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					      CITY OF OXNARD



Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities
          Master Plan


                    Prepared for:

                   City of Oxnard
               305 West Third Street,
                3rd Floor, East Wing
                 Oxnard, CA 93030




                     Prepared by:

          Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
         18425 Burbank Boulevard, Suite 509
                Tarzana, CA 91356




               Adopted: September 24, 2002
                       099035000
                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We would like to express our appreciation to the following City of Oxnard staff for their
involvement in the Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan:



City of Oxnard Staff

Cynthia Daniels, AICP – Senior Project Coordinator
Joe Genovese, P.E. – Traffic Engineer
Marilyn Miller, AICP – Planning and Environmental Services Manager
Gary Sugano – Principal Planner
Deborah Manes – GIS Specialist II



Project Consultant Team

Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. – Lead Consultant
Bill Dvorak, AICP – Project Manager
Brian Marchetti, AICP
Paul Ortega
Anthony Podegracz
Ted Mekuria
Rossina Chichiri

RRM Design Group – Sub-Consultant
Erik Justesen, ASLA
Mike Sherrod
Josh Cross
                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS


I.     INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 1
       A.     PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT .........................................................................................1
       B.     BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITY CLASSIFICATIONS ............................................3
       C.     RELATED DOCUMENTS AND POLICIES........................................................................5
       D.     BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN PLANNING IN VENTURA COUNTY....................................5
       E.     REPORT SUMMARY ....................................................................................................8
II.    BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN NEEDS AND BENEFITS.................................... 10
       A.     RESIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY .......................................................................10
       B.     STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS....................................................................................13
       C.     SCHOOL SURVEYS ...................................................................................................14
III. MASTER PLAN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ................................................... 16
       A.     GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .........................................................................................16
       B.     STUDY AREA ..........................................................................................................18
       C.     RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLANNING EFFORTS IN OXNARD ....................................18
IV.    COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND CITIZEN PARTICIPATION .................... 20
       A.     COMMUTER BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN NEEDS ......................................................20
       B.     TRAFFIC AND AIR QUALITY BENEFITS ....................................................................23
       C.     RECREATIONAL BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN NEEDS ................................................24
       D.     COLLISION ANALYSIS .............................................................................................24
       E.     BEST PRACTICE RESEARCH .....................................................................................25
V.     EXISTING BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES.................................... 27
       A.     LAND USE CONDITIONS ..........................................................................................27
       B.     EXISTING (2002) FACILITIES...................................................................................30
       C.     EXISTING MULTI-MODAL CONNECTIONS ...............................................................33
VI.    RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES ......................... 34
       A.     CREATING A COMPLETE BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITY SYSTEM .................34
       B.     RECOMMENDED FACILITY SEGMENTS ....................................................................34
       C.     RECOMMENDED BICYCLE PARKING FACILITIES ......................................................40
       D.     RECOMMENDED END-OF-TRIP AMENITIES ..............................................................40
VII. BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITY DESIGN GUIDELINES ..................... 43
       A.     GENERAL DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................43
       B.     BICYCLE FACILITY DESIGN STANDARDS ................................................................44
       C.     SPECIFIC DESIGN GUIDELINES ................................................................................44
       D.     PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES DESIGN GUIDELINES ........................................................59
       E.     BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITY DESIGN TREATMENTS ..................................68
       F.     PEDESTRIAN ENHANCEMENT AREAS.......................................................................70




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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont’d)


VIII. RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN PROGRAMS ......................... 76
       A.     BICYCLE PROGRAMS ...............................................................................................76
       B.     AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)..........................................................81
IX. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ............................................................................. 83
       A.     BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE ................................................83
       B.     EVALUATION CRITERIA AND FACILITY PRIORITIZATION .........................................83
       C.     FACILITY SEGMENT COSTS .....................................................................................86
       D.     OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COSTS................................................................90
       E.     FACILITY SEGMENT PHASING PLAN ........................................................................90
X.     POTENTIAL FUNDING SOURCES .................................................................. 93
       A.     SOURCES .................................................................................................................93
       B.     FUNDING STRATEGY ...............................................................................................99

GLOSSARY OF TRANSPORTATION TERMS




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                                   LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1 -    MOST FREQUENT ACCIDENT LOCATIONS................................................................26
FIGURE 2 -    TRIP DESTINATIONS AND ACTIVITY CENTERS ........................................................28
FIGURE 3 -    NEIGHBORHOOD IDENTIFICATION AND BOUNDARIES..............................................29
FIGURE 4 -    EXISTING (2002) BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES .......................................31
FIGURE 5 -    RECOMMENDED (2020) BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES .............................38
FIGURE 6 -    RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES IN DOWNTOWN ................39
FIGURE 7 -    BICYCLE LANE DELINEATION ON ONE-WAY STREET .............................................50
FIGURE 8 -    CHANNELIZATION FOR AN EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TURN LANE .....................................52
FIGURE 9 -    INTERSECTION DETAIL FOR 6-LANE ROADWAYS ....................................................53
FIGURE 10 -   BICYCLE LANE STRIPING AT AN INTERSECTION ......................................................54
FIGURE 11 -   BICYCLE LANE STRIPING AT DEPARTURE FROM AN INTERSECTION ........................55
FIGURE 12 -   BICYCLE LANE STRIPING AT A RIGHT TURN DROP LANE........................................56
FIGURE 13 -   FLASHING BEACON FOR BICYCLE LANE AT EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TURN LANE ..........57
FIGURE 14 -   ENHANCED CROSSWALK EXAMPLES .......................................................................58
FIGURE 15 -   SHARED USE PATH CROSS SECTION .......................................................................63
FIGURE 16 -   SHARED USE PATH AND 5 FOOT UNPAVED PATH CROSS SECTION .........................63
FIGURE 17-    SIGNAGE FOR A RAILROAD CROSSING ....................................................................64
FIGURE 18 -   TYPICAL SIGNAGE AND MARKING FOR A SHARED USE PATH .................................65
FIGURE 19 -   MEDIAN REFUGE FOR ROADWAY CROSSING BY SHARED USE PATH.......................66
FIGURE 20 -   CENTERLINE STRIPING FOR SHARED USE PATHS ....................................................67
FIGURE 21-    TYPICAL PEDESTRIAN ENHANCEMENTS FOR THE DOWNTOWN AREA .....................71
FIGURE 22     TYPICAL PEDESTRIAN ENHANCEMENTS FOR SCHOOL AREAS .................................73



                                     LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1 -     STREETS AND HIGHWAYS CODE ...............................................................................7
TABLE 2 -     SUMMARY OF BICYCLE ISSUES AT SCHOOLS ...........................................................15
TABLE 3 -     SUMMARY REVIEW MATRIX OF EXISTING, RELATED DOCUMENTATION ................19
TABLE 4 -     RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITY SEGMENTS ................... 36-37
TABLE 5 -     RECOMMENDED END-OF-TRIP AMENITIES .............................................................42
TABLE 6 -     EXISTING AND RECOMMENDED DIMENSIONS FOR SIDEWALKS ...............................69
TABLE 7 -     FACILITY SEGMENT EVALUATION MATRIX....................................................... 84-85
TABLE 8 -     CLASS I FACILITY COSTS ........................................................................................87
TABLE 9 -     CLASS II FACILITY COSTS.......................................................................................88
TABLE 10 -    CLASS III FACILITY COSTS .....................................................................................89
TABLE 11 -    IMPLEMENTATION COSTS BY SEGMENT PRIORITY ............................................ 91-92
TABLE 12-     SUMMARY OF FUNDING PROGRAMS ................................................................. 93-95
TABLE 13 -    FUNDING STRATEGY TIMELINE ...............................................................................99




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                                  City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                              Chapter I - Introduction


I. INTRODUCTION
The City of Oxnard has a partial system of bicycle lanes on various roadways. These
lanes were put in place to provide the community with a more balanced transportation
system. The City’s 2020 General Plan identifies the need for additional bicycle and
pedestrian facilities because of the benefits that a complete system can provide. The
need for a plan to complete the system has increased as bicycling and walking have
become increasingly popular methods of travel throughout the City of Oxnard and the
surrounding communities within Ventura County. Many people are attracted to the
energy savings, environmental benefits, and health advantages, while others who are not
able to drive due to age or finances, walk or use bicycles as a means of transportation.

Bicycle and pedestrian facilities can include lanes and paths for non-motorized travel, as
well as amenities that make a trip easier and more enjoyable - such as bicycle racks,
directional signage and urban design features. Bicycle and pedestrian facilities can be a
tremendous community benefit. In fact, they can help define the ideals and interests of
the community. This plan addresses the need for an outline of how to complete the
system.


A. Purpose of this Report
The purpose of this Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan is to define an approach
for the development of a safe, convenient and effective system that requires bicycling and
walking as a viable transportation option connecting work, shopping, residential, and
recreational uses.

                                         This Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master
                                         Plan is a strategic planning tool guiding bicycle
                                         and pedestrian network planning throughout
                                         Oxnard. This report provides planning and
                                         design tools that can be used by City
                                         departments to initiate improvements. As new
                                         development projects enter the planning process,
                                         this Master Plan should be referred to as a guide
                                         for incorporation of new bicycle and pedestrian
                                         facilities or improvement of existing facilities.
                                         This report can also help to ensure proper
                                         connectivity between activity centers and
                                         community facilities, develop joint projects for
                                         intra-city connections where needed, and
                                         develop consistent design standards.

The planning and implementation of bicycle and pedestrian facilities is not a mandated
process, but one undertaken by communities at their discretion. Transportation funding



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                                   City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                               Chapter I - Introduction


programs have expanded project eligibility to include bicycle and pedestrian facilities
with some funding sources requiring that projects be identified in a current Bicycle or
Pedestrian Plan.

Like many communities around the U.S., growth in the population of Oxnard and the
surrounding communities is resulting in an expanding interest in bicycling as a means of
transportation that is quiet, non-polluting, extremely energy-efficient, versatile, healthy,
and fun.

Bicycles also offer low cost mobility to the non-driving public, especially the younger
members of the community. Bicycling is one of the most cost-effective and achievable
means of reducing traffic congestion and improving air quality in Oxnard. While
bicyclists account for less than one percent of peak hour commuters now, a recent
national survey found that over 30 percent of all workers would consider riding a bicycle
to work if they lived within a reasonable riding distance and if there were safe and
convenient bicycle facilities available. There is also a significant amount of state and
federal funding available for bicycle and pedestrian transportation facilities.

Pedestrians will also benefit from the results of this Master Plan. There is a relatively
high concentration of pedestrian activity in certain areas of the City, including the
downtown area and along the beaches. Wider sidewalks, seating areas, and buffered
landscaped areas would encourage people to walk to work which could lead to a
reduction in vehicle exhaust emissions, noise, and energy consumption.

The State Legislature and the City of Oxnard recognize that in order to maintain a high
quality of life, transportation alternatives to the automobile need to be provided. As a
component of the City’s overall circulation system, additional bicycle and pedestrian
facilities could relieve congestion, improve air quality, save money and provide
recreational opportunities. This Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan provides a
                                          comprehensive       approach    for     developing
                                          additional bicycle and pedestrian facilities.

                                        While the City currently has several existing
                                        bicycle and pedestrian facilities, the connectivity
                                        between these facilities is somewhat fragmented
                                        and requires additional facilities to fill in network
                                        gaps. Safety is also a primary reason to improve
                                        bicycling and pedestrian conditions in Oxnard.
                                        According to a 1991 Lou Harris Poll, concern
                                        about safety is the single greatest reason people
                                        do not commute by bicycle. Addressing those
                                        concerns for bicyclists and pedestrians through
                                        physical and program improvements is another
                                        reason for preparing this Master Plan.




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                                   City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                               Chapter I - Introduction


B. Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Classifications

The bicycle and pedestrian facilities referred to throughout the text, figures and tables in
this document are based upon commonly used classification definitions. A description of
the three classifications are provided below. The following page illustrates the general
cross-sections of each classification.

Class I Facilities
Commonly referred to as a “bike path” or “multi-use trail,” this type of facility provides
for bicycle and pedestrian travel on a paved right-of-way, completely separate from any
street or highway. Motorized vehicles of all kinds are typically prohibited from using a
Class I facility, unless the facility is wide enough to separate bicycles and pedestrians
from motorized vehicles, such as go-peds and powered scooters. A Class I facility can
also be located alongside the outside edge of a roadway, with a parkway or raised barrier
(curb, median, etc.) as separation. For the purposes of this Master Plan, typical sidewalks
are not considered to be Class I facilities but are included in some of the text descriptions
of recommended new facilities and in some Class I tables. A great example of a Class I
facility in Oxnard is the new path that was recently constructed along the east side of
Oxnard Boulevard, adjacent to the new residential development between Glenwood
Street and Robert Street.

Class II Facilities
Referred to as a “bike lane,” this type of facility provides a striped lane for one-way
bicycle travel on a roadway adjacent to the curb. A minimum of five feet of roadway
width must be dedicated for this lane to make it a "true" Class II bike lane under Caltrans
design standards. There are some striped bicycle facilities within the roadways in Oxnard
that are less than 5 feet in width, such as the lanes on Camino Del Sol between Rice
Avenue and Del Norte Boulevard. These were likely put in place to provide for a bicycle
facility without reconstructing the roadway to accommodate 5 feet of pavement.

Class III Facilities
This type of facility is typically referred to as a “bike route” that is indicated by signage
only. Class III facilities provide for shared use of a roadway with motor vehicle traffic,
and is signed to help bicycle riders reach a location where another Class I or Class II
facility is usually located. Portions of Harbor Boulevard provide bike route signs. It
should be noted that bicycles are allowed by law on any roadway, regardless of the
existence of any bike route signage.

The graphic on the following page illustrates the differences between Class I, II, and III
bikeways.




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                                                                               Chapter I - Introduction




C. Related Documents and Policies
The City's 2020 General Plan identifies specific goals and policies that are relevant to this
Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan. There are also several state, regional, and
federal requirements for master plans which are related to, and qualify local agencies for
state and federal funding.

This Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan has been completed so that it is
consistent with regional plans such as the Ventura County Regional Bikeway Plan (1996)
and local plans such as the Oxnard Downtown District Master Plan (1996 prepared by
Civitas and Andres Duany & Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk). This consistency will help unify
the objectives and goals already established by the City.

The California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has traditionally played an
oversight and review role in federal funding programs for bicycle and pedestrian facility
projects. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) provides many of
the same programs oriented to bicycle and pedestrian facilities, as did its predecessor act,
the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), with even more funding
available for bicycle and pedestrian projects. Many of these funding programs require
approval of a bicycle and/or pedestrian master plan with specified elements in order to
qualify for the programs.

At the State level, the Streets and Highways Code (sections 891.2 & 894.7) requires that
all cities and counties have an adopted bicycle and pedestrian master plan that "achieves
the functional commuting needs of the employee, student, business person, and shopper
with the foremost consideration…" According to the Streets and Highways Code, the
master plan should include, but not be limited to the elements listed in Table 1.

D. Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning in Ventura County
The Air Pollution Control District (APCD) has various transportation demand
management (TDM) policies and regulations related to bicycles. Specific reductions in
vehicle trips and related reactive organic gases (ROG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)
emissions can result from the construction of bike paths, lanes, and bike parking. For
example, a project which pays for the construction of 1 mile of Class II bike lanes would
receive credit for about 80 reduced trips per day. This in turn would reduce the cost of
providing roadways and parking facilities.

Ventura County has its own Regional Bicycle Master Plan completed by the Ventura
County Transportation Commission (VCTC). The Oxnard Bicycle and Pedestrian
Facilities Master Plan has been produced to be consistent with the County’s Plan. This
consistency is important because the VCTC can be a primary funding source for new
facility funding for the City of Oxnard.



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                                  City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                              Chapter I - Introduction




Caltrans has played an oversight and review role for TEA21 funding programs for
bicycle projects. Each of the TEA21 bicycle funding programs require approval of a
Master Plan with specified elements in order to qualify for the program. On a state level,
according to the California Bicycle Transportation Act (1994), all cities and counties
should have an adopted bicycle and pedestrian master plan that contains a number of
required elements.

The Caltrans Highway Design Manual contains specific design guidelines that must be
adhered to in California. 'Chapter 1000:Bikeway Planning and Design' of the Manual
sets the basic design parameters of on-street and off-street bicycle facilities, including
mandatory design requirements.

An overview of plans that are being implemented in communities near Oxnard is
provided below:

City of Camarillo – Bikeway Master Plan (09/1998): This document sets the long-range
(20-year) strategy for the City. The major issues addressed by the Plan include system
continuity, connections between regional destinations, safety concerns, and directional
signage. The implementation measures in the document included design standards,
support facility standards, and programs such as bicycle use education.

City of Ojai – Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan (02/1999): Ojai is a town transitioning
from agriculture and tourism uses, and succumbing to more residential and commercial
development. Specific concerns within the plan include development of a bicycle trail
undercrossing at a major intersection, shoulder lane facilities, and bicycle lane and
pedestrian access over a bridge between the downtown area and a local park.

City of Calabasas – Bicycle Master Plan (11/1996): The planning area for this document
includes unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County and adjacent municipalities, for
purposes of connectivity at the City limits. The Plan connects existing and planned
bicycle lanes on City streets to recreational trails, and also connects a number of local
activity centers. The majority of recommendations involve re-striping existing roadways
to accommodate new bicycle lane facilities.

Ventura County – Regional Bikeways Plan (04/1996): Ventura County’s Plan for bicycle
facilities recommends a hierarchy of bicycle lanes via major arterials and collector
streets. The Plan also incorporates three bicycle trail projects: the Santa Paula Branch
Line, the Ojai Valley Trail, and the Ventura River Trail. A Class I bicycle facility is
planned along with an improvement of State Route118.




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                                     City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                                 Chapter I - Introduction




                               Table 1 – Streets and Highways Code
                                 Required Master Plan Elements
 Section 891.2 Requirements                                                                           Location
                                                                                                     in Master
                                                                                                        Plan
 (a) The estimated number of existing bicycle commuters in the plan area and the                     Ch. IV,
     estimated increase in the number of bicycle commuters resulting from                            Pg. 23
     implementation of the plan.
 (b) A map and description of existing and proposed land use and settlement patterns                 Ch. V,
     which shall include, but not limited to, locations of residential neighborhoods,                Pgs. 28-
     schools, shopping centers, public buildings, and major employment centers. Fig. 2, 3            34
 (c) A map and description of existing and proposed bikeways. Fig. 4, 5, and 6, Table 4         Ch. V,
                                                                                                Pgs. 28-
                                                                                                34
 (d)   A map and description of existing and proposed end-of-trip bicycle parking facilities. Ch. VI,
       These shall include, but not be limited to, parking at schools, shopping centers, public Pgs. 40-
       buildings, and major employment centers. Pg. 33, Table 5                                 42
 (e)   A map and description of existing and proposed bicycle transport and parking Ch. V,
       facilities for connections with and use of other transportation modes. These shall Pg. 33
       include, but not be limited to, parking facilities at transit stops, rail and transit
       terminals, ferry docks and landings, park and ride lots, and provisions for transporting
       bicyclists and bicycles on transit or rail vehicles or ferry vessels.
 (f)   A map and description of existing and proposed facilities for changing and storing Ch. VI,
       clothes and equipment. These shall include, but not be limited to, locker, restroom, Pgs. 41-
       and shower facilities near bicycle parking facilities.                                   43
 (g)   A description of bicycle safety and education programs conducted in the area Ch. VII,
       included within the plan, efforts by the law enforcement agency having primary Pg. 76-78
       traffic law enforcement responsibility in the area to enforce provisions of the Vehicle
       Code pertaining to bicycle operation, and the resulting effect on accidents involving
       bicyclists.
 (h)   A description of the extent of citizen and community involvement in development of Ch. II,
       the plan, including, but not limited to, letters of support.                             Pg. 10
 (i)   A description of how the bicycle transportation plan has been coordinated and is Ch. II,
       consistent with other local or regional transportation, air quality, or energy Pgs. 5,
       conservation plans, including, but not limited to, programs that provide incentives for 18 and
       bicycle commuting.                                                                       19
 (j)   A description of the projects proposed in the plan and a listing of their priorities for Table 4
       implementation.
 (k) A description of past expenditures for bicycle facilities and future financial needs for Tables
     projects that improve safety and convenience for bicycle commuters in the plan area.     4,7,8
                                                                                              (future
                                                                                              needs)

   In addition to the required elements, the Caltrans Highway Design Manual contains
   specific guidelines that must be adhered to in California. Chapter 1000: Bikeway
   Planning and Design, sets the basic design parameters of on street and off-street
   bicycle facilities, including mandatory design requirements.


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                                                                              Chapter I - Introduction




E. Report Summary
This Master Plan defines recommendations for new bicycle and pedestrian facility
segments, programs, priorities, costs, and timelines for completing the bicycle and
pedestrian facility networks in Oxnard.

Chapter I provides an introduction to this document, describes the purpose for completing
this Master Plan, and describes the document requirements.

Chapter II summarizes the results of resident surveys, stakeholder coordination, and
community involvement completed as part of the development of this Master Plan.

Chapter III provides a detailed discussion of Master Plan goals and objectives and defines
the Master Plan’s study area and its relationship to other local planning efforts.

Chapter IV describes the needs and benefits that bicycle and pedestrian facilities provide
to different types of users. This chapter also summarizes the three most recent years of
accidents that have involved bicyclists and pedestrians.

Chapter V includes a map identifying the location of existing bicycle and pedestrian
facilities in Oxnard.

Chapter VI includes a map identifying the location of the recommended bicycle and
pedestrian facility segments and end-of-trip amenities. Tables in this chapter also
describe what will be required to construct the recommended facilities.

Chapter VII provides a review of bicycle and pedestrian facility design guidelines.

Chapter VIII includes a description of recommended bicycle and pedestrian programs to
help educate the community on the use of facilities and to encourage more cycling, and
increasing the number of children bicycling and walking to schools.

Chapter IX presents an implementation strategy, including facility prioritization and
estimated costs for the recommended facilities.

Chapter X includes a discussion of the potential local, State, and federal funding sources
and recommended funding strategies.

A Technical Appendix to this report is provided as a separate document. It includes
associated information to the Master Plan text. The Technical Appendix includes the
following sections:

•   Appendix A: Resident Survey Responses
•   Appendix B: List of Stakeholders



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                                                                             Chapter I - Introduction


•   Appendix C: Best Practice Research
•   Appendix D: Existing Zoning Requirements for Bicycle Parking and Trip Reduction
    Measures
•   Appendix E: End-Of-Trip Facility Amenities
•   Appendix F: Caltrans Highway Design Manual
•   Appendix G: Bicycle and Pedestrian Design Treatments
•   Appendix H: Pedestrian Enhancements
•   Appendix I: Descriptions of School Signing and Marking
•   Appendix J: Supplemental Funding Information
•   Appendix K: Assumptions for Cost Opinions
•   Appendix L: City Street Design Standards

This Master Plan is intended to serve as a long-range guide for providing Oxnard with a
more effective bicycle and pedestrian facility system. Its effectiveness relies upon its
implementation and requires continued support of City decision makers, staff and
residents. The costs of completing a network of facilities will be outweighed by the
benefits that bicycling and walking offer to all residents.




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                                       City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                      Chapter II - Community Involvement and Citizen Participation



II. COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
This chapter describes the community involvement and citizen participation component
of the Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan. This section fulfills Section
891.2.(h) of the California Bicycle Transportation Act.

Input from Oxnard residents, City staff and other stakeholders helped to develop the
goals, objectives, and recommendations included in this Master Plan. The outreach effort
included distribution of questionnaire surveys, stakeholder interviews, and a joint
Planning Commission workshop/public hearing.

A. Resident Questionnaire Survey
A questionnaire survey was distributed to local residents, provided at area bike shops,
and given to school administrators to help identify bicycle and pedestrian facility needs.
The survey was also posted on the City of Oxnard web site (www.ci.oxnard.ca.us) and
the Ventura County Bicycle Coalition web site (www.vcbc.org), so that those who were
not able to obtain and complete a hard copy of the survey could provide responses and
mail a copy of the survey back to the City. A total of only 52 residents responded to the
survey. Results of the survey are presented below.

Survey Questions and Results

How often do you, or does anyone in your household ride a bicycle?

       Never – 10.4%                                   Commute by bicycle to work – 17.2 %
       Sometimes – 6.9%                                Commute by bicycle to school–13.8 %
       Weekends for recreation only-27.6%              Weekends and commuting – 24.1%

If you ride a bicycle, how often do you use bike lanes on the
   streets?

       Every day - 41%                                     Rarely - 4.5%
       2-3 times a week - 9.1%                             Never - 9.1%
       Once a week - 18.2%                                 N/A - 4.5%
       Once a month - 13.6%

Do you like using a bicycle to travel around the city?

       Yes - 81.8%                                         No - 18.2%




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                                   City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                  Chapter II - Community Involvement and Citizen Participation


How often do you bicycle or walk to work?

       Every day – 13.6%                                     1-3 times/month - 4.5%
       2-5 times/week - 36.4%                                Almost never - 41%
       Once a week - 4.5%

e. If you are a student, do you ride your bicycle or walk to school?

       Yes - 37.5% No - 62.5%
       If yes, how often?
             Every day - 100%                                  1-3 times/month - 0%
             2-5 times/week - 0%                               Almost never – 0%
             Once a week – 0%

f. If you have school age children, do they ride their bicycles or
   walk to school?

       Yes - 21.4%                                             No - 78.6%
        If yes, how often?
             Every day - 50%                                   Rarely - 50%
             Once a week - 0%                                  Never - 0%
              Once a month - 0%

g. Is there enough bicycle parking at the places you visit in
   Oxnard?

       Yes - 28.6%                                             No - 71.4%

h. What would make it easier for you to use your bicycle or walk more often
   for trips to work, shopping or other places in Oxnard?

•   More bike lanes - 72.7%
•   More bike racks at my destination - 36.4%
•   Better lighting where I park my bike - 13.6%
•   Safety education training - 4.5%
•   Better street lighting - 9.1%
•   Bike racks on buses - 9.1%
•   Improved signage - 0%
•   Fewer hills - 0%
•   More bike paths (separate from streets) - 72.7%
•   More bike lockers at my destination - 0%
•   Showers at work - 13.6%
•   Better street maintenance - 18.2%

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                                              Chapter II - Community Involvement and Citizen Participation


•   Bicycle sensitive detectors at traffic signals - 27.3%
•   Improved driver awareness - 36.4%
•   Employer subsidies/reward for bicycling or walking - 18.2%
•   Nothing would encourage me to use my bicycle more often - 4.5%
•   Other - 0%

i. Do you feel safe riding on a bicycle on the street?

       Yes - 27.3%                         No - 59.1%                        Sometimes - 13.6%

j. Do you feel safe walking on the sidewalks?

       Yes - 72.8%                         No - 13.6%                        Sometimes - 13.6%

k. What is your impression of the condition of the sidewalks for
   walking in the City?

       Very good - 0%                                           Poor - 22.7%
       Good - 36.4%                                             Need a lot of repairs - 18.2%
       Fair - 22.7%                                             Very bad - 0%

l. Do you use bike racks on the SCAT buses or on the Harbor and
   Beaches Dial-A-Ride?

       Yes - 28.6%                                              No - 76.4%

m. Please list any specific streets, intersections, sidewalks, routes
   or locations that you know of which need improvement to
   make Oxnard more bicycle and pedestrian friendly. Please
   describe the problem.

•   A facility along the Edison Canal – east to Victoria Avenue
•   A Class I connection to the east – “there should be enough public right-of-way.”
•   A facility near the Oxnard industrial area – along the railroad tracks
•   A facility on Wooley Road – adjacent to railroad tracks. “There is limited rail
    traffic.”
•   A Class I facility on Gonzales Road – from Ventura Road to Harbor Boulevard,
    along the river levee.
•   A Class I facility along the Edison Canal to Wooley Road, and on 5th Street to
    Harbor Boulevard




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                                                 Chapter II - Community Involvement and Citizen Participation




Results from the resident survey reflect an interest in developing more bicycle and
pedestrian facilities and providing more bicycle racks at common destinations for
parking. In addition, the survey results indicate that many potential commuters and
students do not currently ride or walk on a regular basis.

A significant percentage of the respondents indicated that more bicycle and pedestrian
facilities would make them feel more comfortable (safer), which could lead them to
increase the perception of safety and the tendency for them to ride or walk to work,
school, or shopping destinations more often. Improved driver awareness often helps
make bicyclists and pedestrians more safe. Many respondents felt that amenities at their
most visited destinations - such as bike racks, signs, benches and maps - would make
them more likely to travel by bicycle or walk.

The completed resident survey forms are provided in Appendix A of this report.

B. Stakeholder Interviews
Over a three-month period in the fall of 2001, several key stakeholders within Oxnard,
the surrounding cities, and within areas of Ventura County were contacted by telephone
to talk with them about their opinions and ideas for bicycle and pedestrian facilities
within Oxnard. Other interviews were conducted through internet postings and e-mail.
Each stakeholder was provided with a description of the project, goals, and was asked to
provide any input or suggestions for consideration in the development of the Master Plan.
A list of the stakeholders that provided input is provided below. A complete list of
stakeholders identified and contacted is provided in Appendix B of this report.

•   City staff                                    •    Ventura County Transportation
•   General public                                     Commission
•   Caltrans                                      •    Law Enforcement agencies,
•   California Department of Parks &                   including the Police Department
    Recreation                                         Bike Patrol and Public Information
•   City of Port Hueneme                               Officer
•   City of San Buenaventura                      •    School Boards
•   Coastal Conservancy                           •    Bicycle and Hiking Clubs
•   Ventura County Public Works                   •    SCAT
    Agency                                        •    Amtrak and Metrolink




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                                                  Chapter II - Community Involvement and Citizen Participation


Summary of Issues

The following list indicates the issues that were most commonly mentioned during the
course of the stakeholder interviews:

•   Bicycle lockers are needed in the downtown area.
•   The section of Patterson Road between West 5th Street and Wooley Road should have
    a Class I facility.
•   Improve the connection between Oxnard and Camarillo.
•   Provide a Class I facility on C Street through downtown and to Farmer’s Market.
•   Complete the Springville Road bike path project over the Beardsley Channel.
•   Provide a Class II facility along Rice Avenue.
•   Fill in gaps along the beach and on Harbor Boulevard, from the Reliant Energy plant
    south to Hueneme Road.
•   Provide better bicycle access to the beaches on both sides of Channel Islands Harbor.
•   Provide safer bike routes to the agricultural areas near Rose and Rice Avenues.
•   Widen the roads to accommodate a Class II facility or install a separate bicycle bridge
    over the Edison Canal.
•   Traffic speeds along Harbor Boulevard north of City limits are too high. Provide
    wider Class II bicycle lanes or slow the traffic speed.
•   Develop a Class I facility along at the Santa Clara River and provide connections to
    adjacent cities.
•   Several Class II bicycle lanes in the City end without any warning. These gaps need
    to be connected to provide for a more convenient, safe and usable system for
    commuters and long-distance bicycle riders.

The stakeholder comments were considered in development of the recommended new
facilities identified in this Master Plan. Stakeholder input was also used to help evaluate
and prioritize the recommended facilities.

C. School Surveys
The Oxnard School District was contacted to obtain information from the elementary and
intermediate schools in that District to define the general levels of student ridership.
District staff contacted school representatives to ask about bicycle and pedestrian
facilities. The results of this coordination are presented in Table 2. The input was used
to gauge the general level of student bicyclists, and was used to help confirm the need for
a complete network of bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Other school districts in the City
were not contacted as a part of this effort.




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                      Table 2 – Summary of Bicycle Issues at Schools

                 Average Number of
    School                                Intersection Problems or Hazardous Areas
                  Riders at Campus
 Brekke         10                 No
 Chavez         None reported      Cars do not stop at corner of Cooper & Juanita
 Curren         25                 F & G Streets are very busy and cars don't always watch
                                   for bike riders. Students often cut through parking lot,
                                   which is unsafe.
 Elm            2                  Elm & Saviers
 Frank          Many; exact number Students ignore the crosswalk.
 Intermediate   hard to define
 Haydock        15 - 20            None reported
 Intermediate
 Kamala         12+                      Parking lot entrance, between school and park on Kamala.
 Lemonwood      3                        Couple blind intersections.
 Marina West    25                       None.
 McAuliffe      40 bikes, 37 scooters,   No, we have crossing guards.
                27 skate boards
 McKinna        6                        "J" Street - very fast motorists. Pot holes in surface of
                                         street (road has since been resurfaced by the City).
 Ramona         None reported            Potholes on Gina Drive.
 Ritchen        6                        0
 Rose Avenue    None reported            Santa Lucia & Driskill.
 Sierra Linda   12                       Sometimes cars don't come to a complete stop at H Street
                                         & Holly Street.



Planning Commission Workshop/Public Hearing

A planning commission workshop/ public hearing was held at The City of Oxnard Public
Library in August 2001. The workshop included a presentation describing the Master
Plan process, identified the location of existing bicycle and pedestrian facilities, and
presented the location of preliminary new recommended facilities.

The Planning Commission and the public were then invited to review the preliminary
recommendations and provide input on other potential improvements. Comments
included clarification of some existing facilities that were not yet identified and
suggestions for additional new facilities.




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                                                              Chapter III - Master Plan Goals and Objectives




III. MASTER PLAN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

A. Goals and Objectives
The goals and objectives presented below were developed by interpreting the results of
the resident survey, the stakeholder input, and discussions with City staff. These goals
and objectives also comply with the adopted General Plan policies for pedestrian and
bicycle facilities. The detailed goals and objectives identified below serve as a guide for
this Master Plan and can help refine policies for the next General Plan update.

Master Plan Goals
Goals provide the context for the specific objectives discussed in the Bicycle and
Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan. The goals are a collection of shared community
concepts and ideas that reflect the needs and desires of the City. Goals for this project
include the following:

       •      Reduce air pollution, vehicular congestion
       •      Reduce energy consumption
       •      Improve pedestrian safety including collisions, injuries and fatalities
       •      Maximize pedestrian accessibility and transit-related pedestrian mobility
       •      Enhance bicycle commuter routes and facilities
       •      Contribute to livable communities
       •      Integrate sub-regional, county and local planning efforts
       •      Develop a comprehensive system of safe and convenient bicycle and
              pedestrian facilities that connect major activity areas and provide residents
              with alternative travel options and recreational opportunities
       •      Encourage the development and design of safe and convenient bike paths,
              lanes and routes
       •      Phase the construction and implementation of recommendations and identify
              and pursue potential sources of funding for bicycle and pedestrian facilities
       •      Identify and pursue potential sources of funding for bicycle and pedestrian
              facilities, including federal, state and private sources
       •      Provide convenient and efficient alternative transportation modes to the
              automobile
       •      Assure the provision of adequate support facilities at major activity areas
       •      Maintain roadways and traffic-control devices in safe and effective operating
              condition

Master Plan Objectives
Objectives are more specific, measurable targets to be aimed for in achieving the goals.
Objectives have been defined for the Master Plan process and/or for the bicycle and
pedestrian facilities identified in the Master Plan. Objectives for this project include the
following:


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                                                            Chapter III - Master Plan Goals and Objectives




Objectives for the Master Plan Process
• Reduce fuel consumption, the number of motorized vehicular trips, and miles traveled
• Increase the percentage of bicycle and pedestrian trips in total trips
• Increase the number of multi-modal transit facilities and linkages
• Increase the amount of pedestrian-oriented land uses around multi-modal transit
   facilities
• Increase the number of people involved in the bicycle and pedestrian facility planning
   processes
• Obtain community input on potential routes and design features
• Obtain city and community input through surveys, workshops, and meetings
• Prepare a Master Plan that is compatible with, and coordinated with, adjacent
   jurisdictions
• Prepare a Master Plan that provides an initial database for implementation,
   evaluation, and updating the plan
• Identify gaps in the current bicycle and pedestrian systems to major destinations both
   within and immediately adjacent to the City

Objectives for the Master Plan Recommendations
• Identify and establish a recreational bicycle trail system to the Pacific Ocean and the
   Santa Clara River
• Provide design recommendations for bicyclists at roundabouts and other "traffic
   calming" improvements
• Develop a general implementation priority based on availability of routes, cost, and
   user demand
• Define facilities that can be maintained in a safe condition for all users
• Define facilities that can be constructed within the physical constraints of the existing
   or easily available right-of-way
• Define facilities that make maximum use of existing roads and other dedicated rights-
   of-way that can be made available for public use
• Define future facilities that are compatible with existing facilities, construction plans
   and development plans, including a Safe Route to School program
• Define facilities that follow California statewide engineering guidelines and a
   uniform landscaping plan
• Define facilities that are attractive with landscaping that is consistent with safe
   walking and cycling practice and sight distance needs
• Complete a network of bicycle and pedestrian facilities within Oxnard by 2010 and
   extend the system to serve new growth areas, connect with County bicycle routes, and
   improve existing linkages between activity generators
• Identify funding for construction of bicycle and pedestrian facilities, bicycle parking,
   promotional and educational programs
• Identify City land use regulations that could be amended to establish standards for the
   design and installation of bicycle and pedestrian facilities
• Develop design guidelines for the City, property owners, developers and institutions
   in the design and location of bicycle and pedestrian facilities

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•   Determine order of magnitude of costs, including design, construction and
    maintenance costs for bicycle and pedestrian facilities
•   Identify areas needing additional or improved bicycle parking with special attention
    given to older developed areas such as the Downtown and industrial areas.

B. Study Area
The Master Plan study area includes the entire City of Oxnard, areas of unincorporated
Ventura County adjacent to the City, and to some extent, areas that could provide for
connections to adjacent communities. The focus of this Master Plan is on the
development of a primary network of bicycle and pedestrian facilities for travel within
the City and connections to regional facilities.

The goals and objectives defined on the preceding pages help to define a policy
framework to guide future bicycle and pedestrian transportation decisions and capital
improvement programming for Oxnard, which conforms with Caltrans requirements.
The goals and objectives are intended to promote facility planning and provide for
opportunities to coordinate infrastructure improvements.

C. Relationship to Other Planning Efforts in Oxnard
Table 3 provides a summary review of the relationship between this Master Plan and
other existing related documentation. This section of the report fulfills Section 891.2 (i)
of the California Bicycle Transportation Act.

Policy Statements

Table 3 provided a summary of the documents that contain information related to bicycle
and pedestrian facilities, including policy issues. The transportation chapter of the City’s
2020 General Plan (Section VI) includes a Development Policies section. This section
includes sub-sections with Goals, Objectives and Policies.

The Goals and Objectives sub-section apply to the general transportation system. These
goal and objective statements have been included in this Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities
Master Plan – as well as other, more specific goals and objectives.

The Policies sub-section includes 35 separate policy statements in the following areas:
Level of Service, Transportation Demand Management (TDM), Transit Services,
Freeway Bypass, Truck Access, and Bicycle & Pedestrian Facilities. The Bicycle &
Pedestrian Facilities policy statements were reviewed. All of the statements are
consistent with this Master Plan. However, an additional policy should be added to state:

The City shall follow the Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Master Plan recommendations
and implementation schedule by pursuing funding to design and construct the
recommended facility and program improvements.


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                                                                      Table 3 - Summary Review Matrix of Existing, Related Documentation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Master Plan Issue Addressed in Document

                                  Document Title                                                                                                                           Location of Bicycle/Pedestrian                      Activity    Goals /      Design     Legislation /               Bike/Ped.
                                                                                               General Description of Document                                             Information Within Document                         Centers    Objectives   Standards     Policies      Funding     Facilities
                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 2-1 and page 2-5

                                                                      Fundamental principals to decrease dependance on automobiles, save open space,
                               The Ahwahnee Principles
                                                                      improve infrastructure and services.


                                                                                                                                                                   Pages VIA-3, 6, 18, 20, 28, 31, 32, 52, 53, Exhibit VIA-
                                                                      City plan for growth management, land use, circulation, public facilities, open              4:bicycle and trail facilities. Pages VII-40, 41, 42, 65.
                           City of Oxnard 2020 General Plan           space/conservation, safety, noise, economic development, community design, parks and         Pages XII-2164.
                                                                      recreation, and housing.

                                                                                                                                                                   Page 490.60.7 - Schedule of bicycle parking
                                                                                                                                                                   requirements. Section 36-7.1.18 - Design standards for
                          City of Oxnard Parking Regulations          Development standards and regulations for parking lot design.                                bicycle parking.



                                                                                                                                                                   Page P-1 - The Public Realm

                         Oxnard Downtown District Master Plan         A comprehensive strategy for revitalizing the historic heart of Oxnard.


                                                                                                                                                                   Page 4 - Public access and recreation. Page 8 -
                                                                                                                                                                   Circulation. Page 9 - Urban renewal buffer.
                                                                      Plan for mixed-use development on 220 acres south of Wooley Road and east of the
                              Specific Plan-Mandalay Bay
                                                                      Edison Channel.


                                                                                                                                                                   Page 2-8 - Improve bicycle and pedestrian ciculation on
                                                                                                                                                                   Victoria. Exhibits 5, 8, 13, 14 - x-sections.
                                                                      Comprehensive planning program to direct development of 323 acres, east of Victoria
                 Northwest Golf Course Community Specific Plan
                                                                      Avenue and north of Gonzales Road.


                                                                                                                                                                   Page LCP-1 - Local Coastal Policies: 4dLCP-9 -
                                                                                                                                                                   Administrative Regulations: Nos. 26, 32, 33.
           Coastal Land Use Plan and Coastal Zoning Regulations and
                                                                    Ordinance to implement the policies of the California Coastal Act.
                                  Zone Maps


                                                                                                                                                                Circulation Master Plan, Page 10 - 2.3.4: Pedestrian
                                                                                                                                                                Circulation Plan, and 2.3.5: Bicycle Plan. Page 13 -
                                                                                                                                                                2.3.11: Special Bicycle parking Standards, Exhibit 2.3C:
                                                                      Plan to redesignate 42 of the 235 acres from M-1 to BRP in the area north of Sturgis Road Bike lane/sidewalk locations, Page 17 - Development
                   McInnes Ranch Business Park Specific Plan
                                                                      and east of Rice Avenue.                                                                  Standards, 3.2.1 - Landscape concept., Exhibit
                                                                                                                                                                3.2F,G,I,N - x-sections.

                                                                                                                                                                   Page 2-2 - Objective 1, page 2-5 - Community principal
                                                                                                                                                                   11, page 5-4/5 - non-vehicular circulation and bicycle
                                                                      Plan for growth and development of two residential neighborhoods on 865 acres south of       trails, Figures 4-15 to 4-21: x-sections, section 10.2:
                          Northeast Community Specific Plan
                                                                      Gonzales Road and east of Oxnard Boulevard.                                                  criteria for sub-neighborhood plan


                                                                                                                                                                   Pages 5-6 through 5-10, 5-15, 5-21 and 5-22, Exhibits 9
                                                                                                                                                                   through 11.
                                                                      Plan for a coordinated commercial and light industrial project along the north side of the
                     Rose-Santa Clara Corridor Specific Plan
                                                                      101 freeway between Santa Clara and Rose Avenues.


                                                                                                                                                                   Entire Document
                                                                      Plan for establishing the framework for a bikeway system in Ventura County, tying together
                     Ventura County Regional Bikeways Plan            bicycle travel between each of the cities in Ventura County as well as the adjacent Los
                                                                      Angeles and Santa Barbara Counties.

                                                                                                                                                                   Entire Document

                                                                      Study of exisiting bikeway system and plan for improving and expanding the system in the
                   City of Oxnard Bicycle Facilities Master Plan
                                                                      City of Oxnard in 1983.




099035000
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                                         City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                             Chapter IV - Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs and Benefits


IV. BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN NEEDS AND BENEFITS

A. Commuter Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs
The purpose of specifically identifying the needs of commuter bicyclists and pedestrians
separate from recreational users is twofold: (a) commuter needs are instrumental when
planning a system that must serve both user groups and (b) definition of commuter needs
is useful when pursuing competitive funding and attempting to quantify future usage and
benefits to justify expenditures of resources.

According to a May 1991 Lou Harris Poll, it was reported that “...nearly 3 million
adults—about one in 60--already commute by bike. This number could rise to 35 million
if more bicycle friendly transportation systems existed.” In short, there is a large
reservoir of potential bicyclists in Oxnard who do not ride (or ride more often) simply
because they do not feel comfortable using the existing street system and/or do not have
appropriate bicycle facilities at their destination.

Commuter bicyclists and pedestrians in Oxnard range from employees who ride or walk
to work to a child who rides or walks to school to people riding or walking to shops.
Millions of dollars nationwide have been spent attempting to increase the number of
people who ride to work or school or shops, with moderate success. Bicycling requires
shorter commutes, which runs counter to most land use and transportation policies that
encourage people to live farther and farther from where they work. Access to transit
helps extend the commute range of cyclists, but transit systems also face an increasingly
dispersed live-work pattern that is difficult to serve. Despite these facts, Oxnard has a
great potential to increase the number of people who ride to work or school because of (a)
moderate density residential neighborhoods near employment centers, (b) a favorable
climate, and (c) a high percentage of work trips that are less than 15 minutes.

General observations about bicyclists:

Bicyclists are typically separated between experienced and casual riders. The U.S.
Department of Transportation identifies thresholds of traffic volumes, speeds, and curb
lanes where less experienced bicyclists begin to feel uncomfortable. For example, on an
arterial with traffic moving between 30 and 40 miles per hour, less experienced bicyclists
only require bike lanes while more experienced bicyclists require a 14 or 15 foot wide
curb lane that can be shared with vehicles.

Casual bicyclists include those who feel less comfortable negotiating traffic. Others such
as children and the elderly may have difficulty gauging traffic, responding to changing
conditions, or moving rapidly enough to clear intersections. Other bicyclists, experienced
or not, may be willing to sacrifice time by avoiding heavily traveled arterials and using
quieter side streets. In some cases, casual riders may perceive side streets (or sidewalks)
as being safer alternatives than major through routes, when in fact they may be less safe.
Other attributes of the casual bicyclist include a preference for riding shorter distances
than the experienced rider and unfamiliarity with many of the rules of the road. The

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                                                            Chapter IV - Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs and Benefits


casual bicyclist will benefit from route markers, bike lanes, wider curb lanes, and
educational programs. Casual bicyclists may also benefit from marked routes that lead to
parks, museums, historic districts, and other visitor destinations.

Experienced bicyclists include those who prefer the most direct, through route between
origin and destination, and a preference for riding within or near the travel lanes.
Experienced bicyclists negotiate streets in much the same manner as motor vehicles,
merging across traffic to make left turns, and avoiding bike lanes and shoulders that
contain gravel and glass. The experienced bicyclist will benefit from wider curb lanes
and loop detectors at signals. The experienced bicyclist who is primarily interested in
exercise will benefit from loop routes that lead back to the point of origin.

While the majority of Americans (including Oxnard residents) own bicycles, most of
these people are recreational riders who ride relatively infrequently. School children
between the ages of about 7 and 12 make up a large percentage of the bicycle riders
today, often riding to school, parks, or other local destinations on a daily basis, weather
permitting. The serious adult road bicyclist who may compete in races, ‘centuries’ (100
mile tours) and/or ride for exercise makes up a small but important segment of bikeway
users, along with serious off-road mountain bicyclists who enjoy riding on trails and dirt
roads. The single biggest adult group of bicyclists in Oxnard is the intermittent
recreational rider who generally prefers to ride on pathways or quiet side streets.

Students riding the wrong way on streets are common. This accounts for the greatest
number of recorded collisions throughout California, pointing to the need for safety
education.

Most bicycle commuter issues are common from city to city. Other issues are unique to
each area. The following points summarize the bicycle commuter issues in Oxnard.

•   Commuter bicycling typically falls into one of two categories: (1) adult employees,
    and (2) younger students (typically ages 7-15).

•   According to the resident survey, commuter trips in Oxnard range from several
    blocks inside the City limits to several or more miles for those commuters traveling
    beyond the City limits or to surrounding communities.

•   Commuters typically seek the most direct and fastest route available, with regular
    adult commuters often preferring to ride on arterials rather than side streets or off-
    street facilities.

•   Commute periods typically coincide with peak roadway traffic volumes and
    congestion, increasing the exposure to potential conflicts with vehicles.

•   Many adult bicycle riders often use the sidewalks within the Downtown area,
    especially on Oxnard Boulevard and C Street.


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•   Places to safely store bicycles are of paramount importance to all bicycle commuters.

•   Major commuter concerns include changes in weather (rain), riding in darkness,
    personal safety and security.

•   Rather than be directed to side streets, most commuting adult cyclists would prefer to
    be given bike lanes or wider curb lanes on direct routes.

•   Unprotected crosswalks and intersections (no stop sign or signal control) in general
    are the primary concerns of all bicycle and pedestrian commuters.

•   Commuters generally prefer routes where they are required to stop as few times as
    possible, thereby minimizing delay.


General observations about pedestrians:

Pedestrians can be separated between the healthy adult versus children, the elderly, and
the disabled. Key differences are based on the ability to judge on-coming traffic, to be
seen, to detect signals, and the speed with which they cross intersections. Pedestrian
commuters, like bicyclists, are primarily concerned with connectivity. The casual
pedestrian is more interested in the immediate landscape, protection from the elements,
visual interest, places to rest, and protection from traffic. One common attribute of
popular pedestrian areas is that motor vehicle movement is either completely restricted or
severely slowed down.

Commuters who walk to work prefer easy, safe, short, and convenient routes. Walkers
should be able to reach their work destination or transit alternative within a half-mile
walk. These pedestrians use roads, paths, sidewalks, crosswalks, and bridges to reach
their final destinations. Interacting with automobiles and bicyclists, walkers may feel
uncomfortable when walking adjacent to high-speed traffic areas. Class I bike and
pedestrian paths with fifteen foot-landscaped buffers along major thoroughfares is the
preferred route for commuting pedestrians. Pedestrians will also benefit from convenient
access to bus stops, park & ride areas, train stations and South Coast Area Transit
(SCAT) stops.

Many younger students (ages 7-11) use sidewalks for riding to schools or parks, which is
acceptable in areas where pedestrian volumes are low and driveway visibility is high.
Where on-street parking and/or landscaping obscures visibility, sidewalk riders may be
exposed to a higher incidence of accidents. Older students (12 years or older) who
consistently ride at speeds over 10 mph should be directed to riding on the streets
wherever possible.




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                                                             Chapter IV - Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs and Benefits


B. Traffic and Air Quality Benefits
This section of the Master Plan satisfies Section 891.2 (a) of the California Bicycle
Transportation Act.

Some of the goals and objectives in this Master Plan are related to increasing the number
of local bicycle commuters in order to help achieve transportation goals, such as
minimizing traffic congestion and air pollution. In order to set the framework for these
benefits, national statistics and policies are used as a basis for determining the benefits to
Oxnard. Some of the statistics are summarized below:

•   Currently, nearly 3 million adults in the United States (about 1 in 60) commute by
    bicycle. According to the 1991 Lou Harris Poll, this number could rise to 35 million
    if adequate facilities were provided .

•   Mode split refers to the transportation choice people make for work and non-work
    trips. Currently, the average household in the U.S. generates about 10 vehicle trips
    per day. Work trips generally account for less than 30% of these trips.

•   The 2000 census indicates that the population of Oxnard is about 177,700. Just under
    1% of all employed Oxnard residents (about 1,000) commute primarily by bicycle.
    This does not include those who ride less than 50% of the time, nor does it always
    include those who may ride to transit and list “transit” as their primary mode. The
    census does not indicate how many people walk to work, but the number is assumed
    to be significant due to the proximity of neighborhoods to employment opportunities
    in Oxnard. Also, an afternoon spent on the Third Street bridge can confirm the high
    level of pedestrian activity.

•   The U.S. Department of Transportation publication entitled “National Walking and
    Bicycling Study” (1995) established a national goal of doubling the current walk and
    bicycling mode shares by the year 2010, assuming that a comprehensive bicycle system
    was in place. This would translate into a commute mode share of at least 2% or about
    2,000 commuters in Oxnard. Add to this number commuters who bicycle occasionally,
    bike-to-transit, and students at local schools, (who are not accurately reported in the
    census) and the average number of daily commuters in Oxnard could increase even
    more by 2010. These bicyclists would be saving an estimated 220,000 vehicle trips and
    350,000 vehicle miles per year. The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District
    (APCD) was contacted to discuss the potential air quality benefits that could result from
    this increase in bicycle commuters. The APCD staff indicated that an URBEMI570
    model would need to be utilized to specifically calculate the benefits, but indicated that
    this increase would lead to reductions in reactive organic gases (ROG) and nitrogen
    oxides (NOx) air pollution.

•   Bicycling is one of the most popular forms of recreational activity in the U.S., with
    46% of Americans bicycling for pleasure. These figures indicate that about 78,365
    residents in Oxnard do, or would like to, bicycle for pleasure. If nothing else, this

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                                                             Chapter IV - Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs and Benefits


    indicates an underlying demand for facilities and a potent constituency to push for
    better facilities. Another way of saying this is, “if you build it, they will come.”

C. Recreational Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs
The needs of recreational bicyclists and pedestrians (including joggers) in Oxnard must be
understood prior to planning and developing a complete network of facilities. While it is
not possible to serve every neighborhood street and every need with a physical facility, an
effective plan integrates recreational needs to the extent possible. The following points
summarize recreational needs:

•   Recreational walkers include those who walk for personal or fitness reasons, as well as
    shoppers and tourists. These walkers prefer safe, scenic routes with minimal traffic.
    Well-marked signs with information leading to major destinations are preferred. The
    recreational walker will benefit most from Class I bike and pedestrian paths.

•   Recreational bicycling and walking trips in Oxnard can be classified into one of three
    categories: (1) exercise, (2) non-work destination trips such as going to a park or
    shopping, or (3) touring.

•   Recreational users range from healthy adults to children to senior citizens. Each
    group has their own abilities, interests, and needs.

•   Directness of route is typically less important than routes with less traffic conflicts.
    Visual interest, shade, protection from wind, moderate topography, or other features
    are more important.

•   People exercising or touring often (though not always) prefer a loop route rather than
    having to backtrack over the same facilities.

D. Collision Analysis
Bicycle and pedestrian-related collision information was obtained from the City for the
years 1997-2000. The information indicates that a total of 298 pedestrian and 355
bicycle collisions occurred during this time period. Three of the combined 653 collisions
were fatalities. Compared with other communities in California of the same population
size, Oxnard was 4th out of 45 for pedestrians and 16th out of 45 for bike riders ranking by
number of injuries in 1999 (lower ranking numbers indicate a worse situation). The table
below summarizes this collision information:

                   Year          Pedestrian Collisions        Bicycle Collisions
                   2000                   95                         108
                   1999                   90                          85
                   1998                   62                          94
                   1997                   82                         100


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                                                             Chapter IV - Bicycle and Pedestrian Needs and Benefits




Some of the most frequent location and number of bicycle-related collisions that occurred
between 1997 and 2001 are presented below:

•   Fifth Street and Ventura Road (8)
•   Oxnard Boulevard and Wooley Road (7)
•   Ventura Road and Channel Islands Boulevard (6)
•   Channel Islands Boulevard and Victoria Avenue (6)

Some of the most frequent locations and number of pedestrian-related collisions that
occurred between 1997 and 2001 are presented below:

•   Oxnard Boulevard and Fifth Street (5)
•   Ventura Road and Gonzales Road (2)
•   Ventura Road and Fifth Street (2)
•   Saviers Road and Channel Islands Boulevard (2)

The collision data indicates that a high proportion of the collisions occurred along
Oxnard’s major arterials and occurred on weekdays more often than on weekends.

Figure 1 illustrates the most frequent bicycle and pedestrian-related collision locations in
Oxnard between 1997 and 2001. It should be noted that not all of the 653 reported
collisions are illustrated in the figure.

The recommended bicycle and pedestrian facilities serve as an attempt to address these
problem areas by identifying specific improvements (including safety and education
improvements) and/or providing alternative routes. Stricter enforcement of traffic laws
can also help to improve the problem areas.


E. Best Practice Research
Innovative bicycle and pedestrian facility projects in other U.S. cities were researched to
help determine what other communities are doing to develop a complete network of
facilities. Because bicycle and pedestrian facilities can help define the image of a
community, it is important to know what is working and what is not working.

Projects like paved blue bike lanes in Portland, Bike Depots in Denver, and on-road trails
in San Luis Obispo may not be applicable in Oxnard because of the smaller population or
lower current use. However, many of the strategies that work in smaller university
towns, such as Davis, California, may be appropriate. The research was used in this
Master Plan to help identify all facility possibilities. Ordinances from other communities
were also researched. Appendix C of this report provides the results of the “Best
Practice” research.



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                                                             Chapter V - Existing Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


V. EXISTING BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES
This Chapter describes the location of existing bicycle and pedestrian facilities within the
City of Oxnard as of February 2002. In addition to the facility locations, the following
existing conditions were evaluated to help determine where new facilities should be
added:
• Land use and development patterns
• Location of trip destinations and
    activity centers
• The level of bicycle and pedestrian
    commuters
• Bicycle parking facilities
• Proposed bicycle and pedestrian
    facilities identified in other plans
• Transit connections

This section of the Master Plan satisfies Section 891.2. (b)-(e) of the California Bicycle
Transportation Act.

A. Land Use Conditions
Project Setting
Located on the Pacific Coast of California, Oxnard is approximately 60 miles northwest
of downtown Los Angeles and 35 miles south of Santa Barbara. The area encompassed
by the incorporated limits of the City of Oxnard is 24.84 square miles in which
approximately 177,700 people reside. The City is accessible by U.S. Highway 101, the
Pacific Coast Highway (SR-1 north-south) and Highways 34 (east-west) and 232 (north-
south). Oxnard also enjoys close proximity to rail, water, air, and mass transit
transportation modes.

Bicycle and Pedestrian Trip Destinations and Activity Generators
Figure 2 illustrates the significant trip destinations and activity generators within Oxnard.
The figure also illustrates SCAT bus routes and identifies the entire downtown area as
one destination. The paragraphs below describe the different areas.

Residential Areas
Large or concentrated residential areas serve as both the origin and destination for most
bicycle and pedestrian trips. Major residential areas are located throughout the City.
Figure 3 illustrates the boundaries of neighborhoods within Oxnard.

Schools
Many school children walk or bicycle to school as their primary means of transportation.
Safe routes between adjacent residential areas and schools are important for student
safety and could reduce vehicular trips by parents who drop off and pick up their children
at school. These issues apply to all schools, including intermediate and high schools.


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                                                           Chapter V - Existing Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


College students also walk or bike to school. This creates a demand for bicycle and
pedestrian facilities such as bicycle racks, lockers, and even showers and changing
facilities in and around Oxnard Community College. The need for these same facilities
may arise as enrollment increases at California State University at Channel Islands.

Shopping Centers
Shopping centers are a destination for bicyclists and pedestrians. The downtown, areas
along US 101, and the commercial areas along Oxnard Boulevard and Saviers Road are
primary shopping areas. Other smaller shopping areas are located on the edges of
neighborhoods.

Public Buildings
Most of the public buildings in Oxnard are located downtown in the Civic Center. The
Oxnard Transportation Center is located near Oxnard Boulevard and Meta Street in
downtown, near the Civic Center. The main library is located next to City Hall. These
public buildings are destination points for bicyclists and pedestrians in Oxnard.

Major Employment Centers
Retail sales, education, medical care, and government are the four largest areas of
employment in Oxnard. The larger employment centers are located along US 101 and
just southeast of the downtown area, where there are some industrial and warehousing
facilities.

Recreational Areas
There are numerous sports and recreational activity areas within the City, including
beaches, parks, a harbor with boating facilities, fishing, swimming, and a golf course.
The major recreational attractions in Oxnard are the beach and the harbor, which attract
visitors from throughout the region.

B. Existing (2002) Facilities
Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities
The vast majority of existing
facilities in Oxnard are bicycle
lanes (Class II facilities) that
provide designated, striped lanes
within roadways. There are also
several Class I paths that are
separated from the roadways and
some Class III bicycle routes that
are only signed for bicycle travel.

Field surveys and discussions with City staff helped to determine where designated
bicycle and pedestrian facilities currently exist throughout Oxnard. The existing bicycle
and pedestrian facilities are illustrated in Figure 4.


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                                                               Chapter V - Existing Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


Regional Bicycle Facilities
Bicycle facilities that serve the regional area include the Pacific Coast Bikeway Route
which runs along Hueneme Road, J Street, Channel Islands Boulevard, and Harbor
Boulevard. Other regional facilities are only partially developed - segments are missing -
but the segments provide the initial groundwork for future efforts to complete
development of additional regional facilities. The Ventura County Transportation
Commission (VCTC) publishes an on-line bike map illustrating regional facilities at:
www.goventura.org

Existing Bicycle Parking Facilities
Some bicycle racks and lockers are
provided at larger public and private
employment buildings, but no
comprehensive effort has been
undertaken to standardize facilities or
to provide parking facilities at trip
destinations and activity centers
within Oxnard. Bicycle parking has
been required by the City’s Zoning
Ordinance for all new development
built after 1984 (Oxnard City Code
Sec. 36-7.1.10, 36-7.1.18, 37-4.5.0).
The bicycle parking requirements
from the City Code are provided in
Appendix D of this report.

However, there are currently no consistent design standards, and the resident survey
results indicate that there are not enough racks provided at common destinations, such as
shopping areas and in the downtown area.




                     The recently constructed Class I Facility along
                                   Oxnard Boulevard

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                                                             Chapter V - Existing Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


C. Existing Multi-Modal Connections
This section of the Master Plan responds to requirements from Section 891.2.(e) of the
California Bicycle Transportation Act. According to the Act, transportation on “other”
modes is defined as: “parking facilities at transit stops, rail and transit terminals, ferry
docks and landings, park and ride lots…”

An integral part of every bicycle and pedestrian system is the support facilities that aid
cyclists and pedestrians at multi-modal connections. These facilities include bike racks
on busses, trains, and other transit vehicles, bike parking at transit stations and stops, and
places of employment.

Existing Connections
Metrolink is southern California's commuter
train network, which connects commuters in
five counties with employment centers
throughout the region.       Bicyclists and
pedestrians may access Metrolink at the
Oxnard Transportation Center, where bicycle
racks/parking is provided. Bicycles are also
allowed on the trains where bike lock-down
equipment is located on the lower train level
of all Metrolink cars.

Amtrak trains allow bicycles on board. Some of the trains provide bike lock-
down/parking equipment, including the Pacific Surfliner route.

South Coast Area Transit (SCAT) is a publicly owned transit company that provides
service within and between the cities of Ojai, Oxnard, Port Hueneme, San Buenaventura
(Ventura) and the unincorporated Ventura County area. SCAT has stops throughout
Oxnard with all trips terminating at the Oxnard Transportation Center. SCAT buses all
have bicycle racks capable of carrying 2 bicycles. Harbor-to-Beaches Dial-A-Ride
vehicles also have bicycle racks.

Three different regional bus services are operated through the Ventura County
Transportation Commission (VCTC): Conejo Connection, VISTA, and the Santa Barbara
Coastal Express. All of these bus services allow bicycles on board and most buses are
equipped with bicycle racks.




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                                                        Chapter VI - Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


VI. RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

A. Creating a Complete Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility System
A bicycle and pedestrian ‘system’ is a network of lanes, paths and routes that provide a
superior level of service for bicyclists and pedestrians and/or are targeted for
improvements by the City due to existing deficiencies. It is important to recognize that,
by law, bicyclists are allowed on all streets and roads (except where specifically
prohibited) regardless of whether they are a part of the bikeway system. Definition of a
bicycle and pedestrian system allows the City to focus and prioritize implementation
efforts where they will provide the greatest community benefit.

The methodology used for defining the bicycle and pedestrian system for Oxnard was
based upon input from the community and City staff familiar with the best and most-used
routes, existing constraints and opportunities, and fieldwork to identify gaps.

The following information is typically used to define a bicycle and pedestrian network:

•   Existing bicycling and pedestrian patterns
•   Connectivity
•   Traffic volumes and travel speeds
•   Location of driveways, side streets and curb cuts
•   Curb-to-curb width
•   Pavement condition
•   Access from residential areas
•   Number of destinations served
•   Schools
•   Parks
•   Employment Centers
•   Topography
•   Integration into the regional system
•   Adjacent land use
•   On-street parking
•   Collision data and safety concerns
•   Existing bottlenecks or constraints
•   Planned roadway improvements

B. Recommended Facility Segments
The recommended new facilities were developed by focusing on facilities that would
connect existing segments of bike lanes and sidewalks, addressing routes used by
bicyclists and pedestrians, and focusing on specific regional and local access
opportunities. The grid street pattern and topography of Oxnard includes four primary
north-south corridors (on or along Oxnard Boulevard, Saviers Road, C Street, and


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                                                            Chapter VI - Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


Ventura Road), and three east-west corridors (on or along Gonzales Road, 5th Street, and
Wooley Road).

New bicycle and pedestrian facilities were identified through discussions with City staff,
the input received from the community, and field surveys. Other facilities were defined
by attempting to achieve the objectives of this Master Plan, such as closing gaps in the
existing network, providing for connections between activity centers and connecting
Oxnard with adjacent communities and sub-regions via regional routes.

The recommended bicycle and pedestrian facilities consist of gap closures and new links
that create a network along the major thoroughfares, plus other routes, lanes, and multi-
use paths that connect residential neighborhoods in Oxnard with schools, parks, libraries,
downtown, employment centers, shopping areas, and other destinations. This local
network is tied to a regional network, which includes the Pacific Coast Bikeway Route,
the Santa Clara River Levee Trail, and the Santa Clara Valley Trail.

Figure 5 illustrates the recommended bicycle and pedestrian facilities on the same base
map as Figure 4, which illustrated the existing (2002) bicycle and pedestrian facilities.
Together, the existing and recommended facilities form the 2020 network. Figure 6
illustrates the bicycle and pedestrian facilities recommended for the downtown area and
identifies some of the more significant destinations. Table 4 provides a description of
the recommended facility segments.

Some of the recommended pedestrian facilities are
improvements to existing paths or completion of sidewalks
where there are gaps at high-use locations. This includes a
portion of Oxnard Boulevard south of Vineyard Avenue,
another segment of Oxnard Boulevard south of Gonzales
Road, and on Rose Avenue between Oxnard Boulevard and
Ives Avenue. The pictures to the right and below illustrate
these locations.



                                                                             Oxnard Boulevard South of Vineyard




Oxnard Boulevard South of Gonzales Road




                                          Rose Avenue Between Oxnard Boulevard and Ives Avenue


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                             City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                Table 4 - Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Segments

             Segment                              Segment Location
                                                                                                         Improvement Description
               I.D.        Roadway/Corridor                     Between
                                                               CLASS I FACILITIES

                I-A           Ventura Road       Doris and Gonzales Road                         Construction of a new Class I path.

                I-B           Ventura Road       Channel Islands Blvd. and Wooley Road           Construction of a new Class I path.
                                                 Along UPRR, from Ventura Road to existing
               I-C1        UPRR / Oxnard Blvd.                                                   Construction of a new Class I path.
                                                 path south of Gonzales St.
                                                 Along Oxnard Boulevard, from south end of
               I-C2           Oxnard Blvd.                                                       Construction of a new Class I path.
                                                 existing path to Oxnard Transportation Center
                                                 Along Ventura County Railroad, from Oxnard
               I-C3        Ventura County RR                                                     Construction of a new Class I path.
                                                 Transportation Center to Port Hueneme Beach
                I-D            Fifth Street      Rose Avenue and eastern City boundary           Construction of a new Class I path.
                                               Next to West Bank of Canal,                       Construction of a new Class I path next to bank
                I-E           Edison Canal
                                               Harbor Blvd. to Oxnard Beach Park                 of canal
                           South Bank of Santa Harbor Boulevard to River Park, north of US-      Construction of a new Class I path next to bank
                I-F
                               Clara River     101                                               of river
                                                                                                 Construction of a new Class I path (dependent
                I-G        North Ventura Road    Vineyard Ave. to River Park, north of US-101
                                                                                                 upon widening of US-101 underpass under
                                                              CLASS II FACILITIES
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping only. No new
               II-A           Wooley Road        Mandalay Beach Road and Harbor Boulevard
                                                                                                 construction anticipated.
                                                                                                 Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May
               II-B            Fifth Street      Mandalay Beach Road and Victoria Rd.
                                                                                                 require ROW acquisition.
                                                 Mid-point segment between Victoria Rd. and      Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May
               II-C            Fifth Street
                                                 Patterson Rd.                                   require ROW acquisition.
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping only. No new
               II-D1           Fifth Street      Ventura Road and H Street
                                                                                                 construction anticipated.
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-D2           Fifth Street      H Street and Oxnard Boulevard
                                                                                                 parking space striping
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-D3           Fifth Street      Oxnard Boulevard to Rose Avenue
                                                                                                 anticipated
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping on both sides of roadway,
               II-E          Patterson Road      Fifth Street and Wooley Road
                                                                                                 widening required on west side of roadway only
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-F              C Street        Ninth Street to Pleasant Valley Boulevard
                                                                                                 anticipated
                             Channel Islands                                                     Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-G1                             Ventura Road and C Street
                               Boulevard                                                         parking space striping
                             Channel Islands                                                     Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May
               II-G2                             C Street and Saviers Road
                               Boulevard                                                         require ROW acquisition.
                             Channel Islands                                                     Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-G3                             Saviers Road and Rose Avenue
                               Boulevard                                                         parking space striping
                             Channel Islands                                                     Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-G4                             Dupont Street and Rice Avenue
                               Boulevard                                                         parking space striping
                                                                                                 Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May
               II-H1          Wooley Road        E Street and Saviers Road
                                                                                                 require ROW acquisition.
                                                                                                 Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May
               II-H2          Wooley Road        Saviers Road and Pacific Avenue
                                                                                                 require ROW acquisition.
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-H3          Wooley Road        Pacific Avenue and Rose Avenue
                                                                                                 anticipated
                                                                                                 Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-H4          Wooley Road        Rose Avenue and Rice Avenue
                                                                                                 anticipated
                                                                                                 Roadway widening required, may include ROW
               II-I1          Rose Avenue        Fifth Street and Wooley Road
                                                                                                 acquisition, bicycle lane striping




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                                Table 4 - Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Segments

             Segment                              Segment Location
                                                                                                        Improvement Description
               I.D.        Roadway/Corridor                     Between
                                                      CLASS II FACILITIES (continued)
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-I2          Rose Avenue       Wooley Road and Emerson Avenue
                                                                                               parking space striping
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-J1           Third Street     D Street and C Street
                                                                                               parking space striping
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-J2           Third Street     C Street and Oxnard Boulevard
                                                                                               parking space striping
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping and modification of
               II-J3           Third Street     Oxnard Boulevard and Rose Avenue
                                                                                               parking space striping
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-K           Cooper Street     Oxnard Boulevard and Juanita Avenue
                                                                                               anticipated
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-L          Gonzales Road      Oxnard Boulevard and C Street
                                                                                               anticipated
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-M         Harbor Boulevard    Edison Canal and Santa Clara River
                                                                                               anticipated
                                                                                               Roadway widening required, may include ROW
               II-N          Teal Club Road     Victoria Road and Ventura Road
                                                                                               acquisition, bicycle lane striping
                                                                                               Roadway widening required, may include ROW
               II-O           Doris Avenue      Patterson Road and Ventura Road
                                                                                               acquisition, bicycle lane striping
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-P        Pleasant Valley Road J Street and Pacific Coast Highway
                                                                                               anticipated
                                                Ventura County RR Trail (I-C3) to southern     Roadway widening required, may include ROW
               II-Q           Perkins Road
                                                terminus of roadway                            acquisition, bicycle lane striping
                                                                                               Bicycle lane striping. No new construction
               II-R         Oxnard Boulevard    Fifth Street and City Limits to south
                                                                                               anticipated
                                                                                               Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping.
               II-S          Patterson Road     Teal Club Road and Doris Avenue
                                                                                               May require ROW acquisition.

                                                Auto Center Drive to Gonsalez Street, minus    Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping.
               II-T           Rose Avenue
                                                existing facility on US-101 bridge             May require ROW acquisition.


               II-U          Camino Del Sol     Oxnard Blvd. to Juanita Avenue                 Bicycle lane striping on new roadway


                                                             CLASS III FACILITIES
               III-A       Mandalay Beach Rd. Oxnard Beach Park and Fifth Street               Unstriped bicycle route with signage

                                                Eastman Avenue and Pleasant Valley Road
               III-B           Rice Avenue      (existing rooadway) / Pleasant Valley Road and Unstriped bicycle route with signage
                                                Hueneme Road (planned roadway)

              III-C1             C Street       Magnolia Avenue and Fifth Street               Unstriped bicycle route with signage

              III-C2             C Street       Fifth Street and Seventh Street                Unstriped bicycle route with signage

              III-C3             C Street       Seventh Street and Ninth Street                Unstriped bicycle route with signage

                                                        SIDEWALK IMPROVEMENTS
                                                                                               New sidewalk / ramp improvements to connect
                            Oxnard Boulevard    South of Vineyard Avenue at frontage road
                                                                                               upper sidewalk with frontage road
                                                                                               New sidewalk / ramp improvements to connect
                            Oxnard Boulevard    South of Gonsalez Road at frontage road
                 -                                                                             upper sidewalk with frontage road
                                                                                               New sidewalk along soundwall on east side of
                              Rose Avenue       Between Oxnard Blvd. and Ives Avenue
                                                                                               Rose Avenue
                                                From south of Ventura Co. Flood Control        New sidewalk along east Ventura Road curb,
                              Ventura Road
                                                Channel to north of RR bridge                  over drainage canal and under RR bridge.




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                                                       Chapter VI - Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities


C. Recommended Bicycle Parking Facilities
Bicycle Parking at Public Destinations:
Parking facilities for bicycles should be provided at public destinations, including parks,
schools, the downtown area, the Oxnard Transportation Center, and the Civic Center. All
bicycle parking should be in a safe, secure, and covered area (if possible). The City should
provide for bicycle parking in City-owned public areas. Bicycle parking on sidewalks in
commercial areas should be provided and comply with specific design criteria that have
been reviewed by merchants and the public, and installed as demand warrants.

As a general rule, ‘U’ type racks bolted into the sidewalk work best on downtown sidewalks.
They can be located at a spacing of 250 feet or at specific bicycle destinations (such as bike
shops) at least 2 feet from the curb and between marked parking spaces, and leave a
minimum of 4 feet clear for pedestrians.

Bicycle Parking at Employment Areas
All new commercial development or redevelopment in excess of 5,000 gross leasable square
feet should be required to provide at least one bicycle parking space in an approved bicycle
rack for every 10 employees. All bicycle racks should be located in safe, secure, covered
areas, be anchored to the ground, and allow bicycles to lock both frame and wheels. The
technical appendix of this report provides photos and drawings of different bicycle parking
equipment.

Bicycle Parking at Non-Residential Land Uses
Bicycle parking for existing non-residential uses should be implemented through the
following two methods. (1) Require existing non-residential uses to provide bicycle parking
based upon the requirements described above as part of the building permit process. (2)
Subsidize the cost of bicycle parking through small advertisements on the racks themselves
and/or through grants from public or private sources.

Appendix D of this report contains the City’s existing zoning requirements for bicycle
parking and trip reduction measures.

D. Recommended End-of-Trip Amenities

The City of Oxnard is primarily a low-density city, with some major retail and employment
centers, a civic center, a marina and waterfront area, and educational facilities. These areas
represent trip destinations or activity generators that could be linked with bicycle and
pedestrian facilities. End-of-trip amenities, such as bike racks, drinking fountains, benches,
and informational kiosks should be provided.

Recommended Locations
End-of-trip amenities should be provided at the following destinations within Oxnard:

1. Channel Islands Harbor/Marina: This location is a major destination for recreational trips
   in Oxnard, and could be developed as the primary point of access to waterfront areas.


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2. Oxnard Financial Plaza: This commercial/office complex is a major employment area
   and includes 13 buildings. It is anchored by the 21-story Morgan Stanley Tower and the
   14-story City National Bank Tower.
3. The Esplanade: This recently reconstructed community/regional retail center represents
   one of the largest concentrations of retail activity in Oxnard.

4. Oxnard Civic Center: City Hall is located adjacent to other civic uses such as the Oxnard
   City Library and the Police Station.

5. Oxnard Transportation Center: This facility provides a park-and-ride, access to Metrolink
   commuter trains to and from Los Angeles, Amtrak interstate trains between Seattle and
   Los Angeles, Amtrak regional trains between San Luis Obispo and San Diego, and bus
   transit.

6. Oxnard Community College: This college is the largest educational facility in Oxnard.

7. Oxnard Adult School: This school provides technical training and career development.

8. Oxnard High School: This school lies outside of the existing City limits, but within a
   future planning area expected to be incorporated. It serves the northwest neighborhoods
   of Oxnard.

9. Channel Islands High School: This school serves the southeast neighborhoods of Oxnard.

10. Hueneme High School: This school lies near the boundary of the City of Port Hueneme,
    and serves the southern central neighborhoods of Oxnard.

11. Pacifica High School: This new school opened for the 2001-2002 school year. It serves
    the northeast neighborhoods of Oxnard.

12. River Park: This planned regional park is expected to be developed by Ventura County
    and will be located north of US-101, east of the Santa Clara River. This location has the
    potential to serve as a gateway for bicycle transportation between the Santa Clara River
    Valley and Oxnard.

The four high schools within Oxnard already provide parking facilities for bicycles, which are
often a standard amenity at high schools. Facility connections between residential and
commercial areas and the high school sites were considered in the development of the
recommended facilities.

Informational kiosks could provide information via maps and other postings. The maps should
include City and regional area bicycle and pedestrian routes, with planned routes noted. Safe
bicycling and walking rules for bicycle lanes and pedestrian facilities could also be provided.
Suggested bicycle and walking routes, with mileage and estimated time and phone numbers of
local bicycle repair shops, City contact information, and emergency numbers could also be
provided.



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Table 5 describes the bicycle and pedestrian amenities that should be provided at each of the
end-of-trip destinations identified above. Appendix E of this report provides examples of
end-of-trip facility amenities.


                           Table 5 - Recommended End-Of-Trip Amenities
                             Bicycle Parking     Suggested No. of                                       Other
 Location                         Type           Parking Spaces          Kiosk/ Signage                Amenities
                                                                        Kiosk, Area                Drinking
 Channel Islands            High Security,       50 total,
                                                                        Directional                fountain,
 Harbor/Marina              Low Volume           decentralized
                                                                        Signs                      Benches
 Oxnard Financial           Low Security,        70 total, 35 by
                                                                        None                       Benches
 Plaza                      Low Volume           each tower
                            High Security,       50 total, at           Kiosk, Store               Drinking
 Esplanade
                            High Volume          major points           Directory                  fountain
                            High Security,       30 total, near         Kiosk, Civic               Kiosk,
 Oxnard Civic Center
                            Low Volume           library access         Center Directory           Benches
 Oxnard Community           High Security,       100 total, at          Kiosk, Campus              Safety
 College                    Low Volume           major points           Info.                      Lighting
 Oxnard Adult               High Security,                                                         Safety
                                                 25 total               None
 School                     Low Volume                                                             Lighting
 Source: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.




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VII. BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITY DESIGN GUIDELINES

A. General Design Recommendations
In general, State and national design guidelines should be followed in the development of any
bicycle facility. Caltrans design standards are typically used for Class II facilities throughout
the state, and are often used nation-wide. The full Caltrans standards for bicycle facility
planning and design are provided in Appendix F of this report.

Other sources of national design guidelines for bicycle facilities have been developed by the
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and the
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The AASHTO 1999 Guide for the Development of
Bicycle Facilities and the December 2000 Edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MUTCD) are national standards regarding bicycle and pedestrian facilities.

Two approaches can be used to address typical Class II facility cross sections for roadways.
The first approach would provide one set of design standards applicable for all roadways. The
existing design standards would be removed and replaced with the new standards.
Recommended dimensions for each roadway component (i.e. travel lanes, bicycle lanes,
median, etc.) would be provided, but would include minimum widths if a right-of-way
constraint or special traffic condition existed. The second approach would include new design
standards for future roadways and use the existing design standards for existing roadways.
General design recommendations are described below:

Conform to Caltrans Design Guidelines
All designated Class I, II, or III bicycle facilities in Oxnard should conform to the Caltrans
Highway Design Manual. Where facilities do not meet this criteria, they should not be referred
to as a Class I, II, or III facility.

Adopt Caltrans Recommendations
The City should adopt Caltrans recommendations for sidewalk management. This includes the
use of stencils and signs to prohibit bicycle riding on sidewalks in areas where shop or car
doors open directly onto sidewalks, such as in the downtown area, and in areas where
sidewalks are located within shopping centers. The City should also adopt Caltrans
recommendations for bicycle facility signing and striping.

Implement Enforcement Measures
The City should implement enforcement measures targeted at bicyclists who ride in a reckless
manner on sidewalks. To provide a quantifiable enforcement tool for Police, the City should
consider implementing (at the City Traffic Engineer’s discretion) a City-wide ordinance for
posting appropriate signs to prohibit the riding of bicycles with a wheel diameter of 26 inches
or greater on sidewalks. The Police should be instructed to cite the bicyclists riding in a
reckless manner in areas where there have been complaints and in high pedestrian activity
areas. A warning should be handed out for the first infraction, including a letter sent to a
minor’s parents. On the second infraction, the police could fine the bicyclist (or a minor’s
parents). On a third infraction, the police could confiscate the bicycle.


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Install Signing and Stenciling
In high pedestrian activity areas where there has been a documented bicycle-pedestrian
collision pattern (and at the City Traffic Engineer’s discretion), the City should install
stenciling (such as “No Skateboarding, Biking or Skating on Sidewalk”) and signing (such as
“No Bicycling on Sidewalk”). This signing and stenciling would primarily be recommended
for commercial areas.

All bikeway signing on public roadways in Oxnard should conform to the signage identified in
the Caltrans Manual and/or the MUTCD. These documents provide specific information on the
type and location of signing for the bicycle network. A list of bikeway signs that are
recommended for Class I, II, and III facilities, including some of those specified in Caltrans and
the MUTCD, are provided in Appendix E.

Develop a Logo
The City should develop an Oxnard bicycle and pedestrian facility network logo for use along
all lanes, routes, paths, on maps, and at end-of-trip facilities.

Install Bikeway Signs Where Striping Is Not Feasible
The City should install bikeway signs that can be implemented easily compared to major
striping revisions or bike path construction. An example of where this applies is on existing
Class III bike routes where installation of several signs could complete a designated route.

B. Bicycle Facility Design Standards
Review of Existing Design Standards
The Caltrans Highway Design Manual, Chapter 1000: Bikeway Planning and Design serves as
the official design standard for all bicycle facilities in California. Design standards in Chapter
1000 fall into two categories: mandatory and advisory. Caltrans advises that all standards in
Chapter 1000 be followed, which also provides a measure of design immunity to the City. Not
all possible design options are shown in Chapter 1000. For example, intersections, ramp
entrances, rural roads, and a variety of pathway locations are not specified in the Caltrans
Highway Design Manual.

C.     Specific Design Guidelines

Limit the Number of Travel Lanes
An 80-foot right-of-way accommodates up to two through lanes in each direction and a center
turn lane. An 100-foot right-of-way accommodates up to three through lanes in each direction
and a turn lane. In certain situations, a roadway may be able to operate acceptably without
including the maximum number of travel lanes. By eliminating one travel lane in either one or
both directions, significant improvements can be made to the roadway for non-motorized users.
A potential cross section including one through travel lane in each direction and a raised
median is shown in the figure at the top of the next page. Advantages and disadvantages for
limiting the number of travel lanes are also listed on the following page.




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Advantages:
• Wide buffer between sidewalk and roadway
• Median is wide enough for pedestrian refuge at
   intersections

Disadvantages:
• Reduced roadway capacity for motorized traffic
                                                                 8
                                                                 8
                                                                  80’ Right-of-Way with One Lane
                                                                         in Each Direction
Reduced Travel Lanes to 10.5 Feet and/or Median to 10 Feet
Existing travel lanes are often reduced to 11 feet in existing design standards. In some
situations, it may be possible to reduce lanes even further to 10.5 feet. The AASHTO Green
Book (1194, page 335) includes the following:

"In some instances, on multiple lane facilities in urban areas, narrower inside lanes may be
utilized to permit wider outside lanes for the usage of bicyclists. In this situation, 3.0 m (10
foot) to 3.3 m (11 foot) lanes are common on inside lanes with 3.6 m (12 foot) to 3.9 m (13
foot) lanes utilized on outside lanes."

Reducing travel lanes to 10.5 feet creates additional space to be used for non-motorized users.
Reducing the median to 10 feet creates additional space. At intersections, the 10-foot median
would be converted to a 10-foot turn lane with a double yellow center stripe. A potential cross
section created by reducing travel lanes to 10.5 feet and the median to 10 feet is illustrated
below. Listed below are advantages and disadvantages of reducing the travel lane width to
10.5 feet and the raised median width to 10 feet.

Advantages:
• Buffer between the sidewalk and the roadway
• Two through lanes in each direction and a turn lane at
   intersections

Disadvantages:
• Narrow travel lanes may decrease roadway capacity
• 10-foot turn lane with no median at intersections
• Minimal buffer width
                                                                    80’ Right-of-Way With 10.5’
                                                                            Travel Lanes

Remove Center Turn Lanes
Some roadways in Oxnard do not include a center turn lane and operate acceptably. The figure
below shows a potential cross section for a four-lane roadway without a center turn lane. The
advantages and disadvantages for this cross section are provided on the following page.


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Advantages:
• Buffer between the sidewalk and the road-
   way
• Maintains two through lanes in each
   direction

Disadvantages:
• Lack of exclusive left turn lane may decrease
   roadway capacity
• Lack of exclusive left turn lanes may
   increase crashes
• Minimal buffer width
                                                                   80’ Right of Way without a Center
                                                                               Turn Lane

Taper Median Between Turn Pockets
The median functions as a separator of traffic and
it effectively reduces the number of conflicts for
motorized and non-motorized users. In sections
where there is not a turn lane, this median width
may be reduced. In order to protect left turning
vehicles the median should be widened to its full
width behind each turn pocket, but then could be
tapered according to AASHTO standards to a
narrower width. This narrowing of the median
width creates space for a buffer between the
sidewalk and the roadway. A schematic of this
alternative is illustrated to the right. Listed below
are advantages and disadvantages of reducing the
median width between intersections. It would be
possible to combine this scenario with one of the
scenarios listed previously and continue the buffer
through the intersection.

Advantages:
• Buffer between the sidewalk and the roadway
   for a section between intersections
• Two through lanes in each direction and a turn lane at intersections
• Skew of travel lanes may have “Traffic Calming” effect

Disadvantages:
• Distance between left turns needs to be approximately ¼ mile to create significant length of
   buffer (~700’)
• Buffer does not exist at intersections
• Skew of travel lanes may decrease roadway capacity


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Convert to One-Way Roadway
Converting a roadway to one-way traffic flow can create additional roadway capacity for
motorized and non-motorized users. Since all traffic is flowing in one direction, there is no
longer a potential need for a turn lane or raised median. Therefore, creating additional space to
be used for non-motorized users. One-way roadways are typically recommended in pairs that
form a one-way couplet. Additional detail on delineation guidelines for bicycle lanes on one-
way roadway is shown below. The following are advantages and disadvantages for this cross
section.

Advantages:
• Buffer between the sidewalk and the roadway
• Provides four through lanes in one direction
• Increases roadway capacity at intersections

Disadvantages:
• Confusing to some drivers
• Disliked by some business owners

Construct Interchange Treatments
Bikeway access across the US 101 Freeway should be improved by evaluating and treating
each of the US 101 Freeway Interchanges on an individual basis. Recommended right-turn
channelization techniques are provided in Appendix F of this report (Caltrans Highway Design
Manual, Figure 1003, 2C and 2E) and should be considered, with particular emphasis given to
the use of the dual right turn lane
configuration where appropriate.

Construct Facilities on Future Roadways
A bicycle lane and a buffer/utility corridor
should be included in the typical cross
sections for any future roadways.         The
proposed cross section for 4-lane, 6-lane and
8-lane roadways is illustrated to the right.
The 8-lane cross section shows how
pedestrians    and     bicyclists   can    be
accommodated on such a facility. However,
an 8-lane cross section is not recommended
due to increased crossing distance for
pedestrians and should be avoided whenever
possible.

The area between the edge of pavement and
the right-of-way line on new roadways should
include 12 feet on all future roadways. This 12-foot area includes 2 feet of curb and gutter and
a minimum 5-foot sidewalk.

The guidelines on the following pages present the recommended minimum design standards
and ancillary support items for bicycle facilities.

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Class I Facilities
Multi-use trails and unpaved facilities that serve primarily a recreation rather than a
transportation function and will not be funded with federal transportation dollars may not need
to be designed to Caltrans standards.

Class I bike path roadway crossings require preliminary design review. Generally speaking,
bike paths that cross roadways with Average Daily Traffic (ADT) volumes over 20,000
vehicles will require signalization or grade separation. No multi-use trails are proposed to
cross a major arterial at an unprotected location with ADTs over 20,000 vehicles in Oxnard.

Landscaping along Class I facilities should generally utilize minimal irrigation water through
the use of native vegetation.

Lighting should be provided where commuters constitute a large proportion of the users along a
particular bike path segment.

Barriers at pathway entrances should be clearly marked with reflectors and ADA accessible
(minimum 5 feet clearance).

Bike path construction should take into account impacts of maintenance and emergency
vehicles on shoulders and vertical requirements.

Unpaved shoulders for pedestrians/runners, or a separate tread way width of 2 feet should be
provided where feasible. Pedestrians should be directed to the right side of pathway with
signing and stenciling.

Adequate trailhead parking and other facilities such as restrooms, and drinking fountains
should be provided at appropriate locations.

Class II Facilities

Shared Roadways
A wider outside lane allows a motorist to safely pass a
cyclist while remaining in the same lane and this can be a
significant benefit and improvement for cyclists,
especially more experienced riders. A wider outside lane
also helps vehicles turning onto the major road from a
driveway or side street. Continuous stretches of lane
over 15 feet wide may encourage the undesirable
operation of two motor vehicles in one lane. Where this
much width is available, consideration should be given to
striping bicycle lanes or shoulders.




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Signed Shared Roadways (Bicycle Route)
There are two types of signs that can be used for shared roadways. Local agencies can obtain
permission from the Federal Highway Administration to experiment with the installation of
“Share the Road” signs. Standard green and white bicycle route guide signage exists in a few
locations in Ventura County.

Shared use roadway guide signing should include information on distance, direction and
destination, and should not end at a barrier such as a major intersection or narrow bridge. In
addition the AASHTO Guide recommends that signs be located every ¼ mile and at every turn,
both to mark the turn but also to confirm that the rider has made the correct turn.

Bicycle Lanes
Bicycle lanes are defined as "a portion of the roadway
that has been designated by striping, signing and
pavement marking for the preferential or exclusive use by
bicyclists". Bicycle lanes make the movements of both
motorists and bicyclists more predictable and as with
other bicycle facilities there are advantages to all road
users in striping them on the roadway.

On-street bicycle lanes should be one-way facilities,
placed on the right side of the roadway, and carry bicycle
traffic in the same direction as adjacent motor vehicle
traffic. The recommended bicycle lane legend is shown
at right. The legend should be placed at intersections as
shown in the design guidelines for intersections.
                                                                  Recommended Bicycle Lane Legend

Additional designation between intersections is typically not required and should only be
placed in locations where additional signage is determined to be necessary.

Caltrans bicycle route standards require a shoulder area of 12 feet in width. This provides eight
feet of width for parking, and four feet of width for the bicycle lane. In urbanized areas where
parking areas are often striped, a minimum width of five feet for a bicycle lane is required.

Critical Dimensions of Bicycle Lane:
• 4 feet : minimum width of bicycle lane on roadways with no curb and gutter or those with
    curbs and no on-street parking (measured from travel lane stripe to edge of
    pavement/gutter)
• 5 feet (1.5m): minimum width of bicycle lane when adjacent to parking

Bicycle lane stripe width:
• 6-inch (150mm): solid white line separating bicycle lane from motor vehicle lane (raised to
   8-inches (200mm) for emphasis at intersections with exclusive right turn lanes
• 4-inch (100mm): solid white line separating the bicycle lane from parking spaces

Recommended guidelines that apply to one-way roadways are provided in Figure 7.

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              Figure 7 - Bicycle Lane Delineation on One-Way Street




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Channelization islands are recommended in all locations where there is an exclusive right turn
lane. The median island reduces the distance needed for pedestrians to cross the intersection
and therefore reduces the pedestrian crossing time. Figure 8 provides the dimensions for the
median island and the curb radius.

Figure 9 shows typical striping of a six-lane roadway as it approaches an intersection. Figures
10 and 11 show the recommended bicycle lane striping at an intersection. Figure 12 displays
the recommended bicycle lane striping for a right turn lane drop. In locations with a high
volume of bicycle ridership, it may be preferable to dash the bicycle lane striping and color the
pavement in the bicycle lane across the lane drop. Figure 13 illustrates a flashing beacon
design for an exclusive right turn lane.

Bicycle lane striping should not be continued across any pedestrian crosswalks, or through
most intersections. Striping should cease at the painted crosswalk and resume at the same point
on the other side of the intersection. If no crosswalks exists, it is recommended that striping
should stop at the near side curb return and resume at the far side curb return.

Bicycle lanes at T-intersections are treated slightly different than intersections that have four
approaches. When there are no painted crosswalks, the bicycle striping on the side across from
the T-intersection should continue through the intersection area with no break. It there are
painted crosswalks, the bicycle lane striping on the side across from the T-intersection should
be discontinued only at the crosswalk.

Crosswalk Guidelines
A crosswalk striping design is provided in Figure 14. Enhanced crosswalk design may be
used where substantial number of pedestrians cross without any other traffic control device, at
locations where physical conditions are such that added visibility of the crosswalk is desired, or
at places where a pedestrian crosswalk might not be expected.




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                      Figure 8 - Channelization for an Exclusive Right Turn Lane




 Source: Bicycle Technical Guidelines, A Guide for Local Agencies in Santa Clara County, Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and
                             Handbook for Walkable Communities, Dan Burden and Michael Wallwork, P.E.




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              Figure 9 - Intersection Detail for 6-Lane Roadways




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              Figure 10 - Bicycle Lane Striping at an Intersection




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              Figure 11 - Bicycle Lane Striping at Departure from an Intersection




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              Figure 12 - Bicycle Lane Striping at a Right Turn Drop Lane
                Source: Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, Oregon Department of Transportation. 1995.




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       Figure 13 - Flashing Beacon for Bicycle Lane at Exclusive Right Turn Lane *

                   Note: * “SW-1” sign designation is for a “Cross-Traffic Does Not Stop” warning sign

  Source: Bicycle Technical Guidelines, A Guide for Local Agencies in Santa Clara County, Santa Clara Valley Transportation
                                                          Authority.




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                 Enhanced Crosswalk (Piano Key) Striping Dimensions




           Alternative Enhanced                           Pedestrian Scramble Crossing
         Types of Crosswalk Striping




                       Figure 14: Enhanced Crosswalk Examples




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D. Pedestrian Facilities Design Guidelines
Pedestrians are an integral part of Oxnard’s transportation system. The importance of good
design not only applies to development of new facilities, but also to improvement and retrofit
of existing facilities for pedestrian use. When pedestrian access is expanded and existing
conditions for pedestrians are improved, higher numbers of pedestrians can be expected to use
the system. Research has shown that well designed and maintained pedestrian facilities
encourage walking and promote higher levels of pedestrian travel.

Pedestrians want facilities that are safe, attractive, convenient and easy to use. If designed
properly, the best public pedestrian facilities can also be the most durable and the easiest to
maintain. Poor design of pedestrian facilities can lead to perpetual problems and can actually
discourage use if pedestrians are made to feel unsafe, unprotected or uncomfortable.
Unattractive, inadequate and poorly designed and maintained facilities can be an unfortunate
waste of money and resources and a hindrance to community vitality.

Consider the character and setting of the area, nearby land use densities, origins and
destinations, and the level of pedestrian use, including the increase in use that may occur when
pedestrian improvements are installed. Often, decisions not to install pedestrian facilities are
short sighted, based on the perception that an area with low pedestrian use does not need
improvement. In reality, pedestrians are probably not using the system because it is not
adequately meeting their needs under existing conditions. Sometimes land use changes and
facilities need to be upgraded to serve more intensive pedestrian travel. After conditions are
improved, pedestrian use can almost always be expected to increase, based on recent research
findings. . Education and enforcement are other important tools that heighten awareness of
pedestrians. Pro-active statewide, regional, and local policy development typically sets the
state for establishing a stronger focus on pedestrian issues and encouraging communities to
better meet pedestrian needs.

Good design is an important factor in incorporating pedestrians into Oxnard’s transportation
system, but it cannot be expected to solve all pedestrian-related problems. The Caltrans
Highway Design Manual (HDM) provides design guidelines that most agencies use for the
design of Class I facilities. In fact, if Federal funds are used for projects, Caltrans HDM
guidelines are required. AASHTO also provides Class I facility design guidelines that some
public agencies use when projects are not funded with Federal dollars, and when the location of
the improvement cannot accommodate the HDM guidelines. The paragraphs below provide
some of the AASHTO design guidelines that are exceptions to the HDM guidelines

Shared Use Paths
Shared use paths give users an exclusive right-of-way, typically are designed as a two-way path
and try to minimize crossings with motor vehicles. Therefore, design standards for these
pathways include additional design requirements because they are not part of an existing
roadway network.




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Width and Clearance and Critical Measurements
• 12 feet is the recommended width for a two-way shared use path on a separate right of way.
• Eight feet may be used where bicycle traffic is expected to be low at all times, pedestrian
   use is only occasional, sightlines are good, passing opportunities are provided, and
   maintenance vehicles will not destroy the edge of the trail.
• 14 feet is recommended where substantial use by bicycles, joggers, skaters, and pedestrians
   is expected, and where grades are steep.
• Two feet of graded area should be maintained adjacent to both sides of the path.
• Three feet of clear distance should be maintained between the edge of the trail and trees,
   poles, walls, fences, guardrails or other lateral obstructions.
• Eight feet of vertical clearance to obstructions should be maintained; a minimum height of
   10 feet should be provided in tunnels and where maintenance and emergency vehicles must
   operate.

Design Speed, Horizontal and Vertical Alignment
The design of a shared use path should take into account the operating speeds and maneuvering
characteristics for bicyclists to negotiate turns and tight corners. The AASHTO Guide for the
Design of Bicycle Facilities has a number of tables and equations to help designers meet the
tolerances of a bicyclist based on the following key numbers:

•   20 miles per hour is the minimum design speed for designing a trail.
•   30 miles per hour should be used where downgrades exceed 4 percent.
•   15 miles per hour should be used on unpaved paths where bicyclists tend to ride more
    slowly.

Grade
A critical factor in trail design is the grade or slope of the path. Generally, grades greater than 5
percent (one feet of climbing for every 20 feet traveled forward) are undesirable because they
are difficult for bicyclists to climb and may cause riders to travel downhill at a speed where
they cannot control their bicycle. However, recognizing that trails will not always be flat, the
AASHTO Guide offers the following suggested lengths for certain grades:

•   5-6 percent is acceptable for up to 800 feet.
•   7 percent is acceptable for up to 400 feet.
•   8 percent is acceptable for up to 300 feet.
•   9 percent is acceptable for up to 200 feet.
•   10 percent is acceptable for up to 100 feet.
•   11 percent plus is acceptable for up to 50 feet.

Suggestions are offered for ways to mitigate the impact of steeper slopes, such as:

•   Adding 4-6 feet of additional width to the trail to allow enough space for a cyclist to
    dismount and walk their bicycle without blocking the trail, or to allow cyclists to pass each
    other
•   Alerting cyclists to the approaching grade with appropriate signs and markings


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•   Exceeding the usual minimum stopping sight distances to allow for higher speeds
•   Exceeding the usual minimum thresholds for providing recovery areas, railings
•   Using a series of short switchbacks to contain the speed of descending riders

Sight Distances
The ability of a cyclist to stop or slow down in order to avoid a collision or crash is influenced
by many factors. The rider must have time to identify a potential problem and react
accordingly, which means that they must be able to see upcoming intersections or sharp corners
in plenty of time, even when they are traveling at the design speed of the trail. The bicycle itself
must be able to be stopped or brought under control in time, which is affected by variables,
such as braking ability of the bicycle, the surface material, and the weather. Once again, the
AASHTO Guide and state/local manuals have tables and charts to enable the designer to
calculate the appropriate sight distances in a range of situations.

Drainage
The AASHTO Guide recommends a minimum cross slope of 2 percent – and the need to make
trails accessible to people using wheelchairs argues against a cross slope greater than 3 percent
– to provide adequate drainage. Other considerations to ensure adequate drainage include:

•   Slope the trail in one direction rather than having a crown in the middle of the trail
•   Ensure a smooth surface to prevent pooling and ice formation
•   Place a ditch on the upside of a trail constructed on the side of a hill
•   Place drainage grates, utility covers etc out of the travel path of bicyclists
•   Preserve natural ground cover adjacent to the trail to inhibit erosion

Surface
Another important consideration is the type of surface that will be used. A hard surface, such as
cement or asphalt, will generally allow cyclists to operate at a faster speed, but may not be as
popular with joggers and is more expensive to install. A soft surface trail will discourage or
prevent in-line skating but may enable horseback riders to share the trail and is less expensive
to install. Factors such as weather conditions and soil types can affect the choice of asphalt,
concrete, or crushed rock.

Structures
 One of the advantages and features of trails along former railroad corridors is that they often
have grade separated intersections with the highway system, and have bridges to carry them
over rivers or stream valleys. However, not all corridors have this asset and structures of all
kinds are needed to carry trail users under or over obstacles such as highways, rivers and
freeways. The critical dimensions to use in designing underpasses, overpasses, bridges and
tunnels, include:

•   The minimum width of the trail (usually 10 feet) should be maintained through the structure
•   The clear distance of two feet on either side of the trail surface should also be maintained;
    through the structure - otherwise, riders will tend to ride in the center of the trail to stay
    away from the wall or railing of the structure



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•   An overhead clearance of 10 feet (8 feet with good horizontal and vertical clearance, good
    sightlines etc) should be maintained through an underpass or tunnel
•   Railings, fences or barriers on both sides of a path on a structure should be at least 42
    inches (1.1m) high, and where they are higher than this a rub rail should be provided at the
    approximate handlebar height of 42 inches
•   Clearances should allow for maintenance and emergency vehicles, as should the strength of
    the bridge

Obstacles such as major highways or rivers are hard to overcome and present the designer with
many challenges. However, unless obstacles such as these are overcome, paths have limited
value and use. Among the issues are recommending an underpass or overpass. Underpasses are
generally less expensive than overpasses and require less change in grade and a clearance
height of only 10 feet is required. However, they may present security problems due to reduced
visibility and drainage problems – both of which can be expensive to fix.

Overpasses are more open and present fewer security problems but they require much longer
approaches to achieve the minimum 17 feet of clearance from a roadway, and they are often
more expensive.

Lighting
 Shared use paths in urban and suburban areas often serve travel needs both day and night, for
example commuter routes and trails accessing college campuses. Fixed source lighting
improves visibility along trails and at intersections, and is critical for lighting tunnels and
underpasses. The AASHTO guide recommends using average maintained illumination levels of
between 5 and 22 lux.

Centerline Striping
Centerline striping is not recommended as a standard on a shared use path. Centerline striping
is recommended at locations where there are obstructions in the roadway (first preference is to
remove obstruction) or sight distance issues. In these situations, a solid yellow line should be
used to indicate no passing and no traveling to the left of the line. In certain situations, it may
be desirable to designate separate lanes with passing permitted. In that case, a broken yellow
line should be used with the usual 1-to-3 segment-to-gap ratio. A nominal 3 foot segment with
a 9 foot gap should be used.

Figures 15 through 20 illustrate some design guidelines for shared use paths.

Appendix G to this report contains information about bicycle and pedestrian design treatments.




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                            Figure 15– Shared Use Path Cross Section
                   Source: Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, AASHTO, 1999.




              Figure 16– Shared Use Path and 5 Foot Unpaved Path Cross Section
        Source: River Mountains Loop Trail Guidelines, 2001. Illustration Bill Rowe, City of Henderson.


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              Figure 17– Signage for a Railroad Crossing
                          Source: MUTCD 2000.




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              Figure 18 – Typical Signage and Marking for a Shared Use Path
                                                Source: MUTCD 2000.



              Note: See Figure 20 for a median refuge detail for all crossings of 4-lane roadways or greater




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          Figure 19 – Median Refuge for Roadway Crossing by Shared Use Path
                Source: Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, AASHTO, 1999.




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              Figure 20 – Centerline Striping for Shared Use Paths
                               Source: MUTCD 2000.




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Enhanced Sidewalk
Enhanced sidewalks are designed to encourage pedestrian travel, and are intended for
pedestrians but not bicyclists. To encourage pedestrian travel, a buffer/utility corridor is
recommended along roadways between the curb and sidewalk. Studies have shown that
this buffer also increases a pedestrian’s perception of safety. The cross-section for
enhanced sidewalks can vary and should provide for flexibility. The sidewalk pavement
width can vary, and be wider than 5 feet if there is little or no planting. However,
planting is recommended because it helps provide for a better buffer area. Enhanced
sidewalks also allow for an unobstructed pedestrian right-of-way by allowing signs,
utility poles and other street furniture to be located in the buffer/utility corridor.

The existing City sidewalk standard includes an 8-foot wide planter area and a 5-foot
wide sidewalk on residential streets. It is recommended that this standard be maintained
for residential areas. However, the sidewalk corridors in the downtown area should be
wider than in the residential areas, because of the existence of more signposts, utility
poles/boxes and street furniture. Therefore, a 10-foot wide corridor with a minimum 5-
foot sidewalk is recommended for any new roadway or sidewalk construction downtown.

Table 6 summarizes the existing and recommended dimensions for sidewalks on
different City roadway facilities. The only recommended changes are to have a minimum
planting/buffer width of 5-feet on primary and secondary arterials.


E. Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Treatments
There are a variety of improvements that can enhance the safety and attraction of
roadways for bicyclists and pedestrians. This includes traffic calming measures, urban
design features, lighting and street parking modifications, as well as others. Descriptions
and example drawings of these treatments are provided in Appendix F of this report.




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          Table 6 – Existing and Recommended Dimensions for Sidewalks
                                                                                 Minor
                           Primary     Secondary         Residential
                                                                               Residential
                           Arterial     Arterial           Street
                                                                                 Street
      Right-of-Way        Varies –     Varies –
                          Typically    Typically             66 ft.                  62 ft.
                           158 ft.      138 ft.
      Width of Roadway      84 ft.       64 ft.              40 ft.                  36 ft.
      Width of Median      14 ft.       14 ft.               N/A                      NA
      Sidewalk Widths
       Existing              5 ft.        5 ft.      5 ft.                           5 ft.
       Recommended           5 ft.        5 ft.      5 ft.                           5 ft.
                             Planting/Buffer Width
        Existing         Varies       Varies     8 ft.                       8 ft.
        Recommended      5 ft.        5 ft.      8 ft.                       8 ft.
                         minimum minimum
      Location
       Existing          Both Sides    Both Sides        Both Sides          Both Sides
       Recommended       Both Sides    Both Sides        Both Sides          Both Sides




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F. Pedestrian Enhancement Areas
Although there are pedestrian facilities (sidewalks) all throughout Oxnard, two distinct
types of pedestrian areas have been defined for specific pedestrian enhancements. The
two areas are the Downtown District and areas around schools.

                               Downtown District Area
                               Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk defined the
                               boundaries of the downtown in the Oxnard Downtown
                               District Master Plan.       This Bicycle and Pedestrian
                               Facilities Master Plan has expanded the Downtown
                               District boundary north to Cooper St. and east to include
                               the Oxnard Transportation Center.          Currently, the
                               composition of the downtown area has potential to
                               become a thriving local destination. An existing fabric of
                               historic building facades, parks, and public places are all
                               centrally located and can be reached within an easy five-
                               minute walk. However, there are gaps between these
                               destinations. In order to fill in the gaps and make the
                               downtown a more desirable and walkable location, the
                               following list of enhancement tools has been developed
                               for the City to consider in order to improve the pedestrian
                               atmosphere.

Downtown Pedestrian Enhancement Tools
• Bulb outs at cross-walks
• Pedestrian activated signals
• Enhanced paving treatments
• Mid-block crossings
• Widen sidewalks and walkways
• Mini-plazas and public gathering space
• Street furniture – bike racks, benches, lighting, fountains, etc.
• Street trees
• Roadway lighting improvements
• Signal enhancements
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accessible ramps
• Reduce number of vehicle travel lanes
• Diagonal pedestrian crossings (scramble crossings)
• Bicycle parking
• Pedestrian connections between buildings

Descriptions of some of these enhancements are provided in Appendix H of this report.
Figure 21 illustrates some typical pedestrian enhancements that would make the
pedestrian system in the Downtown District area more effective.




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School Areas
Areas around elementary, junior and senior high schools typically have a high level of
pedestrian activity. Unfortunately, they also have a high level of vehicular activity.
Pedestrian enhancements around school areas could help to separate these conflicting
activities.  A quarter-mile perimeter pedestrian enhancement area around each
elementary, junior, and senior high school would be considered for enhancements. This
distance was determined by assuming that most drivers would be influenced if they felt
that they were entering a special zone. By concentrating the zone to a ¼ mile perimeter,
the driver would know to drive more cautiously because of the following pedestrian
enhancements such as:

School Pedestrian Enhancement Tools
• Mid-block crossings
• Off-street pedestrian paths
• Countdown traffic signals
• Recessed stop lines
• Right turn on red restrictions
• Reduced speed zones
• Traffic calming techniques
• Marked crosswalks at intersections and mid-block
• Stop controlled crosswalks
• Signalized crossings with pedestrian actuators
• Flashing beacons
• Crossing guards or school patrolled crossings
• Signing and marking

Figure 22 illustrates some typical pedestrian enhancements that would make school areas
more pedestrian friendly. A description of some of these pedestrian enhancements is
provided in Appendix H of this report.

The safety of students walking and bicycling between home and school can be further
increased by promoting community awareness and safety programs. These efforts can
help to assure that students understand the differences between pedestrian facilities and
the roadway system, and help to assure that students understand that unpredictable
movements and misuse of these facilities can result in injury.




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Traffic control related to schools is a sensitive and controversial subject. The methods
used to protect children as they walk to school need to be carefully considered and
analyzed by traffic engineering professionals on a case-by-case basis before solutions are
implemented.

According to the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) manual, Design and Safety
of Pedestrian Facilities, the majority of drivers do not typically reduce their speeds in
school zones unless they perceive a potential risk, such as the presence of police or
crossing guards, or clearly visible children. Overuse of signs and other devices can cause
drives to be less responsive and attentive. Unnecessary installation of traffic controls
lessens the respect for traffic controls that are warranted. Placement of signs, crossing
treatment, and traffic control devices need careful consideration.

According to the ITE’s School Trip Safety Program Guidelines, a number of elements
should be studied to determine the appropriate types of crossing treatments and traffic
control in school zones or along school walk routes, including, but not limited to:

•   Existing and potential traffic volumes and speeds.
•   Inventory of existing traffic control devices and roadway facilities.
•   Adequacy of gaps in the stream of traffic.
•   Numbers and ages of children crossing (pedestrian volumes and characteristics).
•   Adequacy of sight distance.
•   Collision statistics.
•   Location of the school and relationship to surrounding land uses (both existing and
    planned).

These elements should be considered under the direction of a professional traffic engineer
and the results reviewed with the City public works department, as well as a safety
advisory committee established by the School District. There are many variables related
to these elements and how they might influence design treatments.

Reduced Speed Zones
State law requires the maximum speed limit of 25 mph for school zones. This speed limit
is required to extend 300 feet in either direction from the school and from marked
crosswalks near the school. A lower maximum speed limit may be established within a
school zone or other area whenever the local jurisdiction determines that on the basis of
an engineering and traffic investigation, the maximum speed permitted is more than is
reasonable and safe under existing conditions. Consider reducing the speed limit to lower
than 20 mph in school zones where special hazards exist and a traffic engineering study
determines that such a speed reduction is warranted.

On street systems surrounding schools and in school zones, traffic calming can be an
effective means to create a safer and more comfortable environment for children walking
to school. Some examples of traffic calming techniques that may be appropriate include
raised crossings, refuge islands at crossings, traffic circles, chicanes, bulb-outs, speed


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humps, narrower streets, on-street parking, trees and landscaping along the right-of-way
and gateways. Speed enforcement and speed watch programs are also good methods for
calming neighboring traffic in school zones, although their effectiveness may only last
for a limited time, unless consistently implemented.

Signing and Marking
The types of school signs and markings authorized by the MUTCD are provided in
Appendix I of this report. The appendix text includes brief descriptions of sign
placement requirements.

Residential Zones
All residential zones could be improved by reducing vehicle speeds and enhancing
pedestrian desirability. The following strategies can help to achieve this:

•   Gateways – neighborhood identification
•   Raised pedestrian crossings
•   Move sidewalks behind curb cuts
•   Serpentine designed roadways
•   Traffic calming methods such as:
•   Traffic circles
•   Chicanes
•   Curb bulb-outs, chokers, neckdowns
•   Diagonal diverters
•   Cul-de-sac/street closures
•   Narrower streets
•   Speed humps/tables

Street Closures for Special Events
This practice encourages citizens to think of streets as public property to meet many
functions. The City should encourage and support more regular street closure events.
Farmer’s Market is currently held around and in Plaza Park. Other events that could
involve selected street closures include the Strawberry Festival.

Performance Spaces
At locations along C Street performance spaces could be accommodated. Such spaces
would enable pedestrian gatherings to hear and participate in music and other
entertainment. The City could issue permits to regulate locations. Candidate spaces
include Plaza Park, in front of City Hall, and public parking lots along C Street.

Public Art
The City could commission public art designed for viewing by pedestrians. Locations
could include public parking lots, Plaza Park, and along C Street. Sculptures could be
placed in right-of-way planters.




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VIII. RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN PROGRAMS
Promoting the benefits and proper use of bicycle and pedestrian facilities helps to make
the facilities themselves more effective. Bicycle and pedestrian programs can encourage
proper and increased facility use. These programs are an integral part of the Master Plan.

A. Bicycle Programs
This section describes programs that can help educate bicyclists and motorists to increase
the level of bicycles and pedestrian activity as a transportation alternative.

Education and Safety
The school districts, the Police Department, and City staff strive to improve safety
conditions for bicyclists and pedestrians. Unfortunately, the lack of education for
bicyclists, especially younger students, continues to be a leading cause of collisions.
Most bicycle/vehicle collisions reported in California involve a younger person (between
8 and 16 years of age) riding on the wrong side of the road, typically in the evening
hours. Studies of collision locations around California consistently show the greatest
concentration of collisions is directly adjacent to elementary, middle, and high schools.
Many less-experienced adult bicyclists are unsure how to negotiate intersections and
make turns on city streets. The City of Oxnard currently has grant funding for school-age
children to learn more about bicycle safety.

Motorist education on the rights of bicyclists and pedestrians is virtually non-existent.
Many motorists mistakenly believe that bicyclists do not have a right to ride in travel
lanes and that they should be riding on sidewalks. Many motorists do not understand the
concept of “sharing the road” with bicyclists, or why a bicyclist may need to ride in a
travel lane if there is no shoulder or it is full of gravel or potholes.

Bicycle education programs in schools are typically taught once a year to 3rd, 4th, and 5th
graders. Curriculum is generally derived from established programs developed by groups
such as the California State Automobile Association, and taught by members of the
Police Department. Budget cuts, demands on students’ time, and liability concerns limit
the extent of bicycle education to schoolchildren. There are no formal adult bicycle
education programs.

Recommended Programs
Existing educational programs at elementary and middle schools should be expanded in a
cooperative effort between the City and the school districts, and supported by a secure,
regular funding source. A joint City/school districts Safety Committee could be formed
consisting of appointed parents, teachers, administrators, police, active bicyclists, and
public works staff whose task it is to identify problems and solutions, ensure
implementation, and submit recommendations to the school boards, the City's Planning
Commission, or to the City Council.



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Develop New Educational Program Materials
Educational materials should be expanded to promote the benefits of bicycling, the need
for education and safety improvements, the most recent educational tools available in the
country (including the use of low-cost safety videos), and directives to parents on the
proper school drop-off procedure for their children. Educational pamphlets for children
should be made more readable. Incentive programs to reward good behavior should be
developed. Educational programs on proper bicycle riding habits should be expanded to
more grades and should occur more often. Bicycle program educational curriculum
could include the following lessons:

•   On-bike training or bicycle ‘rodeos’
•   The use and importance of bicycle helmets
•   How to adjust and maintain a bicycle
•   Night riding (clothes, lights)
•   Rules of the road
•   Riding on sidewalks
•   How to negotiate intersections
•   Riding defensively
•   Use of hand signals

A handbook of how to teach these lessons should be developed and made available to
each school on computer disk for customization as needed. Schools should develop a
circulation map of the campus and of the adjacent transportation system that illustrates
the roadways, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, clearly showing the recommended on-site
vehicular circulation, parking patterns, and the location of bicycle racks. This circulation
map should also be a permanent feature in all school newsletters.

The 1993 bicycle helmet law in California requires every person under the age of 18 to
wear a helmet when riding a bicycle. Bicycle helmet subsidy-programs are available in
California, and should be used to provide low-cost approved helmets for all school
children bicyclists.

Develop an Adult Education Program
The City could establish an adult bicycle education program through local bicycling
organizations that teaches adults how to ride defensively, how to ride on a variety of City
streets, and encourages adults to feel more confident to ride to work or for recreation.
This program could be organized by working with local bicycling groups who could
provide the training expertise, and possibly lead organized bicycle-training sessions, tours
and rides.

Educate Motorists
Approximately 36% of the resident survey respondents claimed that an increase in driver
awareness would make them feel safer and therefore more likely to walk or ride to work,
shopping, and recreational destinations. The City should educate motorists about the
rights and characteristics of bicyclists through a variety of means including: (a) making
bicycle safety a part of traffic school curriculum in Oxnard, (b) producing a brochure on

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bicycle safety and laws for public distribution, (c) enforcing existing traffic laws for both
motorists and bicycles, (d) sending an official letter to the Department of Motor Vehicles
recommending the inclusion of bicycle laws in the drivers license exam, and (e) install
signs that read “Share the Road” with a bicycle symbol at appropriate locations along all
routes of the proposed primary system where bike lanes are not feasible, travel lanes are
under 14 feet wide, and where the average daily traffic on a roadway exceeds 10,000
vehicles.

Route signage can also help make motorists and trail users aware of facilities, bicycles
and pedestrian activities. The City currently has a wayfinding program in the downtown
area to make motorists of other downtown facilities. A map and legend of the
wayfinding signage is provided in Appendix I of this report.

Develop a School Commute Route Improvement Plan
This Master Plan has identified many new facilities that will benefit school children who
choose to walk or bicycle to school. However, each school should conduct its own
evaluation of school commute patterns and work with the City in identifying crossing and
corridor improvements. Identifying and improving routes for children to walk or bicycle
to school is one of the most cost effective means of reducing morning traffic congestion
and addressing existing safety problems. Most effective school commute programs are
joint efforts of the School District and the City, with parent organizations adding an
important element.

A toolbox of measures should be implemented and maintained by the different School
Districts and the City to address safety problems such as a Safe Route To School System.
This could include maps of preferred school commute routes, warning signs, enhanced
education, additional crossing guards, signal treatments (longer cycles, pedestrian
activated buttons) enhanced visibility at key locations (lighting, landscaping abatement),
crosswalks, bike lanes, and other measures.

Coordinate Community and Employer Outreach
Without community support, a bicycle and pedestrian plan lacks the key resources that are
needed to ensure implementation over time. While the City may be responsible for
designing and constructing physical improvements, strategies for community involvement
will be important to ensure broad-based support, which translates into political support that
can help secure financial resources. Involvement by the private sector in raising awareness
of the benefits of bicycling and walking range from small incremental activities by non-
profit groups, to efforts by the largest employers in the City.

Start a Bicycle Loan Program
A fleet of lender bicycles available to employees to use as a commute alternative has
been successful in communities with a significant college population, and in larger U.S.
cities, such as in Portland. With this program the bicycle may be purchased new or
obtained from police auctions, repaired, painted and engraved with ID numbers, and
made available free of charge to employees. Depending on demand, bicycles may be
made available through reservations or on a rotating basis. The bicycles should be lower-

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end heavy-duty bicycles that have minimal re-sale value. An employer’s responsibilities
would be limited to an annual maintenance inspection and repairs as necessary. The
objective of the program is to encourage employees to try bicycling to work as an
alternative, without making a major investment. Employers may wish to allow bicycle
commuters to leave 15 minutes early from work, or some other type of incentive to
encourage use of the bicycles. The City of Oxnard may consider such a program and
may wish to encourage private employers to follow suit by offering Transportation
Demand Management (TDM) credits or subsidized purchases of bicycles.

Bicycle Clunker and Parts Program, Bicycle Repair Program
This program, which already exists in San Rafael, California as the ‘Trips for Kids’
program, ties directly into the previous program by obtaining broken, stolen, or other
bicycles and restoring them to working condition. The program’s dual mission is also to
train young people (ages 12-18) on how to repair bicycles as part of a summer jobs
training effort. Bicycles are an excellent medium to teach young people the fundamentals
of mechanics, safety, and operation. Young people can use these skills to maintain their
own bicycles, or to build on related interests. The program is often staffed by volunteers
from local cycling organizations and bicycle shops, who can help build an interest in
bicycling as an alternative to driving. The seed money to begin this program often comes
from a local private funding source. A proposal submitted to this source should clearly
outline the project objectives, operating details, costs, effectiveness evaluation, and other
details. The bicycles themselves could be derived from unclaimed stolen bicycles from
the Police Department, or from donated bicycles. The program will need to qualify as a
Section 501C(3) non-profit organization to offer tax deductions.

Develop a Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Map
The City, the school districts, the Chamber of Commerce, or local businesses could
produce a bicycle/pedestrian facility map that shows existing and future routes, access to
regional facilities, historic walking tours, and school/commute routes.

Create a Community Adoption Program
The City can develop programs for local businesses and organizations to ‘adopt’ a
pathway, similar to the Caltrans program that allows businesses to adopt segments of the
Interstate Highway system. Supporters would be identified by small signs located along
the pathway, acknowledging their contribution. Support would be in the form of an
annual commitment to pay for the routine maintenance of the pathway, which in general
costs about $8,500 per mile. This program could be administered by the City or private
groups.

Organize Bike Fairs and Races
The City can organize on-road and off-road bicycle races and endurance events. The
events could be sponsored by local businesses, and involve some promotion, insurance,
and development of adequate circuits for all levels of riders. It is not unusual for these
events to draw up to 1,000 riders, which could bring some additional expenditures into
the City.


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The City can assist in developing these events by acting as a co-sponsor, and expediting
and possibly underwriting some of the expenses of—for example—police time. The City
should also encourage these events to have races and tours that appeal to the less
experienced cyclist. For example, in exchange for underwriting part of the costs of a race
the City could require the event promoters to hold a bicycle repair and maintenance
workshop for kids, short fun races for kids, and/or a tour of the route lead by experienced
cyclists who could show less experienced riders how to safely negotiate city streets.

Provide Employer Incentives
Beyond programs described in the previous paragraphs, such as the Bicycle Loan
Program, employer incentives to encourage employees to try bicycling or walking to
work include sponsoring bike fairs and races, providing bicycle lockers and shower
facilities, and offering incentives to employees who commute by bicycle or walk by
allowing for more flexible arrival and departure times, and possibly paying for transit or
taxis during inclement weather. The City may offer incentives to employers to institute
these improvements through air quality credits, lowered parking requirements, reduced
traffic mitigation fees, or other means.

Promote Bike-to-Work and Bike-to-School Days
In addition to the existing Ventura County Bicycle Commute Day (May 15-19th), bike-to-
work days could be sponsored by the City, or in conjunction with other agencies, such as
VCTC, to help promote bicycling as a commute alternative. Bike-to-school days could
be jointly sponsored with the school districts, possibly in conjunction with bicycle
education programs.

Effective operation plans and safety programs could include locating crossing guards at
key intersections and student monitors in close proximity to the school site. Student and
adult education should also be included for school trip safety. The responsibility for this
education lies with the school district, parents, and the general community.

Recommended Pedestrian Programs

Walking Tours
In concert with tourism and development and cultural and historical programs, develop
an official walking tour of Oxnard. A map with key points of interest relative to history,
architecture, gardens and aesthetic features could be highlighted. The map would be
available at visitor offices, hotels and other businesses on the route.

Safe-Route to School Program
A Safe-Route to School program should be developed in coordination with each school
district, faculty, parent and student groups. Such a program would identify primary
pedestrian pathways to each district's facilities. The implementation of the program
would include:




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•   Local speed enforcement efforts could be conducted at specific locations that have
    high pedestrian volumes during times with higher vehicular volumes on adjacent
    roadways.
•   Signage that could be designed and placed along routes identifying safe-route-to-
    school designated corridors;
•   Ongoing monitoring of the program could involve the City traffic officials and school
    committees.

B. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Accessible Routes of Travel
The “accessible route of travel” is the key element of accessibility. This includes a
continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible elements and spaces in an
accessible building or facility that can be negotiated by a person using a wheelchair or
usable by persons with other disabilities.

The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) requires every site to have at least one
accessible route of travel that provides a connection between exterior accessible site
elements (parking, waiting and drop-off zones, sidewalks and walkways, bus stops, etc.)
and an accessible building entrance. In a park or similar setting, the accessible route
should connect the major features of the site, including parking, drinking fountains,
restrooms, interpretive signs and other constructed facilities and points of interest.
Ideally, alternative routes of travel to a building entrance would be provided.

Recreational facilities, such as trails, should provide accessible experiences as well. If
terrain or other unusual conditions do not allow for the trail to serve as an accessible
route of travel, other accessible connections or facilities that provide a similar recreation
experience can be created.

Eliminating Barriers and Obstacles
Accessible routes of travel need to be continuous and unobstructed. Obstacles and abrupt
changes in elevations create barriers for pedestrians, especially for those with disabilities.
Curbs, steps and stairways create barriers for wheelchair users and other people with
disabilities, as well as people pushing strollers or carts. Curb ramps allow access for
wheeled devices up onto and down from areas raised and separated by curbs. Where it is
not possible or practical to avoid the installation of steps and stairways, ramps or
elevators should be provided to facilitate full access.

Obstacles such as street furniture, power poles, signposts and other elements should be
placed outside of common pedestrian travel routes. It is also preferred that drain grates
are installed away from the center of walkways.

Often, coordination between local jurisdictions, private vendors, utility companies and
others is necessary to avoid placement of obstacles within the pedestrian travel way after
a project is designed and built. Another solution to reducing obstacles within the


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                                                  Chapter VIII - Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs


pedestrian travel way is consolidation of elements, such as placing multiple signs on one
post, placing signs on light standard posts and providing a “corral” for trash receptacles,
newspaper stands, and other street furniture.

Lighting
Lighting is required along exterior accessible routes of travel during any time the
buildings on site are occupied. Lighting is to have a minimum intensity of one foot
candle on the surface of the route.

All of the standards described throughout the section are required by the federal and state
governments as part of compliance with the ADA, unless otherwise noted as
recommendations (rather than requirements).

Summary of Accessibility Requirements
• Eliminate obstacles within the accessible route of travel.
• A clear width of three feet is a desirable minimum for accessibility.
• Passing areas of five feet in width should be provided every 200 feet on accessible
   routes that have a width of less than five feet .
• A maximum 5% grade is desirable, while steeper grades up to 8.33% can be provided
   if a ramp is utilized.
• Level landing areas should be provided, of five feet in length, for every 30 inches of
   elevation change along an 8.33% grade ramp.




099035000.3                                  82                                               JUNE 2002
                                   City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                       Chapter IX - Implementation Plan




IX.    IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

A. Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee
The City should identify individuals to serve as a Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory
Committee. This committee could be comprised of about six members and one City staff
member in order to represent the needs of the different neighborhoods and user groups in
Oxnard. The committee’s role would be to implement this Master Plan. The committee
could meet quarterly in order to continuously prioritize and investigate funding as it
becomes available. A committee chair would be appointed with the responsibility to
report to the Planning Commission as necessary.

B. Evaluation Criteria and Facility Prioritization
The location of the recommended new facility segments were defined based upon filed
reviews, stakeholder input, the resident survey results, and field surveys. Prioritization of
which facilities should be constructed first, second, etc., is based upon a set of evaluation
criteria that is consistent with the goals and objectives identified throughout the Master
Plan process and an assessment of the needs and benefits of each of the new facilities.
The evaluation criteria that were used to prioritize the new facilities are provided below:

•   Segments that close existing gaps in the system.

•   Closing gaps serve to complete a network of facilities that will allow one to ride from
    one end of the City to the other without disturbance.

•   The number of schools served.

•   New bicycle facilities that serve schools increase ridership and provide more direct
    routes to school grounds.

•   The number of activity centers served.

•   New bicycle facilities that serve activity centers provide alternative transportation
    modes to these destinations.

•   The number of employment centers served.

Table 7 presents an evaluation matrix that identifies each of the recommended facility
segments and compares each segment with the evaluation criteria.




099035000.3                                  83                                          JUNE 2002
                                                                                                                                                                                City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Table 7 - Facility Segment Evaluation Matrix
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sidewalk Improvements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Provides Better Access to    Improvement Appears
                                                                                Segment                                                             Closes Gap in Existing   Provides Better Access to   Provides Better Access to    Provides Better Access to                                                            Number of Criteria
                                                                                                     New Facility Location Description                                                                                                                                    Adjacent            Physically Feasible Within                        Priority Ranking
                                                                                  I.D.                                                                     Network                   Schools               Recreational Centers         Employment Centers                                                                      Met
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jurisdiction/Facilities      Existing Facility *

                                                                                           Oxnard Boulevard Sidewalk, south of Vineyard
                                                                                           Avenue at frontage road                                           X                          X                                                        X                                                       X                         4                   2
                                                                                           Oxnard Boulevard Sidewalk, south of Gonzales Road
                                                                                           at frontage road                                                  X                                                                                                                                           X                         2                   3
                                                                            -
                                                                                           Rose Avenue sidewalk between Oxnard Blvd. and
                                                                                           Ives Avenue to north                                              X                          X                                                        X                                                       X                         4                   2
                                                                                           Ventura Road, from south of Ventura Co. Flood
                                                                                           Control Channel to north of RR bridge                             X                                                      X                            X                           X                                                     4                   2

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Class I Bicycle Facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Provides Better Access to    Improvement Appears
                                                                                Segment                                                             Closes Gap in Existing   Provides Better Access to   Provides Better Access to    Provides Better Access to                                                            Number of Criteria
                                                                                                     New Facility Location Description                                                                                                                                    Adjacent            Physically Feasible Within                        Priority Ranking
                                                                                  I.D.                                                                     Network                   Schools               Recreational Centers         Employment Centers                                                                      Met
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jurisdiction/Facilities      Existing Facility *


                                                                            I-A            Ventura Road from Doris Avenue to Gonzales Road
                                                                                                                                                             X                          X                                                                                                                                          2                   4
                                                                            I-B            Ventura Road from Channel Islands Boulevard to
                                                                                           Wooley Road                                                       X                                                                                   X                           X                                                     3                   3
                                                                            I-C1           Along UPRR, from Ventura Road to existing path
                                                                                           south of Gonzales Road                                            X                                                      X                            X                                                                                 3                   3
                                                                            I-C2           Along Oxnard Blvd., from south end of existing path
                                                                                           to Oxnard Transportation Center                                   X                          X                                                        X                           X                                                     4                   2
                                                                            I-C3           Along VCRR, from Oxnard Transportation Center to
                                                                                           Port Hueneme Beach Park                                           X                          X                           X                                                        X                                                     4                   2
                                                                            I-D            Fifth Street from Rose Avenue to
                                                                                           eastern City boundary                                             X                                                                                   X                           X                                                     3                   2
                                                                            I-E            Edison Canal from Harbor Blvd. to Oxnard Beach
                                                                                           Park                                                                                                                     X                                                        X                                                     2                   4
                                                                            I-F            Santa Clara River, Harbor Boulevard to River Park
                                                                                           (via South Bank and new connection from river)                                                                           X                                                        X                                                     2                   4

                                                                            I-G            Ventura Road, from Vineyard Avenue to River Park,
                                                                                           north of US-101                                                   X                                                      X                            X                                                                                 3                   4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Class II Facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Provides Better Access to                                Number of Criteria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Adjacent             Improvement Appears              Met
                                                                                Segment                                                             Closes Gap in Existing   Provides Better Access to   Provides Better Access to    Provides Better Access to
                                                                                                     New Facility Location Description                                                                                                                              Jurisdiction/Facilities   Physically Feasible Within                        Priority Ranking
                                                                                  I.D.                                                                     Network                   Schools               Recreational Centers         Employment Centers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Existing Facility *

                                                                            II-A           Wooley Road from Mandalay Beach Road to S.
                                                                                           Harbor Boulevard                                                  X                                                      X                                                                                                              2                   4
                                                                            II-B           W. Fifth Street from Mandalay Beach Road to
                                                                                           Victoria Road                                                     X                                                      X                            X                           X                                                     4                   2
                                                                            II-C           Fifth Street gap from Victoria Road to Patterson Road
                                                                                                                                                             X                                                      X                            X                           X                                                     4                   2
                                                                            II-D1          Fifth Street from Ventura Road to H Street
                                                                                                                                                             X                          X                           X                            X                           X                           X                         6                   1
                                                                            II-D2          Fifth Street from H Street to Oxnard Boulevard
                                                                                                                                                             X                                                                                                               X                                                     2                   4
                                                                            II-D3          Fifth Street from Oxnard Boulevard to Rose Avenue
                                                                                                                                                             X                                                                                   X                           X                           X                         4                   2
                                                                            II-E           Patterson Road from Fifth Street to        Wooley Road
                                                                                                                                                                                        X                                                                                                                                          1                   5
                                                                            II-F           C Street from Ninth Street to
                                                                                           Pleasant Valley Road                                              X                          X                                                                                                                                          2                   4
                                                                            II-G1          Channel Islands Boulevard from Ventura Road to C
                                                                                           Street                                                            X                          X                           X                                                        X                                                     4                   2
                                                                            II-G2          Channel Islands Boulevard from C Street to Saviers
                                                                                           Road                                                                                                                                                  X                                                                                 1                   5
                                                                            II-G3          Channel Islands Boulevard from Saviers Road to
                                                                                           Rose Avenue                                                                                  X                                                                                                                                          1                   5
                                                                            II-G4          Channel Islands Boulevard from Dupont Street to
                                                                                           Rice Avenue                                                                                  X                                                                                    X                                                     2                   4




* "Physically feasible" implies that no parking loss or roadway widening would be necessary to implement each specific improvement.

099035000 - Table7_EvalMatrix_020220.xls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Table 7
                                                                                                                                                                            City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                             Table 7 - Facility Segment Evaluation Matrix
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Class II Facilities (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Provides Better Access to                                Number of Criteria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Improvement Appears
                                                                              Segment                                                           Closes Gap in Existing   Provides Better Access to   Provides Better Access to     Provides Better Access to           Adjacent                                              Met
                                                                                                     New Facility Location Description                                                                                                                                                     Physically Feasible Within                        Priority Ranking
                                                                                I.D.                                                                   Network                   Schools               Recreational Centers          Employment Centers          Jurisdiction/Facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Existing Facility *
                                                                            II-H1          Wooley Road from E Street to
                                                                                           Saviers Road                                                                             X                                                         X                                                                                 2                   4
                                                                            II-H2          Wooley Road from Saviers Road to
                                                                                           Pacific Avenue                                                                                                                                     X                                                                                 1                   5
                                                                            II-H3          Wooley Road from Pacific Avenue to
                                                                                           Rose Avenue                                                                                                                                        X                                                       X                         2                   4
                                                                            II-H4          Wooley Road from Rose Avenue to
                                                                                           Rice Avenue                                                                                                                                        X                           X                           X                         3                   3
                                                                            II-I1          Rose Avenue from Fifth Street to
                                                                                           Wooley Road                                                   X                          X                                                         X                                                                                 3                   3
                                                                            II-I2          Rose Avenue from Wooley Road to
                                                                                           Emerson Avenue                                                X                          X                                                                                                                                           2                   4
                                                                            II-J1          Third Street from D Street to C Street
                                                                                                                                                         X                                                      X                             X                                                                                 3                   3
                                                                            II-J2          Third Street from C Street to
                                                                                           Oxnard Boulevard                                              X                                                      X                             X                                                                                 3                   3
                                                                            II-J3          Third Street from Oxnard Boulevard to
                                                                                           Rose Avenue                                                   X                                                      X                             X                                                                                 3                   3
                                                                            II-K           Cooper Street from Oxnard Boulevard to
                                                                                           Juanita Avenue                                                                           X                           X                             X                                                       X                         4                   2
                                                                            II-L           Gonzales Road from Oxnard Boulevard to
                                                                                           C Street                                                      X                          X                                                         X                                                                                 3                   3
                                                                            II-M           Harbor Boulevard from Edison Canal to Santa Clara
                                                                                           River                                                         X                                                      X                                                         X                           X                         4                   2
                                                                            II-N           Teal Club Road from Victoria Road to
                                                                                           Ventura Road                                                                             X                                                         X                                                                                 2                   4
                                                                            II-O           Doris Avenue from Patterson Road to Ventura Road
                                                                                                                                                                                    X                                                         X                                                                                 2                   4
                                                                            II-P           Pleasant Valley Road from C Street to
                                                                                           Pacific Coast Highway (SR-1)                                  X                          X                                                                                                                 X                         3                   3
                                                                            II-Q           Perkins Road from Pleasant Valley Road to southern
                                                                                           termnius of roadway                                           X                                                      X                                                                                                               2                   4
                                                                            II-R           Oxnard Boulevard from 5th Street to
                                                                                           southern City limits                                          X                                                                                                                X                           X                         3                   3
                                                                            II-S           Patterson Road from Teal Club Road to Doris Avenue
                                                                                                                                                                                    X                                                         X                                                                                 2                   4
                                                                            II-T           Rose Avenue, Auto Center Drive to Gonsalez Street,
                                                                                           minus existing facility on US-101 bridge                      X                                                                                    X                                                                                 2                   4
                                                                            II-U           Camino Del Sol from Oxnard Blvd. to
                                                                                           Juanita Avenue                                                X                          X                                                                                     X                                                     3                   3

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Class III Facilities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Provides Better Access to    Improvement Appears
                                                                              Segment                                                           Closes Gap in Existing   Provides Better Access to   Provides Better Access to     Provides Better Access to                                                            Number of Criteria
                                                                                                     New Facility Location Description                                                                                                                                 Adjacent            Physically Feasible Within                        Priority Ranking
                                                                                I.D.                                                                   Network                   Schools               Recreational Centers          Employment Centers                                                                      Met
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Jurisdiction/Facilities      Existing Facility *

                                                                            III-A          Mandalay Beach Road from Oxnard Beach Park to
                                                                                           Fifth Street                                                  X                                                      X                                                                                     X                         3                   3
                                                                            III-B          Rice Avenue from Eastman Avenue to Pleasant
                                                                                           Valley Road / to Hueneme Road via planned roadway                                                                                                  X                           X                           X                         3                   3

                                                                            III-C1         C Street from Magnolia Avenue to Fifth Street
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          X                           X                         2                   4
                                                                            III-C2         C Street from Fifth Street to Seventh Street
                                                                                                                                                                                                                X                                                         X                           X                         3                   3
                                                                            III-C3         C Street from Seventh Street to Ninth Street
                                                                                                                                                                                                                X                                                                                     X                         2                   4




* "Physically feasible" implies that no parking loss or roadway widening would be necessary to implement each specific improvement.

099035000 - Table7_EvalMatrix_020220.xls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Table 7
                                  City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                      Chapter IX - Implementation Plan


The facility segment prioritization identified in the evaluation matrix helps to establish
the priority of the improvement projects. This priority should be considered as flexible,
and dependant upon funding opportunities, development levels and opportunities to
construct the facilities as part of other capital improvement projects.

Priority 1 and 2 segments serve the immediate needs in Oxnard. These segments help
close gaps in the existing system and provide connections to key activity centers. Priority
3 segments are feasible facilities but are expected to take longer to implement due to
financial and other constraints. Priority 4 and 5 segments require some additional
feasibility analysis, to determine what would be required to construct the segments.

C. Facility Segment Costs
Opinions of probable cost were developed for each of the recommended facilities, based
upon field reviews and discussions with City staff regarding construction feasibility.
Table 8 provides a description of the estimated cost for each of the Class I facilities,
including the specific sidewalk improvements. Table 9 provides a description of the
estimated cost for each of the Class II facilities, and Table 10 provides a description of
the estimated cost for each of the Class III facilities.

The estimated costs are based upon assumptions contained in Appendix I of this report.
The costs are planning estimates only, and would require a more detailed engineer's
estimate and some level of due diligence during conceptual design phases of the
implementation.




099035000.3                                 86                                          JUNE 2002
                                                                                     City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                            Table 8 - Cost Opinions for Recommended Multi-Use Trails and Sidewalks (Class I)

                                                                         Segment Location                                           Approx. Segment Length                                                                                             Anticipated
      Improvement                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Construction Cost
                       Segment I.D.                                                                                                                                                  Facility Description                                              Construction
        Priority*                          Roadway/Corridor                                    Between                            In Linear Feet   In Miles                                                                           Opinion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Year

             4              I-A                Ventura Road                        Doris Avenue and Gonzales Road                     5,280          1.0      Construction of a new Class I path.                                $         1,056,000       2006


             3              I-B                Ventura Road                     Channel Islands Blvd. and Wooley Road                 7,800          1.5      Construction of a new Class I path.                                $         1,560,000       2005

                                                                        Along UPRR, from Ventura Road to existing path south of
             3             I-C1            UPRR / Oxnard Blvd.                                                                        9,240          1.8      Construction of a new Class I path.                                $         1,848,000       2005
                                                                                           Gonzales St.

                                                                        Along Oxnard Boulevard, from south end of existing path
             2             I-C2                Oxnard Blvd.                                                                           6,019          1.1      Construction of a new Class I path.                                $         1,203,840       2004
                                                                                  to Oxnard Transportation Center

                                                                             Along Ventura County Railroad, from Oxnard
             2             I-C3             Ventura County RR                                                                         27,984         5.3      Construction of a new Class I path.                                $         5,596,800       2004
                                                                           Transportation Center to Port Hueneme Beach Park

             2              I-D                 Fifth Street                    Rose Avenue and eastern City boundary                 10,560         2.0      Construction of a new Class I path.                                $         2,112,000       2004

                                                                                     Next to West Bank of Canal,
             4              I-E                Edison Canal                                                                           11,616         2.2      Construction of a new Class I path next to bank of canal           $         2,323,200       2006
                                                                                  Harbor Blvd. to Oxnard Beach Park

             4              I-F       South Bank of Santa Clara River       Harbor Boulevard to River Park, north of US-101           25,238         4.8      Construction of a new Class I path next to bank of river           $         5,047,680       2006

                                                                                                                                                              Construction of a new Class I path (dependent upon widening of US-
             4              I-G             North Ventura Road               Vineyard Ave. to River Park, north of US-101             7,603          1.4                                                                         $         1,520,640       2006
                                                                                                                                                              101 underpass under separate program)

                                                                                     South of Vineyard Avenue at                                              Construction of pedestrian connection over grade difference between $
             2               -           Oxnard Boulevard Sidewalk                                                                      **           **                                                                                      10,000        2004
                                                                                   northern terminus of frontage road                                         Oxnard Blvd. and frontage road
                                                                                       South of Gonzales Road at                                              Construction of pedestrian connection over grade difference between $
             3               -           Oxnard Boulevard Sidewalk                                                                      **           **                                                                                      30,000        2005
                                                                                   northern terminus of frontage road                                         Oxnard Blvd. and frontage road

             2               -             Rose Avenue Sidewalk                     Oxnard Boulevard to Ives Road                     1,320          0.3      Construction of new sidewalk and crossings between                 $           16,250        2004
                                                                                                                                                              Oxnard Blvd. and Ives Avenue residential area

             2               -             Ventura Road Sidewalk          South of Flood Control Channel to north of RR bridge        2,640          0.5                                                                         $           47,500        2004
                                                                                                                                                              Construction of new sidewalk, w/new crossing over Channel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 $        22,371,910
    TOTALS                                                                                                                           115,301         21.8




099035000
Tables8thru11_CostByPriority&Phase.xls                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Table 8
                                                                                                                                City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                                                                             Table 9 - Cost Opinions for Recommended Bicycle Lane Facilities (Class II)

                                                                                                                 Segment Location                                            Approx. Segment Length                                                                                                Anticipated
                                          Improvement        Segment                                                                                                                                                                                                          Construction Cost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Facility Description                                                 Construction
                                            Priority*          I.D.            Roadway/Corridor                                         Between                            In Linear Feet   In Miles                                                                              Opinion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Year

                                                 4              II-A                Wooley Road                         Mandalay Beach Road and Harbor Blvd.                   1,680          0.3      Bicycle lane striping only. No new construction anticipated.           $          20,682        2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW
                                                 2              II-B                 Fifth Street                        Mandalay Beach Road and Victoria Rd.                  6,336          1.2                                                                             $        2,542,200       2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                       acquisition.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW
                                                 2              II-C                 Fifth Street               Mid-point segment between Victoria Rd. and Patterson Rd.       1,056          0.2                                                                             $         423,700        2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                       acquisition.

                                                 1             II-D1                 Fifth Street                              Ventura Road and H Street                       2,112          0.4      Bicycle lane striping only. No new construction anticipated.           $          26,000        2004

                                                 4             II-D2                 Fifth Street                            H Street and Oxnard Boulevard                     3,168          0.6      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          51,000        2006

                                                 2             II-D3                 Fifth Street                          Oxnard Boulevard to Rose Avenue                     5,808          1.1      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $          71,500        2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bicycle lane striping on both sides of roadway, widening required on
                                                 5              II-E               Patterson Road                             Fifth Street and Wooley Road                     2,640          0.5                                                                             $         127,330        2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                       west side of roadway only

                                                 4              II-F                  C Street                          Ninth Street to Pleasant Valley Boulevard              13,042         2.5      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $         160,550        2006

                                                 2             II-G1         Channel Islands Boulevard                         Ventura Road and C Street                       4,752          0.9      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          76,500        2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW
                                                 5             II-G2         Channel Islands Boulevard                         C Street and Saviers Road                       1,056          0.2                                                                             $         423,700        2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                       acquisition.
                                                 5             II-G3         Channel Islands Boulevard                       Saviers Road and Rose Avenue                      5,808          1.1      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          93,500        2007

                                                 4             II-G4         Channel Islands Boulevard                       Dupont Street and Rice Avenue                     2,323          0.4      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          37,400        2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW
                                                 4             II-H1                Wooley Road                                 E Street and Saviers Road                      2,112          0.4                                                                             $         847,400        2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                       acquisition.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW
                                                 5             II-H2                Wooley Road                             Saviers Road and Pacific Avenue                    3,696          0.7                                                                             $        1,482,950       2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                       acquisition.
                                                 4             II-H3                Wooley Road                             Pacific Avenue and Rose Avenue                     1,584          0.3      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $          19,500        2006

                                                 3             II-H4                Wooley Road                              Rose Avenue and Rice Avenue                       5,280          1.0      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $          65,000        2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle
                                                 3              II-I1               Rose Avenue                               Fifth Street and Wooley Road                     2,640          0.5                                                                             $        1,059,250       2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                       lane striping
                                                 4              II-I2               Rose Avenue                            Wooley Road and Emerson Avenue                      2,640          0.5      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          42,500        2006

                                                 3              II-J1               Third Street                                  D Street and C Street                         528           0.1      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $            8,500       2005

                                                 3              II-J2               Third Street                             C Street and Oxnard Boulevard                     1,584          0.3      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          25,500        2005

                                                 3              II-J3               Third Street                          Oxnard Boulevard and Rose Avenue                     5,280          1.0      Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping       $          85,000        2005

                                                 2              II-K                Cooper Street                        Oxnard Boulevard and Juanita Avenue                   2,640          0.5      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $          32,500        2004

                                                 3              II-L               Gonzales Road                             Oxnard Boulevard and C Street                     1,056          0.2      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $          13,000        2005

                                                 2              II-M             Harbor Boulevard                          Edison Canal and Santa Clara River                  9,504          1.8      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $         117,000        2004

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle
                                                 4              II-N               Teal Club Road                           Victoria Road and Ventura Road                     7,920          1.5                                                                             $        3,177,750       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                       lane striping
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle
                                                 4              II-O               Doris Avenue                            Patterson Road and Ventura Road                     4,066          0.8                                                                             $        1,631,245       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                       lane striping

                                                 3              II-P            Pleasant Valley Road                       J Street and Pacific Coast Highway                  13,200         2.5      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $         162,500        2005

                                                                                                                 Ventura County RR Trail (I-C3) to southern terminus of                                Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle
                                                 4              II-Q                Perkins Road                                                                               3,168          0.6                                                                             $        1,271,100       2006
                                                                                                                                      roadway                                                          lane striping

                                                 3              II-R             Oxnard Boulevard                          Fifth Street and City Limits to south               19,008         3.6      Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                 $         234,000        2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle
                                                 4              II-S               Patterson Road                          Teal Club Road and Doris Avenue                     2,112          0.4                                                                             $         847,400        2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                       lane striping
                                                                                                                  Auto Center Drive to Gonsalez Street, minus existing                                 Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle
                                                 4              II-T                Rose Avenue                                                                                2,693          0.5                                                                             $        1,080,435       2006
                                                                                                                               facility on US-101 bridge                                               lane striping
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Existing roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition,
                                                 3              II-U              Camino Del Sol                              Oxnard Blvd. to Juanita Ave.                     2,640          0.5                                                                             $        1,059,250       2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                       ROW and bicycle lane striping for new roadway


                                         TOTALS                                                                                                                               143,131         27.1                                                                            $       17,315,842


                                         * Priority identified in Table 4: Facility Segment Evaluation Matrix

099035000
Tables8thru11_CostByPriority&Phase.xls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Table 9
                                                                             City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                        Table 10 - Cost Opinions for Recommended Bicycle Route Facilities (Class III)

                                                               Segment Location                                            Approx. Segment Length                                                           Anticipated
              Improvement     Segment                                                                                                                                                       Construction
                                                                                                                                                           Facility Description                             Construction
                Priority*       I.D.     Roadway/Corridor                            Between                             In Linear Feet   In Miles                                          Cost Opinion
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Year

                    3           III-A    Mandalay Beach Rd.               Oxnard Beach Park to Fifth Street                  6,072          1.2      Unstriped bicycle route with signage   $       2,300       2005


                                                              Eastman Avenue to Pleasant Valley Road (current roadway)
                    3            III-B      Rice Avenue                                                                      19,483         3.7      Unstriped bicycle route with signage   $       7,380       2005
                                                                       / to Hueneme Road (planned roadway)

                    4           III-C1        C Street                    Magnolia Avenue and 5th Street                     2,323          0.4      Unstriped bicycle route with signage   $        880        2006

                    3           III-C2        C Street                     Fifth Street and Seventh Street                    950           0.2      Unstriped bicycle route with signage   $        360        2005

                    4           III-C3        C Street                     Seventh Street and Ninth Street                   1,056          0.2      Unstriped bicycle route with signage   $        400        2006

                                                                                                                             29,885         5.7                                             $      11,320
             TOTALS




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Tables8thru11_CostByPriority&Phase.xls                                                                                                                                                                                     Table 10
                                  City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                      Chapter IX - Implementation Plan




D. Operations and Maintenance Costs
Monitoring and Maintenance
The total annual maintenance cost of the recommended 2020 bicycle and pedestrian
facility network is estimated to be approximately $100,000. All of the maintenance costs
for Class II facilities are assumed to be part of routine roadway maintenance. Annual
Class I facility maintenance costs are estimated to be about $8,500 per mile. This
includes labor, supplies, and amortized equipment costs for weekly trash removal,
monthly sweeping, and biannual resurfacing and repair patrols.

Maintenance access on Class I facilities is assumed to be by standard City pick-up trucks.
Sections with narrow widths or other clearance restrictions should be clearly marked.
Underbrush and weed abatement should be performed once in the late spring and again in
mid-summer on Class I facilities.

Once the Master Plan has been adopted, a monitoring effort is required to ensure that the
recommendations are enforced and the system is maintained over time. The following
monitoring and maintenance actions are also suggested:

Action: Identify reliable sources of funding for all new Class I facility design and
        construction. All proposed designs should be closely examined to minimize
        future maintenance costs.
Action: Review all development and infrastructure improvement plans to ensure that
        bicycle and pedestrian facilities are included in the plans, that developer
        requirements are being met, and that design standards are adhered to in
        accordance with this document.
Action: Adequate driveway sight distance should be provided at all crossings so that
        drivers and bicyclists can see each other.
Action: Bicycle-related accident data should be collected annually and evaluated to
        identify areas of concern.
Action: Maintenance efforts and costs, and resident calls about necessary repairs should
        be recorded to track maintenance needs.
Action: The Engineering Department should work closely with agencies such as VCTC,
        the APCD, and Caltrans to keep abreast of funding opportunities and prepare
        application packages.
Action: City staff should coordinate all enforcement issues with the Police Department.


E. Facility Segment Phasing Plan
Table 11 provides a summary of the implementation costs by segment priority.


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                                                                                                                City of Oxnard - Pedestrian and Bicyle Facilities Master Plan
                                                                                                                         Table 11 - Implementation Costs by Segment Priority

                                                                                                              Segment Location                                                  Approx. Segment                                                                                                       Anticipated
                       Improvement                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Construction
                                         Facility       Segment I.D.*                                                                                                          In Linear                                       Facility Description                                                   Construction
                         Priority*                                      West Second Street/Doris and Gonzales Road                             Between                                   In Miles                                                                                    Cost Opinion
                                          Type                                                                                                                                    Feet                                                                                                                   Year
                                                                                                                                    South of Vineyard Avenue at                                     Construction of pedestrian connection over grade difference between Oxnard
                              2           Sidewk.              -                 Oxnard Boulevard Sidewalk                                                                        **        **                                                                                   $           10,000       2004
                                                                                                                                  northern terminus of frontage road                                Blvd. and frontage road
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Construction of new sidewalk and crossings between
                              2           Sidewk.              -                   Rose Avenue Sidewalk                            Oxnard Boulevard to Ives Avenue               1,320      0.3                                                                                  $           16,250       2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oxnard Blvd. and Ives Avenue residential area

                              2           Sidewk.              -                   Ventura Road Sidewalk                South of Flood Control Channel to north of RR bridge     2,640      0.5     Construction of new sidewalk, w/new crossing over Channel                    $           47,500       2004

                              1           Class II           II-D1                       Fifth Street                                 Ventura Road and H Street                  2,112      0.4     Bicycle lane striping only. No new construction anticipated.                 $           26,000       2004
                                                                                                                        Along Oxnard Boulevard, from south end of existing
                              2           Class I            I-C2                       Oxnard Blvd.                                                                             6,019      1.1     Construction of a new Class I path.                                          $        1,203,840       2004
                                                                                                                              path to Oxnard Transportation Center
                                                                                                                           Along Ventura County Railroad, from Oxnard
                              2           Class I            I-C3                    Ventura County RR                                                                          27,984      5.3     Construction of a new Class I path.                                          $        5,596,800       2004
                                                                                                                        Transportation Center to Port Hueneme Beach Park
                              2           Class I             I-D                        Fifth Street                         Rose Avenue and eastern City boundary             10,560      2.0     Construction of a new Class I path.                                          $        2,112,000       2004

                              2           Class II           II-D3                       Fifth Street                             Oxnard Boulevard to Rose Avenue                5,808      1.1     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $           71,500       2004

                              2           Class II            II-B                       Fifth Street                         Mandalay Beach Road and Victoria Rd.               6,336      1.2     Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW acquisition.        $        2,542,200       2004
                                                                                                                       Mid-point segment between Victoria Rd. and Patterson
                              2           Class II            II-C                       Fifth Street                                                                            1,056      0.2     Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW acquisition.        $          423,700       2004
                                                                                                                                              Rd.
                              2           Class II           II-G1                Channel Islands Boulevard                           Ventura Road and C Street                  4,752      0.9     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping             $           76,500       2004

                              2           Class II           II-K                       Cooper Street                            Oxnard Boulevard and Juanita Avenue             2,640      0.5     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $           32,500       2004

                              2           Class II           II-M                     Harbor Boulevard                            Edison Canal and Santa Clara River             9,504      1.8     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $          117,000       2004

                                                                                                                              TOTALS for Priority 1 & 2 Segments                80,731      15                                                                                        $12,275,790

                                                                                                                                      South of Gonzales Road at                                     Construction of pedestrian connection over grade difference between Oxnard
                              3           Sidewk.              -                 Oxnard Boulevard Sidewalk                                                                        **        **                                                                                   $           30,000       2005
                                                                                                                                  northern terminus of frontage road                                Blvd. and frontage road

                              3           Class I             I-B                       Ventura Road                          Channel Islands Blvd. and Wooley Road              7,800      1.5     Construction of a new Class I path.                                          $        1,560,000       2005
                                                                                                                       Oxnard Boulevard, from Ventura Road to existing path
                              3           Class I            I-C1                       Oxnard Blvd.                                                                             9,240      1.8     Construction of a new Class I path.                                          $        1,848,000       2005
                                                                                                                                    south of Gonzales Road
                              3           Class II           II-H4                      Wooley Road                                 Rose Avenue and Rice Avenue                  5,280      1.0     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $           65,000       2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle lane
                              3           Class II           II-I1                      Rose Avenue                                  Fifth Street and Wooley Road                2,640      0.5                                                                                  $        1,059,250       2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                    striping
                              3           Class II           II-J1                      Third Street                                     D Street and C Street                   528        0.1     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping             $            8,500       2005

                              3           Class II           II-J2                      Third Street                                C Street and Oxnard Boulevard                1,584      0.3     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping             $           25,500       2005

                              3           Class II           II-J3                      Third Street                             Oxnard Boulevard and Rose Avenue                5,280      1.0     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping             $           85,000       2005

                              3           Class II            II-L                     Gonzales Road                                Oxnard Boulevard and C Street                1,056      0.2     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $           13,000       2005

                              3           Class II            II-P                  Pleasant Valley Road                          J Street and Pacific Coast Highway            13,200      2.5     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $          162,500       2005

                              3           Class II            II-R                   Oxnard Boulevard                             Fifth Street and City Limits to south         19,008      3.6     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                       $          234,000       2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Existing roadway widening, may include ROW acquisition. ROW and
                              3           Class II            II-U                     Camino Del Sol                                Oxnard Blvd. to Juanita Ave.                2,640      0.5                                                                                  $        1,059,250       2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                    bicycle lane striping for new roadway
                              3           Class III          III-A                  Mandalay Beach Rd.                            Oxnard Beach Park and Fifth Street             6,072      1.2     Unstriped bicycle route with signage                                         $            2,300       2005

                                                                                                                        Eastman Avenue to Pleasant Valley Road, to Hueneme
                              3           Class III          III-B                      Rice Avenue                                                                             19,483      3.7     Unstriped bicycle route with signage                                         $            7,380       2005
                                                                                                                                   Road via proposed roadway

                              3           Class III          III-C2                       C Street                                  Fifth Street and Seventh Street              950        0.2     Unstriped bicycle route with signage                                         $              360       2005

                                                                                                                                  TOTALS for Priority 3 Segments                94,762      18                                                                                        $6,160,040




* Priority identified in Table 4: Facility Segment Evaluation Matrix
** This is a specific sidewalk improvement of no significant length

099035000
Tables8thru11_CostByPriority&Phase.xls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 11
                                                                                                                City of Oxnard - Pedestrian and Bicyle Facilities Master Plan
                                                                                                                         Table 11 - Implementation Costs by Segment Priority

                                                                                                              Segment Location                                                  Approx. Segment                                                                                                      Anticipated
                       Improvement                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Construction
                                         Facility       Segment I.D.*                                                                                                          In Linear                                       Facility Description                                                  Construction
                         Priority*                                      West Second Street/Doris and Gonzales Road                           Between                                     In Miles                                                                                   Cost Opinion
                                          Type                                                                                                                                    Feet                                                                                                                  Year
                              4           Class I             I-A                       Ventura Road                             Doris Avenue and Gonzales Road                  5,280      1.0     Construction of a new Class I path.                                         $        1,056,000       2006
                                                                                                                                    Next to West Bank of Canal,
                              4           Class I             I-E                       Edison Canal                                                                            11,616      2.2     Construction of a new Class I path next to bank of canal                    $        2,323,200       2006
                                                                                                                                 Harbor Blvd. to Oxnard Beach Park
                                                                                                                                  Harbor Boulevard to River Park,
                              4           Class I             I-F                     Santa Clara River                              via south bank of river and                25,238      4.8     Construction of a new Class I path next to bank of river                    $        5,047,680       2006
                                                                                                                                       new connection to park
                                                                                                                                    Vineyard Ave. to River Park,                                    Construction of a new Class I path,
                              4           Class I             I-G                    North Ventura Road                                                                          7,603      1.4                                                                                 $        1,520,640       2006
                                                                                                                                           north of US-101                                          after planned widening of US-101 underpass
                              4           Class II            II-A                      Wooley Road                        Mandalay Beach Road and Harbor Boulevard              1,680      0.3     Bicycle lane striping only. No new construction anticipated.                $           20,682       2006

                              4           Class II           II-D2                       Fifth Street                             H Street and Oxnard Boulevard                  3,168      0.6     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping            $           51,000       2006

                              4           Class II            II-F                        C Street                           Ninth Street to Pleasant Valley Boulevard          13,728      2.6     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                      $          169,000       2006

                              4           Class II           II-G4                Channel Islands Boulevard                       Dupont Street and Rice Avenue                  2,323      0.4     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping            $           37,400       2006

                              4           Class II           II-H1                      Wooley Road                                  E Street and Saviers Road                   2,112      0.4     Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW acquisition.       $          847,400       2006

                              4           Class II           II-H3                      Wooley Road                               Pacific Avenue and Rose Avenue                 1,584      0.3     Bicycle lane striping. No new construction anticipated                      $           19,500       2006

                              4           Class II           II-I2                      Rose Avenue                              Wooley Road and Emerson Avenue                  2,640      0.5     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping            $           42,500       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle lane
                              4           Class II            II-N                     Teal Club Road                             Victoria Road and Ventura Road                 7,920      1.5                                                                                 $        3,177,750       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                    striping
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle lane
                              4           Class II            II-O                      Doris Avenue                             Patterson Road and Ventura Road                 4,066      0.8                                                                                 $        1,631,245       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                    striping
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle lane
                              4           Class II            II-Q                      Perkins Road                         VCRR and southern terminus of roadway               3,168      0.6                                                                                 $        1,271,100       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                    striping
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle lane
                              4           Class II            II-S                     Patterson Road                            Teal Club Road and Doris Avenue                 2,112      0.4                                                                                 $          847,400       2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                    striping
                                                                                                                        Auto Center Drive to Gonsalez Street, minus existing                        Roadway widening required, may include ROW acquisition, bicycle lane
                              4           Class II            II-T                      Rose Avenue                                                                              2,693      0.5                                                                                 $        1,080,435       2006
                                                                                                                                     facility on US-101 bridge                                      striping

                              4           Class III          III-C1                       C Street                               Magnolia Avenue and Fifth Street                2,323      0.4     Unstriped bicycle route with signage                                        $              880       2006

                              4           Class III          III-C3                       C Street                                Seventh Street and Ninth Street                1,056      0.2     Unstriped bicycle route with signage                                        $              400       2006


                                                                                                                                 TOTALS for Priority 4 Segments                 100,310     19                                                                                       $19,144,212

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bicycle lane striping on both sides of roadway, widening required on west
                              5           Class II            II-E                     Patterson Road                              Fifth Street and Wooley Road                  2,640      0.5                                                                                 $          127,330       2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                    side of roadway only
                              5           Class II           II-G2                Channel Islands Boulevard                          C Street and Saviers Road                   1,056      0.2     Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW acquisition.       $          423,700       2007

                              5           Class II           II-G3                Channel Islands Boulevard                        Saviers Road and Rose Avenue                  5,808      1.1     Bicycle lane striping and modification of parking space striping            $           93,500       2007

                              5           Class II           II-H2                      Wooley Road                               Saviers Road and Pacific Avenue                3,696      0.7     Roadway widening, bicycle lane striping. May require ROW acquisition.       $        1,482,950       2007

                                                                                                                                 TOTALS for Priority 5 Segments                 13,200      3                                                                                        $2,127,480



                                                                                                                                 TOTALS for ALL Segments                       289,003      55                                                                                      $39,707,522




* Priority identified in Table 4: Facility Segment Evaluation Matrix
** This is a specific sidewalk improvement of no significant length

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Tables8thru11_CostByPriority&Phase.xls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table 11
                                       City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                        Chapter X - Potential Funding Sources


X. POTENTIAL FUNDING SOURCES

A. Sources
This chapter describes the potential sources of funding that Oxnard could pursue for the
continued planning, design and construction of bicycle and pedestrian facilities and programs.
The sources include federal, state and local funding programs. Many of the federal and state
programs are competitive, and involve the completion of applications with clear documentation
of the project needs, costs, and benefits. The local funding programs include quasi-public and/or
private sources that could also be considered.

A document entitled "Guide to Bicycle Project and Program Funding in California--Second
Edition (February 2002)" has been provided to the City as part of this project. This funding
document includes detailed descriptions of funding sources, funding strategies, candidate
projects, examples of funded projects, eligible applicants and application requirements. This
document should be used as a tool to pursue funding. This document also provides information
regarding local agency matching requirements, and the advantages and disadvantages of
requesting funding from some of the programs.

Table 12 provides a summary of the potential funding programs and a description of what each
program can fund (by facility mode, trip type and project type).



                          Table 12: Summary of Funding Programs

                           Facility Modes             Trip Types                  Project Types
       Funding
      Programs        Bicycle, Pedestrian,
                                               Commuter,                     Construction, Non-
                      Multi-Purpose Trails
                                           Recreational or Both             construction, or Both
                         or All Modes

 Federal Programs
 Surface
 Transportation        All Modes                 Commuter                  Both
 Policy (STP)


 Transportation
 Enhancement
 Activities
 Transportation        All Modes                 Commuter                  Construction
 Efficiency Act for
 the 21st Century
 (TEA-21)



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                                                                      Chapter X - Potential Funding Sources


 Federal Programs (cont’d)
 Congestion
 Management and Air     All Modes             Commuter                   Both
 Quality (CMAQ)

 National Highway
                        All Modes             Commuter                   Both
 System (NHS)
 Federal Lands
                        All Modes             Commuter                   Construction
 Highway Funds
 Scenic Byways                                                           Construction (may include
                        All Modes             Both Trip Types
 Program                                                                 planning and design)
 National Recreation
                        All Modes             Both Trip Types            Both
 Trails Fund
 Highway Safety
                        All Modes             Commuter                   Non-construction
 Program
 Highway Safety and
                        Pedestrian            Commuter                   Non-construction
 Development
                                              Both Trip Types,
 Recreational and
                        All Modes             (although preferably       Both
 Public Purposes Act
                                              recreational trips)
 Schools and Roads
                        All Modes             Commuter                   Construction
 Grants to States
 Section 3 Mass
 Transit Capital        All Modes             Commuter                   Both
 Grants
 State Programs
 California Bikeways
                        Bicycle               Commuter                   Construction
 Act
 Environmental
 Enhancement and        All Modes             Commuter                   Construction
 Mitigation Program
 Flexible Congestion
                        All Modes             Commuter                   Construction
 Relief
 Habitat Conservation
                        All Modes             Both Trip Types            Construction
 Fund Grant Program
 Kapiloff Land Bank                                                      Construction (may include
                        All Modes             Commuter
 Funds                                                                   land acquisition)
 Land and Water                                                          Construction (may include
                        All Modes             Both Trip Types
 Conservation Fund                                                       land acquisition)
 Mello-Roos
 Community              All Modes             Both Trip Types            Both
 Facilities Districts

 Local Transportation
                        All Modes             Commuter                   Both
 Fund (LTF)

 Pedestrian Safety
                        Pedestrian            Both Trip Types            Both
 Account


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                                                                         Chapter X - Potential Funding Sources


 Local Programs
 Transportation
 Demand
                       All Modes                 Commuter                   Both
 Management (TDM)
 Fund
 New Construction      All Modes                 Both Trip Types            Both
 Impact Fees           All Modes                 Both Trip Types            Both
 Mello Roos            All Modes                 Both Trip Types            Both
 Rail Funding          All Modes                 Both Trip Types            Both
 Other                 All Modes                 Both Trip Types            Both


Federal Programs

TEA-21

Federal funding through the TEA-21 (Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) program
would likely provide the majority of outside funding for bicycle and pedestrian projects in
Oxnard. TEA-21 contains three major programs, STP (Surface Transportation Program), TEA
(Transportation Enhancement Activities), and CMAQ (Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality
Improvement which is also considered a State funding program) along with other programs
such as the National Recreational Trails Fund, Section 402 (Safety) funds, Scenic Byways
funds, and Federal Lands Highway funds. With the authorization of TEA-21, trail projects
stand to gain from an estimated 40% increase in funding available for such projects.

TEA-21 funding is administered through the state (Caltrans or Resources Agency) and regional
governments, such as the Ventura County Transportation Commission (VCTC). Most, but not
all of the funding programs are transportation versus recreational oriented, with an emphasis on
(a) reducing auto trips and (b) providing an inter-modal connection. Funding criteria often
include completion and adoption of a bicycle and or trails master plan, quantification of the
costs and benefits of the system (such as saved vehicle trips and reduced air pollution), proof of
public involvement and support, CEQA compliance, and commitment of some local resources.
In most cases, ISTEA provides matching grants of 80 to 90 percent - but prefers to leverage
other monies at a lower rate.

With an active and effective regional agency such as the VCTC, Oxnard should be in a good
position to secure its fair share of TEA-21 funding with completion of a Master Plan. It will be
critical to get the local state assembly member and senator briefed on these projects and
lobbying Caltrans and the California Transportation Commission for these projects.

Planning grants are available for $50,000 per project. Capital grants range between $150,000
and $2 million. The Housing Incentive Program (HIP) provides funds for bicycle and
pedestrian projects.


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                                                                          Chapter X - Potential Funding Sources


State Programs

TDA Article III (SB 821)

Transportation Development Act (TDA) Article III funds are state block grants awarded
annually to local jurisdictions for bicycle and pedestrian projects in California. These funds
originate from the state gasoline tax and are distributed to local jurisdictions based upon
population. Oxnard may use its TDA funds for bicycle/pedestrian projects, and compete for
additional TDA funding from VCTC.

All local jurisdictions are eligible applicants. Annual funding has been approximately $14
million since 1993. Deadlines are determined by the Regional Transportation Planning Agency
(RTPA).

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program

The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program funds almost $400
million annually statewide for projects in Clean Air Act non-attainment areas that will help
attain the national ambient air quality standards stated in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments.
The amount of CMAQ funding received depends on the state's population share and on the
degree of air pollution. If a state is in compliance, the CMAQ funds can be used as STP
monies. The California Transportation Commission (CTC) may reprogram the CMAQ funds if
they are not obligated within three years of federal eligibility.

Cities, counties, transit operators, Caltrans and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs)
are eligible applicants. Non-profit organizations and private entities are also eligible for funds
when working through a public-private partnership. The public entity has the ultimate
responsibility to oversee and to protect the investment of public sector funds.

CMAQ projects must provide emission reductions in carbon monoxide, ozone precursor
emissions or PM-10 pollution. Eligible bicycle-related projects include bicycle transportation
facilities (e.g., preliminary engineering, project planning studies and construction), bicycle route
maps, bike activated traffic lights, and education and safety programs. Applications should be
developed in coordination with the MPO. Application deadlines vary.

AB 434

AB 434 funds are available for clean air transportation projects in California. These funds are
distributed on the regional level through the Air Pollution Control District.

Bicycle Transportation Account

The state Bicycle Transportation Account (BTA) which was formerly known as the Bicycle
Lane Account (BLA) is an annual program that is available for funding bicycle projects,
primarily on roadways. Available as grants to local jurisdictions, the emphasis is on projects
that benefit bicycling for commuting purposes. The fund has increased from $360,000 annually

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                                                                        Chapter X - Potential Funding Sources


to over $ 7 million annually. Oxnard may be able to apply for these funds through the Caltrans
Office of Bicycle Facilities.

Pedestrian Safety Account

Under Section 894.7 of the California State Street and Highways Code, this Account of the
State Transportation Fund is charged with the provision of funding for such projects as traffic
calming measures, intersection safety improvements, traffic signal timing, crosswalk
construction or improvements, and any traffic safety or enforcement program authorized by law.
Grant recipients are required to engage in public education efforts to encourage pedestrian
safety and awareness that may include a pedestrian safety program. The Code states that
Caltrans “…shall award the grants as expeditiously as possible.”

Safe Routes to School

The Safe Routes to School (SR2S) funding source originated in 1999 and recently was extended
for another three years. This funding source is seen as a national model for funding bicycle
projects because it emphasizes both safety for children and local bicycle access. SR25 monies
come from federal transportation safety funding. The required local match is 10% and the
maximum grant cannot exceed $450,000 per project. Cities and counties in California are
eligible applicants. Application deadlines are in May, annually.


Local Programs

Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Fund

The City has a transportation demand management (TDM) requirement that is imposed on new
development. The City uses the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (APCD)
guidelines to assess an environmental impact fee to mitigate air pollution from development.
The fund is called the “Air Pollution Buy Down Fund” but is also referred to as the TDM fund.
The APCD guidelines identify the eligible uses of the impact fees. The City has not adopted
the guidelines but does follow them as standard practice.

The City has funded bicycle lane striping and pedestrian improvements with TDM fees. The
guidelines suggest the fees be expended within 7 years of the time the fees are collected.

New Construction

Future road widening and construction projects are one means of providing Class II bicycle
lanes. To ensure that roadway construction projects provide bike lanes where needed, it is
important that an effective review process is in place to ensure that new roads meet the
standards and guidelines presented in this Master Plan. Oxnard may be able to utilize this
funding source for portions of the trail that are on a roadway.



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Impact Fees

Another potential local source of funding is developer impact fees, which are typically tied to
trip generation rates and traffic impacts produced by a proposed project. A developer may
reduce the number of trips (and hence impacts and cost) by paying for on-and-off-site bikeway
improvements which will encourage residents to bicycle rather than drive. Establishing a clear
nexus or connection between the impact fee and the project's impacts is critical in avoiding a
potential lawsuit.

Mello Roos

Bike paths, lanes, and pedestrian facilities can be funded as part of a local assessment or benefit
district. Defining the boundaries of the benefit district may be difficult unless the facility is part
of a larger parks and recreation or public infrastructure program with broad community benefits
and support.

Rail Funding

Rail operators that utilize rail lines within Oxnard may be a potential source of private funding.
Coordination with VCTC would be critical in examining the potential for private funds. The
Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA) already uses some of the lines in
Oxnard. VCTC staff could provide more detailed information about this potential source.

Other

Local sales taxes, fees, and permits may be implemented, but would likely require a local
election. Volunteer programs could reduce the cost of implementing some of the trail segments.
Use of groups such as the California Conservation Corp (which offer low cost assistance) could
also be effective at reducing project costs.

Local schools or community groups could utilize the Master Plan to focus on one or more of the
recommended new facilities as a project for the year, possibly working with a local designer or
engineer. Work parties may be formed to help clear the right of way where needed. A local
construction company could donate or discount services. A challenge grant program with local
businesses could be a source of local funding, where corporations 'adopt' a trail and help
construct and maintain the facility.

The Air Pollution Control District is another potential source of funding for bicycle and
pedestrian programs. The grants are generally in the $50,000 to $200,000 range and are highly
competitive based upon a cost benefit formula developed by the District. Funding priorities
also change annually with the District, between bicycle and other projects, such as transit.




099035000.3                                   98                                                 JUNE 2002
                                         City of Oxnard - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Master Plan
                                                                           Chapter X - Potential Funding Sources




B. Funding Strategy
This Master Plan includes a very aggressive 5-year implementation timeline for all of the
recommended bicycle and pedestrian facilities. The strategy is straight forward – work for the
next two years to obtain funding from multiple sources and begin construction/ implementation
in 2004. The table below summarizes the recommended funding strategy by year and facility
type.



                              Table 13 – Funding Strategy Timeline

              2002         2003         2004          2005          2006            2007             Total

 Class I
                     $0           $0   $8,920,000   $3,438,000    $9,947,000                $0 $22,305,000
 Facilities

 Class II
                     $0           $0   $3,218,000   $1,746,000    $8,182,000        $518,000 $13,664,000
 Facilities

 Class III
                     $0           $0           $0       $7,200        $1,580                $0          $8,780
 Facilities


 TOTALS              $0           $0 $12,138,000    $5,191,200   $18,130,580        $518,000 $35,977,780




099035000.3                                  99                                                  JUNE 2002
                    Glossary of Transportation Terms

ADA - Americans with Disabilities Act: A federal law passed in 1990 that
guarantees equal rights to disabled persons, including the right to accessible
transportation service. Under ADA, public transit systems must provide door-to-
door paratransit service for individuals who are unable to use the public transit
systems (see paratransit).

Air Quality Conformity Analysis:           Analysis that determines if certain
transportation plans and programs conform to federal air-quality goals, namely that
the plans and programs will not increase vehicular emissions. Federal law requires
this analysis.

Appropriate: The State Congress or Legislature approves already authorized
funds, which allows metropolitan planning organizations to allocate the
transportation funds to project sponsors in their region. The total dollar amount of
appropriated funds can be less than the previously authorized amount.

APCD - Air Pollution Control District: An agency that develops a countywide
air quality plan.

AQMD - Air Quality Management District: An agency with the same role as
the APCDs, but it usually is created by the state legislature for a specific area such
as the Sacramento metropolitan area, the Bay Area, and the South Coast region.
AQMDs may be multi-county bodies such as the Feather River AQMD in Yuba
and Sutter Counties. State legislation typically grants AQMDs statutory powers
beyond those of APCDs.

ARB - Air Resources Board: ARB is the state's primary agency for air quality
planning and policy. The ARB sets the state's air quality standards, conducts
research on air pollution, and approves or rejects local air quality plans. ARB is
sometimes called CARB, which is short for the California Air Resources Board.

Authorize: Congress approves legislation for transportation expenditures with set
spending limits for specific programs such as CMAQ and STP. Separate
legislation appropriates or releases the funds usually on an annual basis.

AVO - Average Vehicle Occupancy: AVO measures the number of travelers that
use a vehicle. AVO sometimes is referred to as AVR or Average Vehicle
Ridership. If the AVO for work trips in a region is 1.18 persons per vehicle, it
means that every 100 vehicles carry 118 commuters, including the drivers. The
higher the AVO the better, both for reducing traffic congestion and for improving
air quality.

AVR - Average Vehicle Ridership: See AVO above.



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Caltrans - California Department of Transportation: Caltrans is responsible
for planning, building and maintaining state highways, and for planning and
developing inter-regional transportation services such as the Capitol Corridors
train service in the Sacramento and Bay Area.

Capital Funds: Monies used to expand or replace the transportation infrastructure
such as rail extensions, seismic retrofit projects or bicycle lanes.

CARB - California Air Resources Board: See ARB above.

CAAA - Clean Air Act Amendments: Federal legislation in 1990 amending the
original Clean Air Act enacted by Congress in 1971. The amendments revised the
air quality standards that must be met by each region in the country that violates air
quality standards ("non-attainment areas").

CCAA - California Clean Air Act: State legislation enacted in 1988 requiring
each county to develop an air quality attainment plan through the county's air
pollution control district or the air quality management district (see APCD and
AQMD above).

CEQA - California Environmental Quality Act:               Legislation requiring
environmental review of proposed physical plans and projects, including
transportation plans. CEQA generally requires either a Negative Declaration or an
Environmental Impact Report (see Negative Declaration and EIR).

CMA - Congestion Management Agency: A countywide agency responsible for
developing and implementing a county's Congestion Management Program (see
CMP below). State legislation in 1990 required each county to have a CMA;
however, subsequent legislation relaxed this requirement so not all counties have
one.

CMP - Congestion Management Program: A countywide program designed to
keep traffic congestion within an acceptable standard. The CMP must set traffic
flow standards, standards for public transit service, a program to analyze the traffic
impacts of land use decisions, a "trip reduction/travel demand" element to reduce
vehicular use, and a seven-year capital improvement program. The CMP must be
updated every other year.

Conformity: See "air quality conformity analysis" above.

CTC - California Transportation Commission: A governor-appointed body that
reviews Regional Transportation Improvement Programs (see Regional TIP
below), decides which specific projects and programs will receive state funding,
and then allocates the funds through the State Transportation Improvement
Program (see State TIP below).



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EIR - Environmental Impact Report: A study of the environmental impacts of a
proposed plan, program or project. EIRs are required in many circumstances by
the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

EIS - Environmental Impact Statement: A report that is required by the
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the environmental impacts of
proposed physical plans, programs or projects. An EIS is similar in concept to an
EIR.

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency: A federal agency that reviews air
quality conformity analyses, and affirms or rejects the conformity finding.

Federal TIP - Federal Transportation Improvement Program (sometimes
"FTIP"): A three-year list of specific transportation projects and programs that
metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) submit to the federal government as a
request for funding. It is subject to air-quality conformity analysis under federal
regulations.

FHWA - Federal Highway Administration: The FHWA approves regional
transportation plans (RTPs) and Federal Transportation Improvement Programs
(FTIPs), and allocates the federal transportation funds to the region.

FTA - Federal Transit Administration: An agency that develops federal policy
on public transit issues, and allocates capital and operating funds for public transit
projects. FTA approves the public transit funding requests in Federal TIPs.

FY - Fiscal Year: California budgets reflect a fiscal year of July 1 to June 30
while Federal budgets reflect a fiscal year of October 1 to September 30.

IIP - Interregional Improvement Program: State funds for interregional road
and rail projects. These funds are listed in the funding program called ITIP.

ITIP - Interregional Transportation Improvement Program: A funding
program for interregional and highway projects. Caltrans nominates and the CTC
approves a listing of ITIP projects, which make up 25 percent of the STIP.

ISTEA - Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act: ISTEA was
authorized in 1991 as an innovative federal transportation legislation. ISTEA
allowed for flexible funding and emphasized system preservation rather than
capacity expansion and multimodal travel rather than automobile usage.

Mode: A means of travel such as bicycle, car, bus and rail.

Mode Choice: A person's choice of travel on a given trip. Mode choice also is
one of the variables calculated by a travel forecasting model (see below).



                                     102
Model: A computerized set of equations used to forecast traffic volumes and
public transit ridership in specified future years. More sophisticated models
include bicycling and walking.

MPO - Metropolitan Planning Organization: A federal designation granted to
the agency charged with conducting regional transportation planning and project
selection for federal programs. Urbanized areas of less than 50,000 residents are
not required to have an MPO.

Negative Declaration: A statement that a proposed project or plan will not cause
any significant harm to the environment. A negative declaration may be filed after
an initial study of possible environmental impacts under the process required by
the California Environmental Quality Act (see CEQA).

NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act: A federal environmental law that
requires environmental impact analysis of many proposed physical plans and
projects. NEPA requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement in
some cases (see EIS).

Non-attainment Area: An area that fails to meet air quality standards. The U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency defines a non-attainment area by considering its
air pollution levels, topology, climate and wind patterns.

Obligate: Once a project sponsor receives its allocated portion of funds, the
agency then can spend or obligate the funds to contractors or internal staff.

Operating Funds: Funds used to operate and maintain the transportation system,
which include staff salaries, street overlays and transit bus repairs.

Peak Period: The time of greatest use of transportation facilities or services. The
peak period of travel each day is often called "rush hour," although peak periods
now tend to last more than one hour in most metropolitan areas.

Regional TIP - Regional Transportation Improvement Program (sometimes
"RTIP"): A seven-year list of specific transportation projects, which RTPAs
submit to the CTC as a request for state funding. The RTIP includes RIP funds,
which equal 75 percent of the STIP. CTC approves the RTIPs, and then combines
them based on population and state highway miles.

RIP - Regional Improvement Program: The RIP funds provide monies for
proposed projects listed in the RTIPs. This funding mechanism was created in
1997 by State Bill 45 to give metropolitan regions more authority in allocating
state transportation monies.




                                    103
RTP - Regional Transportation Plan: A 20-year blueprint for regional
transportation strategies, which is developed and updated by the RTPAs. Under
state law, RTPAs must update the plan every two years to ensure accurate growth
and financial projections. RTPs are required at both the state and federal levels.
The Regional Trails Program, which is a federal trails funding source, also has the
acronym of RTP.

RTPA - Regional Transportation Planning Agency: A state designation of the
agency responsible for regional transportation planning to meet state planning
mandates. The RTPA is not always the same agency as the federally-designated
MPO. Refer to Appendices E and F for direct MPO and RTPA comparisons.

SIP - State Implementation Plan: A statewide air quality plan required by the
federal Clean Air Act and its 1990 amendments. The SIP is compiled from local
air quality plans by the California Air Resources Board.

SOV - Single-Occupant Vehicle: A vehicle carrying only one person.

State TIP - State Transportation Improvement Program (sometimes "STIP"):
The STIP includes proposed projects from the RTIPs (75 percent) and
interregional projects nominated by Caltrans for the ITIP (25 percent). The STIP
covers four years and is updated every two years. Projects that are included in the
STIP are funded by the state.

TCM - Transportation Control Measure: A measure aimed at reducing
vehicular use and thereby improving air quality. State law requires countywide air
quality plans that must include a list of such measures. These plans, including the
TCMs, are developed by the Air Pollution Control Districts or Air Quality
Management Districts.

TDM - Transportation Demand Management: Techniques to reduce the use of
motor vehicles or shift the use of motor vehicles to uncongested times of the day.
TDMs could include employer-sponsored ridesharing and bicycling programs or
flexible working hours that enable commuters to work before or after the peak
period.

TIP - Transportation Improvement Program: TIPs are spending plans for
transportation projects. RTPAs develop the Regional TIP, which is submitted to
the state. MPOs develop the Federal TIP, which is submitted to the federal
government. The CTC develops the State TIP or STIP by selecting projects from
the various Regional TIPs for funding.

TMA - Transportation Management Association: A group of employers or
developers of job centers that implement strategies to alleviate traffic congestion in
their area. TMAs typically sponsor activities concerning transit, ridesharing,




                                     104
bicycling and walking, and may provide incentives to their employees to use these
alternative modes of travel.

TMA - Transportation Management Area: A designation given to urbanized
areas of 200,000 or more population under the federal TEA-21 legislation.
Numerous planning requirements must be met for these areas.

TSM - Transportation System Management: Techniques for making the
transportation system operate more efficiently. Examples of TSMs include
coordinated traffic signal timing in a congested area, and ramp meters to time the
entry of vehicles onto a freeway.

VMT - Vehicle Miles of Travel or Vehicle Miles Traveled: A measure of motor
vehicle use. It represents the total distance traveled by all vehicles combined over
a specified period of time.




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