ANNUAL MANDATORY UPDATE TRAINING 1 Complete AMUT and Win a Prize In an effort to attain 100% completion goal, the staff education department is holding a drawing. Each employee who successfully completes AMUT and find the total # of bouncing AMUT Dogs will be entered into a drawing. The winner of the drawing will receive a prize and bragging rights in the leadership bulletin! Entry forms are located at the bottom of the AMUT Completion form. Send your name and # of bouncing to attn: Kelli Houston (Staff Education- PC). Entries must be received by December 31st. The winner will be announced on Monday, January 3, 2011. Age Appropriate Care Age-related competency means having the knowledge and skills required for a specific developmental group of patients. What are the developmental groups, their behaviors, and the best approaches for care? 1. Which developmental age group fluctuates in their willingness to participate in care because of their need for independence and approval? Infant (Birth through 12 months): A. School age children • Clings to parents and cries when they leave B. Adolescents • Handle infant gently and speak in a soft, friendly tone of voice C. Middle Adult Toddler (1 to 2 years): D. Older adult/Geriatric • Experiences separation anxiety Correct answer: B. Adolescents • Give the child simple, direct, and honest explanations just before treatment 2. The Joint Commission requires that staff members have the knowledge or surgery and Pre-school (3 to 5 years): skills necessary to meet age-specific needs. • Experiences separation anxiety; may panic or throw tantrums, especially True when parents leave False • Use simple, neutral words to describe procedures to the child Correct answer: True School Age (6 to 12 years): 3. To maintain competencies in age-specific care, you must be updated on • Alternatively converts to adult standards and rebels against them new • Explain logically why a procedure is necessary technologies, procedures or therapies for your patients. Adolescence (12 to 18 years): True False • Shows concern of how procedure may affect appearance Correct answer: True • Give scientific explanations using body diagrams, models, or videotapes Young Adult (19 to 39 years): 4. Children cooperate much better when they are not told a procedure • Directs and participates in his/her own care may hurt beforehand • Use problem-centered teaching True Middle Adult (40 to 64 years): False • Directs and participates in care Correct answer: False • Involve in decision-making Older Adult/Geriatric (over 65): • Demonstrates anxiety over new procedures or a change in routine • Use simple sentences, concrete examples, and reminders such as pillboxes 3 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted on July 26th, 1990 by the United States Congress. This federal law prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in: 1) Public accommodations 2) Employment 3) Transportation 1. Which of the following would be considered an ―inappropriate‖ 4) State and local government services and action when serving a physically disabled member who uses a 5) Telecommunications (e.g. Telephone Device for the Deaf) wheelchair? A. Calling the department next door to use their wheelchair weight Under the ADA Act, disability is defined with respect to an individual as ―a scale as your department does not have one. physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; a record of such an impairment; or B. Assume you will need the lift team to help transfer the member to a gurney. being regarded as having such an impairment.‖ Major life activities includes functions such as activities of daily living, walking, seeing, hearing, breathing C. Crouch to make yourself shorter when speaking to the member. and working to name a few. D. Waiting for the member to respond after asking if they need In health care the ADA definition of a disability is expanded to include assistance individual’s temporary limitations which include: moving about in their chair. Temporary Disabilities • Many members may not have permanent disabilities, but have a condition Correct answer: B that affects them temporarily. The same suggestions for accommodation and rules of etiquette should be followed whether the disability is experienced on a permanent or temporary basis. Physical Disabilities • A physical impairment as defined by the ADA is ―any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, lymphatic and blood systems, skin and endocrine.‖ Proper Disability Etiquette • Crouch or sit when possible to converse at eye level. • Ask before pushing/assisting with a wheel chair, and wait for a response. • Do not make assumptions about what a person can or cannot do based on his or her disability. All people with disabilities are not alike and have a wide variety of skills and personalities. Reporting Member Disability Issues • Local issues and concerns regarding members with disabilities that cannot be resolved through your manager should be reported to one of the PC ADA Representatives (Dionne Hunte, ext 3439, Bill West, ext 2020, or Debby Weissman, ext 2979) and/or the Member Services Department. 4 Visit the ADA Compliance Website for more info http://kpnet.kp.org/ada/ Ergonomics/Body Mechanics Ergonomic tips for sitting at a computer: 1. The potential for back injury can be reduced by understanding your back anatomy, maintaining correct posture and using correct body mechanic during activities True False 1. Keep head upright; 6. 1-4 between front Correct Answer: True ears, shoulders and hips in a edge of seat and relaxed posture back of knees 2. When working in a sitting position which of the following applies: 2. Shoulders relaxed; 7. Feet flat on floor or floor rest A. Sit close to your work elbows by sides of Body 8. Top of monitor at B. Maintain one static position for as long as possible or slightly below C. Arrange your work to the side so you can twist back and 3. Adjust backrest to eye level (lower for bifocals) neck support curve in D. Maintenance of the spine’s three natural curve is not lower back. 9. Monitor distance at necessary in sitting arm’s length Correct Answer: A 4. Sit in relaxed posture with buttocks against 10. Monitor, keyboard 3. Which of the following would be considered “inappropriate back of chair and close to your and mouse inline; action” when carrying a load: work keyboard flat on A. Using your feet to change direction surface; mouse B. Carrying a load over your head 5. Thighs parallel to beside keyboard. C. Setting the load down and resting for a few moments floor or hips Adjust desk or D. Keeping your back straight or slightly arched slightly above keyboard tray so knees forearms are parallel Correct Answer: B to floor. Lifting Safely • Keep your back straight or slightly arched; use abdominal muscles • Walk Slowly and surely •Use your feet to change directions. Never twist your back •Avoid leaning over •Avoid lifting a load over your head •If you become tired, set the load down and rest •Ask for help especially if you believe the load is too heavy or use a cart 5 Compliance Expectations Achieving compliance takes everyone’s commitment. Here are some compliance Fraud Awareness and Prevention expectations for all workforce members: In the simplest terms, fraud occurs when someone lies to gain benefit or advantage. Use the Principles of Responsibility, our formal code of conduct, as a tool An example of fraud is when someone uses another person’s medical identification for making decisions about compliance and ethics issues. card to receive treatment. Preventing fraud protects our member’s health, our Identify potential fraud, waste, and abuse and take appropriate action. resources, and our reputation. Protect the confidentiality and security of patient information. Report potential instances of noncompliance as part of your job. There are many fraud risk areas throughout the organization. If you work with members, you may find medical-identity theft or members The Principles of Responsibility enrolling ineligible dependents. You should understand The Principles of Responsibility (or POR), Kaiser If you work with vendors you may see conflicts of interest or kickbacks. Permanente’s code of conduct, applies to everyone and is meant to help each of us If you work with drugs you may see drug theft or forged prescriptions. accomplish the organization’s mission in an ethical work environment. If you work with claims you may discover suspicious or false claims by members or providers. If you work with other employees you may see fraud, waste and abuse such A few of the topics included in the Principles of Responsibility are: as cash theft, timekeeping fraud, misuse of assets or personal business on Non-Retaliation - Kaiser Permanente has a clear non-retaliation policy. We work time. do not tolerate retaliation against individuals who refuse to participate in or As part of your job, you are required to report all instances of non-compliance. report illegal and unethical acts to KP or government agencies. Anyone who retaliates against these individuals is subject to disciplinary action, up to and including termination. To maintain competencies in age-specific care, you must be updated on new technologies, procedures or therapies for your patients. Conflict of Interest - Conflicts of interest have the potential to damage the reputation of both you and the organization. A conflict may arise when your Privacy and Security personal or financial interests influence—or appear to influence—your Our members’ trust depends in large part on how we protect the confidentiality and judgment or interfere with your work responsibilities. security of their information. Even though your job may not directly involve caring for patients or working with members, you may come into contact with protected Safeguarding our Assets - Our organization’s assets are intended for business purposes. These assets include buildings, equipment, furniture, health information (PHI) and other confidential information in your daily work supplies, company funds, electronic assets, knowledge, and information. We are all responsible for protecting them against misuse, waste, damage, loss, impairment, and theft. Confidential Information - We require passwords as part of our security to limit access to confidential information. It is very important to not let others use your password or account. Employees have been terminated for sharing passwords. 6 Here are some frequently asked questions and answers to clarify Avoid Conflicts of Interest, Do the Right Thing some of the more common misconceptions: What is a Conflict of Interest? Can I look up my coworker’s address in the system to send him/her a get- well card? A conflict of interest arises when personal or financial interests influence your NO. You must not look up this information for personal reasons. When it comes to professional judgment, business decision-making, or interfere with your the privacy and security of protected information, accessing demographics is Kaiser Permanente responsibilities. In addition, a potential conflict of interest no different than accessing clinical information. You should contact the exists when it might appear to others that personal or financial interests could employee’s manager for instructions. influence professional judgment or decision-making. Can I look up my 5-year old daughter’s lab results? For instance, Jane is a senior registered nurse who assists physicians in the Emergency NO. As the parent of a 5-year old you do have a right to this information; however you must obtain it the same way a non-Kaiser Permanente workforce Department (ED). As a senior nurse, Jane is well-respected, and other member would obtain it. employees, including physicians, rely upon her expertise and advice to keep I work in an open area with three other employees. When I leave my the ED running smoothly. Recently, Jane befriended John, a contractor who workstation, I don’t lock it up (Ctrl-Alt-Del buttons). Is that okay? sells emergency room equipment to hospitals and has previously sold NO. Although your coworkers are employees, this does not automatically give products to Kaiser Permanente. John has offered Jane a gift, a high-quality them access to the information on your computer. Use the minimum digital camera in a case with the vendor's name and logo on it. The value of necessary principle. You must only use, access or disclose the minimum amount necessary to get the job done. Always lock up your workstation the camera is more than $25, and Jane knows John would like to sell his whenever you step away. products at her facility. The above scenario demonstrates a conflict of interest for Jane because her personal The consequences for inappropriately accessing medical records can be severe. relationship with John may cloud her loyalties to Kaiser Permanente, and Employees have been terminated for this very reason. In addition, individuals can interfere with her job responsibilities. The right thing for Jane to do is to be fined up to $25,000, per a new state law (SB 541) decline the gift and inform her manager in writing of the relationship and the potential contracting issue. Reporting Compliance Concerns At KP, we foster a culture of compliance. In the POR, under Where to Get Other Conflicts of Interest Examples Help you will find several methods for reporting potential compliance concerns: Here are some conflicts of interest examples. They occur when an employee has: We encourage you to go to your supervisor first, however we realize • A financial interest with organizations doing business with Kaiser sometimes this may not be possible so there are other internal resources Permanente. available to you. • Accepted gifts or benefits for work related presentations. If your supervisor is not available, or if speaking with him or her did not produce results, speak to a higher-level manager. • Influenced business decisions with organizations in which they or their If you are unable to speak to a higher-level manager, you can talk to Human family hold a direct financial interest. Resources, or your Compliance Officer. • Supervised a member of his or her family as a job responsibility. If you are uncomfortable using any of the resources above, you can always call the KP Compliance Hotline at 1-888-774-9100. • Served as an officer or member of a board of directors of another organization that could pose a conflict as an employee of Kaiser Permanente. 7 When, How to Report Conflicts of Interest Whenever you become aware of a potential conflict of interest, you are required to disclose it in writing to your manager, supervisor, medical center compliance officer, Human Resources representative, chief, or 1. The KP Code of Conduct is my guide for telling me how to work department administrator. If you become aware of a conflict of interest honestly and ethically at Kaiser Permanente, and I understand it is that is currently taking place in your work environment, you may also my obligation to report something that is a violation of the Code of call the anonymous Kaiser Permanente Compliance Hotline, 888-774- Conduct, to my supervisor, manager, my Compliance Officer, or 9100 (toll free). KP has a non-retaliation policy that protects employees call the Compliance Hotline. who report conflicts or potential conflicts of interest in good faith. True False Learn More about Conflicts of Interest Correct answer: True • Refer to our Principles of Responsibility, Kaiser Permanente's code of conduct 2. According to the KP Code of Conduct, the principle that tells me • Contact your Compliance Officer that I cannot take cash or gift cards from vendors is: • Visit the Southern California Compliance Web site A. The Principle for Respecting Confidentiality, Privacy and • Send an e-mail to SCAL-Compliance-and-Privacy-Office@KAIPERM. Security B. The Principle for Safeguarding and Proper Use of KP A. Assets C. The Principle for Protecting the Environment D. The Principle for Conflict of Interest Correct answer: D 8 SERVICE EXCELLENCE “We interviewed some of our members about the service they had received in area medical offices and Customer Service what we can do to provide the best possible care experience. They provided us with valuable insights into how they define the qualities and characteristics they hope to see in our reception team, our medical assistants and our nurses.”—Tina Han, Panorama City, SCPMG Service Leader KP Members have listed the following qualities and behaviors when describing excellent service: What are the developmental groups, their behaviors, and the best approaches for care? Show Courtesy By — • Treating members politely and with respect. • Being friendly and greeting each member warmly. 1. Our members expect a smile, eye contact, attentiveness, and a • Engaging the member in conversation to reinforce your personalized, pleasant tone of voice to demonstrate courteous behavior. focused attention on them. Conversations with co-workers should end True immediately when a member approaches you. False • Smiling and making eye contact. Answer: True • Using a pleasant tone of voice. • Taking your time with each member and not rushing them through the check-in process. 2. Proactive offering of help is a key element of patient satisfaction True Show Helpfulness By — False • Offering to help before being asked. Proactively offering instructions about Answer: True where to wait, what to do with forms, giving directions to other KP departments and location (pharmacy, lab, parking, nearest exit, etc.). • Walking members to their destination whenever possible. If you can’t leave 3. Listening attentively demonstrates caring and empathy your work area, provide members with a campus map and show them where True they need to go. Maps are available online at http://voices-pc. False • Always asking, ―Is there anything else I can do for you today?‖ Answer: True • Following up on requests made by the member. Show Care and Concern By — 4. Kaiser Permanente’s Service Quality Credo says, ―Our cause is • Creating a cheerful, non-threatening environment that puts the member at health. Our passion is service. We’re here to make lives better.‖ ease and helps them to relax. True • Talking to the member and reducing any anxiety they may have about their False visit. Answer: True • Asking the member what else we can do to make them comfortable. • Answering any questions they may have about their provider, and reassuring them that that they are receiving the highest quality care. Our Service Credo—Our cause is health. Our passion is service. We’re here to make lives better. Service and SCPMG Leadership Dept. website: http://voices-pc.ca.kp.org/panorama/Service-SCPMG%20Leadership/index.htm 9 Service Advisor: http://kpnet.kp.org:81/california/serviceadvisor/index.html Culturally Responsive Care The United States, already one of the most diverse societies in the world, is becoming increasingly multicultural and multilingual. Immigrant, refugee, limited-English and non-English proficient (LEP/NEP) populations are continuing to grow. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 47 million residents were non-English speaking and this population is expected to reach 40% by the year 2030. For health care organizations, providing linguistic and culturally appropriate health care services that ensures quality of care to diverse populations has becoming increasingly imperative and complex. At Kaiser Permanente, we believe it is our responsibility to protect a patient’s right to receive the information necessary to make informed health care decisions. To continue providing quality of care to our patients’, especially those that are limited-English and non-English speaking, effective communication is key to the delivery of culturally competent health care. Qualified Interpreter Services available: • Qualified Bilingual Staff (QBS) Level 1 (L1) interpreter - can be used to provide language assistance to patients/members at a basic conversational level excluding medical terminology. • Qualified Bilingual Staff (QBS) Level 2 (L2) interpreter - can be used to provide language assistance to patients/members in encounters including those that are clinical interactions with the use of medical terminology. • Telephone Language Line Interpreter for all languages can be accessed 24 hours, 7 days a week. Only qualified, tested, and trained bilingual staff for Spanish, Tagalog, and Armenian can be used to provide interpretation services to members. Bilingual staff speaking a language outside of the three Panorama City Approved languages cannot provide interpretation to patients. For language services where Qualified Bilingual Staff (QBS) is not available, the Language Line Service must be used (please see How to Use the Language Line below). All providers, managers, and staff should be aware of how to assist limited-English proficient (LEP) members needing language interpretation and to assist those needing American Sign Language (ASL). LEP – In the absence of qualified bilingual staff to provide interpretation in the Panorama City approved and tested languages (Spanish, Tagalog, and Armenian), assistance shall be provided through the Language Line Service (LLS). ASL – The Communications Department is the designee for arranging for outside sign language interpreters. When interpreter services are needed for the deaf or hard of hearing, contact Communications at 8-350-2218. The use of adult family members and/or friends to provide interpretation for patients is discouraged. • We must first offer qualified language assistance to the patient via a Qualified Bilingual Staff (if available) or the Language Line. • If the member/patient refuses or declines language assistance services offered, consideration will be given to member/patients request for use of a family member and/or friend (18 years or older) for interpretation. • The refusal by the patient to utilize language assistance services must be documented in the patient’s medical • record. If we use a Qualified Bilingual Staff member to provide interpretation, this must also be • documented i.e. the name of the QBS employee and QBS Level. 10 Culturally Responsive Care How to Use the Language Line: Telephone Interpreting Services (non-English language only) 1. Establish a conference call between you, the member/parent and the language interpreter service. • Language Line Services: 1-800-523-1786 • Client I. D: #136520 (Panorama City & outlying MOBs) 1. For Clinical interactions where medical terminology is used, • #295204 (Antelope Valley only) what type of Qualified Bilingual Staff member may be used for 2. When you reach the Language Line Representative, you will be asked for a client identification interpretation? code (Client I.D.) You must also give her/him your full name, your department and the language A. Language Line that the member/parent speaks. If you are not sure what language the member/parent speaks, use B. QBS Level 1 the Language Identification Card to assist you in identifying the language. For Language Line C. QBS Level 2 Identification cards, please contact Dionne Hunte, x3439. D. Family Member/Friend 3. Within minutes you will be connected to an interpreter. Stay on the line with the member/parent Correct answer: C. QBS Level 2 until you are sure that the interpreter and the member/parent have connected. 2. The language line can only assist in the following languages: 4. When using two hand held phones: Spanish, Tagalog, and Armenian – Give one to the patient – Provider/Staff uses the other True – Begin dialogue between yourself, patient, and interpreter False Correct answer: False 5. When using a Speaker Phone: – Once the interpreter is connected press the “Speaker” function on the phone, hang up the headset and begin the conversation. Remember, if you are in a patient care area to close the door to protect the patient’s privacy. 6. When using a dual hand held phone: • When the interpreter comes on the line, give one of the phones to the patient. Under no circumstance, should a member/patient ever be asked to bring their own interpreter to an Administrative or Clinical Point of Contact. 11 Emergency Management Earthquakes When a disaster strikes, the Medical Center may become a center of activity: Crush injuries or death occur from falling debris and breaking glass or when The community may look to the organization for leadership and safety people fall from shaking. Fires may be caused by gas leaks. Most common The injured may be brought for treatment injuries: The facility itself may also be directly affected by the disaster Burns Crush or orthopedic injuries If a disaster strikes, Medical Center employees are expected to follow the Lacerations Medical Center’s Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) and know what is Lung damage from inhaled debris expected. Here are some of the roles that you may need to perform during When many people are hurt by the same event, this is called a ―Mass and emergency: Casualty Incident... When mass casualty incidents involve more patients than Provide care to the injured the Emergency Room can treat under relatively normal conditions, the Minimize confusion by being calm and knowledgeable emergency management plan may be activated. Provide support and services to other staff involved in disaster response Plane crashes and bombings are other examples of mass casualty incidents. Plane crashes cause crush injuries. Bombings cause crush injuries and concussions. Both plane crashes and bombings result in burns. Plane crash The Medical Center has developed an Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) for burns can be particularly severe. Respiratory damage is a common injury in dealing with disasters and emergencies. The EOP outlines what you and your both plane crashes and bombings. Department are expected to do if a particular situation arises. Disaster drills Multiple motor vehicle accidents and train derailments may also be multiple are also conducted at least two times each year. Knowing what to do will help casualty incidents, and may likewise cause the activation the emergency management plan. Vehicle and train accidents often cause the following you stay calm in a disaster. injuries: Head trauma Be prepared: Crush injuries Locate where the Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) in DMS Hemorrhage Be familiar with the plan’s contents Amputation Respond to each drill as if it were a real disaster Burns from fuels fires When a disaster strikes, the normal operation at the Medical Center may When a disaster strikes, the Medical Center’s Emergency Operation Plan change. Response to the emergency is generally directed by a Command (EOP) may be activated. Typically, a message is sent out on the overhead Center, Emergency Operations Center, or some other designated group. This paging system to indicate what type of disaster has occurred. The paging helps promote effective communication and safety. code for disaster is Code Orange – Disaster Disasters and emergencies are generally classified as ―external‖ and Review the information in the EOP that applies to you and your department ―internal.‖ External disasters are emergencies that take place outside your prior to a disaster. Knowing what to do will help you respond calmly and effectively. Depending on the scope of the situation, expect to: facility. Internal disasters and emergencies that take place inside the facility. 12 Emergency Management If there is a loss of electricity: Locate flashlights or light sticks in your department Review the information in the EOP that applies to you and your Note whether the emergency generator goes on department prior to a disaster. Knowing what to do will help you Locate emergency outlets. These have red cover plates respond calmly and effectively. Depending on the scope of the Verify that all patient equipment is plugged into emergency outlets and that it is operating correctly situation, expect to: Call or send a runner to the Command Center or Maintenance for additional equipment • Maintain normal working patterns, but stand by. DO NOT plan to leave the facility unless you are released by your manager If there is a loss of water: • If directed, stop nonessential functions and prepare for reassignment Obtain safe bottled drinking water supplies Use waterless hand cleaner When a disaster strikes, the Medical Center’s Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) may be activated: During some internal disasters, it is necessary to evacuate a specific area or building. If the Command Center or outside emergency response groups • Typically, a message is sent out on the overhead paging system to (such as fire or police department) determines that your unit must be indicate what type of disaster has occurred. The paging code for evacuated, remember: disaster is code Orange. Rescue anyone in immediate danger first • Review the information in the EOP that applies to you and your Evacuate ambulatory patients before those who are non -ambulatory department prior to a disaster. Knowing what to do will help you respond calmly and effectively. Depending on the scope of the Don’t use the elevators situation, expect to: • Maintain normal working patterns, but stand by. DO NOT plan to A responsible person should be designated to make a final work-through to leave the facility unless you are released by your manager be sure that everyone has been evacuated. • If directed, stop nonessential functions and prepare for reassignment When a disaster is over, staff members will need to talk. If the situation is • In certain types of disasters, internal utility system interruption may prolonged or traumatic, shift debriefings help provide comfort and rumor occur. Downed power lines can cut electrical power to lighting and control. equipment. Broken pipes cause loss of running water and toilet flushing. Phone lines can overload or be damaged. This will require Debriefings include: you to use other methods of communication. If oxygen lines break, Updates acknowledging work that has been completed alternate oxygen sources will be needed for oxygen-dependent patients. Plans and directions for further work Potential referral sources for counseling and support A disaster or emergency can strike at any time. Your ability to stay calm and know what to do will directly affect how successfully the Medical Center responds to the situation. The overhead page (code orange) at your facility indicates that your disaster plan is now in effect. Maintain your normal working pattern, but stand by for possible reassignment. Stay at the facility unless you are released by your supervisor or manager. Evacuation is only necessary when the safety of staff or patients is directly threatened--such as when in immediate danger from fire or the building itself is no longer structurally sound. 13 For more information about the Medical Center’s Emergency Operation Plan (EOP), contact Environmental Health & Safety. Fire & Life Safety • Smoke can confuse you, making escape more difficult. Smoke is lighter Life Safety than air and rises, so stay low where you can breathe the best air even if it means crawling. Patients who are able to walk should be moved in a group. Fire can only occur when Fuel, Heat and Oxygen combined in a fire Provide blankets or towels for protection as they move to safety. triangle. By keeping these elements from coming together, you can prevent fires. • Since beds can block halls, they should not be used to move patients unless nothing else can be used. Use techniques taught in the fire certification class In a fire, think P.C.A.E to get patients to safety. P – Patients are to be removed from immediate danger C – Contain the fire by closing doors • Although you must get people away from the fire, you must also move to an A – Activate the alarm system by pulling the fire alarm box and by dialing area that can support any necessary medical equipment. Think ahead of time where that will be or bring the medical equipment with you. Take patient extension 2222 records with you so that you can account for everyone later and to facilitate E- Extinguish the fire with a fire extinguisher only if safe to do so the necessary on-going treatment. Fire safety calls for a team effort. A fire plan, fire drills, and working with the • If you need to open a door on the way to your exit but you are not sure is local fire department are parts of that effort. The most important part of the there is fire burning behind it, first feel the door with the back of your hand team, however, is you. Hospital fires can be dangerous because moving first. If hot, do not open it, since a burst of flames could come at you. If you must open the door, stand behind it to protect yourself, and open slowly. patients is not easy. The key will be to gain time. Always remove the patient first in the event of any type of fire if it is safe to Even if the fire does not look big, after removing the patient from immediate do so. danger, contain the fire by closing the door and pull the alarm and dialing extension 2222. Smoke can make it hard to see, breathe and think. Smoke • An ABC extinguisher can be used for all types of fires. Never use a type A can make it harder to escape. Closing doors will contain the fire and limit the or water extinguisher to fight electrical fires. Check what kind of spread of smoke in the hospital, giving you the time needed. This simple extinguishers you have in your work area. action can gain 20-40 minutes of safe time. • Never block fire doors from closing by the placing of either equipment or doorstops. A piece of improperly stored equipment could slow down or even prevent exit in a fire. Fires occur when you least expect, so keep passages It is important to know your surroundings if a fire occurs. Do you know and exits clear at all times. where these items are in your department? • Alarm pull stations Remember P.A.S.S. when operating a fire extinguisher • Extinguishers P: Pull the pin on top of the extinguisher. • Fire Doors A: Aim at the base of the fire. • Patient transportation equipment S: Squeeze the extinguisher trigger. • Exits S: Sweep over the fire. Can you close your eyes and picture where the alarms and extinguishers are in your work area? When you are done with this newsletter, the first thing you • Don’t try to put out a fire that is too big for you. Your time will be better should do is locate these items in or near your work area. Knowing where spent alerting others. The fire extinguisher will only last for a few seconds, these items are in advance will help you act quickly and prevent the loss of so remember to aim carefully. A sweeping motion will ensure that the base life and property. of the fire is saturated. When moving or evacuating patients in an extreme emergency, move people to a smoke-free area on the same floor. Move those closest to the fire first. Use • 14 In a fire, thing P.C.A.E. Familiar yourself with the written fire plan for your department. For any questions contact Security or Environmental Health & the stairs to move down to a floor that is safe. Do no allow anyone to use the Safety. elevators. PC Facility Codes Emergency/Urgent--Dial: 2222 CODE ORANGE Internal & External Disaster 1. Which Emergency Code indicates Hemorrhage Protocol? CODE RED A. Code Purple Fire B. Code Red C. Code P CODE STORK D. Code H Infant Security Alarm Activation E. None of these above Correct answer: A PATIENT CARE CODES AMBULATORY RESPONSE TEAM 2. Which of the following is the most appropriate way to initiate a code Persons requiring assistance in any area of the hospital/medical center from the hospital? (hallways, elevators, cafeteria, lobbies, parking lot). A. Dial 3333 and provide code Any injury or illness to a person in the B. Dial 911, provide code and location Medical Center who is conscious but NOT in a Code Blue situation. C. Dial 2222, provide code type and exact location D. Dial 911 only CODE BLUE E. All of these above Adult/pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest Correct answer: C CODE APGAR 3. Which Emergency Code indicates baby in distress during C Section Emergency C-section; baby in distress A. Code Blue CODE PINK B. Code Apgar Neonate in cardiopulmonary arrest C. Code ART D. Code Stark CODE PURPLE Hemorrhage Protocol E. None of these above Correct answer: B How to Call a Code To Initiate a Code from: Panorama City Medical Center (PCMC) • Dial 2222 • Provide the code type and exact location 15 Medical Office Buildings (MOBs) with Paging • Dial 3333 Hazardous Communications Many chemicals don’t pose a risk, but others can be harmful if handled improperly. If a container has lost its label, and the liquid is clear and has no odor. If it’s To reduce the risk of chemical illness and injuries caused by chemicals, the Hazard unlabeled, assume it’s unsafe. Also, many hazardous chemicals have no smell, Communication Standard has been developed by the Occupational Safety and so never sniff anything on purpose. Health Administration (OSHA). You have ―THE RIGHT TO KNOW‖ about the hazards you are exposed to at work and a responsibility to use safe practices at all Flammable is a physical hazard because it tells you that the chemical can be times. Chemicals come in solid, liquid and gas form. When handled improperly, ignited easily. Toxic is a health hazard, meaning it could cause sickness or some chemicals can cause illness ranging from skin rashes to more serious health even death. Explosive could cause physical harm from a rapid and violent hazards. Other chemicals can cause physical hazards like fires or explosions. expansion of gases. A sensitizer is a health hazard because it causes a large portion of exposed people to develop an allergic reaction after repeated The purpose of the Hazard Communication Standard is to provide information. You exposure. receive this information from labels and from Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Always read the label before and every time you use any chemical. The label and An irritant is a health hazard because it causes a reversible MSDS inform you about safe handling practices of the chemicals you work with. inflammatory reaction at the site of contact. A carcinogen is a health hazard. The Medical Center is required to have a written Hazardous Communication Carcinogenic chemicals are those considered to cause or promote cancer. Program. It should contain information on: Compressed gas represents a physical hazard because if tanks are handled OSHA Standards improperly, they could be propelled with enough force to blast through a wall. Safe procedures Corrosives are a health hazard because they erode things they touch and can List of hazardous chemicals cause damage at the site of contact. Corrosives are commonly found in Labels and MSDS forms cleaners and solutions, and in many pharmacy or laboratory products. Training procedures Steps to be taken in an emergency Keep containers tightly closed when not in use and in their proper storage Labels provide an immediate source of information and tell you whether or not location. Don’t put yourself or co-workers in danger. Keep work areas clean a chemical is hazardous through warning works like ―corrosive‖ or ―toxic.‖ and dispose of chemicals you no longer need using approved disposal They communicate the chemical’s name, who made it, emergency phone procedures. You should not eat, drink, chew gum, apply make-up, etc. in areas numbers, why it’s hazardous and how to protect yourself. Labels come in many where hazardous substances are in use. Some chemicals will have long term forms. A box on the label itself is sometimes used to represent levels of risk or chronic effects. Others have immediate or acute effects like for health, fire and reactivity with a numbers ranging from 0 (minimal hazard) to nausea/vomiting, rash, headaches, and more. 4 (severe hazard). An additional box can tell you about special hazards. Study If a hazardous substance splashes in your eyes, you should immediately rinse it carefully. with water for 15 minutes and then seek medical attention. Your eyesight is priceless. Remember, if you think you could get splashed, wear the appropriate A Material Safety Data Sheet or MSDS is an important source of current and personal protective equipment. reliable information on hazardous materials. It contains more complete information than a label. Manufacturers supply MSDS to the Medical Center. For a hazardous spill, take quick action with the appropriate spill kit and Although they can differ in format, they all must provide the same information. communicate the occurrence to your supervisor. Don’t let untrained employees If you don’t know where MSDS forms or the written Hazardous Communication clean up a spill for a chemical they have not received training on. Program are in your work area, check with your supervisor. They should be 16 readily available to you on your shift. Hazardous Communications NFPA label Red = Fire Hazard (Flammable chemicals such as gasoline, oxygen, etc.) Section VI – Health Hazard Data Blue = Health Hazards (Carcinogens and similar dangers to health.) Chemicals can enter your body through breathing, skin contact, or Yellow = Reactivity Hazard (Radioactive dyes and other substances.) swallowing. Section VI tells you how you could get exposed, what White = Other Hazards (Poisons, corrosive materials, explosives, etc.) effects to expect if you are exposed, and what to do about it. Remember, it’s important to know what to do in an emergency before Reactivity tells you that the substance reacts violently with water or can you get into the emergency. explode at higher temperatures. Section VII – Precautions for Safe Handling and Use Use the following information to help you become familiar with the MSDS Section VII gives you vital information on handling and use. Here you will find out (Material Safety Date Sheet). This standard form with 8 sections has been exactly how to handle a spill, the method of waste disposal, and any special developed by the Department of Labor: precautions you need to take. Section I The Basics Section VIII – Control Measures Section I contains the basics. It tells the name of the product or chemical, who made Section VIII details how to prevent exposure through the use of protective clothing. it, and what phone number to call for technical information or emergencies. These include face shields, respirators, gowns/suits, gloves and boots. Remember, Safety First Section II – Hazardous Ingredients/Identity Information Most accidents occur when you’re in a hurry. Even if it’s inconvenient, your safety Section II tells you the chemical and brand names of the components of a substance is important. Read the MSDS. Protective clothing can be uncomfortable and hard to unless it is a trade secret. Assume a substance is as dangerous as its most work in when you’re not used to it, but wear it anyway. It’s more comfortable than hazardous component. getting injured. Looks can be deceiving. If you don’t know what the substance is, assume it’s unsafe. Some chemicals cannot be recognized as hazardous by their Section III – Physical/Chemical Characteristics look or smell. Section III describes physical characteristics of the substance including boiling and melting points, evaporation rate, solubility and normal appearance and odor. Check with Environmental Health & Safety to find out how detection and the Chemicals can change with age, evaporation, and temperature. Beware! Changes release of these gases are monitored, if needed, in your work environment. Read the could indicate trouble. label and MSDS before using a chemical. Section IV – Fire and Explosion Data Remember, when in doubt about a substance’s use or handling, ask your Section IV explains fire and explosion hazards, and can help you understand the supervisor or Environmental Health & Safety. physical risks you face when working with a substance. The flashpoint tells you when to worry about flammable vapors. The lower the flashpoint, the more dangerous the substance. Section V – Reactivity Data Section V tells you how reactive or unstable a substance is, and what conditions to 17 avoid. Remember, never mix chemicals unless trained to do so because some mixtures could produce hazardous gases or worse. Electrical Safety Never try to fix an item yourself. Always allow the experts in the Medical Center employees need to think and act when they see electrical Biomedical Engineering to service electrical repairs. hazards. Everyone needs to keep the workplace safe from electrical hazards. Report all accidents and equipment problems immediately. Either the ABC or CO2 extinguishers can be used on electrical fires. Hospital Grade Plugs and Cords must be used where there are patients. These plugs have three prongs and a green dot. Both the plug and the cord are heavy duty. There are three steps to take when you find an electrical hazard. The three prong plug grounds the electrical current through the third prong. The 1.) Turn off the device and unplug it, if possible; heavy duty cord and plug are not as easily damaged as ordinary plugs. The hospital 2.) Call Biomedical Engineering to report the hazard; grade cords and plugs provide additional protection from short circuits and 3.) Remove the item from the patient area, if possible; If the electrical current leakage. Hospital grade outlets provide stronger prong tension item is small, then take it to Biomedical Engineering. which secures the plug more firmly in the socket. NEVER USE ADAPTER (or Otherwise, label it and write the details to the problem on the ―CHEATER‖) PLUGS. The hospital maintains documentation that its electrical service request. Equipment is safe. But you should also check for hazards every time you use electrical equipment. Biomedical Engineering inspects the Medical Center’s medical equipment. Be sure to check that the item has been inspected by looking for the inspection sticker or tag. As long as the equipment is not outside the inspection period, it is fine to use. A visual inspection for loose parts and cracks in the plastic should be made each time you use an outlet. Likewise, outlets should be tested each time you use a plug to make sure that the plug stays securely in place. Cables, especially on movable equipment, need to be checked for wires that have become exposed and insulation that has become frayed. You should always unplug a cable or cord by the plug, never yanking it by the cord. You should always coil your cords to avoid kinking and damage. Electricity travels through water easily and can give you a shock if you touch an electrical machine at the same time that you touch water. You should never run After de-energization of certain pieces of large-scale equipment requiring over a cord or the plug with a rolling cart. DO NOT USE EXTENSION CORDS. lockout/tagout procedures, locks and tags need to be applied to all disconnecting If there arises the need for one, contact the Biomedical Engineering for assistance . devices to ensure circuits cannot be re-energized. Engineering Services has operating Patient electrical equipment is maintained by two departments: procedures regarding where locks and tags are located, who is authorized to place and Biomedical Engineering remove them, and under what circumstances locks and/or tags need to be used. - Responsible for all patient care equipment external to the wall, removable and electronic. Engineering Services Remember the warning signs of dangerous electrical equipment: - Responsible for all electrical equipment and wiring within the wall and all SPARKS non-patient care equipment. STRANGE SMELS OR SOUNDS Problems with electrical equipment should be reported to the appropriate OUT OF INSPECTION PERIOD department, and an appropriate work order completed. DROPPED OR DAMAGED Remember to always check the manufacturers’ policies for 18 additional equipment safety features. LMP Workplace Safety Kaiser Permanente and the Coalition of Kaiser Permanente Unions believe that an injury –free workplace is the goal and responsibility of every physician, Safety Observation Process manager and employee, and an essential ingredient of high-quality, affordable Must have 2 components to complete the process: patient care. Working in Partnership, we are establishing the health care industry standard by setting the goal of eliminating all causes of work-related Safety injuries and illnesses, so as to create a workplace free of injuries. Observation Observation Discussion Process + = Our goal is to eliminate workplace injuries throughout Kaiser Permanente. • Foster a Culture of Safety by engaging all staff • Reduce workplace injuries • Involve employee safety in Operations NO DISCUSSION = NO OBSERVATION! • Discuss Safety issues at department staff meetings What Role can you play in Workplace Safety (CWPSS)? The Benefits of Safety Observations • 10 Be accountable for your personal safety 1. Prevents injuries • Help keep your co-workers safe 2. Involves Everyone in identifying both Safe and • Work Safely at all times At-Risk • Report all safety hazards and incidents immediately 3. Sets forth the expectation that we all work safely • Follow all safety rules and safety procedures 4. Increases ownership of safety which is felt • Encourage safety awareness, work safely and injury prevention among all employees, managers, and physicians 5. Reveals System Failure Safety Observations and Incident Investigations are the keys to reducing injuries in the workplace environment. Safety Observations are a fundamental AT-RISK ACT SAFE ACT component in creating a culture of safety. Why Safety Observations? • Focuses on preventing injuries by observing employees working in their normal environments • Are Proactive instead of reactive • Assumes employees will change their behaviors as a result of a verbal interaction • Serves to heighten the general awareness of safety as an expectation • Identifies risks in both actions and conditions • Above all, gives managers and staff an opportunity to focus on doing work safely 19 LMP Workplace Safety Incident Investigations The purpose is to establish and maintain an effective workplace safety incident investigation process in a way that ensures methodical examination, determination of facts and key contributing factors, and 1. Kaiser Permanente and the Coalition of Kaiser Permanente Unions appropriate measures to prevent recurrence of incidents. believe that an injury –free workplace is the goal and responsibility of every physician, manager and employee, and an essential ingredient of high-quality, affordable patient care. The Incident Investigation process contains 10-Steps: True 1. Employee is injured and immediately notifies their Supervisor/Manager False 2. Manager Reports the Incident within 24 hours Correct answer: True 3. An investigation team is formed 4. Determine the facts 2. Our goal at Kaiser Permanente is to eliminate workplace injuries. What 5. Determine the key factors and how can you contribute? 6. Determine systems to be strengthened A. Discuss Safety Issues at dept staff meetings 7. Recommend an Action Plan to prevent recurrence B. Be accountable for your personal safety 8. Document findings within 7 days C. Report all Safety Hazards and incidents immediately 9. Communicate findings D. Think ―Safety Begins With Me!‖ 10. Follow-up and close action plan E. All the Above Correct answer: E If your Injured at Work, What should you do? Report it to your Supervisor, Manager, or floor Supervisor right away and 3. The ultimate purpose of the incident investigation is to find the root seek Medical Attention. cause and recommend an action plan to prevent recurrence. You will also receive a Division of Workers Compensation Claim Form True (DWC-1) within 24 hrs. False For Needle Sticks and First Aid, visit Employee Health, located North 3, lower level (818) 375-3744. Correct answer: True For other work related injuries, visit Occupational Health, located North 2, (818) 375-3767 4. When an injury occurs the employee reports injury to the manager After Hours & Weekends, visit Urgent Care or the Emergency Room. immediately. The Manager reports the incident within 24 Hours and the Please inform the receptionist you are seeking care because of a workplace document findings from the Incident Investigation are conducted within injury. 7 days. True REMEMBER: False If there is any hospitalization or fatality, your manager needs to report the Correct Answer: True Injury immediately within 8 hours to the EH&S Manager. If it is not reported within the specified time, there could be a Cal-OSHA fine of $7,000 that will 5. How much is the fine for not reporting injured workers who are hospitalized? be charged to the department. A. $100 B. $7,000 C. $1,000 Correct answer: $7,000 20 2010 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals Patient Safety Goal #1: Improve the accuracy of patient identification • Use at least two patient identifiers when providing care, treatment or services. • Prior to the start of any invasive procedure, conduct a final verification process (such as a ―time out‖) to confirm the correct patient, procedure, site, using active – not passive – communication techniques. • Label containers used for blood and other specimens in the presence of the patient. Patient Safety Goal #2 : Improve the effectiveness of communication among caregivers. • For verbal or telephone orders or for telephonic reporting of critical test results, verify the complete order or test result by having the person receiving the information record and ―read back‖ the complete order or test result. • Measure, assess, and if appropriate, take action to improve the timeliness of reporting, and the timeliness of receipt by the responsible licensed caregiver, of critical tests and critical results and values. • Standardize a list of abbreviations, acronyms, symbols, and dose designations that are not to be used throughout the organization. • Implement a standardized approach to ―hand-off‖ communications, including an opportunity to ask and respond to questions. ―REMEMBER‖: When reading back a number, sound out each number such as ―one, five‖ (15) not fifteen, or ―five, zero‖ (50) not fifty when reading back orders. Patient Safety Goal #3: Improve the Safety of using medications. • Label all medications, medication containers (for example, syringes, medicine cups, basins), or other solutions on and off the sterile field. • Reduce the likelihood of patient harm associated with the use of anticoagulation therapy. • Identify and, at a minimum, annually review a list of look-alike/sound-alike drugs used by the organization, and take action to prevent errors involving the interchange of these drugs. Patient Safety Goal #7 : Reduce the risk of health-care associated infections Comply with current World Health Organization (WHO) Hand Hygiene Guidelines or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) hand hygiene guidelines. Manage as sentinel events all identified cases of unanticipated death or major permanent loss of function associated with a heath care-associated infection. Wash your hands for a least 15 seconds. 2010 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals Patient Safety Goal #8: Accurately and completely reconcile medications across the continuum of care • There is a process for comparing the patient’s current medications with 1. How do we know that we have the correct patient? those ordered for the patient while under the care of the organization. • A complete list of the patient’s medications is communicated to the next Correct answer: Check their ID band and ask the patient to state his or her provider of service when a patient is admitted, referred or transferred to name. another setting, service, practitioner or level of care within or outside the organization. The complete list of continued medications is also provided to 2. What two identifiers are used when administering medications or the patient on discharge from the facility. taking/giving blood? Correct answer: The patient’s Name and MRN on the order form and ID band Patient Safety Goal #9: Reduce the risk of patient harm resulting from falls. • Implement a fall reduction program including an evaluation of the 3. What is the process for taking verbal or telephone orders and critical effectiveness of the program. test results that requires verification? Correct answer: Write the order out in its entirety “read” it back and wait for Patient Safety Goal #15: The organization identifies safety risks inherent in its confirmation from the person giving the order/critical test population. result. • The organization identifies patients at risk for suicide. [applicable to psychiatric hospitals and patients being treated for emotional or behavioral disorders in general hospitals] 4. When does labeling of medication need to happen? • The organization identifies risks associated with long-term oxygen therapy Correct answer: Anytime you do not have continuous contact with the medication. such as home fires. 5. What are two easy and most effective ways to prevent the spread of Universal Protocol (UP1) infection? • The organization fulfills the expectations set forth in the Universal Protocol Correct answer: By washing your hands and if you take care of patients, by for Preventing Wrong Site, Wrong Procedure, Wrong Person Surgery and removing artificial nails. associated implementation guidelines. • Conduct a preoperative verification process, as described in the Universal 6. When is medication reconciliation initiated? Protocol. Correct answer: On admission • Mark the operative site as described in the Universal Protocol. • Conduct a “time out” immediately before starting the procedure as described 7. When a patient with suicidal ideation is admitted, what is completed on in the Universal Protocol. admission? Correct answer: Safety Screening Checklist for Patients at Risk for Suicide, located in DMS Policy/Procedure 1745. Kaiser Permanente Patient Safety Themes: 8. Before starting a procedure, what 3 elements should you double check to make sure that they are correct? Correct answer: Patient (name, MRN), site, and procedure. Safe Culture, Safe Care, Safe Staff, Safe Support Systems Safe Place, Safe Patients Security & Threat Management At Kaiser Permanente, we want to ensure a safe environment for all employees, physicians, members, students, volunteers’ contractors and visitors in which to ensure the best care possible. Kaiser Permanente will not tolerate Acts and/or threats of violence. Acts and/or threats of violence include physical assaults and actions or 1. Which of the following are examples of skills and techniques for de- statements which, either directly or indirectly, by words, gestures, symbols, escalation? intimidation, or coercion give reasonable cause to believe that the personal safety of the affected individual or others may be at risk. Intimidation A. Stay professional and in control includes behavior, which has the purpose or effect of inspiring fear in a B. Remain non-threatening reasonable person. All physicians and employees are obligated to report any incident where they believe they have been the subject of threatened violence C. Provide choices and consequences arising out of their relationship with Kaiser or if they observe or otherwise D. All of the above learn of such conduct by any person employed by Kaiser, using Kaiser E. None of these above services or on Kaiser premises. Correct answer: D Reports can be made to any of the following: Department Manager/Supervisor Human Resources 2. All Physicians and employees are obligated to report any incident of Security threatened violence Any employee or physician who is reporting acts and/or threats of violence True must fill out the Threat Management Form. No retaliation of any kind will be False taken against anyone who, in good faith, reports acts or threats of violence, or who participates in any action or investigation related to such Correct answer: True complaints. Skills and Techniques for De-escalation: Acknowledge your own physical responses – try not to let them overwhelm or distract you. Stay professional and in control of yourself – remain calm. Remain non-threatening – verbally and physically. Listen carefully and empathetically for clues to the conflict – try to understand how the other person feels. Neutralize language to lower the emotional levels – try to restate accusations, blame and insults so they are more neutral statements of behavior that can be addressed. Don’t respond to manipulative or threatening behavior – focus on ending the conflict. Provide choices and consequences you can enforce – clear choices, clearly 23 understood consequences. For more information, talk to your department manager, or contact the Security Department. Radiation Safety Radiation Protection Concepts: Ionizing Radiation: The ALARA acronym is ―As Low As Reasonably Achievable.‖ This program is in Defined: Energy and/or energetic particles that are emitted from place to reduce the risk of the possible harmful effects of radiation. radioactive atoms and/or x-ray machines that can ionize tissue. Every effort is made to keep the exposure levels well below federal and state limits. This ionizing radiation, if absorbed, may cause damage to tissue. Radiation to humans is measured in dose units traditionally called ―rem.‖ The new Time –If you decrease the amount of time you spend near the source of Standard International (SI) term is ―sievert‖ (Sv). radiation, you will decrease the amount of radiation exposure you receive. Sources of Ionizing Radiation: Distance –The farther away you are from a radiation source, the less exposure Natural Sources of Ionizing Radiation: you will receive. Approximately 80% of human exposure to radiation comes from natural Shielding –If you use shielding (gloves, aprons, lead barriers) correctly you will sources: radon gas, the human body, outer space, rocks and soil. An decrease your exposure. average American is naturally exposed to 300 mrem/year or 3 mSv/year . Dosimeters: If you are required to wear a radiation monitoring device (badge) do not take them home, leave them in your car, put them in the wash, share Man-Made Sources of Ionizing Radiation them, or leave them near the source of radiation. Turn them in for About 20% of human exposure to radiation comes from man-made monitoring in a timely fashion. sources. Approximately 15% of this man-made radiation comes from medical imaging. Recognition – Radiation sources are marked by the International Radiation Hazard Symbol; a Classification of Hospital Workers: magenta trefoil on a bright yellow background. Non-Radiation Workers: These are hospital workers who do not work with radiation as part of their daily Did you know…..? activities. (Example: receptionist, transporters, and EVS staff.) Non-radiation There are sites to help you calculate your annual dose. One example is: workers are limited to 100mrem/year (1 mSv). http://www.oversight.state.id.us/radiation/ yourraddose.htm Radiation Workers: Barium used in medical imaging is not radioactive. People who work with or near radioactive materials or radiation producing In X-ray the machines generate the source of radiation. In Nuclear Medicine, machines and equipment. State and Federal exposure level for a radiation the radioactive isotopes are the source of radiation, not the worker is 5000 mrem/year (50mSv), or 5 rem Effective Dose Equivalent. machine. In medical imaging, at a six-foot distance from the radiation source, the Kaiser’s level in 1000 mrem/year and 150 mrem per month. radiation reading is substantially reduced. This is why the cord on the portable Sources of Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Include: x-ray machine will stretch to six feet. X-ray producing equipment found in departments such as radiology, orthopedics, surgery, ER, and mammography; from x-ray producing Only someone who is properly certified by the state may activate a x-ray equipment, such as portable x-ray machines and c-arm fluoroscopy units, and machine or work with radioactive items. from Diagnostic Radionuclides (radioisotopes) usually found in the Nuclear Not all lead aprons are made out of lead. To make them lighter they are made 24 Medicine Department. out of a lead equivalent. Remember: You will not glow after an x-ray. Radiation Safety Tips To Avoid Contamination from Radioactive Material Wear gloves Avoid contact with objects or areas that may be contaminated 1. The average American is exposed to how much ionizing radiation Don’t eat, drink, or smoke in areas where radioactive materials are in use from natural sources? Don’t apply cosmetics or groom your hair while in the area Wash your hands when leaving the area A. 100 mrem/year Read and follow all signs and instructions B. 200 mrem/year Don’t handle radioactive materials unless you are trained to do so C. 300 mrem/year 2. Non-radiation hospital workers have an ionizing radiation exposure limit of ? A. 100 mrem/year B. 200 mrem/year C. 300 mrem/year 25 Quality Improvement Quality is a central priority for Kaiser Permanente. As a quality health care organization, we strive to ensure that our members will remain healthy and safe and that our processional staff and employees will continue to support our goal of quality improvement to better patient outcomes. Improving quality improves our organization performance. 1. How do know we are performing well or need to improve? All employees are involved in quality improvement. Improvement measure are linked to the organization’s strategic goals, hospital or department goals. As an employee you participate in the work processes of this Medical Correct answer: Performance data. Center and lead or participate in improvement processes. In health care, quality is the delivery of outstanding patient care that includes: 2. Where do performance goals and measures come from? Patient safety Identifying process which can be improved Correct answer: National Patient Safety Goals, National Clinical outcomes performance benchmarks, Regional Patient satisfaction Comparative data and Unit-Based Goal setting Quality means doing the right thing the first time. Examples of high quality of 3. What 3 questions should you ask before starting care: performance improvement project. Patient focused/centered Correct level of care Correct answer Correct diagnostic procedures 1. What you trying to accomplish? Correct medications 2. What change can we make that will lead to improvement? Correct site surgery 3. How will we know the change was an improvement Relieving pain by assessment.. right medication, right dose, right time and right route Plan-Do-Check (Study)-Act = PDCA/PDSA is our improvement methodology Plan 1. Identify outputs and customers and their expectations. 2. Describe current process. 3. Measure and analyze. 4. Focus on an improvement opportunity. 5. Identify root causes. 6. Generate and choose solutions. Do 7. Map out a trial run. 8. Implement the trial run. 9. Evaluate the results. Check 10. Draw conclusions. 11. Standardize the charge. 12. Monitor, hold the gains. Act Infection Control Standard Precautions are routine precautions designed for the care of all patients regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status. The precautions are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of organisms from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection. Based on the anticipated contact with the patient’s blood and body substances, non- intact skin such as rashes and mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn. Each department has a supply of the PPE required for both Standard and Transmission Based Precautions. Ask your Department Administrator if you do not know where these are kept. Gloves for any anticipated contact with blood, body fluids, non-intact skin or rashes. Hand Hygiene after removal of gloves. Gloves must be worn when your hands have any open areas, cuts, or abrasions If the glove is torn or punctured, remove the glove, wash hands immediately, and put on a new glove as promptly as patient safety permits. Gloves must be changed after completing procedures in different body areas, after contact with each patient or when contaminated. Mask and Eye Protection for any anticipated splash or spray of blood or body fluids to prevent exposure of mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and eyes. Reusable eyewear or face shields should be cleaned with appropriate disinfectant per manufacturers’ recommendation. Protective eyewear includes goggles, full face shields, mask with shields or glasses solid side shields. Gowns Long sleeve impervious gowns for any anticipated contact of clothing with blood or body fluids Eating and Drinking in the Work Area To avoid cross-contamination in the work area, OSHA regulations do not allow eating, drinking, application of cosmetics, lip balm or handling contact lenses in patient areas, where the possibility of contamination exists. Transmission Based Precautions: In addition to Standard precautions, Transmission Based Precautions are used for patients known or suspected to be infected by epidemiologically important organisms spread by the: Airborne Transmission Droplet Transmission or, Contact with skin or contaminated surfaces 27 Infection Control These are used in addition to Standard Precautions: Airborne Precautions includes diseases such as Tuberculosis, SARS, Chickenpox, and Measles. The N95 respirator is used for Tuberculosis, SARS and other 1. What is the single most important way of stopping the spread of significant but rare diseases such as many of the Bioterrorism agents. A Blue Airborne sign that lists the necessary PPE is used for this precaution. MRSA that a person can do? A. Wash hands or use alcohol foam Droplet Precautions includes diseases transmitted via large particles which require close contact usually 3ft or less. These diseases include Pertussis, Mumps, B. Eat more vegetables Meningococcal disease and Plague. A surgical mask is worn when within 3 C. Exercise frequently feet from the patient to prevent exposures. An Orange Droplet sign that lists the necessary PPE is used for this precaution. Correct answer-A Contact Precautions reduces transmission by direct or indirect contact. Direct contact transmission involves skin to skin contact and indirect transmission is to contact via a contaminated item in the patient’s environment. Gowns and gloves are worn every time upon entering the room of a patient on Contact 2. What other ways is there to protect the patients and staff from the Precautions. MRSA, VRE, Scabies, Lice, RSV are included in this category. spread of infection besides Standard Precautions? A Green Contact sign has been developed that includes all the necessary PPE is used for this precaution. A. Take a bath B. Use transmission based precautions Precautions for Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD) C. Eat more vegetables In addition to Standard Precautions, follow the CJD policy on DMS for Infect Control and care of the patient with suspected or confirmed CJD. Correct answer B What do I need to know about Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) like methacillin resistant staphylococcus aureus MRSA? One of the germs that commonly live on the skin and in the nose is called staphylococcus or ―staph‖ bacteria. Usually this germ causes no harm. However sometimes it enters the body through a break in the skin or contact with mucous membranes like the nose, mouth and eyes and causes infection. When staph cannot be killed by common antibiotics this means that the bacteria has developed resistance to those antibiotics and is called MRSA. MRSA is spread by contact with body secretions, skin to skin contact and contact with the environment if contaminated with MRSA. Anyone can get MRSA as it is found in the community and in healthcare facilities. There are two ways that you can have MRSA bacteria. You can have active infection with clinical symptoms or you can be colonized (also known as carrier) with out any symptoms. To prevent problems of spread of MRSA the most important thing to remember is to wash your hands with soap and water for 15 seconds or used alcohol foam for hand hygiene. Cleaning of equipment and not sharing equipment between patients, 28 use of transmission based precautions that include PPE is also needed to stop the spread of MRSA and other resistant organisms. Airborne Transmissible Diseases California has adopted this protective standard to control occupational exposure to Aerosol Transmissible diseases (ATD) this standard applies to hospitals, clinics, laboratories, home health care, emergency services, homeless shelters, drug treatment programs, police departments and prisons. What information does the ATD Plan provide? The ATD Plan explains to the employer and healthcare worker responsibilities in preventing aerosol transmissible diseases .It presents information regarding: TB transmission, symptoms and risk factors TB disease versus TB infection TB screening and Prevention Other organisms requiring aerosol transmission precautions Other organisms requiring droplet transmission precautions Reporting requirements Use of N95 respirator masks and requirements for fit-testing Airborne isolation for patients with known TB or suspected aerosol transmissible Disease. Discharge process for a patient with known or suspected TB or other aerosol transmissible disease of concern. What key information about Tuberculosis should I know? Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and potentially life-threatening bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. We commonly think of TB as a respiratory illness, but it can involve many organs or tissues. TB is very contagious. It is spread primarily when people with active lung disease expel bacteria from their lungs into the air through coughing, singing, talking or sneezing. Other people breathe the infectious droplets into their lungs, where the bacteria begin to multiply and spread. Most people can be cured by taking a combination of antibiotics. Stopping medicines early or taking them only occasionally sets the stage for drug-resistant bacteria to develop. TB is a major concern for the health of the general public. The law requires that persons with active TB disease be reported to the Department of Health. The Department of Health assures thorough and complete treatment of infected and diseased TB patients and evaluates other close contacts for TB. Children less than 5 years of age, the elderly and people whose immune systems are suppressed (e.g., HIV, cancer or diabetes) are high-risk populations. 29 Tuberculosis For Patients with Known or Suspected TB TB skin tests, chest x-rays and examinations of TB sputum cultures are used to see if an Patients admitted to the hospital are placed in a negative pressure room with the active TB infection exists. Understanding the difference between TB infection and TB ventilation to the outside. The “Airborne” signage provides instructions for disease is important. TB Infection: TB infection (“latent,” “non-contagious”) means the visitors and healthcare workers. These rooms are entered by all through the person was exposed to and infected by the TB germs. This is usually detected by a anteroom not the hallway entrance The negative pressure room must be monitored with results recorded daily while in use. If the patient must leave positive skin test, without the presence of signs and symptoms of TB. his/her room for treatments or procedures, provide standard TB Disease: TB disease (“active,” “contagious”) means that the germs have multiplied procedure/surgical masks to the patient, with instructions to wear it over the and invaded organs and tissue, producing signs and symptoms of TB. At this point the nose and mouth. disease can be spread to others. Are there any special considerations in discharging a patient with known or Symptoms of TB Disease: Cough, Night sweats, Bloody sputum, Fever, Unexplained suspected TB? weight loss, Chills, Loss of appetite and/or Fatigue. Before a patient with known or suspected active TB can be released (discharged or People at Risk include: transferred), an approval from the Department of Health Service — TB Control for the county or city in which the member resides, must be obtained. Immune compromised persons This is to ensure the patient will not expose others in the community. Immigrants from countries where TB is common The discharge planner, infection preventionist, and the physician will work together to Medically under-served persons who don’t receive needed medical care ensure TB Control has approved the patient’s release before discharge. Persons in crowded living conditions (prisons, shelters for the homeless, nursing homes) Health care workers Where can I find a copy of the Blood borne Pathogen Standard Policy? What type of screening is done for Tuberculosis? This Plan can be obtained on request from your Supervisor, Infection TB screening is done at least once a year by questionnaire to determine if a healthcare Prevention, Employee Health, and is available on the Kaiser Intranet worker has symptoms of disease. Compliance with this policy is a condition of Documentation Management System (DMS). employment at Kaiser Permanente. In addition to the questionnaire, a Tuberculin skin test (TST) is administered to healthcare workers who have not had a positive skin reaction to the test in the What information does the Blood borne Pathogen Standard Policy provide? past. The skin test must be read at 48-72 hours after the test is administered. The facility’s Blood borne Pathogen Exposure Plan explains the employer and Infected healthcare workers are offered treatment at no expense. If you think you have healthcare worker responsibilities in preventing exposure to been exposed to a person with active TB disease, notify your chief/supervisor organisms/pathogens that are transmitted by blood or other potentially and Employee Health Department. infectious materials (OPIM). It includes information on: What is my role in preventing the spread of TB? Types of Blood borne Pathogens Transmission risks For Healthcare Worker: • Exposure prevention Complete scheduled health screening through Employee Health Services • Work Practice Controls Report TB exposures to your Employee Health Department and Infection Prevention. • Engineering Controls Follow-up when referred for preventive therapy: you are responsible for taking • Exposure and Post-Exposure treatment medication as ordered and obtaining lab work and /or chest x-rays, as prescribed. Do not stop your therapy without the direction of your provider. • Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Be fit tested with special masks know as N95 respirators if you are a staff member • Reporting requirements whose duties make TB exposure likely. Protect yourself by using an N-95 respirator. A proper fit of the TB mask is necessary to ensure all the air inhaled by the user is filtered. Each time the mask is worn, the proper fit is assured through fit checking by the user. 30 Blood borne Pathogens What is a Blood borne Pathogen? A blood borne pathogen is an organism that is transmitted by direct contact with blood and/or body substances. These organisms are also transmitted sexually and through IV drug use. They include: 1. Besides blood name 2 other body fluids that are considered other potentially infectious material (OPIM) (choose 2) • Hepatitis B: This viral disease is vaccine preventable. Vaccination is available through Employee Health at no cost to the healthcare worker, and is strongly recommended. Possible correct answers: • Hepatitis C: This viral disease does not currently have a vaccine available. Fluid from around the heart • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): This viral disease does not currently Joints have a vaccine available. Lung What key information should I know about Blood borne Pathogens? Amniotic Although unprotected exposure to blood is a key factor in the risk of developing Semen infection from a blood borne pathogen, Other Potentially Infectious Materials Vaginal secretions (OPIM) is also considered to present a risk. OPIM include fluids from around the heart, lungs, joint, and spine, amniotic fluid from around the baby before and during birth, and semen or vaginal secretions. 2. TB is caused from bacteria The BBP Exposure Plan provides specific job classifications, tasks, and procedures in which healthcare workers are at risk for occupational exposures, with A. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis recommendation for prevention of exposure. B. Avian Flu If exposure to a BBP occurs, such as a contaminated sharps injury or a body fluid C. Streptococcus splash to mucous membranes or non-intact skin, it is important that you cleanse the exposure area immediately, report it to your supervisor and seek medical Correct answer A evaluation through Employee Health or if after business hours, through the Emergency Department. PROMPT REPORTING OF AN EXPOSURE IS IMPORTANT: ANTI-RETROVIRAL MEDICATIONS SHOULD BE STARTED WITHIN 1-2 HOURS POST-EXPOSURE, IF INDICATED. All lab specimens and linens are treated as contaminated with blood or OPIM, and are handled using Standard Precautions. Any article contaminated with blood or OPIM is to be discarded into the Biohazardous Waste, which is identified by the biohazard symbol as seen below. Articles with small amounts of blood or OPIM that is not in danger of dripping or flaking may be discarded into the regular trash stream, such as band aids or small dressings. Needles and other sharps must be discarded into a rigid container designed to hold these objects. For any questions about Airborne transmissible diseases, TB or Blood borne pathogens information provided in this document you may contact Employee What has been done here at Panorama City to help prevent BBP exposure? Health Department Staff (Mafi or Anita) at 818 375 3744 or Infection Work Practice Controls, designed to reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the Prevention Department at 818 375 3658 (Mellina) and 818 375 2010 (Leslie) manner in which a task is performed, are an integral part of our BBP Exposure Control Plan. Examples include: activating sharps safety devices, use of PPE while cleaning used instruments, wearing gloves when emptying Foley catheters, prohibiting recapping of needles except when absolutely necessary and then by employing a single hand technique only, use of resuscitation bags 31 and other ventilation devices in emergency situations, spill kits to contain fluids.