An activity –exercise pattern:
Refers to a person's routine of exercise, activity,
leisure, and recreation: it includes
Activities of daily living (ADLs) that require
energy expenditure such as hygiene, cooking,
shopping, eating, working, and home
The type, quality, and quantity of exercise,
Normal movement and stability: are the result of
an intact musculoskeletal system,
an intact nervous system,
and intact inner ear structures responsible for
Body movement requires coordinate muscle
activity and neurologic integration.
It involves four basic elements: body alignment
(posture), joint mobility, balance, and coordinated
1- Body alignment
Line of gravity: an imaginary vertical line
drawn through the body's center of
Center of gravity: the point at which all
the body's mass is centered.
Base of support: the foundation on which
the body rests.
2- Joint movement
Joints are the functional unites of
the musculoskeletal system.
Types of Joint Movements
Rang of Motion (ROM)
ROM, of the joint:
Is the maximum movement that is possible for the
Joint rang of motion varies from individual to
individual and determined by genetic makeup,
developmental patterns, the presence or absence
of disease, and the amount of physical activity in
which the person normally engages.
The vertebral column has the following normal ranges of
movement: Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion and Rotation.
The shoulder girdle has the following normal
ranges of movement: Elevation, Depression,
Adduction and Abduction.
The shoulder joint has the following normal ranges
of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction,
Abduction and Medial Rotation.
The elbow joint has the following normal
ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension,
Pronation and Supination.
The wrist joint has the following normal
ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension,
Adduction, Abduction and Circumduction.
The hip joint has the following normal ranges of
movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction,
Abduction, Medial Rotation and Lateral Rotation.
The knee joint has the following normal ranges of
movement: Flexion and Extension
The ankle joint has the following normal ranges of
movement: Plantar Flexion, Dorsi Flexion,
Inversion and Eversion.
Mechanisms of equilibrium (sense of balance)
response, frequently, without awareness, to various
The equilibrium sense depend on informational
inputs from labyrinth (inner ear), vision, and from
stretch receptors of the muscles and tendons.
4- Coordinate movement:
Balanced, smooth, purposeful
movement is the result of proper
the cerebral cortex,
Physical activity is "bodily movement produced
by skeletal muscles that requires energy
expenditure and produces pro-gressive health
Exercise is "a type of physical activity defined as
a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily
movement done to improve or maintain one or
more components of physical fitness."
Activity tolerance is the type and amount of
exercise or daily living activities an individual is
able to perform without experiencing adverse
Type of exercise:
Exercise involves the active contraction
and relaxation of muscles.
Exercise can be classified according to
type of muscle contraction (isotonic,
isometric, or isokinetic)
and according to the source of energy
(aerobic or anaerobic).
are those in which the muscle shortens to
produce muscle contraction and active
movement. (Running, walking, ROM),
that increase muscle tone, mass, and strength
and maintain joint flexibility and circulation,
during isotonic exercise, both heart rate and
cardiac output quicken to increase blood flow to
all parts of the body. Little change in blood
are those in which there is a change in muscle
but there is no change in muscle length and
no muscle or joint movement
these exercise involve exerting pressure
against a solid object and are useful for
involve muscle contraction or tension against
During isokinetic exercises, the person moves
(isotonic) or (isometric) against resistance.
The exercise are used in physical conditioning
and are often done to build up certain muscle
groups; e.g; the pectorals (chest muscles) may
be increased size and strength by lifting
is activity during which the amount of oxygen
taken in the body is greater than that used to
perform the activity.
These exercises use the large groups of muscle,
are performed continuously, and are rhythmic in
nature. For example walking, running, dancing,
aerobic exercise improve cardiovascular
conditioning and physical fitness.
involves activity in which the muscles cannot
draw out enough oxygen from the bloodstream.
And anaerobic pathways are used to provide
additional energy for the short time. this type of
exercise is used in endurance training for
Benefits of Exercise:
Factors Affecting Body
Alignment and Activity:
Growth and development.
Personal values and attitudes.
The nurse can do a number of things to ensure proper
alignment and promote client comfort and safety:
Make sure the mattress is firm and level yet has enough
give to fill in and support natural body
Ensure that bed clean and dry.
Place support devices in specified area according to the
Avoid placing one body part, particularly one with the bony
Plan a systematic 24-hrs schedule for position changes.
Types of positions:
Dorsal Recumbent Position: