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					China and the rule of Mao
        Dynastic China
• Powerful emperors ruled China for
  thousands of years with the Mandate of
  Heaven
• 1644-1911 Qing (Manchu) Dynasty was
  in power
  – This final dynasty fell because of European
    militaries and forced pressure to open to
    trade.
Two Thousand Years Come to
         an End
• In 1911, soldiers rebelled against the
  Manchu Dynasty in the name of Dr. Sun
  Yat-sen.
• Sun was a longtime critic of the Manchu
  Dynasty.
  – Influenced by Europe and the U.S.
  – Sun wanted to establish a modern
    democratic government.
       The Warlord Period
• Sun does not have military support and
  failed to create a western-style
  democracy in China.
• 1911-1927 is known as the Warlord
  Period, military generals fought to
  control the provinces within China.
• The violence takes over the countryside
  and peasants are exploited.
Mao and the Communist Party
• During the chaos of the Warlord Period,
  the Communist Party is formed.
  – A revolutionary group that planned to end
    social and economic inequality, especially
    for peasants (who represented 90% of the
    population).
  – As communist rebels conquered territory,
    they won the support of peasants by taking
    land from the rich and giving it to the poor.
“Whoever wins the peasants will win
  China”
         -Mao Zedong
             Civil War
• By 1927, General Chiang Kai-shek
  defeated most of the other warlords.
• Emerges as leader of the Guomindang
  (the Nationalist Party) and
  president/dictator of China.
• By 1934, Chiang surrounds small
  communist armies in an attempt to
  defeat them.
          Civil War Cont…
• Mao Zedong as the commander of the
  Communist Party, lead 90,000 supporters
  over 8,000 miles of mountains (this becomes
  known as The Long March)
• When they rested in Northern China, there
  were 6,000 survivors
• This signals Mao’s rise to power and
  leadership.
       A Truce, for now…
• Between 1937 and 1945, Chiang Kai-
  shek and Mao unite in an “uneasy”
  alliance to defeat the common enemy,
  the Japanese.
• After the Japanese are defeated in
  WWII, the Civil War continued.
  – Guomindang vs. the Communist army, now
    known as the People’s Liberation Army
    (PLA)
  The Communist Revolution
• The PLA is outnumbered, but uses
  guerilla warfare to take control of the
  countryside.
• The PLA continues to take land from the
  rich landlords and redistribute it among
  the peasants.
• Inflation and corruption weaken the
  Guomindang government
Communist Revolution Cont..
• By 1949, Communists controlled the
  countryside.
• The PLA swept through China with little
  resistance, and Chiang Kai-shek fled to
  Taiwan.
• On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed
  The People’s Republic of China.
• The Chinese refer to this as the “liberation”
         Problems to Face
• China devastated by decades of war
• In 1950, China sends troops to North
  Korea to fight against American troops.
• Leaders want to modernize China’s
  underdeveloped economy while
  creating a socialist nation, in which all
  citizens would share in the wealth.
      China turns to USSR
• In 1952, Mao established a Five-Year
  Plan, which focused on industrialization.
• Peasants were organized into
  government owned collectives.
• By 1955, considerable success is
  achieved, China is seen as an example
  for other underdeveloped countries in
  Asia and Africa.
      The Break with USSR
• It became clear that Mao disagreed with
  Soviet Leaders.
  – Mao felt the Soviets moved too slowly toward
    communism.
  – The Soviet Union decreases financial aid and
    technical advisors to China.
  – Mao wanted a “uniquely Chinese” experiment, a
    move toward equality through great effort and
    sacrifice of the masses
     The Great Leap Forward
• People are organized into communes to
  complete large scale projects (dams,
  railroads, etc.)
• The goal was to catch up to Britain in 15
  years.
• People worked shift after shift with little rest
  and were encouraged to rid themselves of
  improper, anti-communist thoughts.
  The “Great Leap” Problems
• Poor management of the communes
• Droughts and floods resulting in one of
  the largest famines in history.
  – Many sources site 14-20 million deaths,
    others 23-40 million deaths!
  – The government does not acknowledge
    any failure and by 1961 abandons the
    communes.
    3 and 5 Antis Campaigns
• Reforms established by Mao in 1951 and
  1952 to rid China of corruption and enemies
  of the state, especially in Manchuria.
• Targets of these campaigns were those
  believed to capitalists and bourgeois.
  – 3 antis reforms against: corruption, waste and
    bureaucracy.
  – 5 antis reforms against: bribery, theft of state, tax
    evasion, cheating of government contracts and
    stealing state economic information.
 Hundred Flowers Campaign
• In 1957 Mao reduced constraints placed
  upon China’s intellectuals and
  encouraged them to openly engage in
  criticism of the Party.
• This lasted for several weeks, until the
  Party recalled the request and placed
  the intellectuals under even more strict
  constraints.
      The Cultural Revolution
• Communist leaders focused on rebuilding the
  economy, Mao worried that people were too
  interested in making money.
• To Mao the spirit of the revolution was
  threatened
• Modern China needed a cultural revolution to
  get rid of the “olds”; old ideas, old culture, old
  customs and old habits.
            Mao’s Quotes

“China's women are a vast reserve of
  labor power. This reserve should be
  tapped in the struggle to build a great
  socialist country”
                   Mao’s Quotes
• We must affirm anew the discipline of the Party, namely:

• (1) the individual is subordinate to the organization;

• (2) the minority is subordinate to the majority;

• (3) the lower level is subordinate to the higher level; and

• (4) the entire membership is subordinate to the Central
  Committee.


• Whoever violates these articles of discipline disrupts Party unity.
           Mao’s Quotes
“[Our purpose is] to ensure that literature
  and art fit well into the whole
  revolutionary machine as a component
  part, that they operate as powerful
  weapons for uniting and educating the
  people and for attacking and destroying
  the enemy, and that they help the
  people fight the enemy with one heart
  and one mind”.
  Cultural Revolution Cont…
• Young people become the Red Guards and
  use Mao’s Little Red Book to guide them.
  – Homes are raided, anything of western influence
    was destroyed
  – Temples, ancient art, historical monuments and
    books were destroyed.
  – Hundreds of thousands are killed or imprisoned for
    their anti-Mao ideas or actions
Mao’s Reign Comes to an End
• By 1969, even Mao recognized the
  excesses of the Red Guards.
• In the early 1970’s, Mao became ill and
  his wife, Jiang Qing, gained power.
• Mao dies in 1976, his wife joined with 3
  others known as the Gang of Four.
• By 1979, Deng Xiaoping gains control of
  the Communist Party.
• Mao says your assignment is:
  – Country Profile #3: China, during the regime of Mao,
    1949-1975.
  – All three country profiles are due Dec. 17th
  – This assignment is just the same as Profiles #1 and
    #2.
     •   15-20 examples of the following:
     •   Political Aspects
     •   Economic Aspects
     •   Social/Cultural Aspects

				
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