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De Escalation (PowerPoint)

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					Behavioral De-Escalation:
Effective Strategies to
Prevent Power Struggles

              Michael A. Couvillon
    Assistant Professor of Special Education
                Drake University
“I can stay calm in a
crisis because often
   I am the cause.”
Three Basic Beliefs
 PREVENTION IS THE
   KEY TO CHANGE

   WE MUST HAVE
 MULTIPLE APPROACHES

 TAKE AN ACADEMIC
     APPROACH
   OUTCOMES
 Identification of how to intervene early in an
  escalation.
 Identification of environmental factors that can
  be manipulated.
 Identification of replacement behaviors that can
  be taught (& serve same function as problem).
 Team discussions to identify strengths and
  areas of growth.
The MODEL

High
   Behavior Intensity




Low
                                         Time



                        Managing the Cycle of Acting-Out Behavior in the Classroom
                        By Dr. Geoff Colvin
  The MODEL

High
                                               Peak
  Behavior Intensity




                              Acceleration
                                                        De-escalation

                              Agitation
                                                                          Recovery
                       Calm Trigger
Low
                                               Time


                                Managing the Cycle of Acting-Out Behavior in the Classroom
                                By Dr. Geoff Colvin
    The MODEL

High
  Behavior Intensity




Low
                       Time
The MODEL

High
                                            Peak
 Behavior Intensity




                          Acceleration
                                                      De-escalation

                          Agitation

                      Trigger
       Calm                                                        Recovery
Low                                        Time

                            Managing the Cycle of Acting-Out Behavior in the Classroom
                            By Dr. Geoff Colvin
    The MODEL

High
  Behavior Intensity




Low                CALM
                          Time
                   
  1. Calm
 Student is cooperative.
     Accepts corrective feedback.
     Follows directives.
     Sets personal goals.
     Ignores distractions.
     Accepts praise.
“I DON’T HAVE TIME TO
BUILD A FENCE. I’M TOO
BUSY CHASING CATTLE.”
 Calm - Intervention is focused on
 prevention
 Assess   problem behavior
   Triggers
   Function

   Academic & behavioral learning history

 Arrange  for high rates of successful academic &
  social engagements.
 Use positive reinforcement.
 Teach social skills.
   Problem solving
   Relaxation strategy

   Self-management

 Communicate    positive expectations.
            Procedures to Rehearse With Students
Entering the classroom                      Passing in papers
Getting to work immediately                 Exchanging papers
When you are tardy                          Returning student work
End-of-period class dismissal               Getting materials without disrupting
Listening to and responding                 Asking a question
           to questions                     Handing out materials
Participating in class discussions          Moving about the room
When you need pencil or paper               Going to library or career center
Checking out classroom materials            Heading on papers
Indicating whether you understand           When you are finished early
Coming to attention                         Returning to a task after an
Saying “Please”                                      interruption
When you are absent                         Working cooperatively
When announcements are made                 If you are suddenly ill
Changing groups                             Walking in hall during class time
Keeping your notebook                       Responding to fire drill
Going to the Office                         Responding to severe weather alert
When you need help or conferencing          Responding to lock-down
Knowing the schedule for the day or class   When visitors are in the classroom
Keeping a progress report                   If teacher is out of the classroom
Finding directions for each assignment      Saying “Thank You”
               The Prepare Curriculum
Asking Permission                Listening
Sharing Something                Saying No
Negotiating                      Accepting Consequences
Responding to Teasing            Asking a Question
Appropriate Teasing              Accepting Decisions
Dealing with Humor               Disagreeing with Adults
Dealing with failure             Reporting Other’s Behavior
Setting a Goal                   Disagreeing with Peers
Giving Feedback                  Volunteering
Receiving Feedback               Making a Complaint
Following Instructions           Borrowing from Others
Giving Instructions              Starting a Conversation
Making Requests                  Having a Conversation
Introducing Yourself             Joining a Conversation
Giving an Apology                Borrowing from Others
Accepting an Apology
Asking a Question
Asking for Help
Responding to Accusation
Accepting No
                                      (Goldstein, 1999)
Functions of Behavior
                            Problem
                            Behavior




                                        Escape/
               Obtain/Get
                                         Avoid
               Something
                                       Something




     Stimulation/                                  Tangible/
                             Social
      Sensory                                       Activity




                    Adult                Peer
  Strategies and Activities to Increase Involvement and To Promote
                            Student Success
Teacher/Adult Mentor          School Jobs           Line Leader
Check & Connect               Garden/Greenhouse     Line Caboose
Friendship Circle             Mystery Motivator     Peer Tutor
Structured Games              Break Cards           Counseling Groups
Cool off Areas                Teacher Helper        Public/Private
Get Out of Work Free Cards Time with Peers          Recognition
Creative Writing              Time with Adults
Job Placement/Work Study “Most Improved” Lists
Community Service Projects After School Clubs
       -Set up Gym                   -Skateboards
       -Pledge Leader              -Chess Club
       -Raise Flag                 -Dominos
       -Fill Soda Machine          -Music
       -Office Helper              -Basketball
       -Library                    -Art
The MODEL

High
       Behavior Intensity




Low
                                      Time
                            TRIGGER
                              
2. Trigger
 Student experiences a series of
 unresolved conflicts.
   Repeated failures
   Frequent corrections
   Interpersonal conflicts
   Timelines
   Low rates of positive reinforcement
Trigger
 Intervention is focused on prevention
 & redirection.
   Consider  function of problem
    behavior in planning/implementing
    response.
   Remove from or modify problem
    context.
   Increase opportunities for success.
   Reinforce what has been taught.
The MODEL

High
       Behavior Intensity




                            AGITATION
                                



Low
                                        Time
3. Agitation
 Student exhibits increase in unfocused
 behavior.
   Off-task
   Frequent start/stop on tasks
   Out of seat
   Talking with others
   Social withdrawal
 Agitation

 Intervention is focused on reducing anxiety.
   Consider  function of problem behavior in
    planning/implementing response.
   Make structural/environmental
    modifications.
   Provide reasonable options & choices.
   Involve in successful engagements.
The MODEL

High
      Behavior Intensity




                           ACCELERATION



Low
                                      Time
  4. Acceleration

 Student displays focused behavior.
   Provocative
   Highintensity
   Threatening
   Personal
   Acceleration
 Intervention is focused on safety.


   Remember:


       Escalations & self-control are inversely
        related.

       Escalation is likely to run its course.
Acceleration

   Remove   all triggering & competing
    maintaining factors.
   Follow crisis prevention procedures.
   Establish & follow through with
    bottom line.
   Disengage from student.
    The MODEL

High
                       PEAK
  Behavior Intensity




Low
                       Time
5. Peak
 Student is out of control & displays most
 severe problem behavior.
   Physical aggression
   Property destruction
   Self-injury
   Escape/social withdrawal
   Hyperventilation
Peak
 Intervention is focused on safety.
   Procedures  like acceleration
   phase, except focus is on crisis
   intervention
         Preventing Power Struggles
•Ignore or Delay Responding
•Request VS. Demands
•“I” statements -- GOOD or BAD?
•Take small steps
•Read them the road signs
•Don’t forget to laugh
•Teach/Reinforce M.Y.O.B.
                           •Choose the right time
                           •Start off positive & praise
                           •Would you listen to yourself?
                           •Stay calm (at least appear calm)
                           •Don’t jump to conclusions
                           •Ask - “Do I have to have an audience?”
                           •Give/take a minute to cool down
                           •Remember proximity & personal space
                           •Don’t take the “bait” – It’s not about you!
    The MODEL

High
  Behavior Intensity




                         DECELERATION


Low
                       Time
  6. De-escalation
 Student displays confusion but with
 decreases in severe behavior.
   Social   withdrawal
   Denial
   Blaming others
   Minimization of problem
De-escalation
 Intervention is focused on removing
 excess attention.
   Don’t nag.
   Avoid blaming.
   Don’t force apology.
   Consider function of problem
    behavior
   Emphasize starting anew.
    The MODEL

High
  Behavior Intensity




Low                           RECOVERY
                       Time      
7. Recovery
 Student displays eagerness to engage
 in non-engagement activities.
   Attempts to correct problem.
   Unwillingness to participate in group
    activities.
   Social withdrawal & sleep.
Recovery

 Follow through with
  consequences for problem
  behavior.
 Positively reinforce any
  displays of appropriate
  behavior.
 Intervention is focused on
  re-establishing routines
  activities.
Recovery
 Debrief
   Purpose   of debrief is to facilitate
    transition back to program….not
    further negative consequence
   Debrief follows consequences for
    problem behavior.
   Goal is to increase more appropriate
    behavior.
Recovery
 Problem solving example:
   What  did I do?
   Why did I do it?
   What could I have done instead?
   Why is this a better choice?
   What do I have to do next?
   Can I do it?
Alternatives to Dealing with Tough Situations
                                                 Assertiveness
                                        Ignoring the situation
                                   Calm, nonhostile response
                               Negotiating another alternative
                                  Rational, logical arguments
                                         Clear, direct answers
                                  Pleasant, firm tone of voice
                        Accepting responsibility for behavior
                                                  Apologizing
                   Asking for a chance to discuss the problem
                                            Humorous answer
                            Inviting others to join your group
                                               Asking for help
                                       Asking for information
                            Understanding your own feelings
                             Thinking about how others think
                              Thinking about how others feel
                                       -Dr. Arnold Goldstein
                     Anger Reducers
•Take Deep Breaths
•Think of the consequences
•Use self-talk
•Remove yourself
•Count to 10
•Visualize something positive
•Plan Ahead
•Get the facts first
•Find a distraction
•Participate in a physical activity
•Talk to a friend
•Listen to music
•Write to someone
•Put yourself in the other person’s shoes
•Use the 6 month rule
Recovery
 ALSO
   Reflect  Back For Round 2
   Identify Patters
   Plan Ahead
The MODEL

High
                                                     Peak
       Behavior Intensity




                                     Acceleration
                                                              De-escalation

                                    Agitation
                                   Trigger                                   Recovery
                            Calm
 Low
                                                     Time

                              Managing the Cycle of Acting-Out Behavior in the Classroom
                              By Dr. Geoff Colvin