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					 ERA / TREND              PHILOSOPHY                   READINGS              ARCHITECT / ARTIST – WORKS
 NAME & DATE
Neo-Classical &   Revival, Cliché, Historicism.                   Piranesi Carceri
Gothic Revival    European Style In Usa To Adopt                  Neo-Classical
1740 - 1830       The Preconceived Status Of                      Robert Adams – Ruins Of Palmyra And Palace Of Diocletian
                  Classics And Medieval.                          At Spalato
                                                                  Thomas Jefferson – University Of Virginia
                                                                  James Hoban – The White House
                                                                  Karl Friedrich Schinkel – Altes Museum
                                                                  Mckim Mead And White – American Academy, Rome
                                                                  Gothic Revival
                                                                  Charles Barry – Palace Of Westminster
                                                                  George Meikel Kemp – Scott Monument
                                                                  William Henry
                                                                  Barlow - St.Pancras London
                                                                  Horace Jones – Tower Bridge

Beaux Arts –      Beaux Art Was Based On The                      Napoleon - Ecole Des Beaux Arts School
1800 -1900        Ecole Des Beaux Arts School                     Barron Haussman - Remodelling Of Paris
                  Founded By Napolean.                            Charles Garneir – Paris Opera
                                                                  Mckim Mead And White – Boston Public Library, Penn
                                                                  Station
                                                                  Arthur J Davis – Ritz Hotel London
                                                                  Cass Gilbert - Us Supreme Court

British Raj –     British Raj Revived European Style              Mumbai
1830-1930         In India                                        Neo-Classical - Asiatic Library (Town Hall)
Neo-Classical                                                     Neo-Gothic - Mumbai High Court
Neo-Gothic                                                        Cst
Indo-Sarcenic                                                     Indo-Sarcenic - Municipal Corporation Building
                                                                  Chennai
                                                                  Neo-Classical – Government House
                                                                  Neo-Gothic – St. Marry’s Cathedral
                                                                  Indo-Sarcenic – Chepauke Palace, High Court
                                                                  Delhi
                                                   Neo-Classical – Secretariat Bldg
                                                   Neo-Gothic -
                                                   Indo-Sarcenic – Rashtrapati Bhavan
                                                   Calcutta
                                                   Neo-Classical – Government House
                                                   Neo-Gothic – High Court
                                                   Indo-Sarcenic – Victoria Memorial
Industrial      Engineering Vs Architecture.       Thomas Pritchard – Iron Bridge, Coalbrookdale
Revolution      Industry Development, Migration    G. G. Scott – St. Pancras Station, London
1700 - 1940     From Rural To Urban For            Richilieu – Market Hall, Paris
                Employment,                        Rouhault – Greenhouse, Botanical Garden
                Loss Of Cottage Industry And       Joseph Paxton – Crystal Palace
                Hand Skills, Standardization
                Mechanization, Mass Production
                And Prefabrication
                Material – Glass, Steel And Iron
Art And Craft   Revival Of Ruskin’s Seven Lamps    John Ruskin – St. Andrew’s Cathedral
Movement        Of Architecture                    Philip Web – Furniture
                1. Truth: No False Materials       Philip Webb – The Red House, Bexleyheath
                2. Beauty                          William Morris – Marshall, Faulkner & Co Is Set Up (Wall
                3. Sacrifice: Art Must Involve     Papers And Furniture)
                   Effort                          C.F.A. Voysey – Shakleford, Surrey
                4. Power: Mass & Shadow            M.H. Baillie Scott – Blackwell House
                5. Memory: Build For The           Church Of All Saints, Brockhampton, Uk
                   Future; History Confers
                   Meaning
                6. Obedience: Old Forms, Not
                   New Inventions
                7. Life: Involves The Whole
Art Nouveau        It Is Characterized By                 Kenneth Frampton Chap     Victor Horta – Tassel House
                   1. Asymmetrical Shapes                 9 – “The Abstraction Of   Antonio Gaudi – Park Guell, Sagrada Familia
                   2. Arches And Curved Forms             Empathy” Henry Van De     Casa Batilo, Casa Mila
                   3. Curved Glass                        Velde                     Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Glasgow School Of Art
                   4. Curving, Plant-Like                                           Otto Wagner – Majolika Haus
                        Embellishments                                              Giuseppe Sommaruga – Palazzo Castiglione
                   5. Mosaics                                                       Hector Guimard – Metro Station Entrances
                   6. Stained Glass
                   7. Japanese Motifs

   ISMS / ERA               PHILOSOPHY                         READINGS                                  ARCHITECTS/
 NAME & DATE                                                                                     ARTISTS – PROJECTS / WORKS
New Urbanism       1. New Principles Developed For        1. Charles Robinson -     City Beautiful Movement
City Beautiful        Urbanism                               City Made Beautiful    Burnham And Edward Bennett – Chicago And San Francisco
Movement –         2. Nature Comes To Towns               2. Ebenezer Howard –      New Plans
1893-1906          3. Garden Manner City Planning            Garden Cities Of       Burnham, Mckim And F L Olmstead – Washington D.C Plan
Garden City        4. “Town And Country Should               Tomorrow               Cass Gilbert – Minnesota State Capitol
Movement –            Be Married And Out Of This          3. Jane Jacobs (Critique) Garden City Movement
1870-1919             Joyous Union Will Spring New           –The Death And Life    Cities Based On Ebenezer Howard’s Principles – Letchworth,
Ciam (Congress        Hope, A New Life, A New                Of Great American      Welwyn, Hellerau
International D’      Civilization” – Ebenezer               Cities                 Ciam
Architecture          Howards                             4. Le Corb – Athens       Le Corb – Chandigarh Planning
Modern)            5. Le Corb & Siegfried Gideon –           Charter
1928-1959             Ciam Principles

Cubism             1. Art: Multiple Perspectives,                                   Art
Analytical            Background And Object                                         Picasso – Three Musicians (Synthetic), Accordianist
Synthetic             Intersect, Usually Depicted Still                             (Analytical)
1907 – 1920           Life Or Human Figures                                         Sculpture
                   2. Sculpture: Revealing                                          Marcel Duchamp – Nude Woman Moving Up The Stairs
                      Structure, Reducing To Cubes,                                 Picasso – Head Of A Woman
                      Spheres, Cylinders And Cones.                                 Raymond Duchamp-Villion – The Large House
                   3. Architecture: Crystalline                                     Architecture
                      Shapes, Sharp Clean Lines,                                    Josef Gočár – The House Of The Black Madonna
                      Cuboids, Simplicity And Subtle                                Josef Chochol – Hodek Apartment House
                         Colours.                                                     Pavel Janák – Fára’s House, Pelhřimov

Neoplasticism         1. Reduction To Basic Principles   Kenneth Frampton             Piet Mondrian – Red, Blue And Yellow Compositions
(D’ Stijl)            2. Balance By Opposition           Chap 8 –“Adolf Loos &        Theo Van Doesburg – Counter Composition Xiii
1914-1931             3. Basic Elements Of Design        The Crisis Of Culture” ”     Adolf Loos – Steiner House, Muller House, Josephine Baker’s
                         Distinctly Legible                                           House, Villa Moissi (Lido)
                      4. Use Of Primary Colour                                        Gerrit Rietveld – Schröder House
                      5. Adolf Loos – Raumplan                                                          Furniture
                         (Volumetric)

Soviet                1. Using The Industrial Material   Kenneth Frampton Chap        Art
Constructivism           (Glass And Steel),              4 – Structural Rationalism   Kazimir Malevich – Compositions
(Structural           2. Technology Oriented             And The Influence Of         Alexander Rodchenko – Dance, An 'Objectless' Composition,
Rationalism)          3. Innovative And Utopian In       Viollet-Le-Duc               Graphic Designs
1920-1930                Design                          Http://Www.Citrinitas.Co     El Lissiztky – Beat The Whites With The Red Wedge, Flying
                      4. Dynamic And Complex             m/History_Of_Viscom/Av       From Far Away
                      5. Portraying The Post War I       antgarde.Html                Vladimir Tatlin – The Bottle
                         Society And The Russian Civil                                Installations
                         War.                                                         Vladimir Tatlin – Corner Counter Relief
                      6. Kasimir A Renowned                                           Naum Gabo – Linear Construction, The Head
                         Suprematist Laid The Base To                                 Vladimir Tatlin – Tatlin Tower, Letatlin
                         Constructivism Art                                           Kasimir Malevich – Architecton “Gota” Circa
                                                                                      Architecture
                                                                                      Vladimir Shukhov – Radio Tower And Hyperbloid Roof
                                                                                      Systems
                                                                                      Konstatin Melnikov – Melnikov House
                                                                                      El Lissiztky – The Lenin Tribune (Moving Speaker Podium)

Futurism              1. Activist & Utopian              1. Filippo Tommaso           Art
1909-Current          2. Remained Conceptual Mostly         Marinetti – Le Figaro,    Carlo Carro – The Red Horseman, The Funeral Of The
Super Studio – 1966      Because It Would Be Daring         A Manifesto               Anarchist Galli
Archizoom –              And Violent.                    2. Reyner Banham –           Umberto Boccioni – The City Rises
Archigram             3. Technology, Speed, Striking        Theory And Design In      Asger Jorn, The Disquieting Duck
Coop                     Shapes, Dynamic Lines, Strong      The First Machine Age     Architecture
Himmeb(L)Au              Contrasts And Bright Colors     3. Emilio Ambasz –           Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys – Spatial And Building Models,
                  4. Use Of Advanced Materials.        Superstudio; Description Gold Sector Project
                                                       Of The Micro-Event       La Città Nuova – Sant'elia
                                                       And Micro-Environment Asger Jorn & Guy Debord, The Naked City
                                                                                Reyner Banham – Standard Of Living Package
                                                                                Micheal Web – Furniture Manufacturers’ Association Building,
                                                                                Entertainment Centre Suitaloon
                                                                                David Greene – Spray Plastic House
                                                                                Renzo Piano & Richard Rogers – Centre Georges Pompidou
                                                                                Superstudio – Continuous Monument, Architectural
                                                                                Histogram, Fourth – Space Ship City, Eight – The Conical
                                                                                Terrace City, Fifth – City Of The Hemispheres
                                                                                Archizoom – Continuous City, Standardized Living Quarters,
                                                                                Meis’ Abstracted Chair
                                                                                Archigram – Living City Exhibition, Plug-In-City, Walking
                                                                                City, Instant City,
                                                                                Coop Himmeb(L)au – The Cloud, Villa Rosa

Surrealism        1. Surrealism In Art Follows                                Art
1924- 1960           Dadaism                                                  Salvador Dali – The Sacrament Of The Last Supper,
                  2. Supersedes The Reality Of Our                            Persistence Of Memory, Living Still Life,
Precursor –          Everyday Consciousness                                   Max Ernst – The Hat That Makes The Man, The Elephant
Dadaism           3. Striking Visual Art Works And                            Celebes
                     Writings.                                                Giorgio De Chirico – Metaphysical Interior
                  4. Superior Reality Of Forms                                Rene Magritte – The Son Of Man
                                                                              Man Ray – Erotique Voilee
                                                                              Architecture
                                                                              Edward James – Las Pozas
                                                                              Ferdinand Cheval – Le Palais Idéal (The "Ideal Palace")
                                                                              Frederick John Kiesler – Endless Space

Bauhaus           1. Search For An Answer After    1. Colin Rowe – “Literal   Walter Gropius – The Bauhaus School Building (Germany),
(Functionalism)      World War Ii Also Considering    And Phenomenal          Gropius House,
1925 – 1945          The Economic Crisis.             Transparency”           Le Corb – Villa Stein, Villa Savoye, Barcelona Pavilion
Europe            2. Le-Corb’s 5 Prinicples Of     Quotes                     Bauhaus Furniture
                     Modernism – Free Facade,      2. Louis Sullivan –
                         Free Plan, Piloti, Roof              “Form Follows
                         Gardens, Ribbon Windows              Function”
                                                           3. Le Corb – “House Is
                                                              A Machine For Living”

International Style   After The Nazis Rose The Term                                   Mies – Ibm Building, Farnsworth House, Seagram Building
Modernism             International Style Was Applied To                              Philip Johnson – The Glass House, Transco Building
1945 – 1960           The American Style Of Bauhaus                                   Le Corb –Unite’ De Habitat, Chandigarh Secretariat Building
Usa                   With Its Pioneers Shifting To The                               Richard Neutra – Miller House
                      Us
Purism                1. Bringing Out The Pure             Adolf Loos –               Art
1918 – 1926               Essence Of The Object Or         “Ornament And Crime”       Amedee Ozenfant – Bottle Violin, Glasses And Bottles
                          Structure                        Quote                      Fernand Leger – Mechanical Elements, Three Women
                      2. De Stijl Influence                Adolf Loos – “The          Architecture
                      3. Adolf Loos – “Modern              Evolution Of Culture Is    Le Corb – Villa Garche, Maison Citrohan, Raoul La Roche &
                          Ornaments Have No Parent And     Synonymous With The        Jeanneret House
                          No Progeny”                      Removal Of Ornament From   Mies – Tugendhat Villa,
                      4. Ornamentation Is Crime            Utilitarian Objects”       Peter Zumthor – Saint Benedict Chapel

Minimalism            “Less Is More” Mies                                             Art
1960                  Non Symbolic, Geometric                                         Picasso – Femme
                      Reference, Basic Required Forms                                 Brice Marden – The Dylan Painting
                      And Elements, Non Aesthetic                                     Sol Lewitt – Wall Paintings
                                                                                      Installation
                                                                                      Dan Flavin – Monument For Vladimir Tatlin
                                                                                      Carl Andre – Works In Cedar Wood
                                                                                      Donald Jude – Stacks, Boxes, Progressions
                                                                                      Tony Smith – Free Ride, Cigarette
                                                                                      Larry Bell – Transparent Pedestals
                                                                                      Architecture
                                                                                      Peter Zumthor – Thermal Bath, Bruder Klaus Chapel, Swiss
                                                                                      Pavilion,
                                                                                      Tadao Ando – Church Of Light, 4x4 House, Museum Of
                                                                                      Wood
Art Deco         Common Characteristics Of           References               Art
1920 – 1930      Streamline Moderne                  1. Art Nouveau-          Tamara De Lampica – Self Portraits
                 1. Horizontal Orientation              Inspiration From      Jean Dupas – Black Bull
                 2. Rounded Edges, Corner               Nature                Sculpture
                     Windows, And Glass Brick        2. Cubism- Basic         Heitor Da Silva Costa – Christ Redeemer
                     Walls                              Geometry Shapes.      Demetri Chiparus – Dancers, Discuss Throw
                 3. Porthole Windows                 3. Neoclassicism-        Ferdinand Priess – Aristocrat, Fire And The Flame
                 4. Smooth Exterior Wall                Rendering And         Furniture
                     Surfaces,                          Colors, Concept Of    Emile Ruhlmann, Edgar Brandt
                 5. Flat Roof With Coping               Lines                 Architecture
                 6. Horizontal Grooves               4. Constructivism-       New York City Hall - John W. Cowper Company
                 7. Subdued Colors: Base Colors         Overlapping Figures   Flw – Jhonson Wax Company Administrative Building
                     Were Typically Light And Trim   5. Modernism-Vertical    Robert V. Derrah – Coca Cola Building
                     Colors Were Typically Dark         Emphasis              Willam Wan Allen – Chrysler Bldg
                                                                              Raymond Hood – Rockefeller Building
                                                                              Shrevor, Lamb & Harmon – Empire State Building
                                                                              India
                                                                              Sorabji Bhedwar – Eros
                                                                              Thomas White And David Willams – Metro
                                                                              Charles Stevens – Regal

Organic          1. Merge With Landscape In                                   Flw – Falling Waters, Jacob House, Ork Park Studio
                    Design, Material, Construction                            Bruce Goff – Bavinger House, Duncan Etzkorn Castle
Growing             And Form.                                                 Nari Gandhi – Moon Dust House, Jain House, Madh Island
Architecture     2. Unfold Like An Organism                                   House For S.H Daya
                    From The Seed Within
                                                                              Self Growing Architecture – The Living Islands Of The Uros
                                                                              People, Natural Root Bridges
Dymaxian And                                                                  Buckminster Fuller – Geodesic Domes
Geodesic Domes
Brutalism        In French Béton Brut – Rawness      Reyner Banham – The      Peter And Allison Smithson - Hunstanton School,
1950 – 1970      And Honesty In Material And         New Brutalism            Le Corb – Monastery Of Saint Marie De La Tourette,
                 Design, Exposed Elements, Blocks                             Carpenter Centre For Visual Arts
                 In Appearance                                                Erno Goldfinger – Trellick Tower,
                 Associated Material – Concrete                               Paul Rudolf – Orange County Government Centre, Yale Art
                                                                                     And Architecture College, University Of Massachusetts
                                                                                     Owen Ludor - Tricorn Centre, Trinity Car Park,
                                                                                     Kallmann Mckinnell And Knowels - Boston City Hall
                                                                                     William Pereira – Giesel Library
                                                                                     Louis I Khan – National Assembly Building Bangladesh,
                                                                                     Moshe Safdie – Habitat 67
                                                                                     India
                                                                                     Achyut Kanvinde – Iit Kanpur,
                                                                                     Le Corb – Chandigarh (High Court, Secretariat, Assembly
                                                                                     Hall), Mill Owner’s Association, Villa Schodan

Metabolism           The Metabolists Believed That The    Mechanical Building +      Kiyonori Kikutake – Marine City
Japanese Group –     City Existed As A Dynamic            Life = Living Building     Kisho Kurukawa – Helix City, Nagakin Capsule Tower, Sony
Kisho Kurokawa       Organism, Composed Of Cellular                                  Tower, Osaka, Floating City,
Kenzo Tange, Arata   Units Giving Rise To                                            Kenzo Tange – Yamanishi Broadcasting Centre, Kuwait
                     Superstructures.                                                Embassy , Tokyo, Shizuoka Broadcasting Center
Isozaki, Kiyonori
                     Principles Of Life                                              Arata Isozaki – City In Air, Clusters In The Air
Kikutake &           Growth, Division, Rings,                                        Funiko Maki – Golgi Structures
Fumihiko Maki        Recycling, Exchange,
                     Deconstruction, Temporariness,
1960 – 1970          Dynamic Stability, Transformation,
                     Autonomous Part
Expressionism        Intuitive, Utopian, Reflection Of    Kenneth Frampton           Precursors
1915 – 1940          The Inner Conscious, Expression      Chp13 – The Glass Chain:   Fauvism – Henry Mattise – The Joy Of Life, The Dance
                     Of The Immediate Perceptions Or      European Architectural     German Expressionism
Precursors           Ideologies                           Expressionism              Art
Fauvism 1904-1908                                                                    Ernst Kirschner – Self Portrait As A Soldier, Circus Rider,
German Expr.                                                                         Berlin Street Scene
1912-1930                                                                            Kathe Kollwitz – The Survivors, Woman With Dead Child
Der Blaue Reiter                                                                     Sculpture – Kathe Kollwitz – Grieving Parents
(The Blue Rider)                                                                     Der Blaue Reiter – Vassily Kandinsky – Composition Vii
1911-1914                                                                            Impressionism
Impressionism                                                                        Vincent Van Gogh – Starry Night, Murnau Street
                                                                                     With Women
                                                                         Expressionism
                                                                         Art
                                                                         Edward Munch – The Dance Of Life, The Scream, Despair
                                                                         Francis Bacon – Scream
                                                                         George Grosz – Woman Slayer,
                                                                         Otto Dix – Three Prostitutes, The Odd Couple
                                                                         Wenzel August Hablik – The Path Of Genius,
                                                                         Sculpture
                                                                         Auguste Rodin – The Thinker
                                                                         Ernst Barlach – Magdeburger Ehrenmal, The Avenger
                                                                         Architecture
                                                                         Erich Mendelsohn – Einstein Tower In Potsdam
                                                                         Bruno Taut – Glass Pavillion, Alpine Architecture
                                                                         Wenzel August Hablik – Projects For Glass Buildings

Neo              Neo Expressionism                                       Neo Expressionism
Expressionism    Themes Of Natural, Romantic                             Architecture
1940 Onwards     Phenomena Such As Rocks,                                Flw – Falling Waters, Unitarian Meeting House
                 Mountains, Caves Etc. Were Used.                        Ar. Roger Anger – Matrimandir
                 Largely Mineral And Elemental                           Tom Atkins – Burj Al Arab
                 Themes As Opposed To Florid                             Fariboz Sahba – Lotus Temple
                 Themes.                                                 Eero Saarinen – T.W. A Terminal
                 1. Distorted Shapes.                                    Herzog & De Meuron – Beijing National Olympic Stadium
                 2. Fragmented Lines.                                    Santiago Calatrava – Turning Torso
                 3. Organic Or Biomorphic                                Frank Gehry – Guggenheim Museum
                    Forms.                                               John Utzon – Opera House
                 4. Massive Sculpted Shapes.                             Le Corb – Chapel Of Notre Dame Du Haut
                 5. Lack Of Symmetry.
                 6. Expressionism Aims At The
                    Emotional Aspect.
Post Modernism   Gray Architects – Robert Venturi, 1. Robert Venturi –   Greys
1960 – 1990      Charles Moore, Aldo Rossi, Philip    Complexity And     Robert Venturi – Vanna Venturi House, Headquarters
                 Johnson, Robert Stern                Contradiction In   Building, Guild House, National Football Hall Of Frame
                                                      Architecture.      Philip Johnson – At & T Building
                 White Architects (Nyc 5) – Peter 2. Robert Venturi –    Charles Moore – Piazza D'italia
                    Eisenman, Richard Meier, Charles          Ugly & Ordinary Of         Robert Stern – Nashville & Jacksonville Public Libraries
                    Gwathmey, John Hejduk, Michael            The Decorated Shed         Aldo Rossi – Analogous City, Cemetery Of San Cataldo (Italy),
                    Graves                               3.   Charles Jencks –           Regional Administrative Centre (Italy),
                                                              Language Of                Whites
                    Critiques – Vincent Scully & Colin        Postmodernism And          Eisenman – Study Of Cubes, House I
                    Rowe                                      Timeline                   Richard Meier – Casa Saltzman
                                                         4.   Robert Stern – Gray        Charles Gwathmey – Gwathmey Residence And Studio
                    Robert Venturi – “Less Is Bore”           Architecture As            John Hejduk – One-Half House
                    References To Be Taken From               Postmodern                 Michael Graves – Portland Building
                    “Learning From Las Vegas”            5.   Eisenman – Post            India
                                                              Functionalism              Hafeez Contractor – Hiranandani Towers (Grey)
                                                         6.   Colin Rowe –               Louis I Khan – Iim Ahmedabad (White)
                                                              Introduction To Five
                                                              Architects                 Art – Super Graphics
                                                         7.   Aldo Rossi – The
                                                              Architecture Of The City

Pop Art             Return To Conventional Reality       A Comparison To                 Art
                    Abrupt                               Expressionism And               Andy Warhol – Three Cokes, Banana, Mickey Mouse, Marilyn
                    Object Without Context               Impressionist Art               Jasper John – Three Flags
                                                         Conveys The Essence Of          Claes Oldenburg – Flying Pizza
                                                         Pop                             Robert Rauschenberg – Retroactive Ii
                                                                                         Claes Oldenburg – Bagel, Cherry
                                                                                         Richard Hamilton – Today’s Home
                                                                                         Aya Takano – Future Room Of Me (Japan)
                                                                                         Roy Lichtenstein – Ten Dollar Bill, Sandwich And Soda
                                                                                         Installation
                                                                                         Claes Oldenburg – Dropped Cone, Corridor Pin Blue, Spoon
                                                                                         Bridge And Cherry, Trowel, Thrown Away Apple,
                                                                                         Andy Warhol –

De-Constructivism Characteristics                        Jacques Derrida – Jacques       Bernard Tschumi – Parc De La Villette
1966              1. Defragmentation, Dislocation        Derrida For Beginners           Peter Eisenman – Houses Vi, House Of Cards (X) Wexner
                  2. Disorientation, Re-Orientation                                      Centre, Guardiola House, Holocaust Memorial
                  3. Clashing Of Elements And                                            Daniel Libeskind – Jewish Museum Berlin, Renaissance; Royal
                       Angles                                                       Ontario Museum, Spirit House
                   4.  Folding Of Planes                                            Coop Himmeb(L)Au – Akron Art Museum, Ufa Cinema
                   5.  Superimposition                                              Centre
                   6.  Exaggerated Exterior                                         Frank Gehry – Guggenheim Bilbao
                   7.  Disharmonious To                                             Zaha Hadid – Rosenthal Center For Contemporary Art, Vitra
                       Surrounding                                                  Fire Station, Chamber Music Hall
                   8. Sculpture Not Structure
                   9. No Regular Constructional
                       Elements
                   10. Appears Incomplete &
                       Unpredictable

Regionalism        The 3 Cs Of Regionalism            Kenneth Frampton –           Vernacular
1. Vernacularism   1. Culture – Surroundings /        Towards Critical Regionalism Laurie Baker – Hamlet Kerala
a) Conservative,       Region, Inhabitant / User,                                  Hassan Fathy – New Gourna Village
   Direct              Structure’s Function                                        Raj Rewal – Asian Games Village
2. Modern          2. Context – Site Labour, Local                                 B.V Doshi – Aranya Low Cost Housing
   Regionalism         Material, Local Construction
a) Interpreted,        Techniques                                                   Modern Regionalism
   Evolved &       3. Climate – Macro And Micro                                     Charles Correa – Jawahar Kala Kendra, Bharat Bhavan, Vidhan
   Material        Vernacularism – Contemporary                                     Bhavan State Assembly, Kanchenjunga
   Concrete        Or Before Modernism. It’s Not                                    B.V Doshi – Sangath
3. Critical        Affected By Modernism Trends.                                    Achyut Kanvinde – National Science Centre (New Delhi)
   Regionalism     Sentimental, Nostalgic
a) Abstract &      Modern Regionalism And                                           Critical Regionalism
   Questioning     Critical Regionalism – Happen                                    Jorn Utzon – Bagsvaerd Church,
                   In Response To Modernism; They                                   Tadao Ando – Church Of Light, Water Temple
                   Are Truly Postmodern. Rational,
                   Binding Past To Future

Hi-Tech            Structural Expressionism           Joan Kron And Suzanne         Norman Foster – Renault Distribution Centre, Hong Kong
1970               Architects Prefer Calling Their    Slesin – High Tech: The       Shangai Bank, 30.St.Mary Axe, Millau Viaduct
                   Work “Alternative Technology”.     Industrial Style And Source
                   Characteristics                    Book For The Home             Richard Rogers – Centre Gorges Pompidou, Millennium
                   1. Space Frames And Composite                                    Dome,
                    Fabrics                        Innovative Structural
                 2. Extensive Glazing, Metal       Form = Technology +           Renzo Piano – Kansai International Airport
                    Cladding                       New Materials + “Use
                 3. Light Appearance               Less To Give More”            Santiago Calatrava – Turning Torso, Eden Project Cornwall
                 4. Pre-Fabricated Elements.
                 5. Design Is Functionally
                    Orientated
                 6. Larger Spans Uninterrupted &
                    Flexible Spatial Volumes

Sky Scrapers                                       1. David Bennett –            Roman – Pharos Of Alexandria
Egyptian                                              Skyscrapers By             Gothic – Ulm Cathedral,Germany
Civilization -                                     2. Charles Jencks –           Late 1800s
Contemporary                                          Skyscraper- Skycities By   William Le Baron Jenney –Home Insurance Building
                                                                                 Daniel Burnham –Reliance Building
                                                                                 John Wellborn Root – Monadnock Building
                                                                                 Louis Henry Sullivan- Guaranty Building
                                                                                 Early 1900s
                                                                                 Daniel Burnham – Flatiron Building
                                                                                 Cass Gilbert – Woolworth Building
                                                                                 Art Deco
                                                                                 William Van Alen – Chrysler Building
                                                                                 Shreve, Lamb And Harmon – The Empire State Building
                                                                                 International Style
                                                                                 Mies & Philip Johnson – Seagram Building
                                                                                 1970s
                                                                                 Fazlur Khan – Sears Tower
                                                                                 World Trade Centre – Minoru Yamasaki
                                                                                 Post Modern
                                                                                 Philip Johnson – At&T Headquarters
                                                                                 21st Cent.
                                                                                 C.Y. Lee & Partner – Taipei Tower 101
                                                                                 Adrian Smith, Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill – Burj Khalifa
                                                                                 India (Current)
                                                                                 Hafeez Contractor – Imperial Tower
                                                    Lodha Group – Lodha Bellissimo
                                                    India (Future)
                                                    Foster Partners – India Tower
                                                    Cobb Freed And Partners, Leslie E . Robertson – World One

Green Buildings /   Solar Power/ Electricity        Tzed Homes Bangalore
Sustainability      Rain Water Harvesting           Karan Grover – Green Business Centre
                    Waste Water Recycling           Suzlon Group – Suzlon One Earth
                    Bio Gas Production              Arup Associates – The Druk White Lotus School
                    Passive Designs – Heating And   Auroville Township
                    Cooling                         John And Cynthia Hardy – Green School, Bali
                                                    Santiago Calatrava – Eden Project Cornwall
                                                    Vincent Callebaut Firm – Tianjin Eco City (Transportation
                                                    System)
                                                    Foster+Partners – Masdar City Abudhabi

				
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