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Slide 1 - Repositório do ISCTE-IUL

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									                State-of-the-art report
               in Augmented Reality
     authoring/modelling/presenting

                                        Eng. Pedro Santos
                                                 pedro.santos@iscte.pt
                                                          Miguel Dias
                                                  Miguel.dias@iscte.pt
                                                     ADETTI/ISCTE Jan 2005
                                             This work is part of an Msc thesis in
                                 Computer and Telecom. Engineering - Multimedia




... ART02 / ISMAR02 / ART03 / ISMAR03 / ISMAR04 ...
ART02
AR-based Product Design in                    Dipl.-Inform. Juergen Fruend
                                             Dipl.-Inform. Carsten Matysczok
                                              Cand. Ing. Rafael Radkowski
                                     Heinz Nixdorf Institute, University of Paderborn


Automobile Industry                   Fuerstenallee 11, Paderborn, 33102, Germany
                                    {fruend, onestone, rafael}@hni.uni-paderborn.de




 This paper describes different scenarios for the
  use of augmented reality in the early design
  phase for new cars. The prototype uses different
  tracking systems like AR-ToolKit, Polhemus
  Fastrack and Pinch Gloves for user interaction.
ISMAR02
                                                                   Michele Fiorentino


Spacedesign: A Mixed Reality                                  DIMeG, Politecnico di Bari, Italy
                                                                  fiorentino@dimeg.poliba.it

                                                                    Raffaele de Amicis
                                                           GRIS ,Universität Darmstadt, Germany

Workspace for Aesthetic                                              ramicis@igd.fhg.de

                                                                     Giuseppe Monno
                                                              d.Dis, Politecnico di Bari, Italy


Industrial Design                                                     gmonno@poliba.it

                                                                       Andre Stork
                                                               IGD A2, Darmstadt, Germany
                                                                      stork@igd.fhg.de



 Spacedesign is an innovative Mixed Reality (MR) application addressed to
  aesthetic design of free form curves and surfaces. It is a unique and
  comprehensive approach which uses task-specific configurations to
  support the design workflow from concept to mock-up evaluation and
  review. The first-phase conceptual design benefits from a workbench-like
  3-D display for free hand sketching, surfacing and engineering
  visualization. Semitransparent stereo glasses augment the pre-production
  physical prototype by additional shapes, textures and annotations. Both
  workspaces share a common interface and allow collaboration and
  cooperation between different experts, who can configure the system for
  the specific task. A faster design workflow and CAD data consistency can
  be thus naturally achieved.
 Augmented Urban Planning                                           Hiroshi Ishii, John Underkoffler
                                                                           Dan Chak, Ben Piper
                                                             Tangible Media Group, MIT Media Laboratory
 Workbench: Overlaying Drawings,                              {ishii, jh, chak, benpiper}@media.mit.edu

                                                             Eran Ben-Joseph, Luke Yeung*, Zahra Kanji

 Physical Models and Digital                                 Department of Urban Studies and Planning
                                                                    Department of Architecture*
                                                              MIT School of Architecture and Planning

 Simulation                                                        {ebj, lyeung, zahra}@MIT.EDU




 There is a problem in the spatial and temporal
  separation between the varying forms of representation
  used in urban design. Sketches, physical models, and
  more recently computational simulation, while each
  serving a useful purpose, tend to be incompatible forms
  of representation. The contemporary designer is
  required assimilate these divergent media into a single
  mental construct and in so doing is distracted from the
  central process of design. We propose an Augmented
  Reality Workbench called “Luminous Table” that
  attempts to address this issue by integrating multiple
  forms of physical and digital representations. 2D
  drawings, 3D physical models, and digital simulation
  are overlaid into a single information space in order to
  support the urban design process.
Alternative Tools for Tangible                       Morten Fjeld, Sissel Guttormsen Schär,
                                                      Domenico Signorello, Helmut Krueger
                                                   IHA, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Interaction: A Usability                          Clausiusstr. 25, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
                                                 morten@fjeld.ch, guttormsen@iha.bepr.ethz.ch,
                                             domenico.signorello@wcom.ch, krueger@iha.bepr.ethz.ch

Evaluation
 In this work we compare an in-house designed Tangible User
  Interface (TUI) with three alternative single-user tools through an
  empirical investigation. These three alternative tools are a 3D
  physical, a 2D cardboard, and a mathematical tool. We expected the
  3D physical to perform best, followed by the TUI, the 2D cardboard,
  and the mathematical tool. A pilot study was first carried out, the
  results of which were used to design a major experiment.
  Participants solved the same positioning problem, each using one of
  the four tools. The mathematical tool was not used in the
  experiment. In the experiment, trial time, number of user operations,
  learning effect in both preceding variables, and user satisfaction
  were measured.
                                                                  Matthias Haringer
                                                                Fachhochschule Ulm
                                                            University of Applied Sciences

A pragmatic approach to                                  P.O. Box 3860, 89028 Ulm / Germany
                                                                    +49 731 50208
                                                             Matthias.Haringer@gmx.net


Augmented Reality Authoring                                      Holger T. Regenbrecht
                                                     DaimlerChrysler AG, Research and Technology
                                                         Virtual and Augmented Environments
                                                         P.O. Box 2360, 89013 Ulm / Germany
                                                                    +49 731 505 4307
                                                      Holger.Regenbrecht@DaimlerChrysler.com


 In this paper we describe the Augmented Reality
  (AR) authoring system "PowerSpace" which
  allows fast and comfortable generation of AR
  worlds. The system presented uses the
  functionality of a 2D presentation program
  (Microsoft PowerPoint) as the basis for the
  composition of 3D content. An MS PowerPoint
  export is used to generate an XML-based
  extensible description of a presentation. This
  description is enriched by 3D content with the
  help of an editor, which is also part of the
  PowerSpace system. The content of this
  presentation is finally converted into 3D scenes
  and is used in an AR-Viewer.
MR Platform: A Basic Body                         Shinji Uchiyama, Kazuki Takemoto, Kiyohide Satoh,
                                                       Hiroyuki Yamamoto, and Hideyuki Tamura

on Which Mixed Reality                                    MR Systems Laboratory, Canon Inc.
                                                   2-2-1 Nakane, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-0031 Japan
                                      {uchiyama.shinji,takemoto.kazuki,sato.kiyohide,yamamoto.hiroyuki125}@canon.co.jp,
                                                                    HideyTamura@acm.org

Applications Are Built
 This paper describes a platform package, called “MR Platform,”
  which we have been implementing for research and development of
  augmented reality technology and applications. This package
  includes a parallax-less stereo video see-through HMD and a
  software development kit (SDK) for a Linux PC environment. The
  SDK is composed of a C++ class library for making runtime MR
  applications and related utilities such as a camera calibration tool.
  By using the SDK, the following functions are available; capturing
  video, handling a six degree-offreedom (DOF) sensor, image
  processing such as color detection, estimating head position and
  orientation, displaying the real world image, and calibrating sensor
  placement and camera parameters of two cameras mounted on the
  HMD.
Inexpensive Non-Sensor Based                     Adrian David Cheok, Neo Weng Chuen Edmund
                                                                and Ang Wee Eng
Augmented Reality Modeling of Curves                    National University of Singapore,
                                                         http://mixedreality.nus.edu.sg

and Surfaces in Physical Space

 Previous works in modeling of curves and surfaces in augmented
  reality (AR) space has used expensive sensors such as magnetic
  sensors. In this work, we propose an augmented reality system
  where a user can model interesting surfaces with her hands, and
  without expensive sensing systems. The system uses computer
  vision based methods for the tracking of the user‟s head and hand
  position. Using a glove and the tracking system, the user can draw
  smooth lines or surfaces with her hands in a physical space. Also
  the user can intuitively modify the lines or surface created by
  pushing or pulling at the control points of the lines or curve in a
  tangible manner.
ART03
3D-Registered Interaction-            Christian Geiger#, Leif Oppermann#, Christian Reimann*,
                                          #Hochschule Harz, *Paderborn University C-LAB
Surfaces in Augmented Reality           cgeiger@hs-harz.de, u13859@hs-harz.de, reimann@c-lab.de




Space

 This paper describes the ARGUI system, which provides
  developers of ARToolkit applications with the possibility
  to create 2D Interaction-Surfaces registered in 3D. With
  ARGUI 2D interactions on 2D objects registered in 3D
  are possible, e.g. attached to a marker. The integration
  of a complete 2D GUI library is shown in detail, which
  simplifies the creation of the user interface even more.
A Dice Game in Third-Person                            Richard Colvin, Ted Hung, David Jimison,
                                                     Benjamin Johnson, Eben Myers, Tina Blaine
                                                           Entertainment Technology Center
                                                              Carnegie Mellon University

Augmented Reality                                                700 Technology Drive
                                                               Pittsburgh, PA 15219 USA
                                           {rcolvin, tsh, djimison, bkj, emyers, tblaine}@andrew.cmu.edu




 We describe a prototype entertainment
  application of the Augmented-Reality
  Toolkit based on a fantasy dice game. Two
  players roll dice bearing glyphs that are
  interpreted by a computer, which provides
  graphical and auditory feedback. Our
  prototype uses entirely consumergrade
  equipment: A USB webcam, a projector,
  and a 2 GHz desktop with 5.1 surround
  speakers.     Unlike    many     AR-Toolkit
  applications,   our    players    are   not
  encumbered by head-mounted displays.
  Face-to-face gameplay, integrated with the
  physicality of a traditional dice game,
  display results on a shared projection
  screen from a third-person point-of-view.
AR-based Modular Construction                    J. Gausemeier, C. Matysczok and R. Radkowski
                                                Department of Computer Integrated Manufacturing
                                                 Heinz Nixdorf Institute, University of Paderborn

System for Automobile Advance                                 Paderborn, Germany
                                           {juergen.gausemeier|carsten.matysczok|rafael.radkowski}@hni.upb.de



Development

 This paper describes the development of an AR-based modular
  construction system, which can be used within the phases of
  automobile advance development. The application completes real
  automobile prototypes by virtual components to show design
  variants or to support design reviews. Therefore the user can select
  virtual car components out of a virtual component menu and place
  them on a real car. The interaction with the AR-scene is done by
  hand gestures. The evaluation of the applications was done at
  Volkswagen AG, department of commercial vehicles, a German
  automobile manufacturer.
Collaborative Augmented                            Hartmut Seichter
                                               Department of Architecture
                                              The University of Hong Kong
                                                   seichter@hku.hk

Sketching
 The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a software
  prototype using AR Toolkit for collaborative augmented
  reality sketching in architectural design. I introduce a
  non-intrusive interaction technique developed for this
  prototype. Additionally, sketching and distribution
  mechanisms will be discussed and illustrated. The
  prototype uses non-photo-realistic rendering and an
  adaptive tessellation mechanism in the geometry kernel
  to provide a visual cue for the conceptual stage of an
  architectural design.
 MagicCup: A Tangible                               Hirokazu Kato, Keihachiro Tachibana,
                                              Masaaki Tanabe, Takeaki Nakajima, Yumiko Fukuda
                                                 Osaka University, Hiroshima City University,

 Interface for Virtual Objects                        Knack Images Production Center,
                                                      Hiroshima Institute of Technology
                                                          kato@sys.es.osaka-u.ac.jp,
                                                    tatibana@sys.im.hiroshima-cu.ac.jp,

 Manipulation in Table-Top                            nakajima@art.hiroshima-cu.ac.jp,
                                                            nachm@lime.ocn.ne.jp
                                                        yfukuda@cc.it-hiroshima.ac.jp



 In this demonstration, we show a tangible interface for virtual
  object manipulation in table-top augmented reality based on
  ARToolKit. This demonstration is designed for city planning.
  Augmented reality technology enables users to consider of
  city plans more effectively and easily. One important issue of
  the augmented reality environment is how user can
  manipulate 3D structures that are displayed as virtual objects.
  It has to be intuitive and easy so that it may not disturb user's
  thought. We propose a new direct manipulation method based
  on tangible user interface. User holds a transparent cup
  upside down and can pick up, move or delete a virtual object
  by using it.
ISMAR03
Authoring of a Mixed                             Jurgen Zauner, Michael Haller, Alexander Brandl
                                                             amire@fh-hagenberg.at


Reality Assembly Instructor                     Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences (MTD)
                                                             4232 Hagenberg, Austria

                                                                  Werner Hartmann


for Hierarchical Structures
                                                                 wh@faw.uni-linz.ac.at
                                                 Institute for Applied Knowledge Processing (FAW)
                                                                  4040 Linz, Austria




 Mixed Reality is a very useful and powerful instrument for the
  visualization of processes, including the assembly process. A Mixed
  Reality based step-by-step furniture assembly application is
  introduced. On the one hand context related actions are given to the
  user to install elements. On the other hand an intuitive way for
  authors to create new MR based assembly instructions is provided.
  Our goal is to provide a powerful, flexible and easy-to-use Authoring
  Wizard for assembly experts, allowing them to author their new
  assembly instructor for hierarchical structures. This minimizes the
  costs for the creation of new Mixed Reality Assembly Instructors.
                                           Raphael Grasset, Jean-Dominique Gascuel


Interactive Mediated                                   iMAGIS/GRAVIR
                                          INRIA Rhone-Alpes 655, Avenue de l’Europe
                                                  38330 Montbonnot, France
                                       Raphael.Grasset,Jean-Dominique.Gascuel@imag.fr



Reality                                                Dieter Schmalstieg
                                                Interactive Media System Group
                                                Vienna University of Technology
                                       Favoritenstrasse 9-11/188/2 A-1040 Vienna, Austria
                                                 Schmalstieg@ims.tuwien.ac.at




 Mediated reality describes the
  concept of filtering our vision of
  reality, typically using a head-
  worn video mixing display. In this
  paper, we propose a generalized
  concept and new tools for
  interactively mediated reality. We
  present also our first prototype
  system for painting, grabbing and
  glueing together real and virtual
  elements.
The Augmented
Composer Project: The               Rodney Berry, Mao Makino, Naoto Hikawa, Masumi Suzuki
                                         ATR Media Information Science Laboratories
                                                       rodney@atr.co.jp



Music Table
 The Music Table enables the composition of musical
  patterns by arranging cards on a tabletop. An overhead
  camera allows the computer to track the movements and
  positions of the cards and to provide immediate
  feedback in the form of music and on-screen computer
  generated images. Musical structure is experienced as a
  tangible space enriched with physical and visual cues
  about the music produced.
ISMAR04
Collaborative Mixed Reality                         Hrvoje Benko Edward W. Ishak Steven Feiner

Visualization of an                             Department of Computer Science, Columbia University
                                                                New York, NY 10027
                                                      {benko, ishak, feiner}@cs.columbia.edu
                                                           www.cs.columbia.edu/graphics

Archaeological Excavation
 We present VITA (Visual Interaction Tool for Archaeology), an
  experimental collaborative mixed reality system for offsite
  visualization of an archaeological dig. Our system allows multiple
  users to visualize the dig site in a mixed reality environment in which
  tracked, see-through, head-worn displays are combined with a multi-
  user, multi-touch, projected table surface, a large screen display,
  and tracked hand-held displays. We focus on augmenting existing
  archaeological analysis methods with new ways to organize,
  visualize, and combine the standard 2D information available from
  an excavation (drawings, pictures, and notes) with textured, laser
  rangescanned 3D models of objects and the site itself. Users can
  combine speech, touch, and 3D hand gestures to interact
  multimodally with the environment.
Immersive Authoring of                                              Gun A. Lee α Claudia Nelles β
                                                             Mark Billinghurst β Gerard Jounghyun Kim α

Tangible Augmented                                α Virtual Reality Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology
                                              β Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand, University of Canterbury
                                             α {endovert, gkim}@postech.ac.kr β {claudia.nelles, mark.billinghurst}@hitlabnz.org



Reality Applications
 In this paper we suggest a new approach for authoring tangible augmented
  reality applications, called „immersive authoring.‟ The approach allows the
  user to carry out the authoring tasks within the AR application being built, so
  that the development and testing of the application can be done
  concurrently throughout the development process. We describe the
  functionalities and the interaction design for the proposed authoring system
  that are specifically targeted for intuitive specification of scenes and various
  object behaviors. Several cases of applications developed using the
  authoring system are presented. A small pilot user study was conducted to
  compare the proposed method to a non-immersive approach, and the
  results have shown that the users generally found it easier and faster to
  carry out authoring tasks in the immersive environment.
                                         Stephen DiVerdi, Tobias H¨ollerer, Richard Schreyer

Level of Detail Interfaces                       Department of Computer Science
                                          University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106
                                               {sdiverdi,holl,richards}@cs.ucsb.edu




 We present the novel level of detail interface based on
  the marriage of level of detail geometry and an
  adaptable user interface. Level of detail interfaces allow
  applications to paramaterize their display of data and
  interface widgets with respect to distance from the
  camera, to best take advantage of diminished screen
  space in a 3D environment.
Other
projects
AMIRE

 The main objective of AMIRE is to enable non-expert researchers:
    to use Mixed Reality (MR) for their applications and
    to create and modify these MR applications with the support of dedicated tools
       that foster an efficient authoring process for MR.
 This is the key for a more widespread use of MR, for a transfer of MR into different
  application domains, for exploiting synergies between different MR methodologies
  and for establishing authoring itself as a new application domain for MR.
 With authoring tools that employ MR, users are given means to efficiently
  communicate their ideas. An objective of AMIRE is also to set up and exploit a
  business scenario where a MR provider produces MR content for a customer.
 http://www.amire.net/
DART: The Designer’s                                               Blair MacIntyre, Maribeth Gandy,
                                                             Jay Bolter, Steven Dow, Brendan Hannigan
                                                       GVU Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
                                                          (blair, maribeth,steven,brendan)@cc.gatech.edu,

Augmented Reality Toolkit                                             jay.bolter@lcc.gatech.edu




 This demonstration will highlight the Designer‟s Augmented Reality Toolkit
  (DART), a system that allows users to easily create augmented reality (AR)
  experiences. Over the past year our research has been focused on the creation
  of this toolkit that can be used by technologists, designers, and students alike to
  rapidly prototype AR applications. Current approaches to AR development
  involve extensive programming and content creation as well as knowledge of
  technical topics involving cameras, trackers, and 3D geometry. The result is that
  it is very difficult even for technologists to create AR experiences. Our goal was
  to eliminate these obstacles that prevent such users from being able to
  experiment with AR. The DART system is based on the Macromedia Director
  multimedia-programming environment, the defacto standard for multimedia
  content creation. DART uses the familiar Director paradigms of a score, sprites
  and behaviors to allow a user to visually create complex AR applications. DART
  also provides low-level support for the management of trackers, sensors, and
  camera via a Director plug-in Xtra.
 http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/dart/
DesignAR

 DesignAR allows a way of authoring augmented reality environments without needing
  to write code in C++ or other programming languages.
 The environment centers around Touch Designer, a commercial 3D modelling
  package by Derivative www.derivativeinc.com
 Based on the MXR toolkit programming libraries, our program uses a video camera to
  track special markers and send their positions and rotations to Touch Designer. The
  models are positioned in relation to the 'virtual camera' in Touch Designer and placed
  in front of a background of live video. This creates the illusiion of CG objects in the
  real world.
 Touch designer allows complex interaction to be developed on-the-fly. The image
  below shows a particle system of envelopes being blown by a rotating fan. The fan
  and the particles can be moved around by manipulating the markers.
 http://www.mis.atr.co.jp/~rodney/designAR/index.htm
The MagicBook - Moving                Mark Billinghurst
                                  University of Washington

                                       Hirukazu, Kato
                                  Hiroshima City University

Seamlessly between Reality            Ivan Poupyrev
                             Sony Computer Science Laboratories


and Virtuality
                                                                  Eric Woods
                                                                  HIT Lab NZ

MagicMouse: an Inexpensive                                 eric.woods@hitlabnz.org

                                                                  Paul Mason
                                                        Lincoln University, New Zealand


6-Degree-of-Freedom Mouse                                   masonp3@lincoln.ac.nz

                                                              Mark Billinghurst
                                                                   HIT Lab NZ
                                                        mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org



 An inexpensive computer input device was developed that allows
  the user to operate within both 2D and 3D environments by simply
  moving and rotating their fist. Position and rotation around the X, Y
  and Z-axes are supported, allowing full six degree of freedom input.
  This is achieved by having the user wear a glove, to which is
  attached a square marker. Translation and rotation of the hand is
  tracked by a camera attached to the computer, using the ARToolKit
  software library. Extraction, calibration, normalisation and mapping
  of the data converts hand motion into meaningful operations within
  2D and 3D environments. Four input scenarios are described,
  showing that the mapping of the position and rotation data to 2D or
  3D operations depends heavily on the desired task.

								
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