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					                           ISSUE 140                SEPTEMBER 2007                      FREE
Xystichromis phytophagus

                  EKIP 250 THERMOFILTER
                  Simplicity - combines filter, heater and water current so there is only one
                  piece of equipment needed for you aquarium. EKIP 250 can be used
                  alone in a 5-15 gallon aquarium and EKIP350 can be used alone in 15-30
                  gallon aquarium- or they can be used as supplemental heating, filtration
                  and current.
                  Clip on filter cartridge for easy cleaning, electronic thermostat controls
                  temp from 64-94F; adjustable flow control both horizontally and vertically;
                  adjustable water and air flow control.

                     EKIP250 900GPH 50W REG                  EKIP350 125GPH 100W
                        $84.95 SALE $66.00                   REG $89.95 SALE$74.00

   Under gravel heating
        Hydroset thermostat Reg $99 Sale $84

For use with under gravel heating cables (sold
separately). Especially beneficial for planted tanks.
The cable guarantees regular and even heating. It
generates a slow water circulation through the substrate
on the bottom of the aquarium, thus creating a natural
effect. Can also be used in terrariums.
Great to raise gravel/planting bed temperatures to a few
degrees above water temperature - to aid in root devel-            All sales final,
opment and improve plant growth.                                Sale ends Sept 30 07

                                                     Your Reliable Animal Care Specialist
                                                       MON—FRI 9:30 AM—6:00 PM
                                                          SAT 8:30 AM—6:00 PM
                                                               TEL : 236-1533
Fishtales                                                                                                      3

                                                                                   IN THIS ISSUE
                                                                               4     President’s Podium
                                                                               4     Guest Speaker:
                                                                                     Ad konings
                                                                               6     So You Want to
                                                                                     Grow Plants in Your
•	 Friday, August 21ST 	8pm	–	Meeting	will	be	held	at	Horticultural	Hall,	           Aquarium
   Botanical	Gardens,	Ad	Konings	(African	cichlids).	
                                                                               8     Species Profile:
MARk YOUR CALENDAR:                                                                  Xystichromis
• October–		                                                                         phytophagus
• Friday 9th November	–	(Fish	Show	banquet		
   and	fish	auction)	                                                          10    Algae: Description
• Saturday 10th November	–	Fish	Show	                                                and Control in
                                                                                     Freshwater Aquaria

                                 Need more information                         13    The Rough Guys,
                                                                                     the Rogue Fishes
                                 on Your Fish or Plants?                             And Ones That Will
                      Well check out our library, we have some                       Grow Big - A little
                                great books for you to borrow                        About Them
                                      and its free to members.
                                        Call	Carol	at	236-1533	
                                   Mon-Fri	between	9:30	&	6pm	
 A complete list is availble on our web site:

                                 Bermuda Fry-Angle Society
If you are inerested in joining the Bermuda Fry-Angle Society, just come along to our next meeting to see what
we are about. Meetings are held on the third Friday of every month either at the Police Recreation Club or
the Lecture Rooms, behind the Bermuda Aquarium, Museum & Zoo, or contact Walter Welch., Membership
Coordinator at 292-3828(w) or email: He will be happy to provide any further
information or just sign you up. Application forms are also available at Noah’s Ark (just ask at cashier’s desk.)
You can also download an application form from our website:

Membership	fees	are	$20	for	the	year,	and	payable	to	Bermuda	Fry-Angle	Aquarium	Society.		

                                          Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
4                                                                                                             Fishtales


        ur	August	meeting	was	a	social	gathering	at	Peter’s	home	that	
        enabled	members	to	talk	about	their	aquariums	and	to	share	tips.	
        Planted	Aquariums	were	high	on	the	discussion	list	and	members	
who	attended	were	also	treated	to	some	free	aquatic	plants	that	were	
donated	by	Neil	Cattel.		I	am	hoping	that	we	get	a	bumper	turnout	for	the	
September	meeting,	as	it	will	feature	world-renowned	cichlid	expert	Ad	
Konings	on	his	first	visit	to	Bermuda.		We	have	been	trying	to	get	Ad	here	for	
several	years	and,	finally,	he	will	be	here	this	month.	I	have	seen	a	number	of	
Ad’s	presentations	on	Rift	Lake	Cichlids	at	ACA	conventions	and	have	found	them	to	
be	excellent.	Unfortunately,	we	were	unable	to	secure	our	regular	meeting	spot	at	the	Aquarium	due	to	a	
function	taking	place	there.		Our	other	meeting	option	(the	Police	Club)	is	also	unavailable	so	we	had	to	
locate	an	alternate	venue	for	this	month.		Therefore,	the	meeting	will	be	held	at	Horticultural	Hall,	Botanical	
Gardens.		Following	the	September	meeting,	we	will	be	focusing	on	our	Annual	Fish	Show,	which	will	be	
held	in	November.	

                                     tHIs MONtH’s

                                     guest speaker…
                                               aD kONINgs
      d	was	born	on	January	11th	1956	in	Roosendaal,	       write	books	and	breed	Tanganyika	Cichlids.	His	first	
      Netherlands.	 He	 started	 keeping	 cichlids	 in	     English	 language	 books	 were	 ‘Tanganyika	 Cichlids’	
      1970,	when	he	was	14	years	old.                       (1988);	 ‘Malawi	 Cichlids	 in	 their	 Natural	 Habitat’	
     Between	1974-1980	Ad	studied	medical	biology	          (1989);	‘Cichlids	of	Central	America’	(1989)	and	‘Ad	
at	the	University	of	Amsterdam	and	did	his	doctoral	        Konings’	book	of	Cichlids	and	all	the	other	fishes	of	
exam	 in	 1980.	 From	 1980-1986	 he	 did	 research	        Lake	Malawi’	(1990).	
on	 lysosomal	 enzymes	 at	 the	 Erasmus	 University	            Ad	started	his	own	publishing	company,	Cichlid	
in	 Rotterdam.	 Most	 of	 it	 was	 DNA-related	 work	       Press,	in	1991	and	the	first	book	he	published	was	the	
(molecular	biology),	which	took	too	much	of	his	free	       “Cichlids	Yearbook,	vol.	1”.	Since	then,	Ad	has	gone	
time.                                                       on	 to	 write	 a	 total	 of	 24	 books	 and	 has	 published	
     He	 moved	 to	 Germany	 (St.	 Leon-Rot	 near	          several	others.	These	included	the	six	volumes	of	the	
Heidelberg)	in	1986	to	live	with	Gertrud	(his	now	wife)	    ‘Cichlid	 Yearbook’,	 ‘Tanganyika	 Secrets’,	 Enjoying	
and	 her	 two	 daughters.	 In	 Germany,	 Ad	 started	 to	   Cichlids’,	 ’Malawi	 Cichlids	 in	 their	 natural	 habitat’	

                                         Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
Fishtales                                                                                                             5

(2nd	 edition’	 and	 3rd	 editions),	                                              	   approximately	 1500	 hours	 in	
‘Tanganyika	 Cichlids	 in	 their	                                                      the	lake.	
natural	 habitat’,	 and	 the	                                                      • Lake Tanganyika	 since	 1986	
‘Back	to	Nature	Guide	Malawi	                                                        and	has	visited	Burundi	twice,	
Cichlids’	(1st	and	2nd	editions).	                                                   Tanzania	 5	 times,	 Zaire	 once,	
      During	 this	 period,	 in	                                                     and	 Zambia	 7	 times.	 He	 has	
1996,	 after	 10	 years	 of	 ‘living	                                                dived	approximately	500	hours	
in	sin’,	Gertrud	and	Ad	married	                                                     in	the	lake.
in	 Malawi	 and	 subsequently	                                                     • Mexico	since	1989	(for	cichlids)	
moved	 to	 El	 Paso,	 Texas.	                                                        and	has	visited	the	country	at	
Ad	 loves	 the	 mountains	 of	                                                       least	16	times	for	cichlid	trips.	
El	 Paso	 and	 doesn’t	 plan	 to	                                                    He	 has	 underwater	 photos	 of	
leave.	 Ad	 has	 also	 moved	                                                        almost	 every	 cichlid	 species	
Cichlid	Press	to	El	Paso	where	                                                      found	in	the	rivers.
it	 is	 still	 a	 mom-and-pop	
company	with	Gertrud	and	Ad	                                                       • Belize since	 1996	 having	
doing	 the	 traveling,	 planning,	                                                   visited	the	country	twice.	
photographing,	diving,	writing,	                                                   • Nicaragua	 since	 2000	 and	
layout,	 pre-press,	 publication,	 and	 distribution	 for	                           has	visited	many	crater	lakes,	
Ad’s	own	books	but	also	Back	to	Nature	books	and	                                    other	lakes	and	rivers.	He	has	
books	by	other	authors.	Ad	also	does	the	layout/pre-                                 visited	the	country	six	times.		
press	for	Cichlid	News.
                                                                   Ad	 has	 given	 many	 talks	 in	 many	 different	
    Ad	has	made	many	cichlid	expeditions	over	the	             countries	and	will	finally	add	Bermuda	to	the	list	in	
years,	as	follows:	                                            2007.
        • Lake Malawi since	 1980	 and	 has	                        Between	 the	 expeditions	 (three	 per	 year)	 and	
          visited	 Malawi	 at	 least	 25	 times	 (he	 can’t	   talks,	 Ad	 flies	 about	 75,000	 miles	 a	 year	 (yeah,	
          remember	 the	 correct	 number;	 at	 least	          American	 Airlines	 Platinum	 Advantage).	 The	 good	
          once	a	year	since	1988),	Tanzania	5	times,	          thing	of	it	all,	he	says,	is	“I	haven’t	worked	a	day	in	
          Mozambique	about	17	times.	He	has	dived              my	life!”	

                               Our annual show this year
                                NOVEMBER 10th
                                        at the
                         Bermuda Aquarium, Museum & Zoo
                                   Judge: Rusty Wessel
            Judging of fish and banquet and Fish Auction will be on November 9th

                                           Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
6                                                                                                                      Fishtales

                     So You Want to Grow Plants
                         in Your Aquarium!
                                                  by RajendRa KumaR, G.G.	
                          Originally published in Infoquaria, Aquarist Society of Karnataka, India

    ooner	or	later	the	aquarist	gets	the	urge	to	create	a	beautiful	underwater	planted	garden:		Easy	-	Buy	some	
    attractive	plants	and	stick	them	in	the	sand.	Truth -	Couple	of	weeks	later	all	of	them	have	rotted	and	
    melted	away.		…So what went wrong?	Plants	require	light,	nutrients,	trace	elements,	C02	and	substrate	
to	grow.
Let’s look at these issues....		                                   with	low	light	output.	The	only	advantage	is	that	they	
                                                                   are	 cheaper	 than	 fluorescent	 lamps.	 With	 compact	
Light		                                                            fluorescent	 lamps	 becoming	 cheaper	 everyday,	 use	
      A	 rule	 of	 	 thumb	 is	 to	 provide	 between	 0.5	 and	    them	if	you	can	afford	them.	These	lamps	will	pay	you	
1	 watt	 of	 fluorescent	 light	 per	 litre	 of	 water	 in	 the	   back	 in	 lower	 electricity	 bills	 and	 lush	 plant	 growth.	
tank.	 So	 for	 a	 2x1x1	 tank	 holding	 about	 50	 litres,	       Better	 results	 may	 be	 had	 by	 using	 two	 fluorescent	
the	 minimum	 would	 be	 50	 x	 0.5w	 =	 25	 watts,	 	 and	        lamps	of	different	colour	temperature.	Use	one	bluish	
better	still	50	x	1w	=	50	watts.	Some	plant	varieties	             (white)	and	one	yellowish	(warm)	lamp	in	a	two	lamp	
need	more	light	while	others	do	well	even	under	low	               set	up.	
light	 conditions.	 Do	 not	 use	 incandescent	 lamps.	            	    Plants	 need	 light	 in	 the	 same	 way	 as	 the	 sun	
These	lamps	will	add	unwanted	heat	to	the	aquarium	                provides	 daylight.	 The	 light	 must	 be	 switched	 on	 in	
which	can	raise	the	temperature	to	unbearable	levels	              the	 morning	 and	 switched	 off	 in	 the	 evening.	 10-14	
during	summer,	and	they	consume	a	lot	of	electricity	              hours	 is	 the	 usual	 amount.	 Plants	 from	 the	 tropics	
                                              Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
Fishtales                                                                                                                        7

need	 12	 hours	 even	 day/night,	 	 while	 plants	 from	             Take	a	1.5	or	2	litre	plastic	cola	bottle,	poke	a	
temperate	 regions	 are	 used	 to	 short	 days	 in	 winter	           hole	in	the	bottle	cap	and	fix	an	airline	tubing	
and	long	days	in	summer.	So	don’t	leave	your	lights	                  to	it,	making	sure	that	this	attachment	is	air	
on	 indiscriminately	 at	 night.	 On	 occasional	 evenings	           tight.	 Half	 fill	 the	 bottle	 with	 water,	 and	 add	
when	you	have	guests	the	light	may	be	left	on	for	few	                1/2	cup	of	sugar	and	1/2	teaspoon	of	baking	
hours	extra	to	“show	off”	your	aquarium.	                             yeast.	The	mixture	should	be	fermenting	within	
	      Lights	may	be	turned	off	for	a	few	days	to	control	            hours.	The	gas	generated	during	fermentation	
algae	outbreaks.	A	few	days	of	low	natural	light	will	not	            is	fed	through	the	air	line	to	the	aquarium	and	
do	much	damage	to	your	plants	but	will	control	some	                  dissipated	through	an	air	stone.	This	will	last	
types	of	algae.		 Aquatic	 plants	 need	 the	 same	                   about	 15	 days	 and	 you	 will	 need	 to	 discard	
nutrients	 as	 garden	 plants.	 Fish	 excretion	 provides	            it	 when	 the	 gas	 output	 visibly	 decreases,	
the	 macro	 nutrients	 N,P,K,	 i.e.	 Nitrogen,	 Phosphate	            and	 mix	 up	 a	 new	 batch.	 Use	 a	 non-return	
and	Potassium.	But	plants	also	need	iron,	nickel,	zinc,	              valve	on	the	air	line	to	prevent	the	water	from	
boron	and	traces	of	many	others.	These	are	not	easily	                getting	sucked	back	into	the	bottle.	Do	not	fill	
found	 by	 the	 plants	 in	 an	 aquarium.	 In	 nature	 most	          the	bottle	more	than	half	way,	or	you	may	end	
water	 bodies	 are	 very	 large	 or	 are	 constantly	 being	          up	with	the	yeast	and	sugar	mix	overflowing	
replenished	 as	 in	 rivers.	 Such	 sources	 have	 all	 the	          into	your	aquarium.		
nutrients	for	the	plants.	In	limited	aquatic	environments	       Substrate		
like	 the	 home	 aquarium	 some	 trace	 nutrients	 are	          Aquatic	 plants	 need	 an	 adequate	 substrate	 (sand)	
provided	by	regular	weekly	partial	water	changes.	               in	 which	 to	 root.	 The	 substrate	 should	 optimally	 be	
	      Lack	 of	 macro	 nutrients	 will	 result	 in	 stunted	    1.5mm.	to	3mm.	in	size.	Too	fine	a	substrate	will	result	
growth,	yellowing	or	even	holes	in	leaves.	These	may	            in	anaerobic	conditions	for	the	plant	roots	-	water	will	
be	caused	by	very	low	fish	load	in	the	aquarium	or	too	          not	 circulate	 when	 the	 substrate	 becomes	 clogged	
little	 water	 changes.	 Do	 not	 think	 of	 adding	 garden	     with	detritus,	and	the	result	is	a	black	stinky	mess	in	
fertilisers,	these	contain	large	amounts	of	phosphates	          which	the	plants’		roots	will	rot	and	die.	
which	 will	 result	 in	 algae	 outbreaks,	 and	 excess	         	      The	depth	of	the	substrate	should	be	5	-	10cms.	
nitrates	will	stress	your	fish.	                                 (2	 -	 4	 ins.).	 Some	 plants	 will	 happily	 grow	 in	 lesser	
	      It’s	 best	 to	 add	 micro-nutrients	 only.	 Pre-         depths,	 	 while	 others	 like	 the	 Amazon	 Sword	 plant	
formulated	 micro-nutrient	 solutions	 are	 available	 at	       need	at	least	8cms.	of	substrate.	Its	better	to	make	an	
aquarium	shops.	Do	not	overdose,	or	you	may	end	up	              error	on	the	larger	size	and	have	a	deeper	substrate	
killing	your	fish.	Follow	instructions	carefully	and	if	in	      where	most	plants	will	be	happy.		
doubt	ask	a	fellow	aquatic	planter	for	advice.
                                                                 Tips on plants		
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)	                                            Select	healthy	looking	plants	when	buying	from	local	
Carbon	dioxide	(CO2)	is	essential	for	photosynthesis.	           fish	shops.	Do	not	buy	plants	from	aquariums	where	
CO2	 in	 the	 water	 comes	 from	 fish	 respiration,	 or	 is	    you	can	see	small	bits	of	plants	and	leaves	floating	-	
dissolved	from	the	atmosphere.	Just	as	you	need	to	              these	plants	are	already	disintegrating.		         P l a n t s	
aerate	and	circulate	water	from	the	lower	levels	of	the	         can	 bring	 diseases	 and	 pests	 into	 your	 aquarium.	
aquarium	for	oxygenation,	you	need	to	do	the	same	               Sterilise	plants	by	soaking	them	for	10	-	12	minutes	
so	 that	 the	 plants	 get	 enough	 CO2.	 The	 amount	 of	       in	a	dilute	solution	of	potassium	permanganate.	The	
dissolved	 CO2	 is	 not	 proportional	 to	 the	 amount	 of	                                               B
                                                                 solution	must	be	light	pink	in	colour.		 efore	 planting,	    	
dissolved	 02.	 These	 two	 factors	 are	 independent	 of	       remove	all	damaged	and	dead	leaves.	Don’t	worry	if	
each	 other.	 Proper	 aeration	 and	 circulation	 of	 water	     the	old	leaves	all	die	out	at	first	-	they	will	grow	back	
will	ensure	that	requirements	for	both	gases	are	met.		          in	due	course.
Increased	 growth	 of	 aquatic	 plants	 may	 be	 realised	       	     Some	plants	like	the	cryptocorynes	are	known	to	
by	 injecting	 CO2	 from	 an	 external	 source.	 This	 type	     suddenly	 melt	 (leaves	 dissolve	 into	 paste)	 when	 the	
of	 injection	 provides	 a	 method	 of	 controlling	 the	 pH	    light	levels	are	changed.	They	will	grow	back	within	a	
(acidity)	 of	 the	 aquarium	 water	 and	 providing	 the	        couple	of	weeks.	
plants	with	extra	CO2	to	stimulate	growth.		CO2	may	             	     Some	 species	 of	 aquatic	 plants	 change	 their	
be	 injected	 from	 a	 liquefied	 source	 (gas	 cylinder)	 or	   appearance	 according	 to	 light	 level	 and	 nutrients	
by	a	small	fermentation	unit.	The	gas	cylinder	method	           available.	What	is	a	giant	plant	in	one	aquarium	will	be	
requires	a	lot	of	hardware	and	is	not	recommended	for	           a	midget	in	another	aquarium.
a	casual	enthusiast.	The	fermentation	method	may	be	
easily	made	as	follows:

                                            Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
8                                                                                                                    Fishtales

                                         THIS ARTICLE REPRINTED FROM
                                       Hill Country Cichlid Club – Species Profile

SpecieS profile:

                   Xystichromis phytophagus
	     The	 genus	 Xystichromis is	 rooted	 in	 the	 Greek	      region	was	hit	with	a	large	ice	storm	and	in	the	ensu-
“xyster”	 meaning	 scraper	 which	 is	 indicative	 of	 the	     ing	power	outage	I	lost	my	group.	In	the	time	since	
cichlid	species	comprising	this	group.	These	fish	are	          I	 had	 been	 searching	 for	 this	 species	 but	 many	 of	
small	(in	the	10cm	range),	colorful,	and	to	some	de-            the	fish	I	found	did	not	have	the	same	coloration	or	
gree	incorporate	algae	scraping	into	their	diets.	The	          even	body	shape	of	my	original	group.	In	the	spring	
outer	 teeth	 are	 mostly	 bicuspid	 while	 the	 inner	 are	    of	2005,	a	fellow	hobbyist	who	shares	my	affliction	
lined	 in	 4-6	 rows,	 are	 large	 and	 of	 tricuspid	 struc-   for	the	cichlids	of	Lake	Victoria	sent	me	a	dozen	very	
ture.	 The	 intestines	 are	 coiled	 and	 3-4	 times	 the	      small	fry	labeled	“phytophagus”.	These	were	placed	
body	length.	There	are	a	number	of	undescribed	fish	            in	a	20	gallon	tank	with	a	sponge	filter	to	grow.	I	fed	
that	fit	the	Xystichromis	assemblage	including	the	sp.	         Cyclop-eeze®	and	crushed	flake	to	the	young.	They	
“flameback”.	The	Xystichromis	genus	share	close	af-             grew	rapidly	and	after	six	months	were	large	enough	
finities	 with Neochromis	 and	 Astatotilapia but	 differ	      to	be	placed	in	a	55	gallon	tank	where	they	remain	to-
in	cranial	structure	and	denti-                                                                       day.	I	was	extremely	
tion.		                                                                                               happy	to	see	the	col-
      Xystichromis phytopha-                                                                          oration	these	cichlids	
gus	was	once	found	in	Ugan-                                                                           developed	 and	 are	
dan	 waters	 of	 Lake	 Victoria	                                                                      even	 more	 color-
near	 Jinja	 and	 Bunjako	 as	                                                                        ful	 than	 my	 initial	
well	 as	 Kisumu	 Bay	 Kenya.	                                                                        colony	that	was	pre-
Today	 this	 species	 is	 found	                                                                      sumably	 nearer	 to	
in	 Lake	 Kanyaboli	 Kenya,	 a	                                                                       wild	stock.	
small	 lake	 in	 the	 Yala	 Basin.	                                                                   	    G r e e n w o o d	
This	area	is	an	extensive	pa-                                                                         suggested	         that	
pyrus	swamp	which	has	act-                                                                            Xystichromis       phy-
ed	as	a	protective	barrier	for	                                                                       tophagus did	 not	
species	which	the	Nile	perch	                                                                         graze	 algae	 as	
(Lates	niloticus)	preyed	upon.	                                                                       many	 similar	 spe-
Lake	Kanyaboli	has	a	surface	                                                                         cies	did,	but	actually	
area	 of	 10.50	 km2	 and	 an	 average	 depth	 of	 3.0m.	       obtained	 diatoms	 from	 biting	 into	 the	 plants	 them-
The	entire	Yala	Swamp	watershed	is	in	danger	of	be-             selves	 (Greenwood,	 1969).	 Favored	 habitat	 is	 over	
ing	drained	to	provide	agricultural	areas	for	a	grow-           a	sandy	bottom	in	areas	of	dense	plant	growth.	Re-
ing	population.	This	region	is	a	world	renowned	bird-           lating	 this	 information	 to	 aquatic	 husbandry,	 Xys-
ing	expanse	as	well.	                                           tichromis phytophagus appreciates	some	greenery	in	
	     My	 first	 experience	 with	 Xystichromis phy-            its	diet.	This	can	be	easily	supplied	with	a	good	spir-
tophagus occurred	in	1999	when	I	obtained	a	small	              ulina	flake.	Good	quality	flake	food	with	occasional	
group	of	fry	that	were	descendants	of	Loiselle’s	wild	          treats	 of	 brine	 shrimp	 or	 the	 like	 will	 serve	 well	 to	
stock.	 This	 group	 provided	 one	 very	 beautiful	 male	      conditioning	the	“Christmas	fulu”.	
with	 coloration	 that	 would	 have	 to	 be	 seen	 in	 per-     	    Our	 tank	 décor	 is	 quite	 simple.	 The	 substrate	
son	to	be	fully	appreciated.	It	was	obviously	appar-            is	about	5cm	deep	and	consists	of	light	colored	pool	
ent	why	the	common	name	of	“Christmas	fulu”	was	                sand.	 A	 formation	 of	 rockwork	 on	 one	 end	 seems	
pinned	to	this	species.	Unfortunately	that	winter	my	           to	be	a	gathering	point	for	the	colony	but	does	not	

                                           Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
Fishtales                                                                                                                      9

appear	to	serve	a	territorial	purpose	nor	do	the	fish	             female	will	eventually	give	in	to	the	males	advances.	
retreat	into	it	when	frightened.	I	don’t	use	live	plants	          The	 protrusion	 of	 an	 ovipositor	 on	 the	 female	 is	 a	
with	 this	 species	 but	 have	 heard	 another	 reputa-            sure	sign	that	spawning	is	certain.	The	actual	act	of	
ble	aquarist	recommend	the	use	of	hornwort	planted	                spawning	will	occur	in	the	male’s	pit.	The	typical	hap-
in	 strands	 (Newman,	 1997).	 My	 group	 shares	 their	           lochromine	method	of	shaking	and	circling,	dropping	
tank	space	with	a	couple Synodontis ocellifer which	               eggs,	 nipping	 at	 the	 males	 egg	 spots	 and	 picking	
has	been	a	good	mix.	We	do	not	alter	our	water	as	it	              them	up	is	employed	by	this	maternal	mouth	brooder.	
comes	from	the	tap	at	pH	of	8.6.	Readings	from	Yala	               Xystichromis phytophagus is	not	a	particularly	tough	
Swamp	range	from	7.5-8.2	pH	(Loiselle,	1996).	I	con-               species	to	coax	into	spawning.	It	is	highly	prolific	and	
tend	that	when	maintaining	species	of	cichlids	from	               broods	 of	 50	 fry	 are	 not	 uncommon.	 The	 gestation	
the	 Victorian	 region,	 parameters	 are	 not	 near	 con-          period	 is	 18	 days.	 The	 female	 will	 tend	 her	 fry	 for	
cerning	as	is	quality.	Frequent	water	changes	as	well	             another	two	weeks.	I	strip	the	female	at	16	days	post	
as	good	quality	filtration	will	suffice	for	maintaining	a	         spawning.	At	this	time	the	fry	have	absorbed	most	of	
healthy	colony	of	Xystichromis phytophagus.                        their	egg	sac	and	will	take	first	feedings	of	Cyclop-
	     The	 mature	 male	 Xystichromis phytophagus                  eeze®	and	powdered	flake.	The	young	grow	rapidly	
is	second	to	none	in	coloration.	The	head	is	a	light	              reaching	maturity	in	10	months.	
blue-grey	 and	 has	 a	 convex	 cranial	 slope.	 The	
upper	 and	 lower	 jaws	 extend	 equally	 and	 are	
lined	 with	 bright	 blue	 lips.	 Two	 horizontal	 bars	
cross	the	forehead,	one	just	above	the	lips,	the	
other	at	mid	eye	level.	The	top	of	the	forehead	
on	down	to	the	gill	plates	is	purple.	Immediately	
behind	 the	 gills	 and	 along	 the	 back	 is	 colored	
orange-red.	The	abdomen	is	lime-green	and	ex-
tends	 halfway	 up	 the	 flanks	 and	 laterally	 onto	
the	caudal	peduncle.	The	frontal	portion	of	the	
dorsal	fin	is	powderblue.	The	spines	on	the	back	
half	 of	 the	 dorsal	 are	 red.	 This	 red	 coloration	
is	 also	 found	 on	 the	 caudal	 fin.	 The	 pelvic	 fins	
are	jet-black	with	the	first	ray	extending	slightly	be-            	    The	 native	 habitat	 of	 Xystichromis phytopha-
yond	the	others.	The	anal	fin	is	light	blue	with	a	red	            gus	 is	 shrinking	 rapidly.	 This	 wonderful	 little	 cichlid	
blotch	frontally.	A	small	number	of	egg	spots	dot	the	             remains	intact	in	as	part	of	the	LVSSP.	Stable	popula-
back	portion	at	its	base.	Two	lines	of	black	blotch-               tions	reside	in	hobbyists’	aquariums	as	well,	and	it	is	
ing	 streaks	 the	 body	 midway	 and	 frontally	 along	            from	this	latter	group	that	good	quality	future	stock	
the	 lateral	 line.	 Several	 vertical	 bars	 are	 visible	 to	    of	this	Victorian	gem	will	endure.	
some	 degree	 that	 is	 mood	 dependant.	 The	 female	
Xystichromis phytophagus	 is	 a	 dull	 gold	 color	 with	          References:	
a	 yellow	 tinge	 to	 the	 fins.	 There	 is	 slight	 sexual	 di-   Greenwood,	P.	H.	1966;	“Two	new	species	of	
morphism	 with	 males	 reaching	 11cm	 and	 females	               Haplochromis	(Pisces,	Cichlidae)	from	Lake	Victoria”.	
9.5cm.	                                                            Am.	Mag.	Nat.	Hist.	(13)	8:	303-18.
	     The	 male	 Xystichromis phytophagus	 will	 ex-               Greenwood,	P.	H.	1980;	“Towards	a	phyletic	
cavate	a	pit	at	the	base	of	an	object	(usually	rock).	             classification	of	the	‘genus’	Haplochormis	(Pisces,	
This	 activity	 is	 a	 certain	 indication	 that	 procreation	     Cichlidae)	and	related	taxa.	Part	II;	the	species	from	Lakes	
is	 imamate.	 I	 have	 found	 this	 species	 to	 be	 rather	       Victoria,	Nabugabo,	Edward,	George	and	Kivu”.	Bull.	Br.	
docile	in	comparison	to	other	furu	however,	with	the	              Mus.	Nat.	Hist.	(Zool.).	39	(1):	1-101.	
onset	of	breeding,	some	territorial	displaying	and	de-
fending	 of	 the	 pit	 area	 takes	 place.	 These	 displays	       Newman,	Lee,	1997;	“Aquarium	Husbandry	of	
consist	of	fin	flaring	and	short	runs	at	rival	males.	The	         the	Christmas	Fulu,	Haplochromis	(Xystichromis)	
male	 will	 shimmy	 to	 one	 side	 with	 fins	 flared	 each	       phytophagus”.	Cichlid	News	Oct.	Vol.	6	No.	4.	18-22.	
time	his	 ripe	 female	 approaches.	 In	 between	 danc-            Algae:	Description	and	Control	in	Freshwater	Aquaria	by	
ing	to	his	female	and	excavating	his	pit,	the	male	de-             Andrea	Watts	Reprinted	from
fends	against	conspecifics	nearing	his	territory.	The	
10                                                                                                                Fishtales

            Algae: Description and Control
                in Freshwater Aquaria
                                                   by Andrea Watts
                                        Reprinted from

WhAT ARe ALgAe?                                                   metabolism	of	beneficial	bacteria,	and	the	decay	of	
Most	people	will	agree	that	algae	are	an	unattractive	            other	organics	(e.g.	plant	debris	and	even	dead	algae).	
and	unwelcome	addition	to	an	aquarium	–	especially	               Some	regions	have	trace	amounts	of	phosphorus	in	
a	 planted	 biotope.	 It	 can	 hinder	 plant	 respiration	        the	 tap	 water.	 You	 can	 reduce	 the	 accumulation	 of	
and	 photosynthesis	 (hence	 affecting	 growth)	 by	              nitrogen	 through	 water	 changes;	 phosphates	 can	
smothering	 the	 leaves	 of	 green	 plants.	 Rampant	             be	 kept	 in	 check	 using	 phosphate-removal	 media	
algae	 growth	 is	 particularly	 relevant	 in	 newly	 setup	      (e.g.	phos-rid)	in	an	external	filter	or	by	using	reverse	
aquariums.	They	readily	establish	in	new	tanks	in	a	              osmosis	water	for	the	aquarium.
similar	 fashion	 to	 weeds	 colonising	 freshly	 cleared	        TypeS OF ALgAe.
or	turned	over	soil.	When	an	aquarium	is	first	set	up	            greenwater:	Caused	almost	invariably	by	too	much	
with	fresh	water	and	new	plants,	it	takes	time	for	the	           light.	The	name	aptly	describes	its	appearance	–	tank	
latter	to	adapt	to	their	new	conditions,	put	out	roots	           takes	on	the	“pea	soup”	look.	Filtering	with	micron	
and	start	to	grow.	Algae	adapt	far	more	quickly	and	              cartridges	or	diatom	filters	will	successfully	remove	
an	algal	bloom	occurs	as	they	feed	on	the	nutrients	              these	 algal	 blooms.	 Greenwater	 is	 a	 great	 source	
in	the	fresh	water.	At	this	stage	the	reaction	of	most	           of	nutrients	(food)	for	species	such	as	brine	shrimp,	
people	is	to	change	the	water	and	start	all	over	again.	          Daphnia	spp.	and	minute	fry	and	is	often	purposely	
This	 will	 only	 aggravate	 matters,	 as	 the	 new	 water	       cultivated	for	this	purpose.
will	once	again	feed	the	algae.	It	is	far	better	to	allow	
nature	 to	 take	 its	 course	 and	 the	 tank	 to	 progress	
through	the	natural	cycles.	Achieving	a	fully	planted	
aquarium	 with	 healthy	 fish	 and	 plants	 takes	 time	 –	
months,	in	fact.
	     Many	 will	 be	 familiar	 with	 algae	 in	 the	 form	 of	
green	or	brown	encrustations	on	the	rocks	and	glass	
in	aquaria	(e.g.	beard	algae),	as	greenwater	(single-
called	 free-floating	 types)	 or	 as	 thin,	 tough	 green	
filaments	(e.g.	hair	algae)	which	can	prove	extremely	
difficult	 to	 eradicate.	 It	 often	 comes	 as	 a	 surprise,	
therefore,	to	learn	that	some	algae	can	actually	cause	
diseases	in	fish.
	    Like	 plants,	 all	 species	 of	 algae	 need	 light,	
water	and	nutrients	to	grow.	It	is	up	to	the	aquarist	
to	limit	the	amount	of	light	and	nutrients	received	by	
the	 aquarium	 in	 order	 to	 keep	 algae	 in	 check.	 The	
three	 main	 nutrients	 that	 algae	 need	 are	 nitrogen,	
phosphorus	 and	 potassium.	 In	 an	 aquarium,	 these	
nutrients	 come	 from	 fish	 waste,	 uneaten	 food,	 the	                    Above photos - brown encrustations

                                             Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
Fishtales                                                                                                            11

Brown encrustations	 (slimy	 appearance	 and	 feel)	
on	 plants,	 décor	 and	 glass:	 Often	 accompanied	 by	
poor	 plant	 growth.	 It	 is	 an	 indicator	 of	 insufficient	
illumination.	 It	 is	 easily	 removed	 by	 wiping	 the	
green encrustations:	Two	types:	‘fuzzy”	and	beard.	
The	fuzzy	algae	is	not	of	great	concern	and	can	be	
controlled	via	the	addition	of	grazing	fish.	It	is	easily	
differentiated	from	beard	alga	in	appearance.	It	grows	
in	short,	single	strands	of	about	2-3mm.	Beard	algae	
is	more	serious.	Its	individual	strands	have	a	very	fine	
texture.	It	grows	in	thick,	furry	patches,	up	to	4cm.	Its	
resemblance	to	a	green	beard	gives	rise	to	the	name.	
It	cannot	be	removed	mechanically.

            Above photos - “fuzzy” or “beard” algae

Spot algae:	The	small	round	green	spots	that	appear	
on	the	sides	of	the	aquarium	are	not	algae.	These	are	
actually	populations	of	diatoms,	microscopic	animals	
that	secrete	a	hard	silica	shell	on	which	green	alga	
grows.	 This	 type	 of	 “algae”	 is	 the	 most	 difficult	 to	
remove.	A	sharp	blade	works	well.
Filamentous algae: Two	main	types:	hair	and	thread.	
Hair	 algae	 have	 shorter	 strands	 than	 thread	 algae	
(around	 5cm	 in	 length)	 and	 tends	 to	 form	 matted	                    Above photos - forms of hair algae
clumps.	Thread	algae	have	much	longer	strands	(as	               Staghorn algae: As	 the	 name	 suggests,	 this	
long	as	30cm)	and	is	often	an	indicator	of	excess	iron.	         branching	 alga	 looks	 like	 miniature	 greyish-green	
Both	are	quite	easily	removed	with	a	toothbrush.

                                            Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
12                                                                                                               Fishtales

stag	antlers.	It	is	mostly	seen	nearer	the	tank	surface,	           algae	 in	 an	 all	 ready	 overgrown	 aquarium.	 If	
establishing	 itself	 on	 filters	 and	 décor.	 It	 is	 very	       they	are	sparingly	fed,	they	will	be	forced	to	look	
difficult	to	remove	mechanically	and	most	aquarists	                towards	 the	 algae	 as	 a	 food	 source.	 Suitable	
resort	to	chemical	control.                                         additions	include:	Otocinclus	spp.	dwarf	plecos,	
Brush algae: Brush	alga	is	blackish	(actually	classed	              whiptail	catfish,	and	members	of	the	Loricariidae	
as	a	red	algae)	in	appearance	and	forms	feathery	tufts	             genus	and	most	live	bearers	(e.g.	Mollies).	Large	
about	2-3mm	long.	It	is	a	nuisance	on	décor,	filters	               plecos	are	not	suitable,	as	they	tend	to	munch	
and	 broad	 leaf	 plants	 especially.	 Being	 extremely	            on	plants	and	outgrow	the	tank.	Members	of	the	
difficult	 to	 remove,	 chemical	                                   Corydoras	spp.	help	to	stir	up	the	substrate	and	
additives	seem	to	be	the	only	way	                                                  help	deter	algae	from	settling	and	
to	 rid	 aquariums	 of	 this	 menace.	                                              taking	hold.
True	 SAE	 have	 been	 found	 to	 be	                                              4. Light starvation. Decreasing	
somewhat	effective	in	its	control.                                                    the	 amount	 of	 penetrating	
CONTROLLiNg ALgAe iN The                                                              light	 that	 an	 aquarium	
AquARiuM.                                                                             receives	 can	 sometimes	
                                                                                      control	algae.	This	action	may	
Following	 is	 a	 list	 of	 some	                                                     be	 as	 simple	 as	 reducing	 the	
suggestions	 for	 alga	 control	 in	                                                  amount	of	time	that	the	lights	
your	aquarium.                                                                        are	 in	 use	 or	 positioning	 the	
1.   Dense planting. Planting	                                                        tank	 so	 that	 direct	 sunlight	 is	
     your	 aquarium	 densely	 from	                                                   limited.	 Blackwater	 extracts	
     the	 onset	 will	 help	 to	 deter	                                               or	wood	(tannins)	can	help	to	
     the	 establishment	 of	 algae.	                                                  darken	 the	 water	 and	 starve	
     Rapidly	 growing	 “bunch	                                                        algae	 of	 the	 light	 needed	
     plants”	(plants	that	are	grown	                                                  for	 photosynthesis.	 Floating	
     from	 cuttings	 and	 sold	 in	                                                   plants	may	help,	however	they	
     bunches	 at	 the	 LFS)	 fall	 into	                                              will	also	reduce	the	amount	of	
     this	 category.	 They	 will	 utilise	                                            light	 that	 penetrates	 down	 to	
     the	 nutrients	 in	 the	 aquarium	                                               your	plants.
     very	quickly,	making	it	difficult	                                            5. physical removal.	 Filamen-
     for	algae	to	compete.                                                            tous	algae	can	be	reduced	by	
2.   Water changes. Regular,	                                                         gently	 combing	 and	 winding	
     large	 water	 changes	 help	 to	                                                 the	 strands	 around	 a	 small	
     eliminate	 the	 nitrogenous	                                                     brush	        (e.g.	   toothbrush).	
     waste	 and	 phosphates	 that	                                                    Ornaments/décor	can	be	lifted	
     algae	need	to	thrive.	Replace	                                                   from	the	tank	and	brushed	or	
     half	 the	 water	 every	 week	 (or	        Above photos - brush algae            soaked	in	bleach	or	potassium	
     at	least	every	second	week).                                                     permanganate.	 Remember	
                                                                                      to	 thoroughly	 rinse	 the	 décor	
3.   introduce      algae     eating
                                                                                      to	 rid	 it	 of	 residual	 chemicals	
     fish. There	 are	 many	 suitable	
                                                                                      before	 returning	 it	 to	 the	
     species	that	can	be	introduced	
                                                                                      aquarium.	 Algae	 scrubbers	
     into	 the	 aquarium	 to	 help	
                                                                                      are	 a	 cheap	 investment	 from	
     control	 algae.	 They	 should	
                                                                                      the	LFS.
     be	 added	 sooner,	 rather	 than	
     later.	 Do	 not	 allow	 an	 alga	                                             6. Chemical control. A	product	
     problem	 to	 develop	 before	                                                    called	 Health	 Guard	 (from	
     adding	the	fish.	Most	fish	will	                                                 Seachem)	 is	 excellent	 for	
     not	 be	 able	 to	 eat	 enough	              A type of branched alga.            controlling	all	algae,	including

                                             Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
Fishtales                                                                                                                  13

		   blue-green	algae.	It	is	safe	for	all	plants	and	fish.	          reverse	 osmosis	 and	 resin	 exchange	 filters.	
     When	all	else	fails,	the	addition	of	copper	sulphate	           Bottled	 or	 distilled	 water	 for	 water	 changes	
     can	 be	 considered.	 A	 weak	 solution	 of	 copper	            can	 help	 exclude	 the	 addition	 of	 tap	 water	
     sulphate	(bringing	the	copper	concentration	up	                 contaminants.
     to	around	0.3-0.5ppm)	will	kill	algae	but	may	kill	         extra Notes. Some	 methods	 of	 algae	 control	 also	
     some	aquarium	plants	too.	It	must	be	measured	              present	 a	 “clean-up”	 problem.	 If	 the	 dead	 algae	
     exactly	–	overdosing	will	result	in	plant	and	fish	         collect	 on	 the	 substrate	 as	 sediment,	 the	 cycle	
     deaths.	 This	 is	 truly	 an	 act	 of	 desperation	 and	    of	 decomposing	 organic	 matter	 produces	 more	
     should	not	be	considered	lightly!	When	dosing	is	           nutrients	for	more	algae.	The	addition	of	a	coagulant	
     completed,	be	sure	to	replace	the	water	and	use	            or	 flocculent	 assists	 in	 the	 collection	 of	 this	 dying	
     activated	charcoal	in	your	filter	to	remove	traces	         matter	 by	 causing	 the	 single-celled	 plant	 forms	 to	
     of	copper.                                                  clump	together.	They	can	then	be	netted	with	a	fine	
7.   ultraviolet sterilisers. These	 lights	 are	 set	 up	       skimmer	net,	vacuumed	or	filtered.
     after	the	filter	unit	so	that	all	water	passes	within	      Don’t	overfeed	your	aquarium.	If	a	fish	dies,	remove	
     a	specific	distance	to	kill	any	microscopic	plant	          it	 immediately.	 Both	 overfeeding	 and	 decaying	 fish	
     or	 animal	 life	 within	 the	 water.	 They	 are	 very	     add	to	the	nutrient	load	in	your	aquarium.
     expensive	units	to	buy.
8.   Other methods of control. Some	 others	                     Prevention is better than cure!
     methods	 of	 algal	 control	 include:	 ozonization,	

               The Rough Guys
The Rogue Fishes And Ones That Will Grow Big
            - A Little About Them
                                       by Bill “pegasus NZ” of New Zealand

       hat	cute	little	fish	you	bought	could	turn	into	your	     where	they	will	only	tolerate	fish	either	the	same	size,	
       biggest	headache	if	you	don’t	think	before	you	           or	bigger	than	themselves.	Other	types	of	rogues	are	
       purchase,	so	here	are	a	few	words	to	help	you	            the	ones	that	will	uproot	everything	you	plant,	move	
in	your	selection	when	considering	buying	that	little	           vast	 amounts	 of	 gravel	 that	 leaves	 your	 tank	 like	 a	
cutie.	 Also	 here	 we	 will	 be	 talking	 about	 which	 fish	   moonscape,	and	even	move	small	rocks	if	they	are	
will	live	with	others	in	harmony.	although	even	after	           in	 their	 way.	 Others	 will	 ram	 the	 heater	 against	 the	
careful	selection,	we	sometimes	get	a	small	fish	that	           tank	side,	or	pull	 the	uprights	from	the	undergravel	
will	bully	others	a	great	deal	bigger	than	themselves,	          filters,	and	on	occasions	decide	to	knock	the	lid	off	
but	luckily	this	mainly	happens	at	breeding	time.                the	tank	and	try	their	hand	at	jumping	from	the	tank	
      Any	fish	can	become	a	rogue,	it	doesn’t	neces-             and	onto	the	floor.	Many	of	the	big	Cichlids	will	at-
sarily	have	to	be	a	big	fish,	as	even	some	small	spe-            tack	your	hand	if	you	try	to	clean	the	tank	or	move	
cies	 of	 fish	 can	 become	 quite	 dominating	 at	 times,	      something	that	will	alter	their	environment,	while	oth-
especially	at	breeding	time.                                     ers	will	practically	roll	over	and	let	you	scratch	their	
      Generally	 when	 we	 speak	 of	 rogues	 people	            belly.	Just	by	the	last	sentence	we	can	see	that	not	
tend	to	think	of	the	bigger	species	like	some	of	the	            all	Cichlids	are	the	same,	so	we	can’t	brand	any	fish	
Cichlids,	 and	 many	 of	 this	 group	 do	 get	 to	 a	 stage	    as	being	a	rogue.
                                            Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
14                                                                                                                     Fishtales

      So	what	causes	a	fish	to	be	aggressive?	Several	             him	 at	 breeding	 time	 and	 it’s	 a	 different	 story.	 This	
things	can	cause	this,	many	of	which	we	can	do	our	                little	fellow	can	be	a	real	terror	if	he	is	guarding	the	
best	to	avoid.	Fish	near	or	actually	spawning,	or	look-            nest	 and	 will	 send	 most	 fish	 twice	 his	 size	 running	
ing	 after	 young	 should	 never	 be	 trusted	 with	 other	        in	fear	to	the	other	end	of	the	tank.	This	will	happen	
fish	if	the	are	of	an	appreciable	size.	At	this	time	adult	        with	most	of	the	Gourami	species,	and	the	Bettas.
fish	become	very	possessive	about	territory	and	the	                     So	what	can	you	do	to	stop	it?	If	you	have	a	fish	
safety	of	their	young,	so	now	is	one	time	you	should	              that	bullies	others	you	could	try	to	find	something	to	
leave	well	alone	and	let	the	fish	get	on	with	what	they	           distract	it.	Many	fish	that	bully	are	single	species	in	a	
were	born	to	do.	In	some	situations	we	may	have	to	                tank,	like	a	lone	Oscar	or	Angel.	You	could	try	getting	
remove	either	one	or	both	the	parents,	but	Cichlids	               another	to	take	its	attention	away,	and	this	works	in	
in	general	tend	to	take	care	of	their	young	right	up	to	           many	cases.
the	 time	 they	 are	 ready	 to	 spawn	 again,	 and	 it	 has	            For	the	fish	that	are	getting	bullied,	try	additional	
been	 known	 for	 them	 to	 care	 for	 two	 broods	 of	 fry	       planting,	more	places	for	them	to	hide	in	the	way	of	
only	weeks	apart.	Many	of	the	Mouthbrooders	also	                  rock	arrangements	with	hiding	places	that	the	bully-
do	this	and	can	have	more	than	one	brood	all	trying	               ing	fish	can’t	get	into.	As	a	last	resort	your	LFS	(Local	
to	retreat	into	the	mother’s	mouth.	Great	stuff.                   Fish	Store)	might	take	the	large	fish	in	trade	for	some	
      Many	 Cichlids	 are	 very	 selective	 about	 their	          smaller	ones	that	would	be	less	problematic.
partner,	 and	 many	 once	 mated,	 will	 remain	 with	                   You	 should	 not	 confuse	 breeding	 actions	 with	
that	same	partner	to	the	end.	If	one	dies,	then	it	is	             bullying,	 as	 most	 fish	 tend	 to	 look	 and	 act	 aggres-
sometimes	hard	to	get	the	remaining	fish	to	accept	                sive	at	breeding	time.	In	the	case	of	the	Livebearers	
a	 new	 mate,	 and	 I	 have	 found	 this	 to	 happen	 with	        the	males	will	constantly	harass	the	females,	at	times	
the	Angels,	the	Jewel	Cichlids,	and	the	Firemouths,	               leaving	 the	 female	 quite	 exhausted.	 Nothing	 much	
but	 again,	 not	 all	 fish	 are	 the	 same,	 but	 in	 general	    can	be	done	here	as	this	is	nature’s	way,	but	if	the	
Cichlids	seem	to	create	a	very	strong	bond	with	the	               females	become	stressed	at	all	you	could	try	sepa-
partner	 they	 choose.	 In	 more	 than	 one	 instance	 I	          rating	them	from	the	males	for	a	while,	preferably	till	
have	had	the	remaining	fish	die	within	a	short	while	              they	have	given	birth.	Returning	to	the	Cichlids	for	a	
after	losing	its	partner.                                          moment.	 Many	 of	 these	 species	 will	 lock	 jaws	 and	
      Rogue	 fish	 are	 generally	 territorial	 fish	 and	 will	   seem	 as	 if	 they	 are	 going	 to	 rip	 each	 other	 apart,	
set	up	an	invisible	area	that	they	call	theirs	and	will	           and	this	can	become	quite	scary	at	times,	and	others	
not	allow	outsiders	to	move	into	their	area.	Not	much	             will	chase	their	mate	around	the	tank	as	if	they	were	
can	be	done	here,	but	re-arranging	the	tank	some-                  going	to	kill	it,	but	in	many	cases	it	is	just	a	normal	
times	helps	by	confusing	the	fish	as	to	where	his	ter-             breeding	pattern.
ritory	starts	and	ends.

      If	the	fish	in	question	is	causing	harm	to	the	more	
docile	occupants	of	the	tank,	then	your	only	option	
is	to	either	move	the	aggressor,	or	move	the	peace-
ful	fish.	One	should	really	consider	a	spare	tank	for	
these	situations,	and	when	not	in	general	use	it	can	
be	used	as	a	quarantine	tank,	or	for	holding	newborn	
fry,	but	it	should	always	be	setup	correctly	at	the	right	             We extend our condolences to our
temperature	and	ready	for	any	emergency.
      Even	the	common	Zebra	Danio	can	become	ag-                           friend and fellow member,
gressive	if	others	in	the	tank	are	smaller	or	not	quite	                       Howard Paynter,
                                                                          on the passing of his father,
as	quick	as	it	is.	Keeping	just	one	of	these	fish	tends	
to	 cause	 this	 problem,	 especially	 if	 the	 Zebra	 has	
grown	to	an	appreciable	size.                                          Mr. Lionel “Spooky” Paynter Sr.
      Take	 the	 little	 Dwarf	 Gourami.	 A	 wonderful	
colourful	 fish	 that	 is	 usually	 quite	 docile,	 but	 catch	

                                              Bermuda Fry-angle aquarium society
                Executive Committee
President: ............................................................................Craig Morfitt
Vice-President: .................................................................. Nyon Steede
Treasurer: ........................................................................... Nyon Steede
Recording Secretary: .......................................................... Peter Marsh
Corresponding Secretary: .............................................Wendy Corrado

                                   Elected Officers                                                      SEND US
Librarian: ...........................................................................Carol Terceira
Breeders Award Program Chair: .........................................Scott Burns
Editor: ................................................................................. Peter Marsh
Webmaster: ........................................................................ Peter Marsh
Membership Coordinator: .................................................. Walter Welch                   IDEAS! 	
                                                                                                        Contributions		are	
                               Society Membership                                                         welcomed!
Membership to the Bermuda Fry-Angle Aquarium Society is open to                                         We welcome contributions
any resident of Bermuda who has an interest in tropical fish. The annual                                 to Fish Tales, including
membership fee is $20. The Society’s financial year runs from April 1st                                 articles, comments, book
to March 31st.                                                                                           or equipment reviews,
Meetings are held on the third Friday of every month. Meeting place                                        letters, crosswords,
is either the Police Recreation Club or the Lecture Rooms, behind the                                        puzzles etc.…
Bermuda Aquarium, Museum & Zoo. Occasionally meetings are held
elsewhere. Check the “meeting” column in this newsletter for details of
                                                                                                        Any contributions should
upcoming meetings.
                                                                                                               be sent to
If you would like further information please contact:                                                       PETER	MARSH	
	                  Walter Welch.,	Membership Coordinator
                                                                                                           P.O.	BOX	HM	744	
                   at 292-3828(w)
                   or                                                                                      HAMILTON	HM	CX	
                   email:                                                              or Email:

                                     Reprint Policy
                                                                                                            PLEASE	NOTIFY		
Unless otherwise stated, articles appearing in Fish Tales have been                                             IF	YOUR		
written by local (Bermuda) authors. These articles may be reprinted.
Should another aquarium society decide to reprint an article we ask that                                  MAILING	ADDRESS		
they provide us with two copies of the publication containing the re-print                                  HAS	CHANGED
(one copy for the author, one copy for our Society). We will abide by the
same conditions when re-printing articles from other publications.
P BOX Wk 272
We ’ r e o n t h e We b !
w w w. f r y a n g l e . c o m
                                              NEXT MEETING
                                        Friday August 21st, 2007 • 8pm 
                                      Horticultural Hall, Botanical Gardens
                                             GUEST SPEAkER
LOCALLY PRINTED MATERIAL         World-renowned	cichlid	expert	Ad	Konings

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