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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Powered By Docstoc
					Attention
Deficit
Hyperactivity
Disorder

           Mary Beth Haley
           Lynden Robbins
                   TE 803
Characteristics
   • Diagnosable, neurobehavior disorder
   • Must meet specific criteria for diagnosis
     including certain symptoms, which display an
     interference in at least two areas of person’s
     life. Additionally, behaviors are excessive and
     long-term.
   • 3 main types:
        o Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive
        o Predominantly inattentive
        o Combined
Symptoms
  • Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive
     – Constant movement/squirming, runs around
       often, interrupts, blurts out, butts in on other
       conversations, unable to complete quiet
       activities, etc.
  • Predominantly inattentive
     – Still, quiet, not paying attention, easily
       distracted, easily bored, slow pace, difficulty
       following, unorganized, day dreams, miss
       details, forgetful, etc.
  • Combined
     – Combination of signs of other types
         » Additionally: Impatience, blurting out,
            verbally/physically abusive, argumentative,
            ambivalence about consequences
Treatments
• Medication
• Behavior Therapy
   – Specific examples:
       » Positive behavior reinforcement with clear
         consequences for negative behavior.
       » Reward systems/token economies.
       » Behavior management/tracking chart individualized for
         student.
       » Maintain a consistent daily schedule for the student.
       » Clear, explicit rules and procedures to help reduce
         frustration and to work within attention span.
       » Limit distractions in environment to promote focused
         attention.
       » Provide independent space for child to either calm
         down from frustration/defiant behavior, or to work
         more successfully to surpass inattentive behavior.
       » One on one support to maintain attention.
• Combination
Modification examples
from field
   • For more inattentive students, modifications
     may resemble:
      – Shortened assignments, broken into smaller tasks to
        help sustain attention span (i.e. have student
        complete first two steps, rather than list of four, and
        conference in between)
      – Varying lessons and offering different instructional
        strategies (i.e. large group into small group, partner
        work, hands-on, etc.) to promote engagement
      – Taking breaks to redirect attention
      – One on one support to reteach or repeat directions
      – Consistent redirection
      – Strategic seating
• For more impulsive/hyperactive students,
  modifications may resemble:
   – Behavior management charts for student to track
     behavior through day
   – Daily reports home on behavior
       » May be adapted to half day (am/pm) or even by
          subject/time of day
   – Time-out space to resolve frustrations/ Taking breaks
   – Modeled examples with concise instructions
   – Varied instructional strategies to minimize blurting
     out (i.e. popsicle stick method, writing answers,
     writing journals to relay blurted answers later, etc.)
   – Consistent redirection
   – Strategic seating
• For students who fall under the
  combined section, any combination or
  variation of the previous modifications
  could suit them.
• Any of these methods could be utilized
  for any student with ADHD.
Misconceptions/Concerns
  • ADHD is a fraud by psychiatric and pharmaceutical
    industries to make money.
  • Poor parenting, poor education, too much TV, food
    allergies, or excess sugar causes AD/HD.
  • AD/HD is caused by brain damage.
  • Children are being overmedicated and/or
    unnecessarily medicated.
  • Children are not being medically treated enough
    and symptoms are going undiagnosed.
  • ADHD doesn’t exist.
  • Stimulant drugs may cause dependency issues
    and/or be misused, or even abused.
Resources
  • www.ADHD.com
  • www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/ADHD/usefullinks.php
  • http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ADHD/
  • www.add.org
  • "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Health
    & Outreach.
    http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-
    deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml
  • "Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder".
    US department of health and human services. December
    1999. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/ADHDsum.htm
  • Zwi M, Ramchandani P, Joughin C (October 2000).
    "Evidence and belief in ADHD". BMJ 321 (7267): 975–6.
    doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7267.975. PMC 1118810.
    PMID 11039942
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool
    =pmcentrez&artid=1118810.

				
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