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20062007 GUIDE TO CHILD CAR SEATS

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 32

									   2006/2007 GUIDE TO CHILD CAR SEATS




       A REPORT BY THE ECOLOGY CENTER

                        AUTHORS
Jeff Gearhart, Hans Posselt, Claudette Juska & Charles Griffith

                         May 2007
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Ecology Center would like to extend
special thanks to our many colleagues
who provided valuable feedback on the
report. We would also like to thank
Andrea Villablanca and Hans Posselt for
their technical assistance, as well as Paul
Stowe, Catherine Chang, and Meredith          CONTENTS
Haamen for their help sampling car seats.

For communications and outreach, we           3    Introduction
would like to thank Shayna Samuels and
Glenn Turner of Ripple Strategies, David      3    Using the Guide
Garrett of DG Communications, Michael
Snow of Snow Creative, Ted Sylvester,
                                              5    Chemicals of Concern
and Gregory Fox.                                      5   Bromine
For supporting the ongoing work of the                7   Chlorine
Ecology Center and publication of this
report, we would like to thank the John               8   Lead
Merck Fund and the New York Community
                                                      8   Other Chemicals, Allergens and
Trust.
                                                          Heavy Metals
The Ecology Center is solely responsible
for the content of this report. The views             12 Alternatives
and ideas expressed in this report do not
necessarily reflect the views and policies    14   Car Seat Guide – Rankings By Seat Type
of our funders.                               15   Car Seat Guide – Complete Test Results
ECOLOGY CENTER
The Ecology Center is a Michigan-based
nonprofit environmental organization that     APPENDIX
works for a safe and healthy environment
                                              23   Understanding the Car Seat Ratings
where people live, work and play. The
Center’s Clean Car Campaign works to                  23 Selecting the Chemicals of
address environmental and health impacts
of the production, use and disposal of                    Concern
vehicles in the U.S.
                                                      26 Car Seat Sampling
                                                      31 Establishing the Relative Levels of
                                                          Concern




117 North Division Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
734.761.3186 (phone)
734.663.2414 (fax)
info@EcoCenter.org

May 17, 2007




2 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
INTRODUCTION                                                      market in Dcember 2006. In each car seat, 2
Smog checks are required in some states to                        – 6 different components were sampled
limit pollution coming out of cars. But what                      using a portable, hand-held X-Ray
                                                                                2
about a car’s indoor air pollution?                               Flouresence (XRF) spectrometry device.
Consumers are increasingly concerned                              The components sampled include: seat
about toxic chemicals that off-gas and leach                      cushion, seat base, seat belt clip, fabric trim
from interior auto parts such as steering                         EPS foam and sun shade. The XRF device
wheels, dashboards and seats. This report                         identified the elemental composition of each
shows that the same toxic chemicals that are                      of these components. XRF tests are limited
used to make interior auto components are                         to analysis of elements and do not reveal
also used to make child car seats. Many of                        the compounds containing a particular
these chemicals can be harmful when                               element. For example, the presence of
inhaled or ingested and may lead to severe                        chlorine indicates a chlorine-containing
health impacts such as birth defects,                             compound, such as PVC. Based on our
learning disabilities and cancer.                                 findings, each car seat was given an overall
                                                                  car seat rating, as well as chemical ratings for
Since the average American spends more                            bromine, chlorine, lead and a group of
                                                                                                                   3
than 1.5 hours in a car every day1, toxic                         substances referred to as “other chemicals”.
chemical exposure inside vehicles is                              A detailed description of the rating system
becoming a major source of potential indoor                       is provided in the Appendix.
air pollution. Additionally, since children
are most vulnerable to the health effects                         The overall car seat rating indicates the
associated with these chemicals, their use in                     relative level of health and environmental
child car seats is especially worrisome. The                      concern associated with the materials in
rating system also considers potential                            the car seat, in comparison to all other car
health and environmental impacts during                           seats tested. The ratings range from 0 to 5,
the production of materials and the end of                        with 0 representing car seats with the
the products useful life.                                         relative lowest concern and 5 the relative
                                                                  highest.
The good news is that some car seats are
better than others. Toxic chemicals are not                       Each car seat is also assigned a relative level
required to make car seats or indoor auto                         of concern of low, medium or high. Car seats
parts, and some manufacturers have begun                          with a low rating are indicated in green. Car
to phase them out. Scientists and                                 seats with a high rating are indicated in red.
researchers at the Ecology Center have                            All others received an average or medium
created www.HealthyCar.org so that                                rating and are indicated in yellow.
consumers can access information about the
chemicals used in their child’s car seat or
the car seat they are thinking of purchasing.
In addition to crash test ratings, car-buyers
can now learn if the materials in their car
seat are safe for their child.
                                                                  The chemical ratings for bromine,
USING THE GUIDE                                                   chlorine, lead and other chemicals indicate
The HealthyCar.org 2006/2007 Guide to                             the relative concern associated with levels
Car Seats includes test results from 62 seats
sold by Toys “R” Us and Target in the U.S.                        2
                                                                    More information about X-Ray Flouresence (XRF)
                                                                  spectrometry can be found in the Appendix. More
1
  Dong, L.; Block, G.; Mandel, S. 2004. Activities contributing   information about the XRF device used by HealthyCar.org
to total energy expenditure in teh United States: Results         can be found at: http://www.innov-x-sys.com/home.php
                                                                  3
from the NHAPS study. Int. J. Behavioral Nutrition Phys.           Other chemicals include: antimony, arsenic, chromium,
Activity 2004, 1, 4.                                              cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel and tin.


                       WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 3
of those elements detected in the car seat,                 HealthyCar.org ratings do not provide any
compared to all other car seats tested.                     absolute measure of health risk or chemical
These ratings also range from 0 to 5, with 0                exposure associated with any individual car
representing car seats with the relative                    seat, or any individual element or related
lowest concern and 5 the relative highest.                  chemical. HealthyCar.org ratings only
                                                            provide a relative measure of "level of
Table 1 below is a sample of the car seat                   concern" for a car seat in comparison to all
ratings for the infant type of car seats.                   car seats sampled.

In addition, the online guide provides the                  It is important to always use a child car seat
detection information for bromine, chlorine,                no matter what rating it received. In
lead, antimony, arsenic, chromium, cobalt,                  addition to toxic chemicals, consumers
                                                            should also consider other issues, such as
copper, nickel, mercury and tin in parts per                safety, and ease-of-use, when considering a
million in each individual car seat                         car seat purchase. Visit HealthyCar.org to
component that was tested. A sample of this                 find links to other helpful car seat shopping
data is shown in Table 2. It also indicates                 tools.
the percent rank of any individual sample, as
compared to the same component in other                     For answers to frequently asked questions
car seats.                                                  about the guide, refer to
                                                            www.HealthyCar.org.




                                                                                                              Other Chemicals
                                                                 Overall Rating



 Table 1: Car Seat Ratings for Infant Car Seats
                                                                                  Bromine

                                                                                            Chlorine

                                                                                                       Lead

                                           Infant
 Graco–SnugRide Emerson (8465EME3)                           0.2                  0.2       0.0        0.0    0.7
 Evenflo–Discovery Infant Churchill (3911698)                0.4                  0.3       0.0        0.0    1.4
 Graco–SnugRide Lindsey (8465LRD3)                           1.1                  0.2       5.0        0.0    0.0
 Graco–SnugRide Family Tree (8645FMT2)                       1.1                  0.2       5.0        0.0    0.0
 Graco–SnugRide Windsor (8465EME)                            1.3                  0.3       5.0        0.0    0.0
 Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Pierson (8A00PSN)                   1.4                  1.9       0.0        0.0    0.7
 Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) French Roast (8A10FNR)              1.4                  0.3       5.0        0.0    0.7
 Evenflo–Embrace DLX Infant (3961613)                        1.5                  1.8       0.0        0.0    2.1
 Graco–SnugRide Park Meadows (8646RRY3)                      1.5                  1.8       0.0        0.0    2.1
 Graco–SnugRide Josephine (8643JOS2)                         2.3                  1.8       5.0        0.0    0.7
 Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Roxy (8A05RXY)                      2.4                  1.9       5.0        0.0    0.7
 Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Heirloom (8A08HLR)                  2.4                  1.9       5.0        0.0    0.7
 Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Fusi on (8A03QST)                   2.5                  3.4       0.0        0.0    2.1
 Britax–Companion Monza (E9L8OC9)                            2.5                  3.4       0.0        0.0    2.1
 Peg Perego–Primo Viaggio Toffee (P73RU46)                   3.8                  3.5       5.0        0.0    2.9
 Combi–Centre EX Mango (808660)                              5.0                  5.0       5.0        0.0    5.0


Table 2: Concentrations found in the Britax Companion Monza

                                      BROMINE               CHLORINE                                                                  LEAD
      COMPONENT                   PPM             Rank %   PPM                      Rank %                                      PPM      Rank %
 Base                               0               0%      0                         0%                                         0         0%
 Clip                              146             63%      0                         0%                                         0         0%
 Seat                             5,078            80%      0                         0%                                         0         0%
 Shade                           64,444            87%      0                         0%                                         0         0%


4 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
CHEMICALS OF                                    tendency to build up in people and the
                                                environment.
CONCERN
Car seats and other indoor auto parts           These substances were also chosen because
contain chemicals that are added during the     they could be easily and quickly identified
production processes to impart specific         using non-destructive methods. This was
properties such as rigidity, durability or      essential since sampling for HealthyCar.org
flame resistance. Many of these chemicals       was limited to new car seats. In addition,
are not chemically bound to the parts and       these substances, or their elemental
are consequently released into the              building blocks, have been subject to either
environment during the life of the product.     regulatory restrictions or voluntary limits
One of the common ways chemicals are            set by industry associations or third party
released is referred to as “off-gassing,” and   environmental certification organizations.
evidence of this is sometimes present as a
window film or “fogging” that develops on       HealthyCar.org ratings do not provide any
the inside of the windshield. Heat and UV-      absolute measure of health risk or chemical
ray exposure can accelerate this process and    exposure associated with any individual car
may also cause chemicals to break down          seat or vehicle, or any individual element or
into more toxic compounds. These                related chemical. HealthyCar.org ratings
chemicals are inhaled or ingested by drivers    only provide a relative measure of "level of
and passengers through dust and air,            concern" for the car seats and vehicles
potentially causing allergic or other acute     sampled. The ratings allow comparison
reactions, or even long-term health impacts     between car seats based on the presence and
such as birth defects, impaired learning,       levels of chemicals of concern detected in
liver toxicity and cancer. Children are often   the car seats.
more vulnerable to these health effects than
adults, since their systems are still
developing.                                     BROMINE
                                                Detection of bromine in a car seat
                                                component indicates the likely presence of a
The same chemicals that may cause human
                                                brominated flame retardant (BFR). A
health issues can also cause problems in the
                                                number of different BFRs are commonly
environment. When car seats and vehicles
                                                used in car seats and vehicles components.
are discarded at the end of their life, the
                                                While the sampling conducted for
majority of plastic and other nonmetallic
                                                HealthyCar.org could not identify the
parts are shredded and put into landfills or
                                                chemical structure of the brominated flame
burned in incinerators. When discarded in
                                                retardant in a particular component,
landfills, harmful chemicals contained in car
                                                automakers in general use the following
seat and vehicle plastics and other materials
                                                three BFRs.
can leach out and contaminate soil and
water. When incinerated, toxic chemicals
are dispersed throughout the atmosphere.        Deca-Brominated Diphenyl Ether
                                                One of the most common BFRs used in auto
While there are numerous chemical               applications in the U.S. is deca-brominated
compounds in products like car seats and        diphenyl ether (decaBDE, or “deca”)4. Deca
vehicles that may lead to health and            is also used in many other products,
environmental problems, HealthyCar.org          including furniture, mattresses, televisions,
focuses on chemicals containing the             and computers. In 2003, over 56,000 tons
elements bromine, chlorine, and lead, as
well as other heavy metals, allergens and
carcinogens. All of these elements and their    4
                                                 Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.
related chemical compounds were chosen          Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for
because of their toxicity, persistence, and     environmental and health data. Danish EPA.
                                                http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (Accessed 03/08/07).


                WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 5
were used worldwide5. Deca is used at                          developmental toxicity in unborn babies10.
loadings of 10-15% weight in polymers and                      Other suspected health concerns for
is always used in conjunction with                             polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
antimony trioxide6. Deca is physically                         include: thyroid hormone disruption11,
mixed into the plastic during production                       permanent learning and memory
and can be released to the environment over                    impairment12, behavioral changes, hearing
the life a product. It is becoming ubiquitous                  deficits, delayed puberty onset, decreased
in homes, offices, and even the outdoor                        sperm count13, fetal malformations14,15 and
environment.                                                   possibly cancer16.

One of the major concerns with deca is that                    Alternatives to deca and BFRs in general
it may “debrominate,” or break down when                       exist and are readily available on the
exposed to UV radiation. Some of the                           market. Testing for HealthyCar.org found
breakdown products include pentaBDE and                        that for each component tested, numerous
octaBDE, which have been phased-out by                         models did not contain any bromine,
government health organizations and the                        showing that automakers have met
global automotive industry, due to their                       stringent fire safety codes without using
toxicity. This is of particular concern to                     decaBDE or other BFRs. For further
drivers and passengers since vehicle                           discussion of alternatives see the
components that contain deca are exposed                       alternatives section below.
to high UV levels and heat when parked in
the sun. In a recent report, Ecology Center                    Many companies are voluntarily
testing found that concentrations of penta,                    eliminating their use of deca. The use of
octa and deca were much higher in dust                         deca has been restricted in electronics and
and window film samples from new model                         electrical equipment in the European Union
vehicles than from samples obtained in                         as of 2006. Some computer companies
homes and offices7. Once released from                         began phasing out deca even before this
products, these chemicals remain in the                        restriction was put in place17.
environment for long periods and build up
in people's bodies, in breast milk, and in
fish and other animals8.                                       10
                                                                  Porterfield, S.P. 1994. “Vulnerability of the developing
                                                               brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insult to the
                                                               thyroid system.” Environmental Health Perspectives
Exposure to deca is linked to a number of                      102(supplement 2): 125-30.
human health effects. Deca may pass                            11
                                                                  Zhou T, Taylor MM, DeVito MJ, Crofton KM. 2002.
                                                               “Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers
through the placenta9 and cause neuro-                         results in thyroid hormone disruption.” Toxicology Science
                                                               Mar; 66(1): 105-16.
                                                               12
5
                                                                  Eriksson P, Jakobsson E, Fredriksson A. 2001. “Brominated
 Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. 2006. “Fact          flame retardants: a novel class of developmental
sheet: brominated flame retardant Deca-BDE.”                   neurotoxicants in our environment?” Environmental Health
http://www.bsef.com. (Accessed 02/21/07).                      Perspectives Sep; 109(9): 903-8.
                                                               13
                                                                  Kuriyama, S. and Chahoud, I. 2003. “Maternal exposure to
6
  Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.         low dose 2,2'4,4',5 pentabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 99)
Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for     impairs male reproductive performance in adult male
environmental and health data. Danish EPA.                     offspring.” Organohologen Compounds (61): 92- 95.
                                                               14
http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (Accessed 03/08/07).                  International Program of Chemical Safety (IPCS). 1994.
7
  Ecology Center. 2006. “Toxic at any speed: chemicals in      “Brominated Diphenyl Ethers.Environmental Health Criteria
cars and the need for safe alternatives.”                      162. World Health Organization.”
                                                               15
http://www.ecocenter.org/toxicatanyspeed.shtml.                   Norris, J.M.; Kociba, R.J.; Scwetz, B.A.; Rose, J.Q.;
(accessed 02/21/07).                                           Humiston, C.G.; Jewett, G.L.; Gehring, P.J.; Mailhes, J.B.
8
  Rayne S, Ikonomou MG, Antcliffe B. 2003. “Rapidly            1975. “Toxicology of octabromobiphenyl and
increasing polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in     decabromodiphenyl oxide.” Environmental Health
the Columbia River system from 1992 to 2000.”                  Perspectives. (11): 153-161.
                                                               16
Environmental Science and Technology. Jul 1: 37(13): 240A-        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006.
241A.                                                          “Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDPE) (CASRN 1163-19-5)”
9
  Mazdai A, Dodder NG, Abernathy MP, Hites RA, Bigsby          http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0035.htm. (Accessed
RM. 2003. “Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal          12/12/06).
                                                               17
and Fetal Blood Samples.” Environmental Health Perspectives.      Clean Production Action. 2006. “Safer Products:
111: 1249-1252.                                                Computers.” http://www.safer-




6 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
While our testing did not conclusively                          capable of meeting the same fire safety
determine the chemical form of bromine                          regulations22,23.
found is car seat components, the most
common forms of BFRs are well known.                            Hexa-Bromocyclododecane
Other BFRs other than deca that could be                        HBCD is used in extruded polystyrene for
contained in car seats or auto parts are                        thermal insulation foams and is also applied
listed below.                                                   in the back coating of textiles for furniture.
                                                                It is produced in much smaller quantities
Tetrabromobishenol A                                            than deca and TBBPA, but is still
TBBPA is another type of BFR that is                            substantial, with 16,700 tons used
commonly used in plastic applications.                          worldwide in 200124. Use of HBCD
Over 130,000 tons were used in 2002 around                      increased in recent years as it began to be
the world, predominantly in circuit boards                      used as a substitute for penta and octa after
for electronics, but also in acrylonitrile                      these chemicals were banned by the
butadiene styrene (ABS)18. TBBPA is known                       European Union. HBCD has a very strong
to off-gas to the environment, though the                       propensity to bioaccumulate and is found in
amount of off gassing varies depending                          increasing concentrations in the
how the TBBPA was combined with the                             environment. Studies suggest that HBCD
plastic19. Lab tests have suggested that it                     affects thyroid hormone levels, causes
may disrupt thyroid function20. Studies also                    learning and memory defects in neonatal
suggest that it may adversely affect                            laboratory animals, and has been detected
hormone levels and the immune system21.                         in breast milk25. In general, research is
                                                                limited and more studies are needed in
The use of TBBPA can be eliminated by                           order to understand the extent of human
replacement with available alternatives.                        health and environmental impacts caused
Many electronics companies are voluntarily                      by HBCD.
removing TBBPA from their products.
Sony Ericson has promised to eliminate it in                    CHLORINE
circuit boards by 2007, Dell by 2009.                           Detection of chlorine in a car seat
Meanwhile, Motorola and Fujitsu Siemens                         component indicates the likely use of PVC,
Computers have begun introducing                                a widely used type of plastics that is of
TBBPA-free and BFR-free products to the                         concern to the environment and public
market. They are able to do this by                             health during all phases of its life cycle.
substituting TBBPA in circuit boards with                       During the production phase, workers at
phosphorous-based alternatives that are                         PVC facilities, as well as residents and
                                                                wildlife in surrounding neighborhoods,
                                                                may be exposed to the vinyl chloride
                                                                monomer and/or dioxin, both of which are
                                                                likely carcinogens26. At the end of car seat
products.org/page.php?p=hous&s=comp. (Accessed
03/01/07).
18                                                              22
   Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. 2006. “Fact            Green Peace. 2006. “Guide to Greener Electronics.”
sheet: brominated flame retardant TBBPA.”                       http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/press/reports/guide-to-
http://www.bsef.com. (Accessed 02/21/07).                       greener-electronics. (Accessed 03/01/07)
19                                                              23
   Birnbaum L, Staskal D. 2004. “Brominated flame                  Environmental Data Services Ltd. 2006. “Search continues
retardants: cause for concern” Environmental Health             for alternatives to TBBA.” ENDS Report 384. January 2006.
                                                                24
Perspectives Vol. 112:1.                                           Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. 2006. “Fact
20
   Kitamura S, Kato T, Iida M, Jinno N, Suzuki T, Ohta S,       sheet: brominated flame retardant HBCD.”
Fujimoto N, Hanada H, Kashiwagi K, Kashiwagi A. 2005.           http://www.bsef.com. (Accessed 02/21/2007).
                                                                25
“Anti-thyroid hormonal activity of tetrabromobisphenol A, a        Birnbaum L, Staskal D. 2004. “Brominated flame
flame retardant, and related compounds: Affinity to the         retardants: cause for concern?” Environmental Health
mammalian thyroid hormone receptor, and effect on tadpole       Perspectives Vol. 112:1.
                                                                26
metamorphosis.” Life Sciences. 2005 Feb 18; 76(14); 1589-601.      The Center for Collaborative on Health and the
21
   Birnbaum L, Staskal D. 2004. “Brominated flame               Environment. 2006. “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database:
retardants: cause for concern?” Environmental Health            Vinyl chloride and dioxins.”
Perspectives. Vol. 112:1.                                       http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -


                      WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 7
and vehicle life, PVC causes a host of                       breast milk and alter the development of the
additional environmental issues. PVC is not                  young animals31.
easily recycled from auto parts and
therefore often ends up in landfills, where                  PVC-free alternatives are available
the chemicals can leach out and                              for almost every use of PVC in the
contaminate soil, water and wildlife.                        automotive sector. In recent years,
Otherwise, it is incinerated or burned, in                   automakers have begun replacing PVC with
which case highly toxic dioxins and furans                   polyurethanes and polyolefins, which
can form and be emitted into the air.                        contain fewer harmful additives and are
                                                             easier to recycle. In the event that an
Flexible PVC also contains plasticizers, or                  automaker cannot avoid using PVC, the
“softeners,” called phthalates, which off-gas                phthalates in the PVC should be replaced
during car seat and vehicle use and are                      with alternative plasticizers. Higher price is
deposited on dust particles and                              currently the biggest barrier to substitution
windshields, where they can cause                            of phthalates and PVC. Some automakers
“fogging.” One of the most common                            are getting close to eliminating PVC, but
phthalates used, DEHP (di 2-ethyl-hexyl                      others still have a long way to go. For
phthalate), has been linked to a number of                   information on automakers’ policies
serious health problems. The EPA classifies                  regarding the use of PVC and other types of
it as a probable human carcinogen27, and                     plastics, refer to the Ecology Center’s 2006
there is also evidence that it causes male                   Automotive Plastics Report Card32.
and female genital and urinary
malformations, pre-term deliveries, and                      A second common use of chlorine in
testicular atrophy28. Short-term high                        plastics is chlorinated paraffins, which are
exposure to DEHP interferes with sperm                       by far the most widely used aliphatic
formation in mice and rats as well as                        chlorine-containing flame retardants. They
delayed sexual maturity. Long-term                           have applications in plastics, including
exposure affects the liver and testes, and in                PVC, fabrics, paints and coatings. They
some cases thyroid, ovaries, kidneys, and                    may be present in the car seats components
blood29. Studies on animals suggest that                     that were found to contain chlorine.
DEHP, or some of its breakdown products,
pass across the placenta and reach the fetus,                Since there are no indications of the use of
causing birth defects, alterations in the                    inorganic forms of chlorine (e.g. chlorides)
structure of bones, brain, liver, kidney, and                in interior automotive applications, we
testes of the young animals, and even fetal                  assume that XRF detectable concentrations
death30. Studies have also shown that                        of chlorine above 10,000 ppm (1%) indicate
DEHP, or some of its breakdown products,                     the presence of organic chlorine
can pass from mother to babies through                       compounds, such as PVC and other
                                                             chlorinated hydrocarbons. Depending on
Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Vinyl          the percentage of additives, such as
Chloride and Dioxins) (Accessed 03/01/07).
27
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. “Di(2-        stabilizers, plasticizers, and flame
ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (CASRN 117-81-7).”               retardants, the chlorine content of PVC
http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0014.htm. (Accessed
12/13/06).
                                                             ranges between 28 and 57% by weight
28
   The Center for Collaboration on Health and the            (280,000-570,000 ppm)33. Since all chlorine
Environment. 2006. “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database:       detection levels in HealthyCar.org testing
di-2 ethylhexyl phthalate.”
http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm. (See
                                                             31
- Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, di-2            Ibid.
                                                             32
ethylhexyl phthalate.) (Accessed 12/13/06).                     Ecology Center. 2006. “Automotive Plastics Report Card.”
29
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.   http://www.ecocenter.org/sustainableplastics/ (Accessed
“Public Health Statements: Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate         12/13/06).
                                                             33
(DEHP).”                                                        European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. 2007. The role
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs9.html.              and origins of PVC.
Accessed 12/13/06).                                          http://www.ecvm.org/code/page.cfm?id_page=108
30
   Ibid.                                                     (Accessed 03/16/07)




8 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
were found to be consistent with these                       problems at varying degrees depending on
levels, it is likely that detection of chlorine              concentration and application, they were
indicates the use of PVC in all car seats                    included in our evaluations, but at a lesser
components we tested.                                        relative weight than bromine, chlorine and
                                                             lead. Voluntary and mandatory safety
LEAD                                                         standards for most of these chemicals have
Lead is sometimes used as an additive in                     been published both in the U.S. and Europe,
plastics such as PVC. The European Union                     particularly for applications involving
began restricting some uses of lead in                       direct human contact, such as with toys.
automotive applications in accordance with                   The “levels of concern” in these standards
its End of Life Vehicle Directive issued in                  — based either on leaching tests or the
2000. Since then, many auto companies                        percent by weight of the element contained
have significantly reduced their use of lead,                in a material — are typically much lower
but nonetheless it is still found in some car                than levels found by XRF analyses of car
seats and many vehicle components in the                     seat components. All of these chemicals
U.S.                                                         may be released from plastics or fabrics due
                                                             to abrasion or evaporation. It must be noted
The link between lead exposure and a                         that the presence of low-level toxic metals
number of severe health effects is well                      in cars and car seats also has the potential
established. Long-term exposure in                           for negative environmental impacts during
children can affect a child’s growth, damage                 the end-of-life processing of these products.
kidneys, and cause learning and behavioral
problems, as well as possible brain                          Antimony
damage34. In adults, exposure to lead can                    DecaBDE and other BFRs are commonly
increase blood pressure, cause kidney                        combined with antimony trioxide during
damage, nerve disorders, reproductive                        the production process to increase fire
problems, and other health problems35. The                   resistance36. Antimony is also used as a
Department of Health and Human Services                      catalyst in the production of polyesters37. In
has determined that lead and lead                            our testing we found both lower levels of
compounds are reasonably anticipated to be                   antimony (160-700 ppm range) that are
human carcinogens. Lead also causes                          consistent with polyester applications, as
environmental concerns when disposed of                      well as higher levels (2000-5000 ppm range)
in landfills or incinerated at the end of car                that may be consistent with flame retardant
seat and vehicle life because it can                         applications38,39. In either case, it is possible
contaminate water, soil, air and wildlife.                   that antimony is released from the material,
                                                             contaminating the air and dust inside
OTHER CHEMICALS,                                             vehicles.
ALLERGENS AND HEAVY
METALS
XRF measurements of car seat components
also revealed the presence of several other                  36
                                                                Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.
                                                             Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for
elements and chemical compounds                              environmental and health data. Danish EPA.
containing these elements. Since these are                   http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (See: puliciations,
known to cause health and environmental                      publications database, type title.)
                                                             37
                                                                Victor-Innovatex, Inc. 2006. Sustainable Textile Design at
                                                             Victor Innovatex. www.victor-
                                                             innovatex.com/doc/sustainability.pdf. (Accessed on
34
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.   02/25/07).
                                                             38
“Public health statement for lead.”                             Survey of chemical substances in
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs13.html#bookm        textile colorants, in Survey of Chemical Substances in
ark06. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                  Consumer Products, No. 58 2005, Danish Ministry of
35
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.   Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, 2005.
                                                             39
“Public health statement for lead.”                             International Antimony Oxide Industry Association,
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs13.html#bookm        Antimony Trioxide Frequently Asked Questions:
ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                  March 2006


                     WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 9
Antimony trioxide is classified as a                          tanning47. Our vehicle testing confirmed
carcinogen in the state of California and has                 that chromium (most likely chromium
been listed as a possible human carcinogen                    Cr(III)) was often used in leather seating
by the International Agency for Research on                   applications. Approximately 90% of all
Cancer40 and the European Union41. In                         leather is tanned with Cr(III)48. Chromium
long-term studies, animals that breathed                      compounds may be released from leather
very low levels of antimony had eye                           upholstery as the material is abraded
irritation, hair loss, lung damage, and heart                 during the life of the product. The toxicity
problems. Higher levels of antimony have                      of chromium strongly depends on the
been shown to cause fertility problems and                    oxidation state of this element, two of the
lung cancer in animals42.                                     most common forms are the less toxic Cr
                                                              (III) and the highly toxic Cr (VI) state. XRF
Arsenic                                                       does not however distinguish between
In automotive applications, arsenic is                        oxidation states and only indicates the
traditionally used as a biocide in coated                     presence of the element chromium.
fabrics43. Arsenic is a known human
carcinogen44. There is strong evidence that                   While chromium is an essential nutrient49,
arsenic is linked to lung, skin, and bladder                  the limit level of chromium in fabrics,
cancer45. It may also cause skin irritation,                  leathers and plastics established to be
blood disorders, cardiovascular diseases,                     protective from allergic reactions is <50
and hormone disruption46.                                     ppm50. HealthyCar.org revealed levels
                                                              greater than this in car seats and automotive
Chromium                                                      seating. There is strong evidence that
In many products, including car seats and                     chromium can cause asthma attacks and
vehicles, the presence of chromium                            other allergic reactions, bronchitis and lung
compounds is often linked to leather                          conditions, skin irritation, and kidney
                                                              disorders51. There is also evidence that
                                                              exposure to chromium may cause brain
                                                              cancer, photosensitivity, stomach cancer,
40
   Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.       and possibly reduced fertility, immune
“Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for   system disorders, adult-onset Leukemia and
environmental and health data.” Danish EPA.                   other cancers52.
http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (See: puliciations,
publications database, type title.)
41
   European Commision. 2007. “The Directive on Dangerous
Substances.”
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/dansub/consolidated_en
.htm. (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                              47
42
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.       Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
Public health statement for antimony.                         “Public health statement for chromium.”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs23.html.              http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs7.html#bookmar
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                          k01. (Accessed 03/01/07).
43                                                            48
   Inventory of biocides used in Denmark, Danish                 International Council of Tanners. 2003. Perspective on
Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Project        leather. http://www.tannerscouncilict.org/perspective.htm
no. 585, 2001.                                                (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                              49
http://glwww.mst.dk/udgiv/Publications/2001/87-7944-             Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
383-4/html/helepubl_eng.htm (Accessed 03/01/07)               “Public health statement for chromium.”
44
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.    http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs7.html#bookmar
“Public health statement for arsenic.”                        k01. (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                              50
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs2.html#bookmar           TUV Rheinland SG Standard for low polluting leathers,
k05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                     fabrics and plastics, 2001
45
   The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.     http://www.tuvdotcom.com/pi/web/TuvdotcomIdSearch
“CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Arsenic.”                 Results.xml?TUVdotCOMID=4111008300&LanguageChange
http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -     d=en-us (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                              51
Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Arsenic).          The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                          “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Chromium.”
46
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.    http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -
“Public health statement for arsenic.”                        Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Chromium).
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs2.html#bookmar        (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                              52
k05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                        Ibid.




10 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                               plastics.  Copper ions are often added to
Cobalt                                                         polyester and a variety of other fibers,
Cobalt is used as a catalyst in production of                  ranging from cotton to rayon,
polyethylene and other plastics53. It can also                 polypropylene and nylon in order to protect
be used as pigment in paints54.                                against bacteria, fungus and odors59,60. The
HealthyCar.org detected cobalt in several                      main application in car seats is seat
different car seats.                                           upholstery. Copper may also be used in
                                                               combination with flame retardants to
Cobalt is essential in trace amounts for                       reduce the toxicity of combustion
human life. The toxicity of cobalt is quite                    emissions61. 
low compared to many other metals,
however high exposure can cause several                        Copper is an essential nutrient for all living
health effects. Cobalt is an allergen that can                 things, but too much can be harmful. Long-
cause asthma and skin irritation55. Some                       term exposure to copper dust can irritate
cobalt compounds are classified as a                           the nose, mouth and eyes, and cause
possible human carcinogen according to the                     headaches, dizziness, nausea and diarrhea62.
International Agency for Research on                           Exposure to excess levels of copper may
Cancer56. Long term exposure to low doses                      result in liver and kidney damage, and
results in damage to the heart, liver,                         anemia63. Children may be more sensitive to
kidneys, blood, testes, and behavioral                         copper than adults64.
changes in laboratory animals57. There is
also strong evidence that cobalt is linked to                  Nickel
hearing loss, lung disorders, and thyroid                      Automotive uses of nickel are wide ranging,
disorders. There is limited evidence that it                   including printed circuit boards in
causes lung cancer, damage to the pancreas,                    electronic components, batteries, valves and
and skin cancer58.                                             other applications. Nickel is also
                                                               increasingly used in electroplating of plastic
Copper                                                         components.
Copper has a number of uses in fabrics and
                                                               The most common harmful health effect of
53
                                                               nickel in humans is allergic reaction.
   Basketter D.A.; Angelini G.; Ingber A.; Kern P.S.; Menné
T., Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products:
                                                               Approximately 10-15% of the population is
revisiting safe levels in the new millennium. Contact          sensitive to nickel. Reactions may occur in
Dermatitis, Volume 49, Number 1, July 2003
54
   Substitution of cobalt driers in wood
                                                               59
coatings, Jakob Kjær Larsen, Dyrup A/S; Eva Wallström,            Foss Manufacturing Company, LLC.
EnPro ApS. Danish Minister of Environment, Environmental       http://www.fossmfg.com/bu_fosshield.cfm (Accessed
Protection Agency, Working Report No. 20 2006                  03/01/07)
55                                                             60
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.        Advanced Seat Fabrics with High Performance Deodorant
“Public health statement for cobalt.”                          Function, R&D Review of Toyota CRDL Vol. 35 No. 4 (2000.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs33.html.               12)
                                                               61
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                              PVC Additives Make Vinyl More Fire-retardant without
56
   International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2003. Cobalt   Toxic Heavy Metals, Innovations Report.
in Hard-metals and Cobalt Sulfate, Gallium Arsenide,           http://www.innovations-
Indium Phosphide and Vanadium Pentoxide. International         report.de/html/berichte/materialwissenschaften/bericht-
Agency for Research on Cancer. 2003. “Cobalt in Hard-          32741.html. (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                               62
metals and Cobalt Sulfate, Gallium Arsenide, Indium               Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
Phosphide and Vanadium Pentoxide.”                             “Public health statement for copper.”
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Meetings/vol86.php.              http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs132.html#book
(Accessed 03/01/07).. Accessed on March 1, 2007.               mark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).
57                                                             63
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.        The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.
“Public health statement for cobalt.”                          “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Chromium.”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs33.html.               http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                           Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Copper).
58
   The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.      (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                               64
“CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Chromium.”                    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -      “Public health statement for copper.”
Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Cobalt).         http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs132.html#book
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                           mark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).


                    W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 11
the form of skin irritations or asthma65. The                approximately two-thirds of the global
Department of Health and Human Services                      consumption69.
has determined that nickel metal may
reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen                 Organotins may also be used as additives in
and that some nickel compounds are known                     fabrics and plastics due to their strong
human carcinogens.                                           fungicidal and bactericidal properties70.
                                                             Exposure to some organic tin compounds
Mercury                                                      can occur through contact with consumer
Mercury is used as a catalyst in reactions to                products that are made of PVC,
form polymers66. HealthyCar.org did not                      polyurethane and other plastics, or when
detect mercury in any of the car seat                        these products are abraded and turned into
components.                                                  dust that is inhaled.

Mercury is a persistent toxin that can build                 According to the Department of Health and
up in the body. According the Department                     Human Services, breathing, swallowing, or
of Health and Human Services, long-term                      direct skin contact with some organotins
exposure to high levels of methylmercury                     can interfere with the way the brain and
or phenylmercury causes behavior changes                     nervous system work. Some have also been
and damage to the kidneys, stomach, large                    shown to affect the immune and
intestine, circulatory system, and                           reproductive system in animals, though the
reproductive organs in animals67. The                        effects depend on the exact compound
nervous system is more sensitive to                          used. Direct contact with certain organotins
methylmercury toxicity than are other                        can also produce skin and eye irritation71.
organs in the body and is affected at lower
concentrations. Animal studies also provide
evidence that mercury damages the nervous                    ALTERNATIVES
system during development and increases                      When considering alternatives, car seat
the incidence of spontaneous abortions and                   manufacturers have the following three
stillbirths68. It is not known whether                       choices, listed in order of environmental
mercury compounds cause cancer in                            preference:
humans.
                                                             1. Change the product: Redesign or engineer
Tin                                                             the car seat component to eliminate the
Organic tin compounds are used as                               need for a chemical. This can be done,
esterification catalysts in polyurethane foam                   for example, by eliminating the need for
production and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat                    foams that contain BFRs, or enhancing
stabilizers in plastic production. The major                    barriers between foam and fabric.
use of organotin compounds is for heat                       2. Change the material: Select an alternative
stabilization of PVC, which represents                          material that does not require the
                                                                chemical.


65
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
“Public health statement for nickel.”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs15.html#bookm
ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).
66                                                           69
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1999.      Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2005.
Toxicological Profile for Mercury, March 1999                “Toxicological Profile for Tin .”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp46.html#bookmar       http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp55.html#bookmar
k08 (Accessed 03/01/07).                                     k09. (Accessed 03/01/07).
67                                                           70
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.      Ibid.
                                                             71
“Public health statement for mercury.”                          Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs46.html#bookm        “Public health statement for tin.”
ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                  http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs55.html#bookm
68
   Ibid.                                                     ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).




12 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                     HealthyCar.org testing found that at least
3. Change the chemical: For example, replace                         some car seat companies are producing car
   BFRs with an alternative flame retardant                          seats that meet stringent safety standards
   that is non-halogenated (i.e. does not                            without using harmful compounds like
   contain bromine, chlorine or other                                PVC and brominated flame retardants
   halogens).                                                        (BFRs) in the components tested. Table 3
                                                                     below illustrates this. Overall, 28% of the
In addition to following this general                                components tested contained no PVC or
approach, car seat manufactures and                                  BFRs.
retailers should implement a
comprehensive chemicals policy. Key
elements of a comprehensive chemicals
policy are outlined at HealthyCar.org.


Table #3: Number of Bromine-Free and PVC-
Free Car Seats

                            CHLORINE/            BROMINE/             HALOGEN-            BROMINE/BFR           VIRTUALLY
                            PVC-FREE             BFR-FREE               FREE                <100ppm           HALOGEN-FREE
 COMPONENT               Number     Percent   Number     Percent    Number     Percent   Number     Percent   Number      Percent
 Base                         62     100%          44     71%            44     71%           56     90%           56      90%
 Clip                         51     100%            9    18%              9    18%           31     61%           31      61%
 EPS Foam                     26     100%            4    15%              4    15%             6    23%             6     23%
 Seat                         62     100%            5     8%              5     8%           25     40%           25      40%
 Shade                          8     47%            1     6%              0     0%             3    18%             0      0%
 Trim                           0      0%            1    20%              0     0%             3    60%             0      0%
 All Components              209      94%          64     29%            62     28%          124     56%          118      53%

  Note: We define Virtually-Halogen free as not containing any intentionally-added PVC or BFRs. Bromine found at levels
  <100 ppm are believed to be inconsistent with the use of BFRs.




                   W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 13
   CAR SEAT GUIDE — RANKINGS BY CAR SEAT TYPE
This section lists the car seat ratings for car
seats retailed by Target and Babies “R” Us




                                                                                                                                                               Other Chemicals
                                                                                                                 Overall Rating
in December 2006. The car seats are listed
by car seat type(infant, convertible or




                                                                                                                                   Bromine

                                                                                                                                             Chlorine
booster) and in order of overall rating,




                                                                                                                                                        Lead
lowest concern to highest concern. The
                                                                                            Infant
overall car seat rating, as well as ratings for   Graco–SnugRide Emerson (8465EME3)                             0.2               0.2        0.0        0.0    0.7
bromine, chlorine, lead and other chemicals,      Evenflo–Discovery Infant Churchill (3911698)                  0.4               0.3        0.0        0.0    1.4
                                                  Graco–SnugRide Lindsey (8465LRD3)                             1.1               0.2        5.0        0.0    0.0
are provided. Detailed information on the         Graco–SnugRide Family Tree (8645FMT2)                         1.1               0.2        5.0        0.0    0.0
concentrations of elements found in               Graco–SnugRide Windsor (8465EME)                              1.3               0.3        5.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Pierson (8A00PSN)                     1.4               1.9        0.0        0.0    0.7
particular components is available on the         Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) French Roast (8A10FNR)                1.4               0.3        5.0        0.0    0.7
next page(listed alphabetically) and at           Evenflo–Embrace DLX Infant (3961613)                          1.5               1.8        0.0        0.0    2.1
                                                  Graco–SnugRide Park Meadows (8646RRY3)                        1.5               1.8        0.0        0.0    2.1
www.HealthyCar.org.                               Graco–SnugRide Josephine (8643JOS2)                           2.3               1.8        5.0        0.0    0.7
                                                  Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Roxy (8A05RXY)                        2.4               1.9        5.0        0.0    0.7
                                                  Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Heirloom (8A08HLR)                    2.4               1.9        5.0        0.0    0.7
                                                  Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Fusi on (8A03QST)                     2.5               3.4        0.0        0.0    2.1
                                                  Britax–Companion Monza (E9L8OC9)                              2.5               3.4        0.0        0.0    2.1
                                                  Peg Perego–Primo Viaggio Toffee (P73RU46)                     3.8               3.5        5.0        0.0    2.9
                                                  Combi–Centre EX Mango (808660)                                5.0               5.0        5.0        0.0    5.0

                                                                                        Convertible
                                                  Cosco–Scenara 5-Point (22120POL)                              0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Safety 1st–Alpha Sport (22452RB)                              0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Eddie Bauer–Deluxe Convertible Hampton (22740HPN)             0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Eddie Bauer–3 in 1 Convertible Montecito (22759MTT)           0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Graco–Toddler SafeSeat (Step 2) (8B00BDR)                     0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Graco–ComfortSport Convertible Watercolor Flowers (8C03WCF)   0.4               0.3        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Evenflo–Titan Delux Convertible Cobblestone (3671702)         0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Evenflo–Triumph Premier Car Seat Stonehenge (3931624)         0.6               0.8        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Graco–Toddler SafeSeat (Step 2) Pierson (8B03PSN2)            0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Graco–ComfortSport Convertible Graphite (8C00GRP)             0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Graco–ComfortSport Convertible Timber (8C00TMB)               0.6               0.8        0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Britax–Decathlon Cappucino (E9L47D4)                          0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Britax–Marathon Graystone (E9LO6D5)                           0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Eddie Bauer–3 in 1 Convertible Cambridge (22758CMP)           0.8               0.5        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Evenflo–Tribute V Premier Brighton (3791686)                  0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Evenflo–Triumph LX Convertible (3891609)                      0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Evenflo–Triumph Deluxe Ashby (3941611)                        0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Britax–Roundabout Bridgeport (E9L02D2)                        0.8               0.5        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Britax–Marathon Brooke (E9LO6D6)                              0.8               0.5        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Britax–Roundabout Jefferson Tan (EPL0270)                     0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Evenflo–Triumph 5 Rain Shadow (3591658)                       2.7               2.8        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Graco–ComfortSport Convertible (8636AER)                      2.7               3.0        0.0        0.0    1.3
                                                  Britax–Marathon Olivia (E9L06D1)                              2.7               2.8        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Fisher Price–Safe Voyager (EF20EDA)                           2.7               2.8        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Cosco–Alpha Omega Elite (22155BDF)                            2.9               3.0        0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Britax–Marathon Platinum (E9LO6B9)                            5.0               5.0        0.0        0.0    5.0

                                                                                           Booster
                                                  Evenflo–Big Kid No-Back Gold Dust (3331703)                   0.2                0.3       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Eddie Bauer–Summit Booster Astoria (22862AT1)                 0.5                0.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Britax–Parkway Express (E904157)                              0.5                0.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Cosco–SoHo Booster Youth (222985OH)                           0.7                0.3       0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Evenflo–Big Kid Mocha Chill (3391706A)                        0.7                0.3       0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Evenflo–Chase DLX Booster Arlington (3261567)                 2.3                2.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Graco–Backless TurboBooster Belmont (8491BEM)                 2.3                2.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Compass–B505 Pistachio (B505PST)                              2.3                2.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Evenflo–Generations (3521607)                                 2.5                2.5       0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Graco–Platinum CarGo Booster (8689CAV)                        2.5                2.5       0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Gabrielle (8693GBR)      2.5                2.5       0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Cosco–Gotham High Back Booster (22206GTH)                     2.7                2.8       0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Cosco–Alpha Elite Apex (22534BDW)                             2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Eddie Bauer–Summit Booster Brown Tech Print (22862EBCE)       2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Evenflo–Chase DLX Moonbeam (3261722)                          2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Pierson (8498PSN)        2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Graco–Platinum CarGo Booster Zephyr (8D01ZPH)                 2.7                2.8       0.0        0.0    2.5
                                                  Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Glory (8693GLY)          4.5                5.0       0.0        0.0    0.0
                                                  Graco–TurboBooster Emily (8498DEH)                            5.0               5.0        0.0        0.0    5.0
                                                  Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Athens (8674ATH)         5.0               5.0        0.0        0.0    5.0


14 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
CAR SEAT GUIDE — COMPLETE TEST RESULTS
The table below shows the test results for all components tested in parts per million (ppm).




                                                                                                   Bromine/BFRs
                                    Chlorine/PVC
                        Component




                                                    Chromium




                                                                                                                                   Antimony
                                                                                                                  Cadmium




                                                                                                                                              Mercury
                                                                                 Copper
                                                               Cobalt


                                                                        Nickel




                                                                                                                                                        Lead
                                                                                           Zinc




                                                                                                                            Tin
                     Seat              0             93         0        0        0         0     5,078            0        0        0         0         0
                     Base              0             0          0        0        0         0       0              0        0        0         0         0
                     Clip              0             0          0        0        0         0      146             0        0        0         0         0
Britax–Companion     Shade             0           1,453        0        0        0         0     64,444           0        0        0         0         0
Monza (E9L8OC9)      EPS Foam          0             0          0        0        0         0     3,029            0        0        0         0         0

                     Seat              0              0         0        0        0         66     972             0        0        0         0         0
Britax–Decathlon     Base              0              0         0        0        0       1,421     0              0        0        0         0         0
Cappucino            Clip              0              0         0        0       191       727     821             0        0        0         0         0
(E9L47D4)            EPS Foam          0              0         0        0        0         0     5,345            0        0        0         0         0

                     Seat              0            0           0        0        0        212      12             0        0        0         0         0
                     Base              0            0           0        0        0        973      0              0        0        0         0         0
Britax–Marathon      Clip              0            61          0        0       161      1,044    750             0        0        0         0         9
Brooke (E9LO6D6)     Shade             0            0           0        0        0        127    4,032            0        0        0         0         0

                     Base              0              0         0        0        0         0       0              0        0        0         0         0
Britax–Marathon      Clip              0              0         0        0       177      1,088    749             0        0        0         0         0
Graystone            Seat              0              0         0        0        0         0       13             0        0        0         0         0
(E9LO6D5)            EPS Foam          0              0         0        0        0         0     4,009            0        0        0         0         0

                     Seat              0            82          0        0        0        198      22             0        0        0         0         0
                     Base              0            0           0        0        0        865      0              0        0        0         0         0
Britax–Marathon      Clip              0            0           0        0       281       665    1,053            0        0        0         0         0
Olivia (E9L06D1)     EPS Foam          0            0           0        0        0       1,227   6,006            0        0        0         0         0

                   Seat                0           665         150       0       236       0      23,512           0        0     2,644        0         0
                   Base                0            0           0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0          0         0
Britax–Marathon    Clip                0            0           0        0       295      709     1,078            0        0       0          0         0
Platinum (E9LO6B9) EPS Foam            0            0           0        0        0       839     5,843            0        0       0          0         0

                     Seat              0            0           0        0        0        0       13              0        0        0         0         0
Britax–Parkway       Base              0            0           0        0        0        94      935             0        0        0         0         0
Express (E904157)    EPS Foam          0           156          0        0        0        0        0              0        0        0         0         0




                    W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 15
                                                                                                   Bromine/BFRs
                                     Chlorine/PVC
                       Component




                                                    Chromium




                                                                                                                                   Antimony
                                                                                                                  Cadmium




                                                                                                                                              Mercury
                                                                                 Copper
                                                               Cobalt


                                                                        Nickel




                                                                                                                                                        Lead
                                                                                           Zinc




                                                                                                                             Tin
                  Seat                  0           113         0        0        0        34       4              0         0       0         0         0
Britax–Roundabout Base                  0            0          0        0        0        0        0              0         0       0         0         0
Bridgeport        Clip                  0            0          0        0       199      831      897             0         0       0         0         0
(E9L02D2)         EPS Foam              0            0          0        0        0        0      5,304            0         0       0         0         0

                  Seat                  0             0         0        0        0        143      10             0         0       0         0         0
Britax–Roundabout Base                  0             0         0        0        0       1,871     3              0         0       0         0         0
Jefferson Tan     Clip                  0             0         0        0       181       697     843             0         0       0         0         0
(EPL0270)         EPS Foam              0             0         0        0        0       1,072   1,525            0         0       0         0         0

                    Seat              0    1,935 159                     0       220       130 24,586              0          0   1,651 49               0
                    Base              0      0      0                    0        0         0     976              0          0    233     0             0
Combi–Centre EX     Clip              0      0      0                    0        0         0    2,289             0          0    442     0             0
Mango (808660)      Shade          334,646 26,410 1,453                  0        0       1,785 366,776            0        1,011 10,599 1,126           0

Compass–B505        Seat                0             0         0        0        0         0     1,353            0         0       0         0         0
Pistachio (B505PST) Base                0             0         0        0        0         0       0              0         0       0         0         0

                    Seat                0           69          0        0        0         0     1,383            0        179      0         0         0
Cosco–Alpha Elite   Base                0           0           0        0        0         0       0              0         0       0         0         0
Apex (22534BDW)     Clip                0           0           0        0        0         0       60             0         0       0         0         0

Cosco–Alpha         Seat                0           282        77        0        0         0     4,490            0         0       0         0         0
Omega Elite         Clip                0            0         0         0        0         0      124             0         0       0         0         0
(22155BDF)          Base                0            0         0         0        0         0       24             0         0       0         0         0
Cosco–Alpha
Omega Elite         Seat                0             0         0        0       51        92     108              0         0       0         0         0
Grayson             Base                0             0         0        0       0         0       0               0         0       0         0         0
(22158GRS)          Clip                0             0         0        0       0         0      381              0         0       0         0         0

Cosco–Gotham        Seat                0           445        284       0        0       2,628 36,713             0        421      0        107        0
High Back Booster   Base                0            0          0        0        0         0     43               0         0       0         0         0
(22-206GTH)         Clip                0            0          0        0        0        240  1,868              0         0       0         0         0

                    Seat                0             0         0        0        0       135     164              0         0       0         0         0
Cosco–Scenara 5-    Base                0             0         0        0        0       135      0               0         0       0         0         0
Point (22120POL)    Clip                0             0         0        0        0        0      12               0         0       0         0         0
Cosco–SoHo
Booster Youth       Seat                0             0         0        0       108      202         4            0         0       0         0         0
(222985OH)          Base                0             0         0        0       236      312         0            0         0       0         0         0




16 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                   Bromine/BFRs
                                     Chlorine/PVC
                         Component




                                                    Chromium




                                                                                                                                  Antimony
                                                                                                                  Cadmium




                                                                                                                                             Mercury
                                                                                 Copper
                                                               Cobalt


                                                                        Nickel




                                                                                                                                                       Lead
                                                                                           Zinc




                                                                                                                            Tin
Eddie Bauer–3 in 1
Convertible           Seat              0           98          0        0       93         0     256              0        0       0         0         0
Cambridge             Base              0           0           0        0       0          0      0               0        0       0         0         0
(22758CMP)            Clip              0           0           0        0       0          0     90               0        0       0         0         0

Eddie Bauer–3 in 1
Convertible           Seat              0             0         0        0        0         0     711              0        0       0         0         0
Montecito             Base              0             0         0        0        0         0      0               0        0       0         0         0
(22759MTT)            Clip              0             0         0        0        0         0     79               0        0       0         0         0

Eddie Bauer–Deluxe
Convertible        Seat                 0             0         0        0        0         0      44              0        0       0         0         0
Hampton            Base                 0             0         0        0        0         0      0               0        0       0         0         0
(22740HPN)         Clip                 0             0         0        0        0         0      2               0        0       0         0         0

Eddie Bauer–Summit Seat                 0             0         0        0        0        25     218              0        0       0         0         0
Booster Astoria    Base                 0             0         0        0        0        0      16               0        0       0         0         0
(22862AT1)         Clip                 0             0         0        0        0        22     33               0        0       0         0         0


Eddie Bauer–Summit Seat                 0           357        200       0       247      2,343 29,938             0        504     0         0         0
Booster Brown Tech Base                 0            0          0        0        0         0     0                0         0      0         0         0
Print (22862EBCE)   Clip                0            0          0        0        0         28   386               0         0      0         0         0
Evenflo–Big Kid
Mocha Chill         Seat                0             0         0        0        0    75         173              0        0       0         0         0
(3391706A)          Base                0             0         0       131      162 93,857        0               0        0       0         0         0
Evenflo–Big Kid No-
Back Gold Dust      Seat                0             0         0        0        0         0         3            0        0       0         0         0
(3331703)           Base                0             0         0        0        0         0         0            0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat                0             0         0        0       0          0     5,887            0        257     0         0         0
Evenflo–Chase DLX Base                  0             0         0        0       0          0       0              0         0      0         0         0
Arlington (3261567) Clip                0             0         0        0       50         0      287             0         0      0         0         0

Evenflo–Chase DLX     Seat              0           106         0        0       0         0      1,172            0        0       0         0         0
Moonbeam              Base              0            0          0        0       0         0        0              0        0       0         0         0
(3261722)             Clip              0            0          0        0       60       112       81             0        0       0         0         0

                      Seat              0             0         0        0       0         406     0               0        0      0          0         0
Evenflo–Discovery     Base              0             0         0        0       69       1,276    0               0        0      0          0         0
Infant Churchill      Clip              0             0         0        0       0          0     34               0        0      0          0         0
(3911698)             Shade             0             0         0        0       0          0     324              0        0     564         0         0




                     W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 17
                                                                                                  Bromine/BFRs
                                     Chlorine/PVC
                       Component




                                                    Chromium




                                                                                                                                  Antimony
                                                                                                                 Cadmium




                                                                                                                                             Mercury
                                                                                 Copper
                                                               Cobalt


                                                                        Nickel




                                                                                                                                                       Lead
                                                                                          Zinc




                                                                                                                           Tin
                    Seat                0             0         0        0       212      376      25             0        0      0           0         0
                    Base                0             0         0        0        0        0       0              0        0      0           0         0
Evenflo–Embrace     Clip                0             0         0       412       0        0       0              0        0     200          0         0
DLX Infant          Shade               0             0         0        0        0        0     10,316           0        0      0           0         0
(3961613)           EPS Foam            0             0         0        0        0        0     2,745            0        0      0           0         0

                    Seat              0               0         0        0        0        0     1,813            0        0        0         0         0
                    Base              0               0         0        0        0        0       0              0        0        0         0         0
Evenflo–Generations Clip              0               0         0        0       114      452      62             0        0        0         0         0
(3521607)           Trim           174,766            0         0        0        0       258      11             0        0        0         0         0

Evenflo–Titan Delux
Convertible         Seat                0             0         0        0       0         0      98              0        0        0         0         0
Cobblestone         Base                0             0         0        0       0         0      0               0        0        0         0         0
(3671702)           Clip                0             0         0        0       93       126     73              0        0        0         0         0

Evenflo–Tribute V   Seat                0             0         0        0        0        24     87              0        0        0         0         0
Premier Brighton    Base                0             0         0        0        0        0      6               0        0        0         0         0
(3791686)           Clip                0             0         0        0       274      596     97              0        0        0         0         0

                    Seat                0             0         0        0        0        70    2,045            0        0        0         0         0
Evenflo–Triumph 5   Base                0             0         0        0        0        0       0              0        0        0         0         0
Rain Shadow         Clip                0             0         0        0       308       0       28             0        0        0         0         0
(3591658)           EPS Foam            0             0         0        0        0       365    5,290            0        0        0         0         0

                    Seat        0                     0         0        0        0        85      55             0        0       0          0         0
                    Base        0                     0         0        0        0        0       49             0        0       0          0         0
Evenflo–Triumph     Clip        0                     0         0        0       140      221     177             0        0       0          0         0
Deluxe Ashby        EPS Foam    0                     0         0        0        0       499    5,029            0        0       0          0         0
(3941611)           Trim     415,304                  0         0        0        0       740     791             0        0     5,002        0        557

                   Seat                 0             0         0        0       0         66     134             0        0        0         0         0
Evenflo–Triumph LX Base                 0             0         0        0       0         25     199             0        0        0         0         0
Convertible        Clip                 0             0         0        0       87        0      281             0        0        0         0         0
(3891609)          EPS Foam             0             0         0        0       0        421    5,200            0        0        0         0         0


                    Seat        0                     0         0        0        0        66      42             0        0       0          0         0
                    Base        0                     0         0        0        0        0       80             0        0       0          0         0
Evenflo–Triumph
Premier Car Seat    Clip        0                     0         0        0        0        0       28             0        0       0          0         0
Stonehenge          EPS Foam    0                     0         0        0        0       524    6,092            0        0       0          0         0
(3931624)           Trim     550,000                  0         0        0        0       678    1,543            0        0     5,434        0         0




18 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                  Bromine/BFRs
                                     Chlorine/PVC
                       Component




                                                    Chromium




                                                                                                                                  Antimony
                                                                                                                 Cadmium




                                                                                                                                             Mercury
                                                                                 Copper
                                                               Cobalt


                                                                        Nickel




                                                                                                                                                       Lead
                                                                                          Zinc




                                                                                                                           Tin
                    Seat                0             0         0        0        0        58    1,720            0        0        0         0         0
                    Clip                0             0         0        0       211      535     902             0        0        0         0         0
Fisher Price–Safe   Base                0             0         0        0        0       815      0              0        0        0         0         0
Voyager (EF20EDA)   EPS Foam            0             0         0        0        0       213    3,894            0        0        0         0         0

Graco–Backless
TurboBooster      Seat                  0             0         0        0        0       26     1,083            0        0        0         0         0
Belmont (8491BEM) Base                  0             0         0        0        0       0        0              0        0        0         0         0

                   Seat        0    145                         0        0        0        0     6,620            0        0       0          0         0
                   Base        0     0                          0        0        0        0       9              0        0       0          0         0
Graco–ComfortSport Clip        0     0                          0        0        0        0       26             0        0       0          0         0
Convertible        Trim     346,712  0                          0        0        0       995      51             0        0     5,692        0         0
(8636AER)          EPS Foam    0     0                          0        0        0        0     1,922            0        0       0          0         0


Graco–Comfortsport Seat                 0             0         0        0        0       178    429              0        0        0         0         0
Convertible Timber Base                 0             0         0        0        0        0      3               0        0        0         0         0
(8C00TMB)          Clip                 0             0         0        0        0        0     429              0        0        0         0         0

Graco–Comfortsport
Convertible        Seat                 0             0         0        0       135       0      30              0        222      0         0         0
Watercolor Flowers Base                 0             0         0        0        0        0      0               0         0       0         0         0
(8C03WCF)          Clip                 0             0         0        0        0        0      0               0         0       0         0         0


                     Seat               0           575         0        0        0       64       36             0        238      0         0         0
Graco–ComfortSport Base                 0            0          0        0        0       0        0              0         0       0         0         0
Convertible Graphite Clip               0            0          0        0        0       0       409             0         0       0         0         0
(8C00GRP)            EPS Foam           0            0          0        0        0       0      1,028            0         0       0         0         0

                    Seat              0               0         0        0        0        0     4,761            0        224     0          0         0
Graco–Platinum      Base              0               0         0        0        0        43      0              0         0      0          0         0
CarGo Booster       Clip              0               0         0        0        0        0       0              0         0      0          0         0
(8689CAV)           Trim           118,797            0         0        0        0       239      0              0         0    2,251        0         0

Graco–Platinum      Seat                0           128         0        0        0        0     5,780            0        0        0         0         0
CarGo Booster       Base                0            0          0        0        0        0       4              0        0        0         0         0
Zephyr (8D01ZPH)    Clip                0            0          0        0        0        0       15             0        0        0         0         0

                    Seat              0    124                 107       0        0        30    50               0        0        0         0         0
Graco–SafeSeat      Base              0     0                   0        0        0        0      0               0        0        0         0         0
(Step 1) French     Clip              0     0                   0        0        0       637     0               0        0        0         0         0
Roast (8A10FNR)     Shade          184,464  0                   0        0        0        0     219              0        0        0         0         0



                  W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 19
                                                                                                    Bromine/BFRs
                                     Chlorine/PVC
                       Component




                                                     Chromium




                                                                                                                                   Antimony
                                                                                                                   Cadmium




                                                                                                                                              Mercury
                                                                                  Copper
                                                                Cobalt


                                                                         Nickel




                                                                                                                                                        Lead
                                                                                            Zinc




                                                                                                                             Tin
                    Seat                0            769         0        0        0        0      4,858            0        0       0         0         0
                    Base                0             0          0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SafeSeat      Clip                0             0          0        0        0       605       91             0        0       0         0         0
(Step 1) Fusion     Shade               0           1,379        0        0        0        0      15,027           0        0       0         0         0
(8A03QST)           EPS Foam            0             0          0        0        0       686       33             0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat        0                      0         0        0       108       0        0              0        0       0         0         0
                    Base        0                      0         0        0        0        0        5              0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SafeSeat      Clip        0                      0         0        0        0       502      153             0        0       0         0         0
(Step 1) Heirloom   Shade    542,171                   0         0        0        0        0      1,167            0        0       0         0         0
(8A08HLR)           EPS Foam    0                      0         0        0        0       160     3,260            0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat                0            0           0        0        0        68       10             0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SafeSeat      Base                0            0           0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0
(Step 1) Pierson    Clip                0            0           0        0        0       439       16             0        0       0         0         0
(8A00PSN)           Shade               0           363          0        0        0        0      21,789           0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat        0                      0         0        0        0        0      2,112            0        0       0         0         0
                    Base        0                      0         0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SafeSeat      Clip        0                      0         0        0        0       599       52             0        0       0         0         0
(Step 1) Roxy       Shade    175,092                   0         0        0        0        0       595             0        0       0         0         0
(8AO5RXY)           EPS Foam    0                      0         0        0        0       360       0              0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat                0              0         0       0         0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SnugRide      Base                0              0         0       67        0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0
Emerson             Clip                0              0         0       0         0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0
(8465EME3)          Shade               0              0         0       0         0         0      756             0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat             0                 0        140       0        0       1,969    0               0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SnugRide      Base             0                 0         0        0        0         0      0               0        0       0         0         0
Family Tree         Clip             0                 0         0        0        0         0      0               0        0       0         0         0
(8645FMT2)          Shade          67,540              0         0        0        0         0      77              0        0       0         0         0

                    Seat              0                0         0        0        0         0     5,150            0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SnugRide      Base              0                0         0        0        0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0
Josephine           Clip              0                0         0        0        0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0
(8643JOS2)          Shade          208,906             0         0        0        0         0       33             0        0       0         0         0

                   Seat               0                0         0        0        0        24         0            0        0       0         0         0
                   Base               0                0         0        0        0        0          0            0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SnugRide     Clip               0                0         0        0        0        0          3            0        0       0         0         0
Lindsey (8465LRD3) Shade           113,003             0         0        0        0        0          0            0        0       0         0         0




20 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                    Bromine/BFRs
                                      Chlorine/PVC
                        Component




                                                     Chromium




                                                                                                                                   Antimony
                                                                                                                   Cadmium




                                                                                                                                              Mercury
                                                                                  Copper
                                                                Cobalt


                                                                         Nickel




                                                                                                                                                        Lead
                                                                                            Zinc




                                                                                                                             Tin
                     Seat                0            0          0        0       84         0       12             0        0       0         0        0
                     Base                0            0          0        0       0          0       0              0        0       0         0        0
Graco–SnugRide       Clip                0            90         0        0       0          0       0              0        0       0         0        0
Park Meadows         Shade               0           518         0        0       0          0     13,009           0        0       0         0        47
(8646RRY3)           EPS Foam            0            0          0        0       0          0     4,073            0        0       0         0        0

                  Seat                 0               0         0        0        0        23      21              0        0       0         0         0
                  Base                 0               0         0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0
Graco–SnugRide    Clip                 0               0         0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0
Windsor (8465EME) Shade             288,727            0         0        0        0        0       296             0        0       0         0         0

                     Seat                0             0         0        0        0       925      436             0        0       0         0         0
Graco–Toddler        Base                0             0         0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0
SafeSeat (Step 2)    Clip                0             0         0        0        0        0        63             0        0       0         0         0
(8B00BDR)            EPS Foam            0             0         0        0        0        0      5,153            0        0       0         0         0


                   Seat                  0             0         0        0        0       1,116    262             0        0      0          0         0
Graco–Toddler      Base                  0             0         0        0        0         0       0              0        0      0          0         0
SafeSeat (Step 2)  Clip                  0             0         0        0        0         0       10             0        0     164         0         0
Pierson (8B03PSN2) EPS Foam              0             0         0        0        0         0     4,751            0        0      0          0         0

                   Seat                  0           0           0        0        0       524     6,714            0        0       0         0         0
Graco–TurboBooster Base                  0           75          0        0        0        0      3,319            0        0       0         0         0
Emily (8498DEH)    EPS Foam              0           0           0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0         0


Graco–TurboBooster Seat                  0           169         0        0        0       758     6,225            0        0       0         0        19
SafeSeat (Step 3)  Base                  0           228         0        0        0        0      11,564           0        0       0         0        35
Athens (8674ATH) EPS Foam                0            0          0        0        0        0        4              0        0       0         0        0

Graco–TurboBooster
SafeSeat (Step 3)   Seat                 0             0         0        0        0         0     2,927            0        0       0         0         0
Gabrielle (8693GBR) Base                 0             0         0        0        0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0


Graco–TurboBooster Seat                  0             0         0        0        0       408     6,680            0        0       0         0        25
SafeSeat (Step 3)  Base                  0             0         0        0        0        0      1,655            0        0       0         0        0
Glory (8693GLY)    EPS Foam              0             0         0        0        0        0        0              0        0       0         0        0

Graco–TurboBooster
SafeSeat (Step 3)  Seat                  0           91         55        0        0         0     3,886            0        0       0         0         0
Pierson (8498PSN) Base                   0           0          0         0        0         0       0              0        0       0         0         0




                    W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 21
                                                                                                Bromine/BFRs
                                  Chlorine/PVC
                      Component




                                                 Chromium




                                                                                                                               Antimony
                                                                                                               Cadmium




                                                                                                                                          Mercury
                                                                              Copper
                                                            Cobalt


                                                                     Nickel




                                                                                                                                                    Lead
                                                                                        Zinc




                                                                                                                         Tin
                   Seat              0             0         0        0        0        43     195              0        0       0         0         0
Safety 1st–Alpha   Base              0             0         0        0        0        0       0               0        0       0         0         0
Sport (22452RB)    Clip              0             0         0        0        0        0      24               0        0       0         0         0

                   Seat        0     134    75                        0        0       3,820 5,627              0        0       0         0         0
                   Base        0      0     0                         0        0         0       20             0        0       0         0         0
Peg Perego–Primo   Clip        0     123    0                         0        0        494     375             0        0       0         0         0
Viaggio Toffee     Shade    203,435 3,027 1,123                       0        0       85,890 137,519           0        0       0         0         0
(P73RU46           EPS Foam    0      0     0                         0        0        156    1,459            0        0       0         0         0




22 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
APPENDIX:
UNDERSTANDING THE CAR SEAT RATINGS
The www.HealthyCar.Org child car seat rating system was developed in order to provide a
means for consumers to compare the relative concern associated with materials in new model
car seats. The following section provides an overview of the method used to determine the car
seat ratings.

SELECTING THE                                           electronics and packaging is included in
CHEMICALS OF CONCERN                                    Table A1 on the next page.
HealthyCar.org rates car seats based on the
detection and concentrations of the                     Two voluntary certification standards
following elements or chemical compounds                are currently being used by Volvo72 and
containing these elements: Antimony,                    Ford73 to certify vehicles for air quality
Arsenic, Bromine, Chlorine, Chromium,                   and allergen-free content: the Oeko-Tex
Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Nickel, Tin.             100 and TÜV standards. Ford certifies
These elements or compounds were chosen                 vehicles using the TÜV Rheinland
for the following reasons.                              Group’s TOXPROOF Certification
                                                        (including the SG textiles standard).74 So
1. They could be easily and quickly                     far, four of Ford’s European model
   identified using non-destructive                     vehicles have been certified, including
   methods. Sampling for this project was               the Focus, Focus C-MAX, Ka and
   limited to new car seats, thus testing               Galaxy.75 Volvo has certified all of its
   could not damage the car seat. The XRF               vehicle interiors to the Oeko-Tex
   device was used to sample each                       Standard 100. 76,77 Each of these
   component for the presence of 38                     standards are also relevant child car
   elements as percent by weight or parts               seats. The Oeko-Tex 100 standard has
   per million (ppm). The reporting of 27               specific standard for babies products
   of these elements was eliminated on the              which children are likely to come in
   basis of non-occurrence or low concern,              direct contact with.
   leaving the 11 elements mentioned
   above.                                               Two other standards for plastic and
                                                        fabric in other types of products are also
2. These elements, and the chemicals                    highlighted. Since the 1980’s TCO
   associated with them in car seat
                                                   72
   applications, have been subject to                 Volvo Cars.
                                                   http://www.volvocars.com/corporation/environment/Cle
   either regulatory restrictions and/or           anInside.htm (Accessed 03/09/07).
   voluntary limits set by industry                73
                                                      TUV Rheinland. 2007. “First Allergy Label for Car
   associations or third party certification       Buyers.”
                                                   http://www.tuv.com/de/en/news_first_allergy_label_for_
   organizations. These elements and their         car_buyers.html (Accessed 03/09/07).
   chemical compounds have been                    74
                                                      TUV Rheinland. 2007.
                                                   http://www.tuvdotcom.com/pi/web/TuvdotcomIdSearch
   associated with health and                      Results.xml?TUVdotCOMID=4111008300&LanguageChange
   environmental concerns in the range of          d=en-us (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                   75
   the concentrations detected in the                 TUV Rheinland. 2007. “First Allergy Label for Car
                                                   Buyers.”
   sampling conducted for this study. A            http://www.tuv.com/de/en/news_first_allergy_label_for_
   wide-range of regulatory and voluntary          car_buyers.html (Accessed 03/09/07).
                                                   76
   limits for elements in products were               Volvo Cars.
                                                   http://www.volvocars.com/corporation/environment/Cle
   reviewed for this study. A summary of           anInside.htm (Accessed 03/09/07).
   the standards reviewed for childrens            77
                                                      Volvo Cars.
                                                   http://www.volvocars.com/corporation/FactsandFigures/
   products, toys, paints, vehicles,               EnvironmentalProductInformationEurope/incar.htm
                                                   (Accessed 03/09/07).


               W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 23
    Table A1: Samples of Product Standards and Elemental Limits

                         Oeko-Tex 100              TUV            Nordic Swan4            TCO8
                            Fabrics and          Cars and                             Computers and
    PRODUCTS                  Leather             Fabrics          Computers           Work Chairs
    ELEMENTS                                          "SAFE" LIMITS
    Antimony                        30 ppm              2 ppm
    Arsenic                          1 ppm            0.2 ppm   None, Leathers
    Bromine                       No BFRs1          Non Detect      No BFRs6                 No BFRs9
                                                                          No PVC/             No PVC
                                                                                  5
    Chlorine                                                            No Cl FRs            NoClFRs9

                                                       2 ppm2 /
    Chromium                         2 ppm        200/50 ppm3               3 ppm7
    Cobalt                           4 ppm              4 ppm
    Copper (organic)                50 ppm             60 ppm
    Lead                             1 ppm            0.8 ppm           1,000 ppm                None
    Mercury                       0.02 ppm            .02 ppm           1,000 ppm                None
    Nickel                         4.0 ppm              4 ppm
    Tin (organic)                    1 ppm         Non Detect
    TEST METHOD                 Extractable         Extractable          By weight           By weight

1
    BFR includes: PBB, TRIS, TEPA, pentaBDE, octaBDE. A list of approved flame retardant materials are listed on Oeko
    Tex web site.
2
    Chromium (VI)
3
    Total Chromium content. 200 ppm adults/50 ppm children
4
    Available at: http://www.svanen.nu/Eng/products/ (Accessed on 03/02/07).
5
    No PVC in housing and chassis. No chlorinated flame retardants.
6
    No BFRs. Exemption for printed wiring boards and plastic parts weighing less than 25g. These parts must not, however,
    contain any PBB (polybrominated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) or chlorinated paraffins (maximum
    allowable concentration for impurities is 0.1 % by weight in homogenous material).
7
    Chromium (VI)
8
    Available at: http://www.tcodevelopment.com/ (Accessed on 03/02/07)
9
    Plastic parts weighing more than 25 grams shall not contain flame retardants that include organically bound bromine or
    chlorine. Exempted are printed wiring board laminates, electronic components and all kinds of cable insulation. Plastic
    parts weighing more than 25 grams shall not contain chlorine or bromine as a part of the polymer. Parts containing other
    materials in any significant amounts, e.g. cables with their metal conductors, are not included in the requirements.

        Development in Sweden has developed                            evaluating the health of the inside
        standards for information technology                           vehicle environment. While the
        equipment for ease of use and                                  elemental limits in these standards are
        environmental considerations. The                              based on the amount of extractable
        TCO’05 Desktop Computer and Work                               metals from a homogeneous material,
        Chairs Standard is one of the more                             the XRF measures elemental
        comprehensive and restrictive standards                        composition of materials as percent by
        available. The Nordic Swan label for                           weight and averages measurements
        computers also limits the presence of                          between different layers of a
        many groups of chemicals, including                            heterogeneous material (e.g. fabric
        halogens, in plastic components. The                           covers the seat foam). In general, the
        elemental limits for all of these                              amount of metals extractable from
        standards are listed in Table A1.                              materials is typically less then the actual
                                                                       content of the material.
        Due to the current use of the Oeko-Tex
        & TÜV standards within the auto                                The XRF results were considered to be
        industry, the elemental limits in these                        relevant because the levels typically
        standards were used as a baseline for                          observed in cars significantly exceeded



    24 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
guideline limits cited in Table A1. The
XRF also underestimates actual levels of
elements in heterogeneous materials
due to the averaging of different layers
of the material. Most materials in this
study were multi-layer materials. XRF
results greater than the instrument
detection limit in general exceed the
levels outlined in Table A1.




           W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 25
CAR SEAT SAMPLING
The primary purpose of testing individual
components in car seats was to establish the
presence and relative abundance of
chemicals of concern.

Two to six components from each car seat
were selected for sampling. The
components were selected based on the
following criteria:

•    Potential of exposure, i.e. components
     that drivers or passengers come in
     contact with, that are subject to
     abrasion, or that otherwise release
     vapors or particles to the environment;
•    Surface area and relative size of
     component;
•    Potential to off-gas or degrade during
     heat and/or UV-ray exposure;
•    Ease of access to component for
     sampling.

Components sampled included:

     Base
     Clip
     Seat
     Shade
     EPS Foam*
     Trim*

*Components not present in all car seats.

Examples of sample location and results are
show to the right. Non-destructive
sampling was conducted on car seat
components using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
spectrometry. XRF spectrometry is used to         analyzed.
identify elements in a substance and           2. These photons knock electrons in each
quantify the amount of those elements             atom from the innermost orbitals of
present. Hand-held, portable XRF devices          some atoms in the sample, making the
are now commonly used in many industrial          atoms unstable.
settings to verify material quality and        3. As electrons move from outer orbitals to
assure adherence to composition                   the vacant space closer to the nucleus of
specifications.                                   the atom, they emit energy in a
                                                  secondary x-ray photon; this is known
XRF devices use the following process to          as fluorescence.
determine the composition of materials:        4. The analyzer measures the amount of
                                                  energy in the x-rays emitted by the
1. An x-ray tube emits high-energy x-ray          atoms in the sample material as they
   photons that strike the sample being



26 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
   return to their original state, an energy            Each component was sampled for 30
   that is characteristic of each element.              seconds. Components were sampled at
5. The analyzer quantifies this energy and              similar locations in each car seat. Detection
   makes a conversion to report whether                 limit guidelines were provided by the XRF
   an element is present and in what                    manufacturer. (Detection limits are
   concentration.                                       estimates based on 1-2 minute test times
                                                        and detection confidence of 3-sigma, or
When in use, the analyzer emits radiation               99.7% confidence.) Detection limit
from the exit port (the front of the                    guidelines and lowest observed detection
instrument). Radiation levels at the port are           limits are presented in Table A2. Observed
approximately 28,000 millirems per hour in              detection limits were consistent with
the direct x-ray beam, and 2,000 millirems              manufacturers guidelines.
per hour 4 inches away. To put these
numbers in perspective, a chest x-ray                   The XRF sampler also automatically
provides a dose of 100 millirems; 5,000                 calculates a 1-sigma (68.2%) error margin
millirems total per year are considered                 for each sample. A sample of the test data
acceptable for a non-pregnant adult. The                showing detected level in ppm and +/- one-
radiation level for the operator is less than           sigma error margin is shown in Table A3.
0.1 millirems per hour. The analyzer does               To ensure that our readings were accurate,
not emit radiation when it is not in use.               we performed a quality analysis on several
When it is emitting radiation during a test,            samples. In this analysis, we tested the same
the red light on the top of the analyzer
blinks. The XRF Analyzer is manufactured
by Innov-X Systems, Inc., located in
Woburn, Massachusetts. More information
about the analyzer and the company may be
found at www.innov-xsys.com.



  Table A2: XRF Detection Limits
                                              Observed
                    Manufacturers          Detection Limits
  ELEMENT          Detection Limits1      (30 second sample)2
  Antimony                   50-150 ppm                109 ppm
  Arsenic                    10-100 ppm                  1 ppm
  Bromine                    10-100 ppm                  2 ppm
  Chlorine                       1%-5%                   2.80%
  Chromium                   10-100 ppm                 39 ppm
  Cobalt                     10-100 ppm                 37 ppm
  Copper                     10-100 ppm                 38 ppm
  Lead                       10-100 ppm                  5 ppm
  Mercury                    10-100 ppm                  7 ppm
  Nickel                     10-100 ppm                 27 ppm
  Tin                        50-150 ppm                130 ppm




               W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 27
    Table A3: Sample Date for Door trim (soft), Cl and Br error margins (ppm)
                                                                                                         Cl                               Br
      MAKE           MODEL            SPECS        MARKET CLASS           YEAR      CHLORINE        (1-sigma +/-)   BROMINE         (1-sigma +/-)
    Chrysler    Town & Country     LTD           Minivan                   2006        247,636         10,424             0                4
    VW          Jetta               -            Small Car                 2006        183,186          8,736             0                4
    Buick       Lucerne            CXL           Large Sedan               2007        157,568          7,659             3                1
    Audi        Q7                  -            SUV                       2007        175,511          8,534             4                1
    VW          Touareg            V8            SUV                       2006        170,562          8,181             0                3
    GMC         Yukon              Denali        SUV                       2006        141,634          8,001          2,500              35
    Saturn      Sky                 -            Convertible               2007        163,789          9,607             0                4
    Mercedes    GL450              4matic        SUV                       2007        204,440          9,236             0                4
    Cadillac    DTS                4.6L V8       Luxury Sedan              2007        134,341          7,362            26                2
    Buick       Terraza            CXL 1SD       Minivan                   2007        121,029          7,504           791               13
    Saturn      Relay              AWD RF3       Minivan                   2006        153,625          7,867             0                4
    Audi        A6 Avanti          3.2           Luxury Sedan              2006        175,068          8,707            17                2

1
    InnovX Model ABC XRF Detector detection estimates based on 1-2 minute test times and detection confidence of 3-sigma, or 99.7%
    confidence. Detection limits are a function of testing time, sample matrix and presence of interfering elements.
2
    Observed detection limits varied by type of material being tested. Detection limits presented here are the lowest observed from all
    testing.
component at multiple points in two vehicle                             leather seat covering, and any fabric
models, the Subaru Legacy and the Nissan                                backing as shown in Table A5. Therefore,
Versa. The results of these samples are                                 the seat foam alone may have a higher
shown in Table A4 on the next page. In all                              bromine level, but the reading will be lower
cases, we found adequate consistency in                                 due to the presence of the fabric and back
detection levels at different locations in the                          coating, or vice versa. This type of
same component.                                                         averaging results in lower levels being
                                                                        reported in heterogeneous samples. Most
XRF measures surfaces up to a depth of                                  samples used in this study are considered
6–12 mm and provides quantitative values                                heterogeneous samples.
for specific elements within the matrix of a
given test object. For homogeneous
materials, the results are expected to reflect
the actual concentration of the measured
element. However, since components like
seat cushions are usually composed of
several layers of different materials, the XRF
results are an average of all materials up to
the depth of X-Ray penetration. For
example, the XRF reading for bromine
levels in a seat will be composed of the
foam, the fabric or




28 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
 Table A4: Repeat Sample Data
 Note: <LOD, Level of Detection

Cosco Alpha Omega Elite Convertible Infant Seat: Repeat samples & elemental detection levels (ppm)
COMPONENT                   Cl       Cl +/-     Br     Br +/-    Sb      Sb +/-     Pb       Pb +/-    Cr    Cr +/-
Seat - Cushion             <LOD     21,046     126       5      <LOD      220      <LOD       12      <LOD    80
Seat - Cushion             <LOD     16,820      95       4      <LOD      176      <LOD        9      <LOD    66
Seat - Cushion             <LOD     16,667     102       4      <LOD      174      <LOD        9      <LOD    70
Base - Hard Plastic        <LOD     15,848    <LOD       2      <LOD      170      <LOD        7      <LOD    49
Base - Hard Plastic        <LOD     17,837    <LOD       3      <LOD      195      <LOD       10      <LOD    65
Base - Hard Plastic        <LOD     18,746    <LOD       3      <LOD      194      <LOD        9      <LOD    51
Clip                       <LOD     17,694     610      13      <LOD      185      <LOD       11      <LOD    62
Clip                       <LOD     15,308     357       8      <LOD      170      <LOD       10      <LOD    50
Clip                       <LOD     12,236     177       4      <LOD      137      <LOD        7      <LOD    40



SUBARU LEGACY: Repeat samples & elemental detection levels (ppm)
COMPONENT                   Cl       Cl +/-    Br      Br +/-    Sb      Sb +/-     Pb       Pb +/-    Cr    Cr +/-
Steering Wheel             <LOD     11,160      7        1      <LOD      125      <LOD        5      <LOD     36
Steering Wheel             <LOD     12,139      6        1      <LOD      130      <LOD        5      <LOD     37
Steering Wheel             <LOD     12,981      8        1      <LOD      139      <LOD        5      <LOD     40
Dashboard                  <LOD     12,375      9        1      <LOD      133      <LOD        6      <LOD     46
Dashboard                  <LOD     12,692     10        1      <LOD      134      <LOD        6      <LOD     43
Dashboard                  <LOD     13,383     11        1      <LOD      143      <LOD        6      <LOD     48
Headliner                  <LOD     23,444     11        2      <LOD      220      <LOD       12      <LOD     98
Headliner                  <LOD     19,856      8        2      <LOD      208      <LOD        9      <LOD     73
Headliner                  <LOD     22,590     13        2      <LOD      218      <LOD       12      <LOD     89
Seat Front                 <LOD     16,443    <LOD       3      <LOD      175       14         3      <LOD     59
Seat Front                 <LOD     17,072    <LOD       3      <LOD      182      <LOD        8      <LOD     66
Seat Front                 <LOD     18,561    <LOD       3      <LOD      193      <LOD        8      <LOD     69
Exterior Window Seal      303,078   12,526    <LOD       5      <LOD      159      <LOD       12      <LOD    153
Exterior Window Seal      258,969   11,484    <LOD       5      <LOD      168      <LOD        9      <LOD    140
Exterior Window Seal      277,308   12,366    <LOD       5      <LOD      166      <LOD       11      <LOD    128



NISSAN VERSA: Repeat samples & elemental detection levels (ppm)
COMPONENT                   Cl       Cl +/-     Br     Br +/-    Sb      Sb +/-     Pb       Pb +/-     Cr   Cr +/-
Armrest/Center Console    116,232    8,766    <LOD        4     2,866      81      <LOD        9      <LOD     92
Armrest/Center Console    112,203    8,793    <LOD        4     2,855      83      <LOD        9      <LOD     94
Armrest/Center Console    100,292    8,086    <LOD        3     2,685      76      <LOD        8      <LOD     78
Seat Front                 <LOD     36,809    34,098    835     7,761     255       139       11       492     58
Seat Front                 <LOD     34,375    32,146    764     7,577     242       156       11       626     65
Seat Front                 <LOD     31,505    25,283    550     5,964     190       115        9       431     51
Hard Door Trim             <LOD     13,921    <LOD        3     <LOD      146      <LOD        7       128     25
Hard Door Trim             <LOD     15,796    <LOD        2     <LOD      158      <LOD        7       146     29
Hard Door Trim             <LOD     14,302    <LOD        3     <LOD      153      <LOD        8       131     26
Soft Door Trim            112,451    6,485      53        2     1,566      55         9        3      <LOD     62
Soft Door Trim            282,862   13,035     203        7     3,523      92        48        7      <LOD    158
Soft Door Trim            136,685    7,748      65        3     2,012      62        16        3      <LOD     76
Exterior Window Seal      471,785   20,375    <LOD       11     <LOD      162      <LOD       24      <LOD    374
Exterior Window Seal      547,122   22,473    <LOD       12     <LOD      154      <LOD       28       939    205
Exterior Window Seal      550,000   23,843    <LOD       12     <LOD      158        31       10       735    204




                       W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 29
                                                               1
Table A5: XRF Averaging of Heterogeneous Samples
VEHICLE                            COMPONENT                BROMINE
1996 Dodge Neon               Full Seat (Cloth)             21,300 ppm
                              Seat Foam Only                   89 ppm
                              Fabric Only - outer surface   62,400 ppm
                              Fabric Only - inner surface   77,400 ppm
1993 Mercury Grand Marquis    Full Seat (PVC)                 87 ppm
                              Seat Foam Only                    8 ppm
                              Fabric/PVC - outer surface      192 ppm
                              Fabric/PVC - inner surface       34 ppm
1998 Oldsmobile Silhouette    Full Seat (Leather)            4,181 ppm
                              Foam Only                     10,100 ppm
                              Leather - outer surface        2,780 ppm
                              Leather - inner surface        2,564 ppm
1
    Seat coverings (cloth, PVC or leather) were removed from foam and analyzed from the outer and inner surface of the
    material. “Full seat” reading is taken with seat assembly intact and is typical of samples used in this study. “Foam only”
    sample is for seat foam that has been sliced in half to give a foam only sample.




30 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
ESTABLISING THE
RELATIVE LEVELS OF
CONCERN                                             Bromine: Bromine indicates the likely
Car seat ratings were calculated based on           presence of a brominated flame
the XRF results from two to four car seat           retardant (BFR). BFRs, particularly
components that were tested on all car              decabrominated diphenylethers (deca),
seats. Seat and base were tested on all             have been found in dust and windshield
booster seats; seat, base, clip were sampled        film samples from new model vehicles.
on all convertible car seats; and seat, base,       Deca may degrade into more toxic
clip and shade were sampled on all infant           chemicals when exposed to heat and UV
car seats.                                          radiation. We therefore consider
                                                    bromine a relatively high-concern
The rating for each car seat was determined         substance when present at higher
using the following process:                        concentrations. We thus assigned it a
                                                    relative weight of 10 for concentrations
1. Each component was given a weighting             above 1,000 ppm. Concentrations lower
   based on its relative size and potential         than 1,000 ppm received a weight of 1.
   to release chemicals or dust. This
   weighting was based on judgment on               Chlorine: All chlorine detected was in
   the part of the researchers. The                 concentrations higher than 10,000 ppm,
   component weighting factor for each              which indicates the likely prescence of
   component is indicated in Table A6.              PVC. We cannot, however, rule out the
                                                    possibility of other chlorinated
2. Each element was given a chemical                compounds, like flame retardants, being
   weighting factor (multiplier) based on           present in the materials. PVC has been
   the level of concern associated with it          identified as a problem chemical
   and its related chemical compounds, as           throughout its lifecycle. Formation of
   well as the concentration level detected.        highly toxic dioxins and furans during
   Higher concentrations were assigned              combustion and evaporation in
   higher weights. For instance, there were         production and end of life, as well as
   2 levels of concern determined for               release of phthalates from soft PVC
   bromine depending on the                         materials are of particular concern.
   concentration that was detected. The             Considering the likely possibility that
   weighting for each element and for               chlorine indicates the use of PVC and
   different concentrations of elements is
   shown in Table A7. Explanation of the
   relative weight of each element is                  Table A7: Elements Detected and Their
   provided below.                                     Relative Weight in the Ratings
                                                       LOD = Level of Detection
                                                                             RELATIVE
    Table A6: Relative Weighting of Each                    ELEMENT           WEIGHT
    Component                                          Bromine (low)      1 (>LOD, <1,000 ppm)
                          COMPONENT                    Bromine (high)           10 (>1,000 ppm)
     COMPONENT              WEIGHT                     Chlorine               10 (> 10,000ppm)
                                                       Lead (low)           1 (>LOD, <600 ppm)
     Base                       1
                                                       Lead (high)                5 (>600 ppm)
     Clip                       1
                                                       Antimony                       1 (>LOD)
     Seat                       1                      Arsenic                        1 (>LOD)
     Shade                      1                      Chromium                       1 (>LOD)
                                                       Cobalt                         1 (>LOD)
                                                       Copper                         1 (>LOD)
                                                       Nickel                         1 (>LOD)
                                                       Mercury                        1 (>LOD)
                                                       Tin                            1 (>LOD)

                W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 31
   phthalates additives, we regard chlorine                                                points. The shaded area in Table A8
   as a relatively high-concern substance                                                  shows the resulting points.
   and assigned it a relative weight of 10.
                                                                                    4. The points for each of the components(2
   Lead: The link between lead and serious                                             to 4 depending on seat type) were
   developmental and other health                                                      added to produce chemical scores for
   concerns is well established. The toy                                               bromine, chlorine, lead and other
   industry restricts the use of lead in                                               chemicals. In order to communicate the
   concentrations higher than                                                          relative concern to the public, these
   600 ppm. We therefore assigned a                                                    scores were then scaled on a 0-5 basis,
   relative weight of 5 to lead                                                        with 5 being the highest concern and 0
   concentrations above 600 ppm, and a                                                 being the lowest. These 0-5 scores are
   relative weight of 1 to lower                                                       referred to as the chemical ratings.
   concentrations.
                                                                                    5. The total scores for all the chemicals
   The remaining elements were also                                                    were added to produce an overall score
   found in car seat components and are                                                that indicates the relative concern of the
   associated with harmful health effects                                              complete car seat. This score was then
   even at relatively low concentrations.                                              scaled on a 0-5 basis with 5 being the
   Some of them are carcinogens, others                                                highest concern and 0 being the lowest.
   are allergens or heavy metals.                                                      This scaled score is referred to as the
   Concentrations of these substances were                                             overall car seat rating. It allows
   mostly found at lower levels than the                                               consumers to identify car seats of lower
   above-mentioned substances, and thus                                                concern.
   we consider them to have a
   comparatively low health concern, and                                            6. Finally, the general categories of
   assigned them each a relative weight of                                             concern were established. This was
   1.                                                                                  done by ranking the overall car seat rating
                                                                                       for each type of seat sampled, and
3. The component weight factor was                                                     assigning relative low concern to car seats
   multiplied by the chemical (and                                                     in the 0-15th percentile; relative medium
   concentration) weight factor to produce                                             concern to car seats between the 15th to
                                                                                       85th percentile; and relative high concern
   Table A8: Final Points Used for Vehicle                                             to car seats above the 85th percentile.
   Ratings
                                                                      BROMINE               CHLORINE             LEAD             OTHER***
                                           PPMs            >LOD & <1000          >1000        >10,000    >LOD & <600     >600       >LOD

                                      COMPONENT                                                                                    UP TO 8
  COMPONENT                             WEIGHT                 1 POINT         10 POINTS     10 POINTS    1 POINT      5 POINTS    POINTS
  Base                                    1                       1                10            10          1             5          8
  Clip *                                  1                       1                10            10          1             5          8
  Seat                                    1                       1                10            10          1             5          8
  Shade **                                1                       1                10            10          1             5          8

  *Only convertible and infant seats have this component.
  ** Only infant seats have this component.
  *** Includes antimony, tin, arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel and mercury.




32 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG

								
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