                                 total residual alkalinity after adding acids       #DIV/0!       mEq/l
136                                                                  bicarbonates             0.00   mg/l
137
138
139 strike water profile
140                                                                             Ca            0.00   mg/l
141                                                                             Mg     #DIV/0!       mg/l
142                                                                             Na            0.00   mg/l
143                                                                           SO4             0.00   mg/l
144                                                                              Cl    #DIV/0!       mg/l
145                                                                         HCO3              0.00   mg/l
146                                                                       Alkalinity          0.00   ppm as CaCO3
147                                                            Residual Alkalinity     #DIV/0!       ppm as CaCO3
148
149 overall water profile
150                                                                             Ca            0.00 mg/l
151                                                                             Mg     #DIV/0!     mg/l
                                      A                                             B                C
152                                                                        Na            0.00   mg/l
153                                                                      SO4             0.00   mg/l
154                                                                         Cl    #DIV/0!       mg/l
155                                                                     HCO3             0.00   mg/l
156                                                                  Alkalinity          0.00   ppm as CaCO3
157
158 chalk water + CO2
159                               concentrated chalk water batch volume                 0.00 l
160                                                      chalk concentration            0.00 ppm
161                               amount of chalk water needed for mash                      l
162                             amount of chalk water needed for sparge                      l
163                                  amount of chalk water needed for all                    l
164
165 distilled water mash pH estimation
166
167                          Mc is calculated as Mc = Mmc *ln(R) + Nmc            #DIV/0!
168                                                                      Mmc             0.02
169                                                                      Nmc            -0.05
170
171                             Nc is calculated as Nc = Mnc*ln(R) + Nnc          #DIV/0!
172                                                                       Mnc           -0.08
173                                                                       Nnc            5.75
174
175                           Mr is calculated as Mr = Mmr * ln(R) + Nmr          #DIV/0!
176                                                                      Mmr             0.01
177                                                                       Nmr           -0.02
178
179                             Nr is calculated as Nr = Mnr * ln(R) + Mnr        #DIV/0!
180                                                                        Nnr          -0.05
181                                                                       Mnr            5.66
182
183                      M is calculated as Mc * (1-Pr/100) + Mr * Pr/100         #DIV/0!
184                       N is calculated as Nc * (1-Pr/100) + Nr * Pr/100        #DIV/0!
185
186                         DI pH is calculated as pH_DI = M * SRM + N            #DIV/0!       pH
187
188
189 sparge water alkalinity reduction
190
191                                                  water residual alkalinity          0.00    mEq/l
192                                                    sparge water amount              0.00    l
193                                      alkalinity in need of neutralization           0.00    mEq
194                                                       lactic aicid needed           0.00    ml
195                                                   phosporic acid needed             0.00    ml
                                                         D
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      13
mEq/(pH*kg)
      14
      15
      16
      17
mg CaCO3
      18
      19
      20
      21
      22
      23
      24 if lime treatment or boiling is used the water amount entered there will be used
      25
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      28
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      D
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 95
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 97
 98
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100
101
                                                             D
      102
      103
      104
      105
      106
      107
      108
      109
      110
      111
      112
      113
      114
      115
      116
      117
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      120
      121
      122
      123
      124
      125
      126
      127
      128
      129
      130
      131
      132
      133
      134
      135
      136 bicarbonates only exist if the alkalinity is positive
      137
      138
      139
      140
      141
      142
      143
      144
      145
      146
ppm as CaCO3
      147
ppm as CaCO3
      148
      149
      150
      151
               D
      152
      153
      154
      155
      156
ppm as CaCO3
      157
      158
      159
      160
      161
      162
      163
      164
      165
      166
      167
      168
      169
      170
      171
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      191
      192
      193
      194
      195
                                             constants

                  lactic acid content of acid malt         2.8 % w/w


            DI pH assumption for specialty malt            5.7
         assumed Mg contribution to tested GH               30 %

mash buffer capacity for water residual alkalinity          50 mEq/(pH*kg)
        mash buffer capacity for acid additions             50 mEq/(pH*kg)


                         88% lactic acid density            1.2   kg/l
                   85% phosphoric acid density           1.685    kg/l
                        lactic acid molar weight             90   g/mol
               phosphoric acid molecular weight              98   g/mol

                          gypsum specific weight             4    g/tsp
                       epsom salt specific weight          4.6    g/tsp
                         table salt specific weight       6.36    g/tsp
                 calcium chloride specific weight          4.4    g/tsp
                     baking soda specific weight           5.2    g/tsp
                                              chalk        3.8    g/tsp

                   lower alkalinity limit for boling         1 mEq/l




                                              Page 30
     A               B                C         D         E       F   G   H
1
 2                                            Various tables that can be printed or capt
 3
 4
 5
 6             base water
 7                                  water A   water B   blended
 8                                 100.00%    0.00%
 9       ppm Ca                      0.00      0.00      0.00
10       ppm Mg                      0.00      0.00      0.00
11       ppm Na                      0.00      0.00      0.00
12       ppm SO4                     0.00      0.00      0.00
13       ppm Cl                      0.00      0.00      0.00
14       ppm HCO3                    0.00      0.00      0.00
15       alkalinity as ppm CaCO3     0.00      0.00      0.00
16
17                 salts
18                                  ppm         g/l      g/gal
19       Gypsum                      0.0       0.00      0.00
20       Epsom salt                  0.0       0.00      0.00
21       Table salt                  0.0       0.00      0.00
22       Calcium chloride            0.0       0.00      0.00
23       Magnesium chloride        #DIV/0!    #DIV/0!   #DIV/0!
24       Baking soda                 0.0       0.00      0.00
25       Chalk (undissolved)         0.0       0.00      0.00
26       Chalk (dissolved)           0.0       0.00      0.00
27
28             resulting water
29       ppm Ca                     0.00
30       ppm Mg                    #DIV/0!
31       ppm Na                     0.00
32       ppm SO4                    0.00
33       ppm Cl                    #DIV/0!
34       ppm HCO3                   0.00
35       alkalinity as ppm CaCO3    0.00
36       RA as CaCO3               #DIV/0!
               I         J          K            L          M           N           O           P         Q
        1
n be printed or captured in a screen-shot
         2
         3
         4
         5
         6                               water profile
         7
         8                                                                      alkalinity
         9                                                             ppm      as ppm residual alkalinity as
        10   ppm Ca   ppm Mg    ppm Na       ppm SO4      ppm Cl      HCO3      CaCO3      ppm CaCO3
        11     0      #DIV/0!     0             0         #DIV/0!       0           0        #DIV/0!
        12
        13                                    salts
        14
        15                                    Calcium    Magnesium               Chalk         Chalk
        16   Gypsym    Epsom    Table Salt    Chloride    Chloride Baking soda undissolved   dissolved
        17   CaSO4    MgSO4                   CaCl2        MgCl2                             CaCO3 +
        18   ·2H2O    ·7H2O       NaCl        ·2H2O        ·6H2O     NaHCO3       CaCO3        CO2
        19    0.00     0.00       0.00         0.00       #DIV/0!      0.00       0.00         0.00      ppm
        20    0.00     0.00       0.00         0.00       #DIV/0!      0.00       0.00         0.00       g/l
        21    0.00     0.00       0.00         0.00       #DIV/0!      0.00       0.00         0.00      g/gal
        22
        23
        24
        25
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        36

				
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