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becker

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									                                         The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Common
                                         Bedding Materials on the Metabolic Rate and
                                               Overall Health of Male CD1 Mice
                                                                                                          Corey Becker
                                                                     Department of Biology, York College of Pennsylvania
                                                                            Methods                                                                    0.14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Carefresh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cedar
                                                                                  30                                                                                  *
               Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Conclusions




                                                                                                                           mL O2/g/min
                                                                                                                                                       0.12                                                                 Pine
                                                                                 Male
• Anecdotes and personal web pages claim that                                    Mice                                                                                                                                                      • Hypotheses were not supported.
                                                                                                                                                       0.10
  cedar bedding causes respiratory distress in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           • There was no consistent statistical
  rodents.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             difference between the bedding
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• A national chain of pet stores no longer sells                                                                                                                                                                                             conditions. This disagrees with




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  cedar bedding because of concerns about                                                                                                                                                                                                    anecdotal claims that cedar and pine




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  respiratory problems.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cause respiratory distress in rodents.




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                                                        10                        10                     10
• No previous scientific studies have looked at      Carefresh                   Cedar                  Pine                                                                                                                               • This research also shows that mice
                                                                                                                    Fig. 2. Mean oxygen consumption by 30 male CD-1 mice in carefresh,
  the effects of bedding on respiratory health of                                                                   cedar, and pine beddings from July 1, 2007 to October 29 and 30,                                                         do not show the signs of respiratory
  rodents.                                                                                                          2007. The first set of data points were collected before the mice were                                                   distress like humans do when they
• However, there have been many studies on
                                                                                                                    put into the three bedding conditions. The standard error of the mean                                                    are in close contact with these wood
                                                                                                                    is shown. There was a significant difference between the 7.01&.02
  how cedar and pine dusts affect respiratory                                                                       mL O2/g/min and 7.14&.15 mL O 2/g/min (p<0.0001) in relation to time                                                     materials.
  health of humans working in mills and other                                                                       (2-way ANOVA).                                                                                                         • Lastly, this research contradicts the
  lumber industries. These studies have shown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             claims that Carefresh bedding is
  cedar and pine dusts to cause:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             healthier than pine and cedar
    •Asthma                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  beddings.
    •Chronic Bronchitis                                                        Tests
                                                                                                                                                   0.18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     *         Carefresh




                                                                                                                           Food(g)/Weight(g)/Day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Cedar
    •Lung Injury
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Take Home Message:
                                                                                                                                                   0.16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pine
• The agents that cause these injuries are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           •Carefresh is not a better
                                                                                                                                                   0.14
  plicatic acid (cedar) and abietic acid (pine).
• My study looked at the effects of cedar, pine,                                                                                                   0.12                                                                                    choice for bedding when it
  and Carefresh brand beddings on mouse              Food                                                   IgE                                                                                                                            comes to growth, food intake,
                                                    Intake                                                 ELISA
  health:                                                                                                                                          0.10                                                                                    oxygen intake, and IgE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           antibody levels.




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    •Growth rate




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    •Food intake                                                                                                    Fig. 3. Mean grams of food eaten per (g) body weight per day for                                                       •Pine may be the better choice
                                                                   Growth                    Oxygen
                                                                    Rate                     Intake
                                                                                                                    30 male CD-1 mice in carefresh, cedar, and pine beddings from                                                          for bedding.
    •Oxygen intake                                                                                                  July 5, 2007 to November 9, 2007. The first two sets of data points
    •IgE ELISA
                                                                                                                    were calculated with data collected before the mice entered the                                                        •More research needs to be
                                                                                                                    beddings. The standard error of the mean is shown. There was a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           done to determine if pine is
• Carefresh Bedding:                                                                                                significant difference in the food eaten/weight/day between 10.26
                                                                              Results                               and 11.02 for all bedding conditions in relation to time with a                                                        actually a better choice than
    •Reclaimed pulp that can’t be made into                                                                         p-value <0.0001 (2-way ANOVA).                                                                                         Carefresh and cedar beddings.
    paper                                                     50
    •“The safest, healthiest bedding for your
    pet”                                                      45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Literature Cited
    •Claims to contain no “harmful aromatic                   40                                                                                             80                                                                            1. Ayars, G.H., Altman, L.C., Frazier, C.E., & Chi, E.Y. 1989.
                                                      Grams




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Control              The toxicity of constituents of cedar and pine woods to
    hydrocarbons that exist in pine and cedar                                                                                                                                                                            Carefresh            pulmonary epithelium. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical
    oils”                                                     35                                   Carefresh
                                                                                                                                                             60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cedar                Immunology 833: 610-618.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2. Carefresh Pet Bedding. 2007.
                                                                                                                                                     ng/mL




                                                                                                   Cedar                                                                                                                 Pine
    •Claims to be less dusty and healthier than                                                                                                              40                                                                            3. Chan-Yeung, M. 1987. Follow-up study of 232 patients
                                                              30                                   Pine
    other beddings                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with occupational asthma caused by western red cedar
                                                                                                                                                             20                                                                               (Thuja plicata). The Journal of Allergy and Clinical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Immunology. 79: 792-796
                                                              25
                Hypotheses                                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           4. Chan-Yeung, M. 1994. Mechanism of occupational
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata).
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              American Journal of Industrial Medicine 25: 13-18.
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1. IgE:          Cedar > Pine > Carefresh
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                                                          Fig. 1. Mean weight (g) of 30 male CD-1 mice from
2. Weight:       Carefresh > Pine > Cedar                 June 27, 2007 to November 5, 2007 in carefresh,
                                                                                                                    Fig. 4. Mean IgE antibodies (ng/mL) for Carefresh, cedar, and pine at 1,2,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Acknowledgements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           I would like to thank Dr. Rehnberg and Dr. Mathur for all of their
                                                          cedar, and pine beddings. The first two sets of data      and 4 months as well as the control. Standard error of the mean is shown.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           guidance and support. I would also like to thank Sally Hoh for
3. Oxygen: Cedar > Pine > Carefresh                       points were collected before the mice were put into the   All sample sizes (n) are 10 except for the control (n=13) and pine at 1-month
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           making sure my mice were always well fed.

                                                          three bedding conditions. The line separates before       (n=9). The orange dashed line projects the control IgE antibody
                                                          and after being put in the bedding conditions. There      concentration. There were no significant differences found between the
                                                          were no significant differences in weight seen between    bedding conditions or between the months (2-way ANOVA).
                                                          the bedding conditions (1-way ANOVA).

								
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