An activity –exercise pattern:

Refers to a person's routine of exercise, activity,
  leisure, and recreation: it includes
 Activities of daily living (ADLs) that require
  energy expenditure such as hygiene, cooking,
  shopping, eating, working, and home
  maintenance, and
 The type, quality, and quantity of exercise,
  including sports.
                 Normal movement
 Normal movement and stability: are the result of
 an intact musculoskeletal system,
 an intact nervous system,
 and intact inner ear structures responsible for
 Body movement requires coordinate muscle
  activity and neurologic integration.
 It involves four basic elements: body alignment
  (posture), joint mobility, balance, and coordinated
      1- Body alignment

 Line of gravity: an imaginary vertical line
  drawn through the body's center of
 Center of gravity: the point at which all
  the body's mass is centered.
 Base of support: the foundation on which
  the body rests.
     2- Joint movement

Joints are the functional unites of
 the musculoskeletal system.
 Types of Joint Movements
 Flexion
 Extension
 Hyperextension
 Abduction
 Adduction
 Rotation
 Circumduction
 Eversion
 Inversion
 Pronation
 Supination
         Rang of Motion (ROM)

 ROM, of the joint:
 Is the maximum movement that is possible for the
 Joint rang of motion varies from individual to
  individual and determined by genetic makeup,
  developmental patterns, the presence or absence
  of disease, and the amount of physical activity in
  which the person normally engages.
Spinal Column
The vertebral column has the following normal ranges of
movement: Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion and Rotation.
Shoulder Girdle
The shoulder girdle has the following normal
ranges of movement: Elevation, Depression,
Adduction and Abduction.
Shoulder Joint
The shoulder joint has the following normal ranges
of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction,
Abduction and Medial Rotation.
Elbow Joint
The elbow joint has the following normal
ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension,
Pronation and Supination.
Wrist Joint
The wrist joint has the following normal
ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension,
Adduction, Abduction and Circumduction.
Hip Joint
The hip joint has the following normal ranges of
movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction,
Abduction, Medial Rotation and Lateral Rotation.
Knee Joint
The knee joint has the following normal ranges of
movement: Flexion and Extension
Ankle Joint
The ankle joint has the following normal ranges of
movement: Plantar Flexion, Dorsi Flexion,
Inversion and Eversion.
          3- Balance:

 Mechanisms of equilibrium (sense of balance)
  response, frequently, without awareness, to various
  head movement.
 The equilibrium sense depend on informational
  inputs from labyrinth (inner ear), vision, and from
  stretch receptors of the muscles and tendons.
     4- Coordinate movement:

Balanced, smooth, purposeful
 movement is the result of proper
 functioning of
the cerebral cortex,
cerebellum, and
basal ganglia.
 Physical activity is "bodily movement produced
  by skeletal muscles that requires energy
  expenditure and produces pro-gressive health
 Exercise is "a type of physical activity defined as
  a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily
  movement done to improve or maintain one or
  more components of physical fitness."
 Activity tolerance is the type and amount of
  exercise or daily living activities an individual is
  able to perform without experiencing adverse
       Type of exercise:

 Exercise involves the active contraction
  and relaxation of muscles.
 Exercise can be classified according to
 type of muscle contraction (isotonic,
  isometric, or isokinetic)
 and according to the source of energy
  (aerobic or anaerobic).
        Isotonic exercises:
 are those in which the muscle shortens to
  produce muscle contraction and active
  movement. (Running, walking, ROM),
 that increase muscle tone, mass, and strength
  and maintain joint flexibility and circulation,
 during isotonic exercise, both heart rate and
  cardiac output quicken to increase blood flow to
  all parts of the body. Little change in blood
  pressure occurs.
        Isometric exercises

 are those in which there is a change in muscle
 but there is no change in muscle length and
  no muscle or joint movement
 these exercise involve exerting pressure
  against a solid object and are useful for
        Isokinetic exercises:

 involve muscle contraction or tension against
 During isokinetic exercises, the person moves
  (isotonic) or (isometric) against resistance.
 The exercise are used in physical conditioning
  and are often done to build up certain muscle
  groups; e.g; the pectorals (chest muscles) may
  be increased size and strength by lifting
        Aerobic exercise:

 is activity during which the amount of oxygen
  taken in the body is greater than that used to
  perform the activity.
 These exercises use the large groups of muscle,
  are performed continuously, and are rhythmic in
  nature. For example walking, running, dancing,
  aerobic exercise improve cardiovascular
  conditioning and physical fitness.
        Anaerobic exercise:

 involves activity in which the muscles cannot
 draw out enough oxygen from the bloodstream.
 And anaerobic pathways are used to provide
 additional energy for the short time. this type of
 exercise is used in endurance training for
        Benefits of Exercise:

 Musculoskeletal system:
 Cardiovascular system:
 Respiratory system:
 Gastrointestinal system:
 Metabolic system:
 Urinary system:
 Psychological system:
       Factors Affecting Body
       Alignment and Activity:
 Growth and development.
 Physical health.
 Mental health.
 Nutrition.
 Personal values and attitudes.
 External factor.
 Prescribed limitations.
             Positioning clients:
 The nurse can do a number of things to ensure proper
    alignment and promote client comfort and safety:
   Make sure the mattress is firm and level yet has enough
    give to fill in and support natural body
   Ensure that bed clean and dry.
   Place support devices in specified area according to the
    client position.
   Avoid placing one body part, particularly one with the bony
   Plan a systematic 24-hrs schedule for position changes.
      Types of positions:

 Fowler's position
 Othopneic position
 Dorsal Recumbent Position:
 Prone position:
 Lateral position:
 Sims' position:

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