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Catalytic Converter Cleaner

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					           EXHAUST CONTROL INDUSTRIES




     CATALYTIC
  CONVERTER MANUAL
                                 Dated 31st May 2001.




Note : The information contained in this manual is for general reference only. Details or
                               specifications may vary.




                                                                                            1
                 INTRODUCTION AND OPERATION REQUIREMENTS.


The ECI Diesel Catalytic Converter is designed to reduce soot emissions, carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons from diesel engines. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon reductions are achieved when the
exhaust gas interacts with the catalyst coating on the ceramic filter. As the exhaust emission comes in
contact with the oxidizing catalyst, the chemical reaction raises the combustion activity in the exhaust
system, oxidizing the toxic gases and soot into harmless gases, ash and water vapour.

                                     Cross-sectional view of filtration



             Untreated                                                          Treated
             Exhaust Gas                                                        Exhaust Gas




The ECI Diesel Catalytic Converter controls smoke by ‘burning’ (oxidising) particulates of carbon (black
smoke) from the engine exhaust. The filter is made of a metallic honeycomb with hundreds of parallel
channels, which form the reaction surface media. When the gases flow through the fine channels of the
catalytic converter, the carbon particles are oxidised (burnt) out of the exhaust gases.

The process of carbon oxidation begins as soon as the engine exhaust temperature is optimum (>250ºC) and
continues while the engine is operating. As the carbon particles are collected on the catalyst substrate, the
back-pressure on the system will increase. When the temperature of the exhaust in the soot filter unit
reaches 375ºC and above, the catalytic regeneration process takes place. In the regeneration process, soot
accumulated in the soot trap is oxidized into a fine white ash, which will be discharged from the system as
a ‘white smoke’. The optimum temperature for regeneration is 300ºC and above for at least 20% of the
engine duty cycle.

While the exhaust temperature does not have to be above 300ºC all the time, the higher the temperature, the
better the soot reduction performance. The temperature required for toxic gas reduction (CO, HC) is 200ºC
and above.

Generally, ECI’s catalytic converters, if fitted onto a properly maintained engine, will be maintenance-free
and has an expected life of around 20,000 engine hours.

                                               Installation
The catalytic converter is installed directly in the exhaust system by using the standard silencer flanges.
Due to the catalytic converter’s requirement of heat, the catalytic converter must be located as close to the
engine manifold as possible while taking into account the need to maintain proper support for the filter.




                                                                                                           2
                                            Typical Catalytic Converter Installation




                                                                            SILENCER


                               FLOW




                                          Supporting Brackets
                                                                            A1         BACK-PRESSURE TUBE
                        A1                Water Gauge Hose




DIRECT FROM EXHAUST MANIFOLD

             After determining the best location in the exhaust system, remove the necessary length of the pipe. Also,
             since the exhaust system is now apart, removal of the silencer at this time is recommended. If the catalytic
             converter is to be used together with the silencer, the silencer must be installed after the catalytic converter.

             The larger catalytic converter may be supported with appropriate supporting beams at the body flanges as
             shown in the diagram.




                                                                                                                            3
              Steel beam or                                                                   Catalytic Converter
              concrete ceiling

              Steel rods




              Angle Bar or
              U' Saddle brackets
                                          Typical support brackets




                                          Noise Attenuation
The ECI Diesel Catalytic Converter has an attenuation of about 10 to 15 dbA under Open Field Conditions
at 1 meter. In most cases, the ECI Catalytic Converter can be used to replace the standard Industrial
Silencer.


Warning: If you are installing the filter in the vertical position, extra care must be taken not to allow the
catalytic converter to slip down on the exhaust pipe where the exhaust pipe can touch the catalyst body.
This can damage or crack the catalyst substrate.


                                   Maintenance and Heating.

The ECI Diesel Oxidation catalytic Converter requires minimal maintenance. Under normal application,
the catalytic converter’s back-pressure is to be monitored with a water-filled hose (Water gauge) If the
Back-pressure is seen to be increasing, operate the engine running under load and allow the catalytic
converter to heat up for approx. 40 mins. This will allow the combustible soot to oxidize or burn away.

As the engine is operating, not only does the catalyst substrate trap carbon particulate, but it also traps non-
combustible ash, such as calcium from the lubrication oil. Over time, the non-combustible ash may plug the
catalyst substrate. To minimize the effect of ash plugging, it is recommended that besides the use of
heating, the filters to be dismantled during the engine major overhaul and cleaned with compressed air to
remove any ash. The catalytic converter is then rinsed with soap water and dried again with compressed air.

To determine if the catalytic converter is clogged, compare the back-pressure reading taken at the inlet of
the soot filter, to the maximum recommended back pressure by the engine manufacturer. If the reading is
above the manufacturer’s limit, then cleaning and maintenance is required. If after maintenance work is
done and the back-pressure is still high, then the catalytic converter is clogged with non-combustible ash
and must be cleaned.




                                                                                                                4
    Cleaning Procedure:

    1) Dismantle the catalytic converter from the piping system.
    2) To clean the catalytic converter, use compressed air blower on the OPPOSITE side of the catalyst
       substrate inlet face. Continue until there is no more ash coming out of the inlet side of the catalytic
       converter.
    3) Flush the soot filters with household biodegradable dishwashing detergent if necessary to remove
       accumulated oil. Take care not to use laundry or washing machine detergent as it contains phosphorus
       that will damage the catalyst. Wash thoroughly with water.
    4) Allow to dry.
    5) Turn the outlet side of the catalytic converter to the inlet side to double the life of the catalytic
       converter. ( for standard designs only)
    6) Install the catalytic converter.




                                                                 ECI Catalytic
                                                                  Converter

                                                                                                     Compressed air




Dislodged ash and grid.


Cleaning the Catalytic Converter with compressed air to remove non-combustable ash.

    Trouble Shooting

    A) Problem: White smoke coming out of the catalytic converter.
       Causes: Normal white smoke is normal, as they are the combusted ash or water vapour. However, if
       the smoke is coming from the catalytic converter when hot, the possible cause is that the catalyst
       substrate is covered with oil from the exhaust and is the result of the oil burning. The catalytic
       converter has to be heated to burn off the oil, or washed with detergent if the problem persists. A
       trained technician must also check the engine.
    B) Problem : Abnormal back-pressure. Back-pressure can be measured using the Water gauge or
       pressure meter.
       Solution : If the pressure is high, clean or regenerate the catalyst substrate as described above. If the
       pressure remains high, the catalytic substrate may be severely clogged with non-combustible ash.
       Remove the catalytic converter and clean with soap water and compressed air.
    C) Problem : No reduction of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons achieved.
       Causes : Ensure that the temperature in the catalytic converter is sufficient for the catalyst to react
       with the exhaust gases. If the temperature is achieved and no reductions in the toxic gases are
       achieved, check the fuel quality for contamination. Materials such as lead, excessive sulphur or
       phosphorus may damage the catalyst coating.




                                                                                                              5
APPENDIX

              Mounting pads




                                  Catalytic


                                 Converter




                       ‘U’ Bracket or Saddle Bracket



             From                Difference in
             Exhaust             water level
             inlet               for back
                                 pressure



                                  Water-filled
                                     hose




           Water Gauge back-pressure measurement in inches




                                                             6

				
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