oAsis oF The seAs How to build a mixed-use entertainment complex in a floating metal shell. By judith ruBin In the world of themed entertainment devel- opment, there is a tendency mentally to parti- tion off the cruise ship industr y. The reason- ing goes that, between land-based and marine- based projects, the specialized parameters of shipbuilding and marine operations impose a gulf that is hard to cross. Those parameters are real and inescapable but, at the same time, the modern cruise ship industr y offers valu- able lessons and opportunities. Albeit on water, these projects are mixed-use visitor attractions that, in terms of the guest experience they de- liver, the family market they target and the ex- tensive audiovisual systems they employ, have a great deal in common with their land-based counterparts. 52 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com. Amphibians: Both land And sea In terms of the streamlined design and production models to which these projects adhere, the need for most ven- ues to be multipurpose and the neces- sity of being operable and maintainable 24/7 with the staff at hand, they of- fer exemplar y, creative solutions for today’s leaner, meaner and greener mandates. And the gulf is not impass- able: Although there are companies that specialize heavily in cruise ships, there are others—amphibians, if you will—whose portfolios encompass both land and sea. An examination of Royal Caribbean Cruise Line’s Oasis of the Seas, the biggest cruise ship in the world, is a good way to demonstrate our point. Time calls Oasis “a giant leisure ma- chine, with more spas, pools, bars and activities than you could probably hit in a week.” With seven themed zones and 50-plus venues featuring state-of- the-art technologies for entertainment, display and communications, the 16- deck, 5400-passenger, 225,282-ton, $1.4 billion ship, which is 1181 feet long and 154 feet wide, has been making inter- national headlines since its November 2009 debut. In the Royal Promenade, the Rising Tide Bar, a slow moving elevator bar. Aqua-Theater architecture, and both these theaters and a bridge connecting the two high- And opal Theater are relatively wide—the width of the dive boards, which can support an en- Theater consultant Fisher Dachs ship—and shallow, with a thrust stage. tire row of divers. On the underbelly (www.fisherdachs.com) and audio/ The Aqua-Theater, the ship’s most of this bridge are lights and nozzles acoustics specialist Jaffe Holden (www. elaborate and unusual venue, presents that send a water curtain into the pool jaffeholden.com) are two of those ver- a nightly dive spectacular, a richly in- below. A trapeze hanging behind the satile companies with one foot on the tegrated mix of live performance, AV, high-dive boards creates the illusion ground and one on the boat. Project lighting and effects. Its saltwater pool, that the trapeze artists are climbing Manager Peter Rosenbaum of Fisher which Royal Caribbean states to be the the water curtain. Dachs and Audio Designer Mark Tur- largest and deepest saltwater pool at pin, with Acoustician Russ Cooper, of sea, is 21.9 feet long by 51.6 feet wide Fan-shaped stage Jaffe Holden, were closely involved in by 17.9 feet deep. The stage is fan-shaped and converts the planning and design of Oasis’ two Throughout the evenings, the Aqua- to a platform for lounge chairs during large theaters, the Aqua-Theater (ca- Theater presents choreographed foun- the day. To develop the overall strategy pacity of 735) and Opal Theater (capac- tain shows with hundreds of water noz- with the architect for how the Aqua- ity of 2161). zles—some capable of shooting water Theater would function physically, Cruise ship theaters tend to be 65 feet high—programmed to music “we started out with the show con- wider and shallower than comparable and lights. There is a giant trampoline cept: a performance based on a pool theaters on land due to the marine centered between two diving towers (continued on page 57) Judith Rubin (www.judithrubin.blogspot.com) is a freelance writer and editor specializing in themed attractions and enter- tainment technology. March 2010 53 equipment rOyAl PrOMenAde 28 Atlas FAP42TC ceiling speakers 6 Atlas FAPSUB ceiling subs 1 Aviom 6416m mic input module Pro64 2 Aviom 6416Y2 Pro64 A-net cards for Yamaha 1 Aviom A-16D Pro A-Net distributor 6 Aviom A-16II personal mixers 1 Aviom A-16R rackmount personal mixer 1 Aviom ASI A-Net interface 1 Aviom MCS mic control surface 1 Aviom MH10 A-Net merger hub 1 Aviom RCI remote-control interface 2 BSS BLU-120 (0 in x 16 out) DSP expansion 1 BSS BLU-120 (8 in x 8 out) DSP expansion 3 BSS BLU-3 UK version DSP remote control panels 1 BSS BLU-800 (8 in x 8 out) DSP processor Royal Promenade audio booth. 1 BSS BLU-8-BLK DSP remote control panel 1 Clear-Com SB-704 4-channel main station+psu 4 Clear-Com CC-260 double-muff headsets 8 Clear-Com CC-95 single-muff headsets 4 Clear-Com HS-6 handsets 1 Clear-Com RM-704 4-channel remote rack station 4 Clear-Com RS-601 single-channel beltpacks 28 Elation Impression 10° narrow lenses 1 ETC CEM+ module dimmer control module 24 ETC D20 dimmer modules 1 ETC dimmer rack SR24+ w/accessories 8 Furman RL-LED LED rack lights 2 Genelec 8030A booth monitors 1 High End USB LTC SMPTE widget 1 High End USB playback wing 1 High End Whole Hog 3 package 2 HME 30' remote antenna kits Swingframe audio rack 8 HME BP200 wireless intercom belt packs with wireless receivers 2 HME BS200 wireless intercom base stations in a Royal Promenade 8 HME HS14 wireless intercom headsets rack. 2 HME splitter/combiner wireless intercom antenna splitters 1 HP Procurve PWR 24-port 10/100 + 2-port GB POE 2 Littlite 18XR-4-LED 4-pin LED console lights 6 Martin Jem K1 208V hazers 22 Martin MAC250 Entour 208V moving head fixtures 14 Meyer Sound UCS-1P powered subs 42 Meyer Sound UPA-1P powered speakers Lighting and audio Meyer Sound M-10 subwoofers connection panels for 2 Middle Atlantic SLIM 5-14 racks w/accessories the Royal Promenade. 6 Ocotec 20U SWL racks 1 Oxmoor MDA-26T distribution amp 10 Shure UR1-J5 beltpack transmitters 10 Pathway 6202 Pathport C-Series 2 DMX outputs 10 Shure UR2/87 Beta-J5 handheld wireless mics 1 QSC CX108V 70V 8-channel amp 5 Shure UR4D-J5 dual wireless receivers 1 QSC CX204V 70V 4-channel amp 1 Shure VP88 stereo mic 1 Rane ML1 live mic preamp 5 Swisson XRD-TR-TR DMX splitters, double 4 Renkus-Heinz CF121M-2 120V powered monitor speakers 1 TASCAM CD-RW901SL CD recorder 4 Shure P7TR-L2 wireless monitor transmitter/receivers 1 TASCAM CD-01UPro CD player w/AES/EBU 2 Shure PA805SWB wideband unidirectional antenna 1 TASCAM SS-R1 CF player/recorder 1 Shure PA821 antenna splitter for in-ear system 1 W-DMX A40001 S-1 DMX wireless transmitter 6 Shure SCL5-CL in-ear monitors 6 W-DMX A40102 R-512 DMX wireless receivers w/antenna 4 Shure SM57-LC mics Whirlwind quad mic cables 4 Shure SM58-LC mics 1 Yamaha DM2000 V2VCM+MB2000+SP2000 digital mixer 2 Shure SM81-LC mics w/meter bridge, side panels 2 Shure SM87-LC mics 1 Yamaha MY16-CII CobraNet digital I/O card 2 Shure UA845SWB antenna distribution systems 3 Yamaha MY8ADDA96 analog I/O cards (Euroblock conn) 4 Shure UA870WB active antennas (directional) List is edited from information supplied by FUNA. 54 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com. Aqua theater 1 360 Systems DR-600 Instant Replay 2 instant access player 1 Adtec Sign Edje MPEG player Audio Accessories patch bays, TT-style, cables 1 AutoPatch FGP44-4864-110 composite video matrix 1 AutoPatch Optima RGBHV matrix 2 Barco Olite 612 25'x13' weatherproof videowalls 2 beyerdynamic DT-770-PRO 80 headphones 1 Bittree B48T-2WNHD video patch bay, 2x24, internal normals Bittree VPC1807-75 video patch bay cables 1 BSS BLU-120 (0 in x 16 out) DSP expansion 1 BSS BLU-120 (8 in x 8 out) DSP expansion 1 BSS BLU-800 (8 in x 8 out) DSP processor 1 BUFTEK IFD-422 control interface 1 BUFTEK IFD-422M control interface 10 Clark Synthesis AC339 underwater speakers 3 Clear-Com RM-704 remote rack stations (4 channel) 4 Clear-Com CC-260 headsets (double muff) View of the Aqua-Theater from the audio booth. 10 Clear-Com CC-95 headsets (single muff) 4 Clear-Com FL-1 call signal flashers 1 Clear-Com GM-18 18" gooseneck panel mic 1 Clear-Com IF-4W4 4-wire conversion 2 Clear-Com KB-701 remote wall stations (1 channel) 6 Clear-Com RS-601 remote belt packs 12 Community W2-2V8W speakers 18 Community W2-2W8W speakers 4 Community W2-312-64HW speakers 5 Dynacord DPC 4510 paging stations 1 Dynacord DPM 4000 digital paging matrix 1 Dynacord NRS 90215 paging station module 1 Dynacord NRS 90216 audio input module 1 Dynacord NRS 90218 audio output module 12 Electro-Voice XLD291-WH-NL speakers 4 Electro-Voice XLD GRID CCA line array rigging frames 4 Electro-Voice XS212-WH-NL subs 2 Evertz 7701FR+PSX 3-slot video multi frames 2 Evertz 8-channel fiber SDI receive cards 2 Evertz 8-channel fiber SDI transmit cards 2 Evertz audio embedders Aqua-Theater amplifier room. 1 Evertz dual A to D converter 1 Evertz single A to D converter 5 Evertz D to A converters 1 Marshall V-R151DP-AFSD hi-res 1x7.9" LCD display + audio 1 Evertz 15-slot video multi frame 2 Marshall V-R44P rackmount full-color 4x4" active matrix LCD panels 8 Furman RL-LED LED rack lights 2 Marshall V-R563P rackmount active matrix 3x4" LCD panels 4 Genelec 8030A booth monitors 7 Marshall V-R82DP-2C 2x8.4" LCD monitor sets 1 HDfury Gamer Edition or Blue Edition HDMI to VGA converter 4 Martin MAC700 Profile (208V) moving head fixtures 2 High End Axon digital media servers 1 Medialon GD_SCMIII + AD_RG1_PCI + SL_DMX_PCI show 1 High End USB LTC SMPTE Widget control machine w/SMPTE card + DMX card 1 High End USB playback wing 1 Medialon MNG_V5L Manager V5 Lite show control software 1 High End Whole Hog 3 digital lighting console w/accessories 1 Medialon MSCH Scheduler show control scheduling software 8 HME BP200 wireless intercom belt packs 1 Meyer Sound Cue Mixer LCS mixing control surface 2 HME BS200 wireless intercom base stations 2 Meyer Sound LX-ELC LCS EtherTracks modules 8 HME HS14 wireless intercom headsets 1 Meyer Sound MS-WTHD multitrack playback dual hard drive 2 HME splitter/combiner wireless intercom antenna splitters 1 Middle Atlantic MRK4431 rack 2 Horita TR-100 SMPTE clocks 1 Middle Atlantic SLIM 5-14 rack 10 Inyo Aquasonic in-wall mounting assembly kits 4 Middle Atlantic WRK4427 racks w/accessories 2 Jensen Transformers DIN-LI isolation transformer module 10 3 MIDI Solutions 1-in 2-out MIDI thru boxes 2 Jensen Transformers DIN-LO-11FL isolation transformer 3 Ocean Technology Systems EMOTS-2 underwater com, FFM module 600 mic/ear speakers 16 Listen LR-400-216 RF receivers w/antenna kit 1 Ocotec 40U SWL rack 1 Listen LT-800-216 RF transmitter w/rack mount 1 Ocotec 40U SWL rack 12 Littlite L-18-LED gooseneck lamps w/PS 2 Oxmoor MDA-26T distribution amps 7 Magenta MultiView MV500A VGA Cat6 receivers 1 Panasonic WJ-SW208 video camera 2 Magenta MultiView XRTx VGA transmitters 2 Panasonic WV-CS954 video cameras 5 Magenta WSTx-A PC input panels 1 Panasonic WV-CU161C single-camera system controller 56 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com. 3 Panasonic WV-CW964 video cameras (continued from page 53) 2 Peerless ST635 tilt brackets for 22" LCDs and taking design cues from Cirque, 2 QSC AD-CI52ST 70V in-ceiling speakers high-dive acts, acrobatics, gymnastics 12 QSC AD-S32T speakers and scuba diving,” said Rosenbaum, 12 QSC AD-S52T 70V surface-mount speakers, w/yoke bracket 6 QSC CX1102 2-channel amps “then plugging in all the various com- 1 QSC CX204V amp 70V 4-channel amp ponents related to the uses it would 3 QSC CX302 2-channel amps have outside of the performance: scuba 11 QSC CX404 4-channel amps diving lessons, regular swimming and 1 QSC CX502 2-channel amps so forth, to activate the space around 2 QSC CX602V 70V 2-channel amps the clock.” 7 QSC CX702 2-channel amps Turpin compared the challenges 1 Rane HC6S headphone amp 1 Rane MLM 42S mic/line mixer to those that designers would have 2 Remote Ocean Systems CA-62-20 underwater faced creating some of the big Las camera cables/connectors Vegas aquatic spectacles such as O, 2 Remote Ocean Systems ROVer miniature the Treasure Island pirate show or La color cameras Reve. “Plus,” he said, “we were working 5 Samsung 943T 19" hi-def LCD monitor at sea and the venue converts ever y 2 Samsung LN22B360 22" HD LCD monitors night from a public space to a perfor- 1 Shure UA221 antenna combiner (pair) 4 Shure UA830USTV active antennas mance space.” 1 Shure UA845SWB antenna distribution system In addition to being open to the 4 Shure UR1-J5 beltpack transmitters sea and weather, the Aqua-Theater is 4 Shure UR2/58-J5 handheld wireless mics cheek-by-jowl with numerous other 2 Shure UR4D-J5 dual wireless receivers elements of the ship, making sound 2 Shure WL50B lavalier omni mics containment an issue. “It’s positioned 7 Sony BRU-300 optical multiplex camera units The Aqua-Theater’s audio booth. at the fantail, on the top level. A rock 7 Sony BRC-300 PTZ3 CCD video cameras 5 Sony BRCSDP12 outdoor camera housings climbing wall is above it, and about 7 Sony BRBK302 SDI interface cards half a dozen staterooms have terrace 7 Sony BRBK303 fiber interface cards decks, like balconies, overlooking it,” 5 Swisson XRD-TR-TR DMX splitters obser ved Turpin. Enabling the state- 1 TASCAM CD-RW901SL CD player/recorder room occupants to tune in or tune out 1 TASCAM DV-D01U DVD player at will to the nightly show, these “box 2 TV One 1T-C2-100 scan converters seats” have individually controllable 2 TV One C2-2355A universal I/O video switcher/scalers Whirlwind MK420 mic cables loudspeakers. (Think of it as similar 1 Yamaha DM1000 VCM + SP1000 + MB1000 digital mixer w/side panels + meter bridge to living in Anaheim and hearing the 2 Yamaha MY8ADDA96 analog I/O cards (Euroblock conn) Disney fireworks ever y night, albeit List is edited from information supplied by FUNA. muffled.) (continued on page 59) March 2010 57 MAin tHeAter 1 360 Systems DR-600 Instant Replay 2 instant access player 6 AKG C451B mics 5 AKG C518M mics 4 AKG D112 mics 6 AKG D40 mics 26 Atlas FAP42TC ceiling speakers Audio Accessories patch bay, cables 8 Audio-Technica ATM350 mics 8 Aviom A-16II personal mixers 2 Aviom A-16D Pro A-Net distributors Belkin KVM switches, cables, accessories 3 BSS BLU-120 DSP expansion 1 BSS BLU-800 8 in x 8 out DSP processor 4 Clear-Com FL-1 call signal flashers A FUNA custom-made rack in Main Theater audio booth. 1 Clear-Com GM-18 18" gooseneck panel mic 3 Clear-Com KB-701 portable intercom speakers, enclosures 1 Oxmoor MDA-26T distribution amp 3 Clear-Com RM-704 4-channel remote rack stations 36 Pathway 6202 Pathport C-Series 2 DMX outputs 1 Comtrol Devicemaster RTS 8-port DB9 serial port/E-net box 3 Peavey D4S + power supply (1) paging control panel + PS 20 Countryman Type 85 direct boxes 1 Peavey PZS-140RA paging mixer amp rack mount 3 Crown PZM6D mics 40 QSC AD-S82 surround speakers 1 DiGiCo CS-D5 digital audio console w/accessories 4 QSC CX1102 2-channel amps 6 DPA 4061 CM10 lavalier mics, lo-sens (Shure UR1) 2 QSC CX302V 70V 2-channel amps 10 DPA 4061 FM10 lavalier mics, lo-sens (Shure UR1) 10 QSC CX404 4-channel amps 6 DPA 4066 C10 mic headsets (Shure UR1) 2 QSC CX702 2-channel amps 10 DPA 4066 F10 mic headsets (Shure UR1) 1 RME ADI-648 digital audio converter 6 Electro-Voice N/D 468 mics 2 Samsung 743BX 17" LCDs 2 Electro-Voice RE 27 N/D mics 4 Samsung 943T 19" LCDs 3 Electro-Voice US690 gooseneck paging mics 6 Sennheiser MD421 II mics 2 Genelec 8040A booth monitors 6 Sennheiser MD431 II mics 2 High End Axon digital media servers 2 Shure Beta 52A mics 1 High End Whole Hog 3 Package digital lighting console 6 Shure Beta 56A mics w/processor, case 6 Shure Beta 87C mics 2 HME BS200 (K26693) wireless intercom base station, accessories 6 Shure Beta 98D/S mics 2 Horita TR-100 SMPTE clocks 4 Shure KSM137/SL mics 2 HP Procurve 2610-24 PWR 24 Port 10/100 + 2 Port GB POE 5 Shure MX393/S boundary supercardioid mics 12 JBL SRX712M monitor speakers 8 Shure P7TR-H3 wireless monitor transmitter/receivers 2 Jensen Transformer DIN-LI isolation transformer module 10 2 Shure PA805SWB wideband unidirectional antennas 2 Jensen Transformer DIN-LO-11FL isolation transformer module 600 1 Shure PA821 in-ear system antenna splitter 17 Kovatek paging speakers w/volume control 10 Shure SCL5-CL in-ear monitors 1 Lexicon PCM96SUR-D digital effects processor, digital I/O 4 Shure SM57-LC mics 4 Magenta MultiView MV500A VGA Cat6 receivers 8 Shure SM58-LC mics 2 Magenta MultiView T4A 4-port VGA Cat6 transmitters 2 Shure SM81-LC mics 16 Meyer Sound M’elodie powered speakers 1 Shure SM91 mic 2 Meyer Sound 600-HP powered subs 1 Shure UA221 antenna combiner (pair) 2 Meyer Sound 700-HP powered subs 2 Shure UA830USTV active antennas 3 Meyer Sound CQ-2 powered speakers 3 Shure UA845SWB antenna distribution systems 1 Meyer Sound Cue Mixer LCS mixing control surface 2 Shure UA870WB active antennas, directional 2 Meyer Sound LX-ELC LCS EtherTracks modules 16 Shure UR1-J5 beltpack transmitters 10 Meyer Sound MM-4 speakers 4 Shure UR1-L3 beltpack transmitters 2 Meyer Sound MM-4CEU MM4 controllers 16 Shure UR2/87 Beta-J5 handheld wireless mics 1 Meyer Sound MS-LX300 primary LCS frame 4 Shure UR2/87 Beta-L3 handheld wireless mics 2 Meyer Sound MS-LX300EXP expansion LCS frames 10 Shure UR4D-J5 dual wireless receivers 2 Meyer Sound MS-WTHD multitrack playback dual hard drives 2 Shure UR4D-L3 dual wireless receivers 3 Meyer Sound UPA-2P powered speakers 1 Shure VP88 stereo mic 7 Meyer Sound UPJ-1P powered speakers 4 Tannoy CMS601DC ceiling speakers 12 Meyer Sound UPM-1P powered speakers 2 TASCAM CD-01Upro CD players w/AES/EBU 6 Middle Atlantic MRK4431 racks 1 TASCAM CD-RW901SL hi-res audio player/recorder 12 Miditech AudioLink-PRO M110 IR modulator/repeaters 2 TASCAM IF-AD24 ADAT interface cards 1 Miditech AudioLink-PRO M400 IR modulator 1 TASCAM MD-350 mini disc recorder/player 4 Miditech AudioLink-PRO R400 IR repeaters 1 TASCAM SS-R1 CF player/recorder 2 Neumann KM183MT mics 1 TASCAM X-48 digital record/playback system 2 Neumann KM184 MT mics 1 TC Electronic EQ Station 8 EQ 1 Ocotec 40U SWL rack 1 TC Electronic Moto Fader 64 EQ controller 58 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com. Surround speakers for the Main Theater Side by side local and PA speakers in the are hidden behind these cloth panels. Main Theater. 1 Walther custom portable distribution assembly 1 Whirlwind custom multi-pair fanout W4/XLR3M, mon console input 1 Whirlwind custom multi-pin W4 connector for split box 8 Whirlwind mic sub snakes 8 Whirlwind mini 6-, 12-channel snakes 12 Whirlwind WMD10-BK MIDI cables Amplifiers for surround speakers 6 Yamaha IF2112/64 speaker (flying monitors) in the Main Theater amplifier 4 Yamaha IF-2208 Installation Series speakers room. List is edited from information supplied by FUNA. (continued from page 57) “Space isolation and architectural Acoustic Planning the show would be amped above that level. It’s just a simple analysis to know Acoustically, Jaffe Holden’s scope acoustics are a big part of what we how loud they would need to run that of work was to review the space plan- do,” Turpin said. “There are a lot of show.” ning and make sure the sound of the difficult adjacencies you don’t have in He added, “We couldn’t say, ‘Don’t nearby exhaust engines didn’t inter- most land-based theaters. Typically, put that there,’ or tell them to build a fere with the show. “Because we can’t mechanical spaces are adjacent. You wall to separate the Aqua-Theater from really get involved with how the ship can start out saying, ‘Don’t do that,’ but other areas. Royal Caribbean does now maker designs engines, all we can do is ships are made of steel. We rely on a avoid putting passenger cabins over give advice about shielding based on a lot of applied materials, and even those the engine room or the theater and, sound-level analysis,” said Cooper. “We can’t always be as heavy as we want. in the design of the Opal Theater, the took noise from the engine to calculate Ever y little bit matters. You can’t fill isolation surround is very significant.” what it would be at the Aqua-Theater, the ship full of high-density isolation Although passenger cabins might be and provided that info so that, in nor- materials. They weigh too much. This kept separate, other areas will be ad- mal operating conditions, the sound of forces us to be really inventive.” joining. “Usually they stack the public March 2010 59 “We needed to hit the audience squarely but keep of f the playing space,” Cooper offered. “The sound is mostly playback. The terracing of the increasingly larger staterooms forms a kind of under balcony for fills.” As might be expected, the compelling na- ture of this venue has made it a favorite spot for all kinds of special events that weren’t necessarily part of the original plan. “It’s like what happens when you build a theater in a school,” remarked Housings were custom made Turpin. “The drama department thinks for the surround speakers. it is theirs, but then all of the other departments find out about it and stake claims for its use.” areas together.” to provide control, this enabled us to The main speakers are tightly fo- achieve high-impact sound without The Pool ‘Zone’ cused, cross-firing EV line arrays having that sound travel down the ship The pool had to be zoned to accom- mounted underneath the dive plat- and disturb other areas,” said Turpin. modate the various performers: under- forms. On each side, there are six Having a very deep thrust stage and a water, divers, gymnastic swimmers and weatherproof EV XLD291s, accompa- limited number of positions, it was a others. But, in addressing this, Fisher nied on each side by two EV XS212 challenge to deliver the sound to the Dachs encountered another, unique subwoofers. “There was no place for audience in a tightly controlled pat- concern. “We became aware of forces a standard left-center-right array. In a tern without causing feedback when at play connected to the movement of space with no architectural barriers the lifts rise up to pool level. the ship,” explained Rosenbaum. “We did a hydrodynamic mockup to model the water action within the pool, and found that the frequency of the roll of the ship would start generating waves within the pool itself. The volume of water in the pool is so great that, after a short period of time, the water would pump from side to side and just fly out of the pool.” The modeling was done via computer simulation as well as by using real wa- ter in tanks on a motion base. To keep the water from literally jumping out of the pool during high seas, the solution was to reduce the effective volume by splitting it in half with a retractable wall. The wall was provided by Han- dling Specialty, which also fabricated the three custom hydraulic lifts in the pool and other mechanisms. Champagne Bar and Photo Gallery in the Royal Promenade. The high-dive platforms were de- signed to be retractable and locked or down, anything going over edge of stage so you can seal off the floor,” down for when not in use or when high the lift doesn’t get sliced in half. The said Rosenbaum. For all his and the winds could create unsafe conditions. pool has many niches and ledges and company’s 15-year histor y designing To ensure the safety of the divers en- enclosures for divers, equipment, hose theaters and performance spaces on tering the water as part of the show, a manifolds and lift guides—it isn’t a con- Royal Caribbean ships, “it was the first specially designed traffic light provides tinuous smooth surface—so all holes outdoor theater exposed to sea, and a red/green signal as a backup to the or openings had to be protected to al- the first time we had to design rigging deckhand’s thumbs up. Waterproof low people to put their hands in and to withstand salt water,” he remarked. LED fixtures lining the edges of the not get things caught.” “We had to design and choose materi- lifts assist the performers in orienting als appropriate for the severe environ- themselves safely. Rotating Platform mental conditions. Many components All lifts have to interface with the The rotating trampoline platform are made of stainless steel, which is cue light system and other safety just upstage of the pool has to stow ver y expensive and not typical for devices. “Shear edge protection was for safety when not being used. “We performance rigging. Other materials a necessity,” explained Rosenbaum. created a barrel roll trampoline that were epoxy coated.” “That ensures that, if a lift is going up closes by rotating into the floor of the A full theatrical lighting package March 2010 61 Two views of a Royal Promenade plasma screen: in full view and flush with the ceiling. was provided by FUNA International ty briefings and mustering. Andy Smith DM 1000 console, a junior version of Inc. (www.funa.com), a mainstay pro- of Boyce Nemec Design took part in the DM 2000 used in several other vider to Royal Caribbean, which sup- designing the projection and video sys- areas on the ship but with the same plied audiovisual systems integration, tems, which include, in addition to the software platform. There are two con- engineering and technical design of big Barco walls, seven Sony BRC-300 trol booths, both on deck 12. The port the Opal Theater, the Royal Prom- robotic cameras, two of which shoot booth has the video elements and to enade and most other venues on this through under water windows in the starboard is lighting and sound. vast ship. FUNA’s contract for the AV pool. These capture the stage and the systems was with the shipyard, STX space from a variety of angles, and the Rack Location Europe. footage is edited in the broadcast room The bulk of the racks are housed “To pull off a job of this size and for distribution via the ship’s television below the Aqua-Theater. There are a complexity required real cooperation network. There are additional robotic number of different technical spaces, between FUNA, the shipyard and own- cameras in the Opal Theater and other not just for amps but also the consider- er [RCI],” remarked FUNA Senior VP venues to record performances and able equipment associated with the lift Doug Ellis, who is responsible for all events that are shown on the ship’s in the pool, drainage, filtration, chang- the company’s activities in Finland. TV the next day. ing rooms, electrical rockers and so “FUNA’s Finland office was tasked with Speakers in the pool from Clark Syn- forth. It is, of course, important to keep taking the conceptual designs and pro- thesis help the aquatics team to hear electricity and water separate, and this ducing detailed production drawings; the music under water. The control is done with bulkheads: amplifiers and building the racks; per forming the gear includes a High End Whole Hog AV equipment in one locker and water installation, including all coordination 3 lighting console and Medialon show filtration and pumps for the fountains in the shipyard; testing the systems; control system. The Dive-Com system, in another. and presenting them as ‘ready to com- custom designed by FUNA to integrate “Regarding cruise lines and Royal mission’ to the commissioning teams,” with the Clear-Com intercom system, Caribbean in particular,” Turpin ob- added Ellis. FUNA’s various entities in allows the stage tech scuba divers to ser ved, “we work on a lot of theaters, six international locations came into have constant communication with the and we see theaters with many dif- play: FUNA Oy (detailed design/instal- production manager and safety riggers ferent owners, but how many owners lation), FUNA GmbH (commissioning) using full-face scuba masks with mi- own 25 theaters? That’s really extraor- and FUNA Inc. (design, purchasing, crophones and earphones from OTS dinar y and changes the way we work logistics and commissioning). (Ocean Technology Systems). with someone. They have classes of When a significant portion of the ships, and might build two or five of a Water Works stage is under water, safety is a pri- particular theater design. They’re fun- Water works, jets and fountains are mar y concern. It is imperative that damentally the same design, but the integrated into the pool and were pro- safety divers have constant communi- design and the process keep getting vided by Cr ystal Fountains, Toronto. cation with the production team. With distilled. Two large (25'x13') Barco Olite 612 the moving platforms in the water and “Other than it being larger, Oasis’ weatherproof videowalls flank the cast members diving in from all direc- Opal Theater is similar to land-based Aqua-Theater. These are fixed in place. tions, safety was a very important facet theaters in its technical design. It has Like all video screens in the ship, these of the design, which accordingly went an exploded center array, line arrays can be pulled into the digital signage through many, many reviews. and a lot of installed effects speakers. network for emergency messages, safe- Sound mixing is done on a Yamaha It was designed to have a device ev- 62 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com. er y place you might need a device, made accessible to facilitate getting what you want out of the room. Today, venues are all multi- purpose like this. Concert halls are designed so they can be four-walled for Broadway.” Turpin continued, “No- body can afford to build single purpose. Likewise, Royal Caribbean wants Lighting pole with a custom-made maximum usage out of subwoofer inside. their spaces, and so, we tr y to build-in maximum flexibility. The only thing these theaters are not These showrooms really designed for is acoustic music. Ev- do rival some of the best er ything is reinforced; ever ything is theaters in Las Vegas. tracked to time code. It comes back to “In the Opal Theater,” the fact that you cannot create as com- Warner continued, “the pletely acoustically isolated a space as sound system is all Meyer you can on land.” Sound, with a full LCS sur- round system package and Maintainability Meyer Milo line arrays, “Royal Caribbean is very focused on and the front of house The Atlas Globe. Opens up maintainability,” said Turpin. “They console is a DiGiCo D5. with folding bridge inside. value interoperability, minimizing the The dimmers are all ETC, number of parts and pieces. Having paired with quite an ex- worked on a ship and been forced to tensive Martin moving light package. (eight retail outlets; nine restaurants think that way is very useful when you There are 34 channels of Shure UHF and bars). Its central avenue accom- go to a land-based venue. You think, wireless and a High End Whole Hog modates a regular parade schedule. ‘I can do this, but make it simpler.’ 3 lighting console. Special events and performances are Simple is good. Clean is good. Mini- “One of the shows they’re doing held on its several bandstands and sup- mizing unnecessar y stuff is good. We in this theater is the Broadway show ported in other locations, as well. Here, are all gear heads who like the latest, Hairspray, a slightly condensed version the audio mainstay, as in most venues greatest toys, but we have to be disci- that has been quite successful. Usu- throughout the ship, is Meyer Sound plined about what is the right tool for ally, they have a themed production self-powered loudspeakers. the job. We do basically system design that includes ever ything from work- “It’s a huge congregating area for and not show design, but the more the ing with a live orchestra to 48 tracks most of the guests,” said Christopher system designers understand how the of multitrack that plays along with the Vlassopulos, Entertainment Technol- show designers are working, the better orchestra. These theaters always have ogy, Royal Caribbean International. synthesis you achieve in terms of de- complete automated rigging systems “With Royal Caribbean, there’s a defi- signing around designers’ needs today, with orchestra pit lifts, flying systems nite push to do things properly, and we but also what the future might throw [in this case, Flying by Foy] and a com- surround ourselves with people who at them.” plete rigging system [in this case, SKS know how to do this type of work.” Two FUNA Senior Project Manager Der- Mechatronics].” ceiling troughs that run the full length ek Warner gave a rundown. “I worked of the Promenade hold lighting and the on ships through the ’90s and it is hard Royal Promenade bulk of the audio, including 42 Meyer to explain how much the industr y has Another of Oasis’ wide-open spaces UPA-1Ps. “It’s a very capable box,” said changed from then to the present day. (albeit enclosed), the Royal Promenade, Vlassopulos, “and works beautifully The ships I worked on then, you could presented challenges in acoustics and with Meyer’s new M-10 subwoofer, fit into the Promenade on Oasis. But audio design similar to those of a large which they specifically designed for us. it’s not just the sheer size: The enter- shopping mall atrium. This community Everybody’s problem in a large atrium tainment technology packages we’re gathering space is three decks high space is getting the low end, and this designing and installing are light years with 18 passenger cabins overlooking is absolutely perfect. It works ideally beyond what cruise ships used to have. it, and lined with shops and restaurants (continued on page 100) March 2010 63 OASIS OF THE SEAS (Continued from 63) for the bulk of the day in background UP-4XP ver y well.” using the BSS London DSPs, you can music. It is much richer and more pres- The new M-10 subwoofer is now a zone off the Promenade to have one ent than other types of ambient sound part of Meyer’s standard line. In fact, kind of event at one end and something delivery, and excellent for parades and “we saw how versatile it could be, so completely different at the other, and so forth. It has much more power than we ended up creating three versions the sound doesn’t bleed too much.” we would ever need.” with different power schemes,” said The Promenade gear also includes According to Pablo Richardson of Richardson. what Vlassopulos referred to as a “vast Meyer Sound, the company had already array of DSPs. Ever y box is fully con- been contemplating the subwoofer’s Multiple Use trolled,” he noted. “We spend as much creation, to pair with one of its small- “You’d never know, walking through time as necessar y to program the lo- est speakers, the 4"x4"x6" self-powered the Promenade, that it is equipped for cation for all different events.” A fea- version of the MM-4XP launched three all kinds of shows—live music, re- ture of the fully equipped sound and years ago. Royal Caribbean’s inquir y corded music, background music and lighting is the Yamaha DM2000 sound provided the catalyst. “They had spe- so forth—because you don’t see any console. “The DM2000 is fully loaded,” ciﬁc requirements in order to be able of the gear except a few moving light said Vlassopulos. “We have used them to conceal the subwoofers in the lamp instruments,” remarked FUNA’s War- historically in bigger to medium-sized posts,” said Richardson. “We value ner. “But it can transform via audio and spaces, and most of our techs are com- our relationship with the cruise ship lighting into a full-on entertainment fortable with them and can readily go industr y and with FUNA, and were venue. The audio ended up exceeding from one space to another. We have happy to collaborate with them to de- anyone’s expectations. another DM2000 in Studio B, the ship’s velop this solution. We already had “With the 42 speakers hidden in the ice skating rink, and ﬂeet-wide we have some ideas, and it wasn’t an isolated ceiling, and the 13 subwoofers hidden them in the majority of theaters.” job. Our speakers are ever ywhere on in the bases of the streetlamps, they Also in the control booth is a Meyer Oasis except the Aqua-Theater, and can turn that venue into a long stage LCS system, on which the audio re- the new subwoofer is being used in at with the system providing even audio sides. “FUNA provided enough equip- least three ships. It complements the quality from one end to the other. And ment for a decent-sized theater in the 100 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com. Promenade,” said Vlassopulos. There audio via CobraNet and BSS London thing is going to be streaming across are several locations where you can digital signal processors to ever y en- some kind of IP network. It brings in a set up a band, with monitors, an Aviom tertainment venue and public area on new level of system management and personal mixing system for the per- the ship. system backup, with an incredible flex- formers and Shure wireless all over Some venues also use the network as ibility in the ability to commission, pro- for microphones. There is one proper a time server to schedule their lighting gram and manage systems.” bandstand above the Cupcake Cup- control systems. It also functions on the Warner added, “With the right per- board, on the roof, and there are two AMX control platform to take charge of missions, a technician can hop on the other input panels, both on deck six: the myriad screens and audio systems network from almost any venue in the one at the forward end and the other at throughout the ship for mustering and ship, with a laptop or PC. All these the aft, where you can set up a quartet, general announcements. At the push of music channels can be managed by a DJ event or other combination.” a button from the bridge, the network a broadcast technician in the central will automatically mute all entertainment broadcast room and programmed on- Sound Containment loudspeakers in favor of the ship-wide site in conjunction with the onboard Sound containment and acoustical PA system (provided by Audico), and staff and the cruise directors.” (Think- treatment are important in the Prom- replace whatever is playing on the lo- ing about land-based projects that have enade. The area is sky lit and com- cal entertainment screens, digital signs also used their networks to allow the pletely enclosed, with the entrance to and stateroom televisions with the des- integrator to provide remote system the Opal Theater at one end, and the ignated message content. The system support and updating, all the pieces ap- entrance to the Boardwalk, where the also triggers additional screens, stowed pear to be in place for Royal Caribbean Aqua-Theater lives, at the other, and in for such occasions, to drop down from to take a similar step with Oasis.) proximity to many cabins. “Cabins are locations in the Royal Promenade and FUNA’s LAN network is intertwined ever ywhere except below,” said Vlas- outside the comedy club. with a digital signage network to create sopulos. “But we have never had any Warner portrayed the network as a a comprehensive audiovisual deliver y complaints of noise, because they are game-changer: a necessity for a mod- system that serves a range of functions. well insulated. Of course, if there is a ern cruise ship of this size, but also an “This required close coordination with ver y big party or it is New Year’s Eve, element of infrastructure that increas- Royal Caribbean and with Four Winds it will get a little louder than normal.” ingly will be adopted for all types of Interactive (www.fourwindsinteractive. Under Royal Caribbean’s direction, projects. “We recognized early on in com), which provided the media play- FUNA worked with Atkins Global the planning of the ship that we could ers and content for the digital signage,” (UK), one of several architects con- not accomplish what was being asked said Warner. tributing to the Promenade mix, for a without that network,” he said. “It was design of the ceiling and skylights to required for music systems, for control, create surface areas that discourage for safety, for overall management of Shipboard excessive sound reflection. “FUNA the complex technology that we were Digital Signage talked to all the architects,” said Vlas- being asked to integrate.” Ronnie Farzad was Royal Caribbean’s sopulos, “to make sure that what they As its planning progressed, the net- Project Manager in developing the digi- were doing worked for the sound and work grew. More IP controllable de- tal signage system for Oasis. They saw lighting. There is a tile floor but, for- vices were added, and the size of the the new system as an opportunity to tunately, the space is rarely completely ship raised cable-length issues, neces- enhance the guest experience with a empty. There are portable carts and sitating the use of fiberoptics between progression of content over the course other things that move in and out, and switches. “It was an eye opener as to of the cruise that includes notifications people walking through, and all that how big the ship really is that standard of events and activities, in addition mitigates sound reflection.” network cables were much too short,” to maps and directions and the daily said Warner. newsletter. “They allow guests to find Perform Key Duties any venue in the ship and, the more “The technology we have integrated Sub-Networks time they spend in public areas, the on the ship has increased the crew’s Activation of the muster stations is more chances we have to wow them.” ability to perform their duties,” said dependent on this network. There are Guests use this information system FUNA’s Warner, referring to the pro- sub-networks and VLANS within it: heavily during the first couple of days prietar y LAN network FUNA custom “The show control networks for the on the cruise to get oriented and, after built for Oasis. This ship-wide, fiber- Aqua-Theater, the Opal Theater and that, turn to it automatically, according optic, 24-channel audio and control all the major entertainment venues on to Farzad. “Most of what the system network is an essential entertainment the ship all tie in,” Warner noted. “It is does is anticipate guests’ needs. It’s and control backbone. From a central also ver y important in terms of engi- a dynamic system, with the ability to programming location in the broadcast neering for future enhancements and adapt.” room, it streams background music improvements. Down the road, ever y- Some 300 video displays on the ship March 2010 101 oAsis of the seAs are part of the digital signage network. proper techniques and install practices space requirements in buildings and These include 36 interactive displays vs. a one-off or temporary version. We developers want to consolidate to a in the form of large-screen Samsung tr y to blend those two things so we smaller footprint,” said Stull. “Leading vertical portraits at each elevator bank. can get the system installed correctly with such things as the employment They help people figure out what is go- to hold up to the hard conditions, and of LEDs and other low-power, low-heat ing on in the different venues, find their serve the needs of the group of people components, ships set an example of rooms, determine which restaurants are who will come in and run it. We tr y how to build in cost savings all the way full and which are not, and display a to have both creative people and tech down the line.” map to get to a desired location. people on the design staff: to use both “They have replaced god-knows-how- sides of the brain.” many man hours,” said Farzad. An ad- On Oasis, FUNA’s initial design team Entertainment ditional 45 “guest guidance” screens was led by Marc Goossens, who has Complex Model assist the embarkation process and an electrical engineering background. As a model for entertainment com- traffic guidance, with some 20 differ- Goossens was assisted by Derek War- plexes, Stull added, “the ship is 24/7, ent scenarios. These are controlled by ner and Senior Technician Andy Clem- multipurpose and multi-use, running 12 an interactive touchpad mounted on ent. As the project transitioned from hours a day or more. You need things the wall as well as by a web-based ap- conceptual design to supply contract, compact and reliable. You have to have plication accessible on crewmembers’ Warner headed the team for detailed safety compliance.” People flow is an- iPhones. Other screens function as engineering from FUNA’s Finland of- other finely honed art on a well-run theater marquees, displaying the event fices (the shipyard that built Oasis is cruise ship: Oasis of the Seas can have poster as well as the show schedule. In in Finland, as well). Stull noted that more than 6000 people moving among the Royal Promenade, a London clock FUNA tends to put together its com- its multiple entertainment venues. tower in the center of the space has missioning teams out of live theater and Stull feels that land-based projects four screens integrated. Other screens hire its engineers from Europe, where would also benefit by obser ving the are integrated in the various venues there are strong vocational programs planning phases of marine-based and customer ser vice kiosks. (140-plus employees in Europe). jobs. “On land, many times, the plan- There are 10 muster stations around ning phases are not given enough time the ship, including the major entertain- Huge Crossover and emphasis.” He emphasized that ment venues, used for general safety Stull sees a “huge crossover” be- “because ships are cutting steel ver y briefings, emergency passenger mobi- tween cruise ships and land-based early in the process, architectural coor- lization and ship-wide announcements. projects today. “Oasis has its Royal dination and integration, the process of In the Royal Promenade, five addition- Promenade, carousel, comedy clubs, defining your scope, and planning your al screens stowed in the ceiling drop restaurants, theaters and large themed systems” are more thorough. “Ships down exclusively for mustering situa- entertainment spaces. Today’s leaders are forced into that because there’s tions. The high-fidelity nature of the in the cruise ship industr y are taking not a lot of room to miss. Apply those system makes even the safety briefings the entire concept of themed enter- processes to land and people will see a compelling part of the guest experi- tainment environments and applying much greater impact for the money ence. “It lets them know the cruise ex- them.” The crossover also manifests they spend.” perience has begun, and they applaud,” in personnel: Numerous senior FUNA He also advises taking a harder look obser ved Farzad. employees have backgrounds in the- at the long-term footprint of a project. ater, at major theme parks and Las “The final piece would be people wor- Vegas resorts. r ying about things like usage costs. A Marine-Land The family market is another parallel. lot of times, it seems cheaper to put Industry Crossover “What we are seeing now is demand for in an incandescent light bulb, but look FUNA President Rex Stull has a a more active vacation by families, and at the life of the project down to its background in live audio, touring as a younger crowd. Oasis has a 28,700- environmental impact, and the life- a sound engineer with Broadway pro- square-foot Youth Zone with areas for time costs of the product vs. the initial ductions and concerts. He had his first four separate age groups: teen clubs, startup costs. That’s something cruise taste of working on a ship in New York outdoor teen areas, more than 50 child lines do because they know their single City, mixing for headline entertain- counselors on the ship, plus zip lines, biggest expense is fuel.” ers on cruises to Bermuda, and then rock climbing, surfing machines....En- Isn’t that true of all projects on worked his way up to being a project tire families take these cruises.” Cruise Ship Earth? n manager for installations. “A core thing In terms of building culture, “The for making a cruise ship work is to cruise ship can be the model for the This article is available to download, print and come at it from both sides: balancing new lean and mean green building age, share at the new www.soundandcommunica the issues of permanent installation, now that they are starting to rein in tions.com. 102 Sound & Communications To email, print or create a PDF of this page, go to www.soundandcommunications.com.