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					                                                                               Moreland Bike Plan June 2000




STATUS OF THIS DOCUMENT


              Council endorsed and adopted the Moreland Bike Plan as Council policy on 13th June 2000.




              Copies of this document are available at Moreland libraries, Moreland Council Service
              Centres and via Moreland Council’s homepage <http://www.moreland.vic.gov.au>
              Copies can be mailed on request. Please contact Pauline Kiely on 92401162 or by email
              <info@moreland.vic.gov.au>




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Contents

                               Acknowledgments                                                          v

                               Executive Summary                                                       vi

                               1. Summary of Recommendations                                           1
                                  1.1 Recommendations For Improving the Bicycle Network                1
                                  1.2 Recommendations For Encouraging Bicycle Use in Moreland          1
                                      Bicycle Programs For Youth                                       1
                                      Recreation Programs                                              1
                                      Promotional Activities                                           1
                                      Management                                                       1
                                  1.3 Recommendations For Designing Bicycle Facilities in New
                                  Developments                                                         2
                                  1.4 Implementing the Bike Plan                                       2

                               2. Introduction                                                         3
                                  2.1 Benefits of Cycling                                              3
                                       Global Trends                                                   3
                                  2.2 Moreland‟s Urban Character and Geography                         4
                                  2.3 Bicycle Policy Frameworks                                        4
                                       The Sydney Road and Upfield Corridor Improvement Strategy       5
                                  2.4 Previous Bike Plans                                              5
                                  2.5 Objectives of the Moreland Bike Plan                             6

                               3. Development of the Moreland Bike Plan                                7
                                  3.1 Public Consultation                                              7
                                      Bicycle Victoria Member Questionnaire                            7
                                      BUG Pamphlets                                                    8
                                      Newspaper and Newsletter Articles                                8
                                      Meetings                                                         8
                                  3.2 Field Surveys                                                    8
                                      Bicycle Routes                                                   8
                                      Merri Creek                                                      8

                               4. Bicycle Use in Moreland                                             10
                                  4.1 Bicycle Networks                                                10
                                      The Moreland Bicycle Network                                    10
                                      The Principal Bicycle Network                                   14
                                  4.2 Cycling Patterns                                                14
                                      The Victorian Activity and Travel Survey                        14
                                      Metropolitan-Wide Comparisons at a Glance                       14
                                      Bicycle Ownership                                               14
                                      Travel Modes                                                    15
                                      Bicycle Trip Lengths                                            15
                                      Bicycle Trip Purposes                                           15

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                             Demographic Profiles of Moreland‟s Cyclists                      16
                             Destinations                                                     17
                         4.3 A Profile of Recreational Cycling in Moreland                    20
                             The Merri Creek Survey                                           20
                             Profile of Merri Creek Path Users                                20
                             Suggestions For Improvement To The Merri Creek Path              22
                         4.4 The Sydney Road/Upfield Corridor                                 22
                         4.5 Adjacent Municipalities                                          23
                             Melbourne                                                        23
                             Yarra                                                            23
                             Darebin                                                          23
                             Hume                                                             23
                             Moonee Valley                                                    23

                       5. Improving the Bicycle Network                                   24
                          5.1 Opportunities For Network Improvement                       24
                               Upfield Path                                               24
                               Sydney Road Between Brunswick Road and Bell Street         25
                               Sydney Road North of Bell Street                           25
                               Royal Park to Moonee Ponds Creek Off-Road Link             26
                               Brunswick/Brunswick East                                   26
                               Brunswick West                                             27
                               Coburg/Coburg North/Pascoe Vale/Pascoe Vale South          27
                               Glenroy/Fawkner                                            27
                          5.2 Works Program                                               27
                               Typical Treatments                                         27
                               Unit Rates                                                 28
                               Costed Program                                             28
                          5.3 Signing Routes                                              28
                          5.4 Using Laneways to Improve the Connectivity of the Bicycle
                          Network                                                         29
                               Recommendation                                             29
                          5.5 Contra-Flow in One-Way Streets: Safety and Legal Issues     29
                          5.6 Guidelines For Staging and Budgeting the Works Program      29
                          5.7 Shared Pathway Maintenance Budget                           30
                          5.8 Maintenance Items Submitted to Council during Consultation on
                          Previous Draft of Bike Plan                                     30

                       6. Encouraging Bicycle Use in Moreland                              40
                          6.1 Factors Discouraging People From Cycling                     40
                          6.2 Cyclist Types and Needs                                      40
                          6.3 Cycling Provisions in the New Australian Road Rules          41
                          6.4 Moreland Council‟s Bicycle Programs for Youth                41
                          6.5 Moreland Council‟s Recreation Programs                       42
                          6.6 Leading By Example: Moreland City Council‟s Cycling Incentive
                          Schemes                                                          43
                          6.7 Promotional Activities                                       44
                          6.8 Shared Pathway Codes                                         44
                          6.9 Targets and Monitoring                                       45
                          6.10 Moreland‟s Street Landscape Strategy                        45

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                                      Centre-Of-The-Road Treatments                                     45
                                      Recommendation                                                    46
                                 6.11 Making Streets More Bicycle-Friendly                              46
                                 6.12 Bicycle Parking                                                   47
                                      Recommendation                                                    47
                                 6.13 Moving Towards an Integrated Transport Network                    47

                               7. Bicycle Facilities in New Urban Developments                          49
                                  7.1 Purpose                                                           49
                                  7.2 Existing Policy and Legislation                                   49
                                  7.3 What This Policy Applies To                                       50
                                  7.4 Bicycle Links in New Large-Scale Developments                     50
                                  7.5 Bicycle Parking Facilities                                        50
                                      Definitions                                                       50
                                      Location of Bicycle Parking Facilities                            50
                                      Bicycle Parking Ratios                                            51
                                  7.6 Design Principles for Bicycle Parking Facilities                  53
                                      Long Term (Class 1)                                               53
                                      Short Term (Class 2)                                              53
                                  7.7 Recommendations For Policy Implementation                         54

                               8. Appendices                                                            55
                                  8.1 Appendix A                                                        55
                                  8.2 Appendix B                                                        55
                                  8.3 Appendix C                                                        55
                                  8.4 Appendix D                                                        55
                                  8.5 Appendix E                                                        55
                                  8.6 Appendix F                                                        55
                                  8.7 Appendix G                                                        55




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Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the following people for their valuable input to the Moreland Bike Plan:

    The Bike Plan Steering Committee: Cr Andy Ingham, Peter Mollison, Nicholas Elliot, Jenny
     McMahon, Craig Midgley, Denise Turner, Michael Smit, Brendan Grace (VicRoads) and Craig
     Pierce;
    Nicholas Elliot, Moreland‟s Transport Coordinator for managing the project, providing useful
     information and assisting with meetings and surveys;
    Council‟s youth and recreation staff;
    Juan Martorana from Bicycle Victoria for facilitating the questionnaire mail-outs;
    Ross Parks and John Harland of BrunsBUG, and Elaine Cairns of CoBUG for assistance with
     publicity and helpful suggestions;
    Over 200 members of the Moreland community who contributed suggestions to the Bike Plan.




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Executive Summary
The Moreland Bike Plan                            cyclists make more bicycle trips and travel
sets out a series of                              further than the average cyclist in Melbourne.
practical steps for                               Moreland‟s cyclists are marginally older than
implementing the cycling                          others in Melbourne, with three quarters of
directions set by the                             cycling trips being made by males. The
Moreland Integrated                               following table summarises bicycle usage
Transport Strategy (MITS).                        patterns in Moreland.
It includes a full                                Table i: Bicycle Use Comparisons
engineering works program                                                     Moreland       All Melbourne
for 1999-2004 and beyond,                          % of households with at
                                                   least one bicycle            44%              50%
as well as suggestions for promoting cycling
in the municipality.                               Number of bicycles per
                                                   household                    0.81              1.2

The Bike Plan is based on the outcomes of          Number of bicycles per
extensive public consultation and field            person                       0.31              0.4
surveys. These included:                           Proportion of trips made
 questionnaires mailed to over 500                by bicycle                   3%               2%
    cyclists;
                                                   Proportion of trips
 a series of public meetings;                     greater than 3 km            33%              28%
 notices placed in Council publications
    and libraries;                                 Average cyclist age
                                                                                30                27
 discussions with Brunswick and Coburg
    Bicycle User Group (BUG) members;              Proportion of
 a track-side survey of recreational and          male/female cyclists        75/25            75/25
    commuter cyclists on the Merri Creek
    Path;
 field assessment of all nominated bicycle       The engineering works program includes sixty
    routes in Moreland.                           prioritised projects that will contribute to a
                                                  safer and more continuous network of cycling
Previous bicycle strategies developed a           routes in Moreland (see page 32). The works
network of priority cycling routes in Moreland.   program focuses on the following priorities:
These routes have been the focus of
engineering works, line-marking and signage            projects that promote a safer network –
improvements in this Bike Plan. This Plan also          these will not only reduce potential injury
expands the priority network to include key             and property damage, but may help to
connecting streets in Oak Park near Moonee              encourage those who perceive cycling as
Ponds Creek. The Bike Plan also                         “unsafe” in Moreland;
recommends that the VicRoads Principal                 projects that complete missing links in
Bicycle Network be extended to include                  the bike network, such as sections of the
additional arterial roads in Glenroy and                Upfield Path;
Brunswick.                                             projects that improve linkages to
                                                        surrounding municipalities.
The engineering and encouragement
programs have been designed with the profile      The total works program would cost between
of Moreland‟s cyclists in mind. Although          $3 million and $4 million. With Council‟s
Moreland has slightly lower bicycle ownership     current bicycle funding of $250,000 per year,
rates than the rest of Melbourne, Moreland‟s      all the highest priority items could be

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completed in the first year following release of
the Bike Plan. Most other small and medium
projects could be finished by 2002.
Depending on contributions from other
funding sources, the entire works program
could be completed in an 8-10 year time
frame.

Council can encourage cycling in Moreland
by supplementing its existing youth and
recreation programs with bicycle-related
activities. Examples include bicycle skills,
maintenance and health workshops,
improvements to bike parking at recreational
facilities and regular bike rides linked with
public events. When new bicycle
infrastructure is opened, public celebrations
will help to raise public awareness of bike
facilities and promote cycling.

As Council implements the Bike Plan, it will be
important that cyclists‟ needs are taken into
account when Council approves new
developments and street upgrades, including
a checklist of common problems encountered
by cyclists that can be avoided when traffic
engineering works are designed and
constructed. The final chapter outlines a
policy for the inclusion of bicycle facilities in
new developments, with a particular focus on
bicycle parking.




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Document History and Status
 Issue             Rev.         Issued To               Qty     Date            Reviewed                  Approved
 Draft              1           Moreland City Council     2     3 Sept 1999     Steering Committee
                                VicRoads (NW Metro)       1     3 Sept 1999
 Draft              2           Moreland City Council     1     22 Oct 1999     Steering Committee
 Draft              3           Moreland City Council     1     26 Nov 1999     Released for public
                                                                                comment. Reviewed by
                                                                                Council officers and
                                                                                Steering Committee.
 Draft              4           Moreland City Council     1     24 May 2000




 Printed:                            3 September 1999 4:10 PM
 Last Saved:                         6 July 2011 8:21 PM
 File Name:                          I:\MELB\ME01660\REP99_05.24\R22cdmbp.doc

 Project Manager:                    Craig McPherson
 Name of                             Moreland City Council
 Organisation:
 Name of Project:                    Moreland Bike Plan
 Name of Document:
 Document Version:                   Draft Final
 Project Number:                     ME01660




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1. Summary of Recommendations
This chapter summarises the main                        Continue to give priority to cycling
recommendations of this Bike Plan. They                  facilities in the Upfield corridor.
include actions that will be the most cost-
effective and practical within the available       1.2      Recommendations For Encouraging
budget over the next five years.                         Bicycle Use in Moreland

1.1      Recommendations For Improving the         Bicycle Programs For Youth
      Bicycle Network                                   Develop programs that have the following
                                                         elements (page 40):
     Complete approximately sixty
      engineering projects over the next 8-10
                                                            a target group having a pre-existing
                                                             interest in bikes;
      years at an estimated cost between $3
      million and $4 million. High priority                 bikes provided by the participants
      projects should be completed first, with               rather than by Council;
      medium and low priority projects carried              health, fitness and diet incorporated
      out later as funds allow.                              into the program;
                                                            bike maintenance, safe-riding skills
      The complete engineering works                         and other bike activities included.
      program starts on page 32.
                                                   Recreation Programs
     Initiate funding applications for projects
      to be financed by other organisations as          Develop more secure bike parking at
      soon as practicable.                               each recreation centre. This would occur
     Stage high-cost projects, such as the              on a site-by-site basis through
      widening of the Merri Creek Path, over a           consultation with the local bicycle users
      number of years as funds allow.                    and management of each centre (page
     Plan bike projects to coincide with                42).
      related development projects (for                 Review bike parking at outdoor
      example, new land developments,                    swimming pools (page 42).
      Sydney Road improvements and                      Develop a BMX / skateboard facility
      resurfacing of streets).                           funded jointly with Youth and Recreation
     Establish a shared path maintenance                (page 42).
      capital budget of $10,000 p.a.                    Upgrade bicycle route signage near
     Establish a sign capital budget of                 recreation and sporting centres (page
      $15,000 p.a.                                       42).
     Continue capital spending on the bicycle          Investigate possible recreational loop
      network at the current rate ($250,000              routes and sign them (page 42).
      p.a.).
                                                   Promotional Activities
     Extend the nominated Moreland bicycle
      route network to include areas of Oak             Combine bike activities (typically rides)
      Park (as shown on Map 4.1).                        with neighbourhood picnics, festivals and
     Request that VicRoads add Boundary                 the like (page 42).
      Road/Pascoe Street/Rhodes Parade and              Publicly celebrate the completion of
      the Melville Rd/Dawson St/Grantham St              bicycle facilities, including rides and
      connection to the Principal Bicycle                newspaper publicity (page 43).
      Network.


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Management
     Develop a shared pathway code (page
      44).
     Advocate for responsible footway cycling
      to be made an option for all cyclists
      (page 36).
     Raise awareness of the bike provisions in
      the Moreland Street Landscape Strategy
      with Council staff (page 45).

1.3      Recommendations For Designing
      Bicycle Facilities in New Developments

     Trial the bicycle policy for new land use
      and developments (see page 49 and
      following pages) and refine as necessary.
      This policy will ensure all new
      development applications consider
      bicycle transport and provide adequate
      bicycle parking facilities.
     Council will monitor and investigate
      opportunities provided by re-
      developments in strategic areas to add
      to, and/or upgrade, the existing laneway
      network.


1.4       Implementing the Bike Plan

Table 1.1 suggests the Council departments
that could be responsible for implementing
each aspect of the Bike Plan. Naturally there
will be cases where recommendations could
be acted upon by more than one area.

Table 1.1: Council Department Responsibilities
           Aspect of Plan            Responsible Department
 Engineering works program                 City Works

 Youth, recreation and cycling         Social Development
 promotion programs

 Designing bicycle-friendly street         City Works
 environments

 Bicycle policy for land use and     City Works/City Strategy
 development planning

 Bicycle parking                     City Works/City Strategy




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2. Introduction
The Moreland Bike Plan was commissioned             illustrated that high levels of cycling that can
by Moreland City Council to implement the           be achieved when cycling is promoted, car
cycling objectives contained in the Moreland        use discouraged and a bicycle-friendly
Integrated Transport Strategy (MITS). One of        environment created.
the stated aims of MITS is:
                                                    These countries cater for cycling in an
“To improve the continuity and perceived            integrated way, with cyclists being designed
safety of the on- and off-road cycling network      for, along with pedestrians, motor vehicles
in the municipality, to enable a greater            and public transport, as one of the accepted
proportion of short trips to be made by             travel modes.
bicycle.”
                                                    England and the USA are also now heavily
The Bike Plan sets out a series of practical        promoting travel modes such as cycling due
measures that will contribute towards the           to concerns about urban air quality, and
accomplishment of this aim. The Plan                moves towards environmental sustainability in
examines existing bike use in Moreland,             conjunction with traffic reduction. These
recommends a program of works that will             initiatives are centred on urban areas, but
improve the continuity of the cycling network,      both countries are also putting considerable
and gives guidelines for general street works       resources into rural bicycle routes. In both
and bicycle facility design.                        the UK and USA, rural route networks are
                                                    largely based on disused rail lines. In the UK,
2.1     Benefits of Cycling                         the National Cycle Network is being funded
                                                    as a Millennium Project with 3,000 miles to be
With car use expected to grow significantly in      completed by mid 2000.
Melbourne between 1995 and 2011,
encouraging cycling is in the community‟s           The UK National Bicycle Strategy aims to
interest. Cycling offers many benefits:             double cycling from 1996 to 2002, and again
                                                    by 2012. This will be assisted by the1997
     it is convenient, relatively quick in         Traffic Reduction Act which requires local
      congested traffic conditions and enables      authorities to set targets for the reduction of
      easy parking;                                 traffic levels.
     it is effectively pollution free;
     it can reduce congestion when car trips       In the USA, federal transportation money can
      are replaced by cycling trips;                be spent on bicycle transportation. The 1998
     it promotes health, fitness and well-being    Transport Equity Act states that:
      (according to the British Medical
      Association, cycling 32 kilometres per        “bicycles and pedestrians shall be given due
      week could potentially halve the risk of      consideration in the comprehensive
      heart attack);                                transportation plans developed by each
     it is low-cost and equitable;                 metropolitan planning organisation and State.
     it is quiet;                                  Bicycle transportation facilities and pedestrian
     it may be integrated with public transport;   walkways shall be considered, where
     it requires little road and parking space.    appropriate, in conjunction with all new
                                                    construction and reconstruction of
Global Trends                                       transportation facilities, except where bicycle
European countries such as The Netherlands,         and pedestrian use are not permitted.”
Denmark, Germany and Sweden have

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In summary, growing concern about traffic
congestion, air quality and global warming is          Australia Cycling (the National Strategy)
adding to the growing desire and actions to             is implemented and reviewed in a
increase cycling. Moreland‟s approach to                coordinated and collaborative manner;
Bike Planning - increasingly integrated into           policy and planning integrates cycling as
overall transportation planning - is consistent         a valued element;
with worldwide trends.                                 facilities exist that support increased
                                                        cycling;
2.2     Moreland’s Urban Character and                 safety for cyclists, on and off road, is
      Geography                                         continuously improved;
                                                       the benefits of cycling are recognised by
Moreland‟s topography, extensive network of             decision makers and the Australian
recreational paths and its location within the          community;
Melbourne metropolitan area tend to support            cycling is incorporated into all
walking and cycling both for commuting and              appropriate areas of education, training
for recreation. In Moreland, every second               and professional development.
household owns at least one bike and it has
been estimated that 20 percent of the               At a local level, one of Council‟s key
population ride at least once a week. Related       commitments in Moreland City Plan is
to this is the high percentage of Moreland‟s        ensuring the long-term sustainability of
households, 19%, which do not own a motor           infrastructure, heritage, waste disposal,
vehicle. This accounts for the higher than          energy use, the natural environment and
average numbers of people who walk or ride          transport. Cycling will be an important
to work as compared to the Melbourne                component of a more sustainable transport
statistical average.                                system within the City. Moreland City Plan
                                                    envisions a City in which:
One of the main strategic objectives in
Council‟s 20-year vision for Moreland‟s open        “Traffic flows on Moreland streets are
space system is the provision of better access      controlled and public transport and bicycle
for pedestrians and cyclists. These linkages        paths are visible and easy-to-access features
are intended to provide safe connections            across the municipality.”
between open space, residential areas and
activity centres for pedestrians and cyclists. In   “Council imagines a city where people
addition Council is committed through its           choose to make their shorter trips (5 to 7
Local Agenda 21 process, to encouraging             kilometres) by public transport, walking or
environmentally sustainable practices. If there     cycling. The Moreland Integrated Transport
is even a small reduction in vehicle use by         Strategy proposes moving a significant
encouraging people to leave the car at home,        proportion of travel away from cars and trucks
there will be significant reduction in local        to our trams, trains, buses, bicycles and
pollution and energy costs.                         footpaths. This will be integrated with urban
                                                    planning in the way we cluster development
2.3     Bicycle Policy Frameworks                   near transport corridors, provide easier
                                                    pedestrian and cycling access in existing and
The National Cycling Strategy and State             new street layouts, and the way we design
Planning Framework lay out specific goals           and manage space in strip shopping centres.”
and objectives for enhancing cycling at a
national and state level respectively.              The Moreland Integrated Transport Strategy
                                                    (MITS) is a key part of Moreland City
The National Strategy contains the following        Council‟s strategic planning effort for
objectives1:                                        accomplishing the objectives of Moreland City
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Plan. The following extracts from the Mayor‟s           to use prominent signage to increase the
foreword to the MITS report summarise its                visibility and convey the legitimacy of
main themes.                                             cycling;
                                                        to provide secure, well-sited bike
“The primary objective of the Strategy is to             parking.
improve access to social, cultural and
economic life in Moreland and across               The Sydney Road and Upfield Corridor
Melbourne at the same time as minimising the       Improvement Strategy
financial, human and environmental costs of        Part C of MITS makes specific reference to
that access…”                                      the Sydney Road and Upfield railway corridor.
                                                   Sydney Road forms the central spine and the
“Making our City more livable will require us      identity of the southern parts of Moreland.
to face the challenge posed by the continued       Council has commissioned a series of studies
growth in travel generally and the use of the      and projects to develop its potential2. These
private motor vehicle in particular. Today,        relate to the rejuvenation of land use,
motor vehicles are used for 90% of all trips in    community development and transport. A
metropolitan Melbourne. Unfortunately, the         series of proposals have been generated,
economic, social and environmental costs of        including the removal of the existing peak-
this reliance on the car are too high…”            period clearways on weekdays.

“Changes to our transport networks,                This Bike Plan takes into account the
combined with land-use policies and                recommendations for the Sydney Road and
education and awareness programs that              Upfield corridor currently being considered by
reduce demand for car travel, can deliver a        Council.
system in which the reliance on vehicle
transport is reduced…”                             2.4     Previous Bike Plans

“This does not make for an „anti-car‟ Strategy.    This Plan also draws on earlier plans
Motor vehicles will remain the most frequently     established in the late 1980s and early 1990s
used form of transport. However, small             for the former municipalities of Brunswick,
changes in the „mix‟ of transport modes used       Coburg and Broadmeadows (partial)3. Many
in Moreland will deliver significant benefits.”    practical improvements to assist cyclists were
                                                   made as a result of these previous plans.
Cycling will play an important part in creating
the desired change in the mix of transport
modes used in Moreland. The cycling
directions contained in MITS reflect the
National and State strategies, and are the
basis for the actions contained in this Bike
Plan. The specific cycling objectives set out in
MITS are:

    providing bike lanes to separate cyclists
     from cars where possible;
    to create a safe and continuous network,
     including removal of obstacles to cycling
     and calming of traffic in non-arterial        These plans were reviewed and relevant
     streets,                                      points included in this Bike Plan. This Plan
    to give cyclists reasonable priority at       updates the earlier bike plans by integrating
     traffic signals;                              the previously separate geographical areas

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and incorporating recent developments in the
art of bike planning.

2.5      Objectives of the Moreland Bike Plan

The brief for the consultant‟s contribution to
the formulation of the Bike Plan lists the
following expected outcomes:

“The Moreland Bike Plan will:
 integrate with Council‟s existing planning
    framework;
 be informed by the latest developments
    and thinking in bike planning from
    Australia and the world;
 build upon and update the existing bike
    plans for Brunswick, Coburg and
    Broadmeadows;
 contain practical, safe, innovative and
    relevant designs, information and
    recommendations;
 take into account Council‟s current work
    structure to ensure that planning and
    implementation of the bike network is
    integrated into existing work practices, or
    recommend changes to ensure this
    happens;
 will be based on extensive consultation
    within and without the Moreland
    community, with cyclists and non-
    cyclists.”


Notes

1
  AustRoads (1999), „Australia Cycling 1999-2004 The National
Strategy‟, Sydney.
2
  Jamieson Foley & Associates (1999), „Sydney Road/Upfield
Corridor Transport Improvements: Options for Implementation
Final Report‟, Jamieson Foley & Associates, Sydney.
3
  See: Moreland City Council (1992), „Review of the Strategic
Bicycle Plans For the Cities of Brunswick, Coburg and
Northcote: A Report by the Local Area Bicycle Coordinator for
the Co-ordinating Committee (Brunswick Version)‟.




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3. Development of the Moreland Bike Plan
This Moreland Bike Plan is based on a             Bicycle Victoria Member Questionnaire
process that involved many people –               The questionnaire sent to Bicycle Victoria
residents, cyclists, traffic engineers,           members captured cyclists‟ opinions on how
councillors, youth workers and recreation         the Moreland bicycle network could be
planners. The main elements of the process        improved. Along with these comments,
are described in this chapter. In summary, we     cyclists were asked for some basic
collated information from previous Bike Plans,    information about themselves and details of
identified problems in discussions with active    their cycling routes. A copy of the
cyclists, collected survey data and assembled     questionnaire is found in Appendix A.
a strategy to guide Council over the next five
years.                                            Questionnaires were sent to 523 Bicycle
                                                  Victoria member households in Moreland
The following sections describe the various       and, of these, 211 were returned.
information-gathering processes that were         Approximately 100 households expressed an
used to guide the development of the Bike         interest in attending public meetings. The
Plan.                                             response rates for each locality are shown in
                                                  Figure 3.1.
3.1     Public Consultation

Public consultation and field surveys provided
                                                  Figure 3.1: Questionnaire Response Rates
important information about cyclists‟
perceptions of the bicycle and vehicle
network, and areas where cycling is                                           Resp onse Ra tes
particularly hazardous. The surveys also
                                                                          Fawkner                                           4
collected information about the ages and
                                                                        Brunswick                                    86
cycling habits of Moreland‟s cyclists.
                                                      Coburg, Newlands, Merlynston                                   37

                                                                   Brunswick West                               28
Cyclists and non-cyclists were invited to take
                                                    Pascoe Vale, Pascoe Vale South                         23
part in a public consultation process by
                                                                    Brunswick East                       25
several means:                                                                                                        Number of
                                                        Glenroy, Hadfield, O Park
                                                                            ak                  7
                                                                                                                      responses
                                                        Gladstone Park, Tullamarine         2
     a questionnaire sent to all Bicycle
      Victoria members in Moreland;                                                   0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

     a pamphlet sent to all Bicycle User Group                                                     Response rate

      (BUG) members in Brunswick and
      Coburg;
     newspaper articles in each of the local     Most responses came from the southern parts
      newspapers.                                 of the municipality, reflecting the large
                                                  numbers of Bicycle Victoria members in these
Two sets of public meetings were held after       areas. Accordingly, many of the respondents
the initial publicity had been sent out – one     reported problems in the southern suburbs.
set early in the preparation of the Bike Plan
(July 1999), and the other set later to review    Although a wide range of opinions were
the draft engineering and encouragement           expressed, there were a number of common
strategies (August 1999).                         themes reported by respondents. These
                                                  included the following:


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                                                  A number of residents (both cyclists and non-
    The Upfield Path is disjointed between       cyclists) telephoned and wrote comments in
     Albion Street and Victoria Street.           response to the articles. Most of the callers
    There are long delays on the Upfield Path    expressed an interest in attending the July
     at the Park Street railway crossing.         public meetings.
    Safety and lighting are of concern on the
     Upfield Path.                                Meetings
    Albion Street is narrow and has a            Two sets of public meetings were held; one
     particularly rough surface east of Sydney    set in July and the other set in August. The
     Road.                                        July meetings canvassed cyclists‟ opinions
    Centre-of-the-road tree plantings in         on the current state of the bicycle network,
     Ewing Street push cars closer to cyclists.   and included a presentation of the
    The Grantham Street/Dawson Street            questionnaire findings.
     intersection is difficult to negotiate by
     bike.                                        At the August meetings, a set of draft
    Motorists turning from Park Street into      engineering works and encouragement
     Lygon and Nicholson Streets often fail to    programs were presented to attendees.
     stop at the bike/pedestrian signals on the   Cyclists at the meeting provided valuable
     Capital City Trail.                          feedback on the priorities of the proposed
    There is a lack of on-road bicycle           engineering and encouragement programs,
     facilities in the Pascoe Vale area.          and gave further ideas for projects that could
    The Merri Creek Path is too narrow in        be included in the engineering program.
     some sections.                               Summaries of the meeting discussions are
    More directional signage would be            contained in Appendix B.
     useful, as well as more frequent path
     maintenance.                                 3.2     Field Surveys
BUG Pamphlets                                     Bicycle Routes
Members of the Brunswick and Coburg BUGs          An extensive field survey of Moreland‟s
were separately invited to offer comments         designated cycling routes was undertaken to
and attend the public meeting in July. A copy     assess:
of the invitation is included in Appendix A.
                                                       how well-connected each route is;
The BUG pamphlet response was quite low                locations of cycling hazards, such as
(12 responses), however many BUG                        narrow carriageways, rough pavement
members are also Bicycle Victoria members,              surfaces and intersections with limited
and chose to respond to the more extensive              crossing points;
questionnaire sent to Bicycle Victoria                 opportunities for improvement, such as
members instead of the pamphlet.                        kerbing redesign, introduction of bike
                                                        and parking lanes and better signage.
Newspaper and Newsletter Articles
Notices were placed in the “Moreland              Relevant features were photographed and
Update” section of each of the local              annotated at regular intervals along each
newspapers in the municipality. These invited     route.
interested residents to attend the public
meetings. Notices were also distributed to        Merri Creek
local libraries and Council offices.              A supplementary survey of cyclists on the
                                                  Merri Creek Path was conducted to gain a
                                                  better appreciation of recreational path use.

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This survey complements an earlier survey of
the Upfield Path by Council.

The Merri Creek survey involved interviews
with approximately 120 cyclists near Coburg
Lake and on the southern Brunswick section
of the track. The survey was undertaken on a
fine Sunday afternoon (29 August) and the
following Monday afternoon to obtain a mix of
recreational and commuter cyclists. The
outcomes of the survey are presented in
section 4.3.




A cyclist completing a survey near Coburg Lake




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4. Bicycle Use in Moreland
4.1     Bicycle Networks                             In addition, a contra-flow bicycle lane has
                                                     been marked in Truscott Street, Brunswick.
The Moreland Bicycle Network
The Moreland bicycle route network (see
Figure 4.1) has its origins in the networks
developed for the Brunswick and Coburg
Strategic Bike Plans in 1988. Engineering
works have concentrated on upgrading these
routes along quiet local streets and off-road
routes in recreational areas to encourage less
confident riders to cycle. Works have also
made arterial roads safer for more
experienced cyclists.

The on-road network tends to include local
streets that run parallel to main arterial routes,   Shared bicycle and parking lane on Albert Street,
particularly in the southern section of the          Brunswick
municipality. In the less-congested northern
section, the bicycle network follows                 The main off-road routes in Moreland are
secondary arterial and main collector roads.         used mainly for recreational use and provide
                                                     a traffic-free environment for children and
The previous plans recognise that „every             groups to ride. The off-road routes are:
street is a cycling street‟. The nominated
bicycle routes are those routes that form                the Merri Creek Path between St Georges
connective routes across the municipality,                Road and the Western Ring Road (one
tend to assist less confident cyclists,                   section between Harding Street and
encourage non-cyclists and are being signed               Moreland Road and another near
to help cyclists navigate.                                Lakeside College in Reservoir pass
                                                          through the neighbouring City of
Experienced cyclists usually prefer direct                Darebin);
routes with minimal stops to cross busy                  the Upfield Path running parallel to the
roads, and often use arterials such as Sydney             Upfield railway line between Park Street,
Road and Melville Road, even though these                 Brunswick, and Boundary Road, Coburg
are not specifically included in the designated           North;
bicycle network.                                         the Moonee Ponds Creek Path between
                                                          Devereaux Street, Glenroy, and the
On-road bicycle and parking lanes currently               Western Ring Road (the southern section
exist on:                                                 of the path passes through the
                                                          neighbouring City of Moonee Valley);
     Brunswick Road between Stranger Street             the Western Ring Road Path between
      and Amess Street;                                   Jacana railway station and Merri Creek;
     Daly Street between Dawson Street and              the Capital City Trail on the southern
      Victoria Street;                                    border of Moreland;
     Albert Street west of Gardiner Street;             various short sections of path through
     Sussex Street south of Gaffney Street.              parks and reserves around the
                                                          municipality.


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The Moreland bicycle network will be updated
(as shown in Figure 4.1) to include new links
and areas currently not covered by the
network. These are:

    “missing links” on the Upfield Pathway
     and an extension to the Western Ring Rd;
    through Oak Park and Glenroy to access
     the Moonee Ponds Creek Path;
    an additional link near Allard Park in
     Brunswick to connect to the Merri Creek;
    an off-road link from Park Street
     Brunswick to Moonee Ponds Creek,
     under Brunswick Road.




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Figure 4.1: The Moreland Bicycle Network




                                                                                                                                                                     HUME HW
                                                                                                                                                                                 WESTERN RIN




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                                    D
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                                                                                                 WEST ST
           AMAR




                                                         PLUM
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              FWY




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                                                                                                                                                                                 SYDNEY
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                                                                                                               LAND RD




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                                                                            AM                                                                                                                                MURR
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                                                                               AR                                                                                                                                                                MURRAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RD
                                                                                 INE
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                                                                                       FR BELL
                                                                                         WY    ST


                                                                                                                                                                                          BELL ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                              BELL ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ON ST
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                                                                                                                                                                                   RD
                                                                                                                                                                                 SYDNEY
                                                                                         TUL




   NOT E:
                                                                                            LAM




   Every street is a cycling street and the                                                                                                               MORELA
                                                                                               AR




                                                                                                                                LE RD




                                                                                                                                                                ND RD
   needs of cyclists should be considered on every
                                                                                                             INE




                                                ALBION
                                                       ST
   street.                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MORELA
                                                                                                                FRW



                                                                                                                         MELVIL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ND RD
                                                                                                                                                    ALBION
                                                                                                                   Y




                                                                                                                                                              ST
   T he bicycle routes marked on this map are continuous
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ST
                                                                                          TULLAMARINE FRWY




                                                                                                                                                                                                             MES




   routes along lightly trafficked streets. T hey are intended for
                                                                                                                                                                                                          HOL




   cyclists who need to navigate outside familiar
                                                                                                                                            VICTO
   territory and cyclists who feel less confident on busy roads.                                                                                          RIA S
                                                                                                                                                               T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   BLYTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ON ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ST
   T hese routes will eventually be signposted to                                                                        DAWSO
                                                                                                                               N                     ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NICHOLS




   assist cyclists and special attention will be given
                                                                                                                                                  AM ST




                                                                                                                                                                                             GLENLY
   to cycling conditions along these routes.                                           BRU                                                                                                                 ON RD
                                                                                          NSW
                                                                                                                                            GRANTH




                                                                                              ICK
                                                                                                  RD
   Some bicycle routes not shown here will be important                                                                                                      BRUNS
                                                                                                                                                                  WICK R
                                                                                                                                                                        D
   locally or significant to cyclists in heavy traffic.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ON ST
                                                                                                                                                                                               LYGON ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NICHOLS




                        Existing Moreland bicycle routes

                       Proposed additional routes
                        Linking points to surrounding municipalities




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Figure 4.2: The Principal Bicycle Network (VicRoads 1995)




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                                       D
                                  ING R
                             ERN R
                         WEST




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       TULL




                                                                               GLENR
                                                                                    OY RD




                                                                                                   T
           AMAR




                                                                                             WEST S
                                                       PLUM
                                           PASCOE
               INE F




                                                                                                                                      EAST ST
                                                           PTON
                    WY




                                                  VA



                                                              AV
                                               LE RD




                                                                                                                                                                        SYDNEY
                                                                                   PASCOE
                                                                                          ST
                                                                                                                                                      BOUNDA
                                                                                                                                                             RY RD




                                                                                                                                                                               RD
                                                                                                         D RD




                                                                                                                        DERBY ST
                                                                                                           LAN




                                                                                                                                                                                                RD
                                                                                                     CUMBER




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                                                                     TU
                                                                       LL                                                                                                                               AY RD
                                                                         AM                                                                                                                         MURR
                                                                                                                         ST




                                                                           AR                                                                                                                                                       MURRAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RD
                                                                             INE
                                                                                                                  TURNER




                                                                                   FR BELL
                                                                                     WY    ST


                                                                                                                                                                                BELL ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                    BELL ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                           ON ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                         NICHOLS
                                                                                                                                                                               RD
                                                                                                                                                                        SYDNEY
                                                                                     TUL
                                                                                         LAM




                                                                                                                                                 MORELA
                                                                                            AR




                                                                                                                     RD




                                                                                                                                                       ND RD
                                                                                              INE




                                                                                                                       LE




                                                                        ALBION
                                                                               ST                                                                                                                                       MORELA
                                                                                                                 MELVIL
                                                                                                          FRW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ND RD
                                                                                                                                            ALBION
                                                                                                             Y




                                                                                                                                                      ST
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                                                                                      TULLAMARINE FRWY




                                                                                                                                                                                                   MES
                                                                                                                                                                                                HOL




                                                                                                                                   VICTO
                                                                                                                                                 RIA S
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ON ST




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                                                                                                                       N                    ST
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                                                                                                                                                                                    GLENLY
                                                                                   BRU                                                                                                           ON RD
                                                                                      NSW
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                                                                                          ICK
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                ST
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    
                                Principal Bicycle Network
                                Proposed additions to network




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The Principal Bicycle Network                       ownership statistics are collected as part of
The Principal Bicycle Network (PBN)                 the survey process.
managed by VicRoads consists of
approximately 2,000 km of on-road bicycle           The 1994 and 1995 survey results have been
facilities and 1,000 km of off-road paths           analysed to produce bicycle use and
across Melbourne. Many of the off-road paths        ownership statistics for the City of Moreland.
already exist, but the network of on-road           A sample of 585 Moreland households was
routes is being introduced in stages.               used to generate the statistics. The following
                                                    sections present the statistics and compare
Figure 4.2 shows the nominated PBN routes           them with Melbourne-wide results reported in
in Moreland. Some of the PBN routes                 the VicRoads publication “Cycling in
coincide with the Moreland routes (notably          Melbourne”.1
the off-road paths), but there are several
additional arterial links in the PBN that are not   Metropolitan-Wide Comparisons at a Glance
in the current Moreland network. These are:         Table 4.1 lists selected comparisons between
                                                    bicycle ownership, cycling trip patterns and
     Nicholson Street and Holmes Street            cyclist demographics for the City of Moreland
     Lygon Street                                  and the entire metropolitan area of
     Sydney Road                                   Melbourne.
     Moreland Road
     Albion Street                                 For a more detailed comparison of cycling
     Brunswick Road                                patterns, consult “Cycling in Melbourne” from
                                                    VicRoads.1
We recommend that Council negotiate with            Table 4.1: Cycling Comparisons
VicRoads to include two additional links in the                                 Moreland       All Melbourne
PBN:                                                 % of households with at
                                                     least one bicycle            44%              50%

     the Boundary Road/Pascoe                       Number of bicycles per
      Street/Rhodes Parade link in Pascoe            household                    0.81              1.2

      Vale;                                          Number of bicycles per
     the Melville Road/Dawson                       person                       0.31              0.4
      Street/Grantham Street link in Brunswick       Proportion of trips made
      West.                                          by bicycle                   3%               2%

                                                     Proportion of trips
4.2     Cycling Patterns                             greater than 3 km            33%              28%

The Victorian Activity and Travel Survey             Average cyclist age
                                                                                  30                27
The Victorian Activity and Travel Survey
(VATS) is an ongoing survey of private travel        Proportion of
                                                     male/female cyclists        75/25            75/25
across Melbourne being conducted by the
Transport Research Centre at RMIT
University.                                         Bicycle Ownership

VATS collects information about all the trips       Bicycle ownership in Moreland is slightly
made by each member of a household by all           lower than the city-wide average, with a ratio
transport modes in a given 24 hour period.          of 31 bicycles for every 100 people.
Surveys are conducted every day of the year
across Melbourne. Cycling trips and bicycle


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Table 4.2: Bicycle Ownership                                                     Figure 4.4: Moreland Bicycle Trip Lengths
                                     Moreland                    All Melbourne
 % of households with at
                                                                                                                   30%
 least one bicycle                        44%                         50%
                                                                                                                   25%
 Number of bicycles per




                                                                                      % cyclists per trip length
 household                                0.81                        1.2                                          20%


 Number of bicycles per                                                                                            15%

 person                                   0.31                        0.4                                          10%

                                                                                                                   5%
Travel Modes
                                                                                                                   0%
On average, just under 3% of trips originating




                                                                                                                                                                                          10-11

                                                                                                                                                                                                  11-12
                                                                                                                                                                                   9-10
                                                                                                                         0-1

                                                                                                                               1-2

                                                                                                                                     2-3

                                                                                                                                            3-4

                                                                                                                                                   4-5

                                                                                                                                                         5-6

                                                                                                                                                               6-7

                                                                                                                                                                     7-8

                                                                                                                                                                             8-9
or terminating in Moreland are by bicycle.                                                                                                        Cycling trip length (km)
This compares with a Melbourne-wide
average of approximately 2%. That is,
although ownership rates are a little lower
than the metropolitan average, the use of                                        Bicycle Trip Purposes
bikes is higher.                                                                 Apart from returning home at the end of a trip,
                                                                                 the most common trip purposes are riding to
Figure 4.3: Travel Modes for Trips Originating or                                work and shops, visiting friends and for
Terminating in Moreland                                                          recreation.
                                  Other
                             Bus 1.7%
                                                 Bicycle
                                                 2.8%                            Note that recreational trips may be under-
                        Tram 2.8%
                        5.2%
                                                                                 represented in the following graph, because a
                                                            Walking
                Train                                       21.0%                survey sample of only 20 trips was available
                2.7%
                                                                                 for weekend periods when most recreational
             Car passenger
                                                                                 activity takes place. As a comparison,
                 22.7%                                                           recreational bicycle trips make up
                                                                                 approximately 15-20% of cycling trips across
                                                                                 Melbourne. Note that social trips are treated
                                                                                 separately from recreational trips in the
                                                    Car driver                   diagram below.
                                                     40.9%




Bicycle Trip Lengths
Moreland cyclists typically travel less than 7
kilometres to get to their destinations. The
distribution of trip lengths shown below
indicates that most trips are in the 1-2
kilometre range. The small peak in the 5-6
kilometre range is due, in part, to cyclists
travelling between Brunswick and the
Melbourne central business district (a
distance of about 6 kilometres).




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Figure 4.5: Moreland Bicycle Trip Purposes                                                               Figure 4.7: Moreland Cyclist Gender Profile

                                               Other          Change mode                                                                         Female
                                               0.4%              4.3%                                                                              25%
                                                                               Accompanying
                                  Recreation
                                                                                  others
                                    8.3%
                                                                                   5.3%
                                  Social
                                  8.7%                                          To shops
                                                                                 11.8%
      Personal business
            2.9%

                                                                                       Pickup/delivery
                                                                                            6.1%                                                                                       Male
                                                                                                                                                                                       75%
                                                                                   To education
                                                                                       6.5%
                                                                                                         Just under half of Moreland‟s cyclists are
                                 To home                                     To work                     engaged in education, with significant
                                  35.8%
                                                                                                         numbers of students attending tertiary
                                                                              10.0%


                                                                                                         education institutions. This profile is similar to
Demographic Profiles of Moreland’s Cyclists                                                              the general pattern observed in central and
                                                                                                         inner Melbourne.
Moreland‟s cyclists are typically older than
those in other middle and outer suburbs of
                                                                                                         Figure 4.8: Moreland Cyclist Education Involvement
Melbourne. The peak cycling age range is 30-
39, with a fairly sharp drop in cycling after age
40. The proportion of teenagers cycling is
                                                                                                                                            60%


significantly less than in other middle and
                                                                                                                                            50%
                                                                                                                 % cyclists in education




outer suburbs.
                                                                                                                                            40%

                                                                                                                                            30%

                                                                                                                                            20%
Figure 4.6: Moreland Cyclist Age Profile
                                                                                                                                            10%

                                                                                                                                            0%
                           30%                                                                                                                      Primary     Secondary     Uni, TAFE,     Not at
                                                                                                                                                    school        school         CAE       education
                           25%
       % cyclists by age




                           20%

                           15%                                                                           Moreland has a relatively high proportion of
                           10%                                                                           cyclists who are full-time workers. The
                           5%                                                                            Melbourne-wide trend is for higher numbers
                           0%
                                                                                                         of part-time than full-time workers.
                                 0-9       10-19   20-29     30-39     40-49     60-69      70-79
                                                       Cyclist age (years)
                                                                                                         Figure 4.9: Moreland Cyclist Employment Profile


Three quarters of Moreland‟s cyclists are                                                                                                   60%
                                                                                                                 % cyclists in employment




male, a proportion that is comparable to the                                                                                                50%

Melbourne-wide average.
                                                                                                                                            40%
                                                                                                                                            30%
                                                                                                                                            20%
                                                                                                                                            10%
                                                                                                                                            0%
                                                                                                                                                    Full time   Part time    Full and part Not employed
                                                                                                                                                                                  time
                                                                                                                                                                  Employment status




                                                                                                         Just under two-thirds of cyclists in Moreland
                                                                                                         hold a drivers‟ licence, while approximately

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13% are over 18 years old and do not hold a                                                     the future, later years of VATS data will be
licence. The cyclist licence-holding rates are                                                  examined to gain a better appreciation of
comparable to those found in Melbourne's                                                        weekend cycling trips.
inner suburbs, but are generally higher than                                                    Notes
those in outer suburbs. The older age profile                                                   1
                                                                                                 VicRoads (1999), „Cycling in Melbourne: ownership, use and
of cyclists in Moreland may contribute to the                                                   demographics‟, VicRoads, Kew, Vic. See also the VicRoads
higher licence-holding rates.                                                                   web site at http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au.


Figure 4.10: Moreland Cyclists Holding Drivers'
Licences


                                        70%
         % cyclists by licence status




                                        60%
                                        50%
                                        40%
                                        30%
                                        20%
                                        10%
                                        0%
                                              Car licence   Younger than 18   No car licence,
                                                                               older than 18




Destinations
The maps shown in Figure 4.11 and Figure
4.12 show the distribution of cycling trip
destinations reported in VATS.There is a high
concentration of activity along the Sydney
Road corridor south of Bell Street. This
observation strongly supports Moreland City
Council‟s policies and projects to give priority
to improvements in this area. Council will
continue to give priority to providing cycling
infrastructure in the Upfield corridor.

Other areas of high activity include the
Melbourne central business district, the area
around the University of Melbourne and Royal
Women‟s Hospital, and the residential area in
the vicinity of Melville and Moreland Roads.
Most cycling activity to areas outside of
Moreland was to the south and north. There
were some trips to and from Darebin, but little
activity to the west.

On the weekends, activity appears to be more
concentrated at the boundaries of the
municipality, with a greater proportion of trips
into Darebin than on weekdays. The weekend
results, however, should be treated with
caution because of the low sample size used
to generate these results (20 cycling trips). In

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Figure 4.11: Weekday Destinations Reported in VATS (1994 and 1995)




                                                                               CAMP RD                                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                             RING                  ROAD
                                                                     WESTERN




                                                                                                                          HUME HW
                                                                                      HILTON
                                                                                             ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HIGH ST
                                                                                                                                 Y
                                                                 GLENRO
                                                                       Y RD
                                          PASCOE VA




                                                                     WEST ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                     EDWARDE
                                                                                                                                                                                                            S ST
                                                   LE




                                                                                                     BOUNDA
                                                                                                            RY RD
                                               RD




                                                                                                                                                                R    D
                                                                                                                                                             DS
                                                                                                                                                           AN
                                                                                                                                                         WL
                                                                                      DERBY ST




                                                                                                                                                      NE
                                          WY
                                    E   FR
                                 RIN                                                                    GAFFNEY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RD
                               MA                                                                               ST
                            LLA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   NTY
                          TU                                                                                                                                                             MURRAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                RD




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PLE
                                                                                       E RD




                                                                                                                     BELL ST
                                                                                MELVILL




                                                                                                   REYNAR
                                                                                                          D ST
                                                                                                                                    RD




                                                                                                                                                                                                RD
                                                                                                                                                                    T
                                                                                                                                                               ON S
                                                                                                                             SYDNEY




                                                                                                                                                                                               GES
                                                                                                                                                               OLS




                                                                                                                                                                                            EOR


                                                                                                                                                                                                      HIGH ST
                                            MO




                                                                                      E RD




                                                                                                                                                           NICH




                                                                                                                                                                                         ST G
                                               UN




                                                                                                     ALBION
                                                 TA




                                                                                                                     ST
                                                                               MELVILL
                                                   LE
                                                     XA




                                                                                                  VICTOR
                                                       ND




                                                                                                        IA           ST
                                                         ER
                                                            RD




                                                                                                   DAWSO
                                                                                                         N ST
                                                                                                                                                                             N ST
                                                                                                                                                LYGON ST



                                                                                                                                                                     NICHOLSO




                                                                                                 BRUNSW
                                                                                                          ICK RD
                                        EP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RD
                                          SO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ERG
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ELB
                                            M




                                                                                                                                                                                                     HEID
                                                  RD




                                                                                                                                         LYGON ST
                                                                                   FL
                                                                                     EM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NF
                                                                                       IN




                                                                                                                                                                            ALEXANDR
                                                                                                          ROYAL PD




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ER
                                                                                         G




                                                                                                                                                                                    A PD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ST
                                                                                                  TO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                EA
                                                                                                    N
                                                                                                     R
                                                                                                      D




                                                                                                                                                                              JOHNST
                                                                                                                                                                                    ON ST
                                                                                                                                                                                         ST




                                                   DYNON
                                                                                                                                                                                       HODDLE




                                                            RD


                                                        FOOTSC
                                                              RAY RD




                                                                                                                              S                     ST
                                                                                                                          DER
                                                                                                                      FLIN




Notes: This plot is based on a sample size of 120 bicycle trips. The expanded number of trips at destinations is proportional to the area of the circles.




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Figure 4.12: Weekend Destinations Reported in VATS (1994 and 1995)




                                                                               CAMP RD                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                             RING                  ROAD
                                                                     WESTERN




                                                                                                                          HUME HW
                                                                                      HILTON
                                                                                             ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HIGH ST
                                                                                                                                 Y
                                                                 GLENRO
                                                                       Y RD
                                          PASCOE VA




                                                                     WEST ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                     EDWARDE
                                                                                                                                                                                                            S ST
                                                   LE




                                                                                                     BOUNDA
                                                                                                            RY RD
                                               RD




                                                                                                                                                                R    D
                                                                                                                                                             DS
                                                                                                                                                           AN
                                                                                                                                                         WL
                                                                                      DERBY ST




                                                                                                                                                      NE
                                          WY
                                    E   FR
                                 RIN                                                                    GAFFNEY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RD
                               MA                                                                               ST
                            LLA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   NTY
                          TU                                                                                                                                                             MURRAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                RD




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PLE
                                                                                       E RD




                                                                                                                     BELL ST
                                                                                MELVILL




                                                                                                   REYNAR
                                                                                                          D ST
                                                                                                                                    RD




                                                                                                                                                                                                RD
                                                                                                                                                                    T
                                                                                                                                                               ON S
                                                                                                                             SYDNEY




                                                                                                                                                                                               GES
                                                                                                                                                               OLS




                                                                                                                                                                                            EOR


                                                                                                                                                                                                      HIGH ST
                                            MO




                                                                                      E RD




                                                                                                                                                           NICH




                                                                                                                                                                                         ST G
                                               UN




                                                                                                     ALBION
                                                 TA




                                                                                                                     ST
                                                                               MELVILL
                                                   LE
                                                     XA




                                                                                                  VICTOR
                                                       ND




                                                                                                        IA           ST
                                                         ER
                                                            RD




                                                                                                   DAWSO
                                                                                                         N ST
                                                                                                                                                                             N ST
                                                                                                                                                LYGON ST



                                                                                                                                                                     NICHOLSO




                                                                                                 BRUNSW
                                                                                                          ICK RD
                                        EP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RD
                                          SO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ERG
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ELB
                                            M




                                                                                                                                                                                                     HEID
                                                  RD




                                                                                                                                         LYGON ST
                                                                                   FL
                                                                                     EM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NF
                                                                                       IN




                                                                                                                                                                            ALEXANDR
                                                                                                          ROYAL PD




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ER
                                                                                         G




                                                                                                                                                                                    A PD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ST
                                                                                                  TO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                EA
                                                                                                    N
                                                                                                     R
                                                                                                      D




                                                                                                                                                                              JOHNST
                                                                                                                                                                                    ON ST
                                                                                                                                                                                         ST




                                                   DYNON
                                                                                                                                                                                       HODDLE




                                                            RD


                                                        FOOTSC
                                                              RAY RD




                                                                                                                              S                     ST
                                                                                                                          DER
                                                                                                                      FLIN




Notes: This plot is based on a sample size of 25 bicycle trips. The expanded number of trips at destinations is proportional to the area of the circles.




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4.3        A Profile of Recreational Cycling in                    The total counts of cyclists and pedestrians at
         Moreland                                                  each location are given in Appendix C.

Moreland‟s off-road bicycle paths are popular                      Profile of Merri Creek Path Users
with recreational cyclists, pedestrians, dog-                      The ages of cyclists using the Merri Creek
walkers and, to a lesser extent, commuter and                      Path (Figure 4.13) are similar to the general
utility cyclists. A series of surveys was                          age profile of cyclists in Moreland, with a
conducted on the Merri Creek Path to gain a                        strong representation in the 25-39 age group.
better understanding of the types of cyclists                      There appears to be little difference between
using the path and how they felt it could be                       age profiles on weekdays and weekends.
improved.                                                          Most children younger than 12 were
                                                                   accompanied by adults.
The Merri Creek Survey
Two types of survey were carried out on the                        Figure 4.13: Cyclist Ages on Merri Creek Path
Merri Creek Path to determine a typical profile
of path users:                                                                                                       Cyclist Age Profiles


         Interview surveys were conducted with
                                                                                                180
                                                                                               160
         cyclists using the survey form attached in                   Number (both locations)   140
         Appendix C. Cyclists were asked which                                                  120

         parts of the Merri Creek Path they used,
                                                                                                100                                                     Weekday
                                                                                                80                                                      Weekend
         where they lived, how often they cycled,                                               60
         why they cycled and how they felt the                                                  40

         path could be improved.                                                                20
                                                                                                 0
        A simultaneous count of cyclists and                                                         0-11   12-17      18-24   25-39   40-54    55+
         pedestrians was also conducted to                                                                               Age (years)

         record total path usage during the                        Note that the ages of non-responding cyclists were estimated by sight,
         surveyed periods.                                         and are subject to observer error.


The surveys took place at the locations and
times shown in the following table:                                The age profile of pedestrians was similar to
                                                                   the that of cyclists during the same time
Table 4.3: Survey Locations, Times and Sample Sizes                periods (Figure 4.14).
         Location                 Date and Time      Sample Size   Figure 4.14: Pedestrian Ages on Merri Creek Path
 Coburg Lake,                Sunday 29 August 1999      30
 immediately west of         12:40 – 2:40 pm                                                                   Pedestrian Age Profiles
 Newlands Road
                             Monday 30 August 1999       6                                      180
                             12:40 – 2:40 pm                                                    160
                                                                      Number (both locations)




                                                                                                140
 Brunswick, south of Blyth   Sunday 29 August 1999       44                                     120
 Street                      3:15 – 5:15 pm                                                     100                                                     Weekday
                                                                                                80                                                      Weekend
                             Monday 30 August 1999       36
                                                                                                60
                             3:15 – 6:00 pm
                                                                                                40
                                                                                                20
 Total                                                  116                                      0
                                                                                                      0-11   12-17      18-24   25-39   40-54    55+

The sample sizes reflect the greater                                                                                     Age (years)

popularity of the path on the weekend and the                      Note that the ages of all pedestrians were estimated by sight, and are
relatively small number of cyclists during                         subject to observer error.
early weekday afternoons at Coburg Lake.


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During the weekday survey, approximately                                    Figure 4.16: Cycling Trip Purposes Using Merri Creek
one third of the respondents were female                                    Path
(Figure 4.15). However, on the weekend, this
                                                                                                                        Cycling Trip Purposes
figure rose to nearly one half. This suggests                                                                           Using the Merri Creek Path
that weekend recreational cycling is more
attractive for female cyclists than daily cycling                                                         Work                               Note: Respondents specified all
                                                                                                                                             their usual trip purposes, not just
during the week.                                                                                        School                               their purpose on the day of the survey.




                                                                              Trip purpose
                                                                                                        Shops
                                                                                                                                                                              Weekday
                                                                                                   Visit friends
Figure 4.15: Gender of Survey Respondents                                                                                                                                     Weekend
                                                                                                    Recreation
                                                                                                         Sport
                                      Cyclist Gender Profile
                                                                                             Health and fitness

                              100%                                                                                 0%      20%    40%      60%        80%       100%
                               90%
  Proportion of respondents




                                                                                                                             Proportion of respondents
                               80%
                               70%
                               60%
                                                                   Female
                               50%
                                                                   Male
                               40%                                          Most cyclists on the Merri Creek Path live in
                               30%
                               20%                                          the areas immediately adjacent to the path.
                               10%                                          The southern section of the path has a slightly
                                0%
                                     Weekday             Weekend            wider catchment area to the east and south,
                                               Gender                       while the northern section tends to attract
                                                                            cyclists from a smaller area. Figure 4.17 and
                                                                            Figure 4.18 show the home locations of
Recreation is the most common purpose for                                   survey respondents.
cyclists travelling along the Merri Creek Path,
both on weekdays and weekends (Figure
4.16). Health and fitness are also cited as
popular reasons for using the path. On
weekdays, the path is also used for
commuting; indeed, 40% of the weekday
respondents reported using the path to get to
work (these respondents were mainly
intercepted in the late afternoon at the
Brunswick location).




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Figure 4.17: Home Locations For Cyclists Using the                        Suggestions For Improvement To The Merri Creek
Southern Section of Merri Creek Path                                      Path
                                                                          Cyclists were asked how they would like to
                 Merri Creek
                 Merri Creek                                              see the Merri Creek Path improved. Many
       1
       1    4
            4        3
                     3                                                    responded very positively to the path, giving
             9 11
             9 11
                    3
                    3                                                     comments like “great” and “fantastic”.
                   16 1 1
                   16 1 1
           1 1 16
           1 1 16               1
                                1
                                                                          However, given the opportunity to suggest
                11
                11     1
                       1                                                  improvements, cyclists pinpointed the areas
           11       1
                    1
                                                                          shown in Figure 4.19.

                                                                          Figure 4.19: Cycling Trip Purposes Using Merri Creek
                        1
                        1
                                                                          Path
                                                                  1
                                                                  1

                                                                                                         Suggestions For Improvement
                                                    1
                                                    1

                                                                                                   Widen path
                                                                                             Clean up rubbish
                                                                      2
                                                                      2
                                                                                         Seal northern section
                                                                                                 Restrain dogs
                                                                                          Introduce path code
                                                                            Comment

                                                                                          More direction signs
                                                                                              Paint central line
                                                                                                   Leave as is
                                        1
                                        1
                                                                                                 Install lighting
                                                                                      Install drinking fountains
                                                                                                  No comment
                                                                                              Prune vegetation

                                                                                                                    0%   5%        10%       15%          20%   25%
                                                                                                                              Proportion of respondents
Figure 4.18: Home Locations For Cyclists Using the
Coburg Lake Section of Merri Creek Path

                                                                          Cyclists were most concerned about narrow
                        1
                        1
                                    1
                                    1
                                                        Merri Creek
                                                        Merri Creek
                                                                          sections of the path, rubbish in the creek and
                                                                          the unsealed section of track in Fawkner.
                            1
                            1
                                    5
                                                                          Another concerning issue was the shared use
                                    5
                                                                          of the path by cyclists, pedestrians and dogs.
                            1
                                                            6
                                                            6             Many cyclists supported better enforcement
                            1       4
                                    4       3
                                            3
                                                        8
                                                        8                 of the dogs-on-leashes policy and a code of
                                                    1
                                                    1                     path use by pedestrians and cyclists. Some
                                                                          cyclists suggested the use of a central
                                                                          painted line to help avoid cyclist and
                                                            1
                                                            1             pedestrian conflicts.

                                                                          Cyclists were also keen to see better
             1
             1                                                            directional signage, lighting, drinking
                                                                          fountains and regular maintenance of the
                                                                          track. Some were pleased with the track in its
                                                1
                                                1

                                                                          current state and felt that no changes were
                                                                          necessary.


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In response to the survey results, the             Figure 4.20: Total Number of Cyclists
engineering works program (Chapter 5)
recommends the following:                                                               Total Number of Cyclists
                                                                                              (7am - 7pm)
     staged path-widening for the south part                               1600
                                                                            1400
      of the Merri Creek path with line-marking;




                                                       Number of Cyclists
                                                                            1200
     development of a shared path code for                                 1000
                                                                                                                               Brunswick Road
      Merri Creek and other off-road cycling                                800
                                                                                                                               Munro Street
      paths;                                                                600
                                                                                                                               Moreland Road
                                                                            400
     regular maintenance to deal with                                      200
      overgrown vegetation and cracked                                        0
      pavements;                                                                     1992   1994          1996   1999
                                                                                                                   Note: Data was not available
     a signage program that includes both                                                         Year
                                                                                                                   at all locations in all years
      directional and interpretive signs along
      the Merri Creek route.

4.4     The Sydney Road/Upfield Corridor           4.5                             Adjacent Municipalities
Moreland City Council has conducted an             Moreland is bounded by the Cities of
ongoing cyclist and pedestrian counting            Melbourne, Yarra, Darebin, Hume and
program on Sydney Road and the Upfield             Moonee Valley. The primary linkages between
Path. These surveys have helped to build up a      the bicycle networks in these municipalities
picture of cycling trends in the corridor over     and Moreland are shown in Figure 4.1 and
the last few years. A summary of the counts is     listed below:
presented in Appendix C.
                                                   Melbourne
Counts were completed on Sydney Road and                                   Royal Parade at Park Street
the Upfield Path at Brunswick Road in                                      off-road paths at the north end of Royal
Brunswick and also at Munro Street in                                       Park and Princes Park
Coburg.
                                                   Yarra
Cyclist numbers have increased gradually                                   Canning Street at Park Street (a very
over the last seven years, but with a marked                                popular route)
increase between 1996 and 1999.                                            Lygon Street and Nicholson Street (less
                                                                            popular routes on the Principal Bicycle
                                                                            Network)
                                                                           the Capital City Trail running parallel to
                                                                            Park Street

                                                   Darebin
                                                                           Broadhurst Avenue, Reservoir (footbridge
                                                                            over Merri Creek)
                                                                           two footbridges near Lakeside Secondary
                                                                            College and Brex Court
                                                                           a potential off-road link along Edgars
                                                                            Creek
                                                                           Murray Road
                                                                           Kendall Street, Preston (footbridge over
                                                                            Merri Creek)


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     Fyffe Street, Preston (footbridge over
      Merri Creek)
     Normanby Avenue (which becomes
      Moreland Road in Moreland)
     Arthurton Road (which becomes Blyth
      Street in Moreland)
     the footbridge north of Sumner Park
     continuation of the Merri Creek Path at St
      Georges Road

Hume
     off-road paths in the vicinity of the
      Jacana Golf Course
     Electric Street at Jacana railway station
     Widford Street at the Western Ring Road
     the footbridge at Wallace Reserve
     Hume Highway at the Western Ring Road
     a potential continuation of the Merri
      Creek Path north of the Western Ring
      Road

Moonee Valley
     Ormond Road (which becomes
      Brunswick Road in Moreland)
     Dean Street (which becomes Dawson
      Street in Moreland)
     Wilson Street (which becomes Victoria
      Street in Moreland)
     the footbridge at Hope Street
     Albion Street at Moonee Ponds Creek
     Moreland Road
     the footbridge from the Boulevard in
      Coonans Hill
     Woodland Street (which becomes
      Reynard Street in Moreland)
     the footbridge at Gaffney Street
     the Moonee Ponds Creek Path at several
      points in Glenroy




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5. Improving the Bicycle Network
This chapter discusses actions that will
contribute to a well-connected and safer             Council is in the process of constructing a
bicycle network in Moreland. At the end of the       concrete path between Victoria Street and
chapter, a prioritised engineering works             Albion Street in Brunswick to fill the “missing
program is presented that is based on the            link” in this section. The construction includes
outcomes of the public consultation and field        an underground electrical conduit so that
surveys.                                             lighting can be added later.

The objectives of the engineering works              Further “missing links” exist between Munro
program are aligned with the directions              Street and O‟Hea Street in Coburg. These
recommended in the Moreland Integrated               have been targeted in the engineering works
Transport Strategy:                                  program for completion in the time frame of
                                                     this Bike Plan.
     to use bicycle lanes and other means to
      separate bicycles from cars;                   Traffic on streets intersecting the Upfield Path
     to enhance the continuity and safety of        can cause lengthy delays for cyclists during
      Moreland‟s bicycle network;                    peak periods, contributing to a general
     to modify and install traffic signals to       perception of disjointedness.
      minimise delays to cyclists;
     to use signage and line-marking to make        To address these issues, Council will (subject
      cycling facilities more visible;               to negotiations with VicRoads):
     to support the installation of secure, well-
      sited bicycle parking.                             install a pedestrian/cyclist-operated
                                                          puffin signal at the Park Street railway
The Bike Plan gives priority to works that                crossing in Brunswick (puffin signals
promote a safer network. These will not only              detect the presence of pedestrians and
reduce potential injury and property damage,              cyclists on the crossing and adjust the
but may help to encourage those who                       signal times to minimise delays to
perceive cycling as “unsafe” in Moreland.                 cyclists and cars);

The Plan also prioritises works that complete
missing links in the bike network, upgrade
crossing points on busy roads and improve
linkages to surrounding municipalities.

5.1     Opportunities For Network
      Improvement

Upfield Path
The Upfield Path provides an important off-
road north-south link through the
municipality. Many of Moreland‟s main east-
west bicycle routes link into the Upfield Path.
It is particularly attractive for recreational       Traffic on Park Street is a significant barrier to cyclists
cyclists and those who prefer to avoid the           during peak periods
comparatively stressful traffic conditions on
the parallel Sydney Road route.

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     make an improved crossing of Bell Street
      and the linkage to O‟Hea Street important     In non-clearway times, the space between the
      priorities;                                   tram clearance line and parked vehicles
                                                    provides a de-facto bicycle lane and
In the interim, Council will liaise with            reasonable cycling conditions.
VicRoads to synchronise the signal phasing
at the intersection of Hudson Street and Bell       If Council proceeds with the removal of
Street in Coburg with the railway booms at          clearways as part of the proposed Sydney
Bell Street, so that cyclists may freely move       Road/Upfield Corridor Transport
through the intersection when the booms are         Improvements1, the following treatments
down.                                               recommended in the Improvements
                                                    document will be favoured between
The Upfield Path links into the Royal Park          Brunswick Road and Bell Street:
paths and Royal Parade bicycle lanes to the
south, but presently stops at Boundary Road            occasional kerb extensions to create
in the north. Council will continue the path as         indented parking areas;
far as the Western Ring Road Path. This                1.5 metre wide bicycle lanes separated
action would connect all Moreland‟s major off-          from parked vehicles and marked outside
road bicycle paths and provide a traffic-free           the kerb extensions, with appropriate
alternative to the Hume Highway north of                treatments at intersections;
Boundary Road. A feasibility study will be             use of painted WalkSafe medians only in
completed in the current financial year to              mid-block locations where traffic merging
determine how best to stage this project.               and lane flaring do not occur.

Sydney Road Between Brunswick Road and Bell         Sydney Road North of Bell Street
Street
                                                    The section of Sydney Road between Bell
Sydney Road is favoured by many commuter            Street and Boundary Road is similar to the
cyclists as a fast, direct alternative to the       southern section, but with more commercial
Upfield Path. The concentration of retail           and light industrial land use. Tram Route 19
activity along Sydney Road also makes it an         terminates at Bakers Road.
attractive destination for all types of cyclists.
Sydney Road is perceived as an unsafe               North of Boundary Road, Sydney Road
cycling environment by both experienced and         becomes a divided 6-lane arterial with
less-experienced cyclists because of high           carriageway widths of approximately 11.0-
traffic volumes, the presence of trams and          11.5 metres. There is scope in this section to
high parking turnover.                              re-mark the existing lanes to create a wider
                                                    kerbside lane, thus increasing the potential
During the AM and PM peak periods,                  separation between cyclists and moving
clearways are present in the inbound and            vehicles. Cyclists travelling from the City of
outbound directions respectively. When              Hume also use this section of Sydney Road to
clearways are in force, the kerbside lane can       access the Upfield Path at Boundary Road2.
accommodate a cyclist and moving vehicle.

Vehicles turning into and out of side streets
are of concern to cyclists, particularly when
Sydney Road traffic is moving slowly. Turning
drivers are often not aware of bicycles moving
on the outside of vehicles in the kerbside
lane.

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                                                          location of the southern boundary of
                                                          Brunswick Road. A trail supported by a small
                                                          retaining wall would occupy the least space
                                                          on the section between Gibson Avenue and
                                                          the tollway. However this would be a high-
                                                          cost option.

                                                          A preliminary cost estimate for the
                                                          construction of this link would be $130,000
                                                          based on Table 5.1.

                                                          Table 5.1: Preliminary Cost Estimate for Link Under
                                                          Brunswick Road Bridge
                                                              Section          Item           Length    Cost     Cost
Riding in the centre of Sydney Road is currently one
                                                                                               (m)     ($/m)      ($)
way to be visible and avoid the opening doors of parked
                                                          Gibson Av to     Retaining wall      200      300      60,000
cars!                                                     tollway
                                                                           Concrete            200     130       26,000
The section of Sydney Road between Box                                     track (2.5 m
                                                                           width)
Forest Road and the Western Ring Road is
too narrow to make an appreciable difference                               New fence           200      50       10,000
by re-marking (pavement widths are
                                                          Brunswick Road   Concrete            150     130       19,500
approximately 10.0-10.5 metres, which                     to footbridge    track
accommodates three lanes).                                Lighting                                                4,000
                                                          Signage                                                 1,000
Royal Park to Moonee Ponds Creek Off-Road                 Contingencies                                           9,500
Link                                                      TOTAL                                                $130,000

The recent widening of the Tullamarine                    Brunswick/Brunswick East
Freeway has retained the option of
connecting the Park Street bike route at                  Council will undertake the following actions to
Gibson Street to the Moonee Ponds Creek                   enhance the connectivity of the cycling
Trail via the footbridge across the Moonee                network in Brunswick and Brunswick East:
Ponds Creek, just north of Brunswick Road.
At present, cyclists are obliged to cross                     re-mark a wide kerbside lane on
Brunswick Road or take an indirect route via                   Brunswick Road east of Sydney Road to
Ascot Vale.                                                    connect with the Brunswick Road cycling
                                                               lanes;
The proposed route would:                                     pave the laneway south of Ewing Street
 run between Gibson Street and the City                       to provide a smooth link with Park Street
    Link tollway to the south side of                          and the Capital City Trail;
    Brunswick Road, and                                       install signage to allow cyclists to ride in
 turn north under the southbound off-ramp                     the reverse direction on several one-way
    to Brunswick Road to connect with the                      streets on the bicycle network (Beith
    eastern end of the existing footbridge.                    Street, Burchett Street, Edmends
                                                               Streets);
This route would require negotiation with                     construct an off-road link beside Fleming
Transurban City Link and with the Reggio                       Park;
Calabria Club because the path would be                       mark shared parking and bicycle lanes in
partially located on land which is under their                 Decarle Street;
control. The amount of land required depends                  install a pedestrian signal near the
on the physical details and the precise                        intersection of John Street and Glenlyon

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      Road to improve north-south connectivity        Edge line
      in the east (depending on the outcome of         A solid line that delineates driving lanes
      a detailed site assessment);                     from parking lanes. An edge line helps to
     ensure that kerbing and landscaping              keep moving vehicles towards the centre
      design in the vicinity of Randazzo Park          of the road, allowing extra clearance
      facilitate easy cyclist movement through         between cyclists and parked cars.
      the area.
                                                      Parking and bicycle lane
Signal treatments are also proposed where              A shared lane that has sufficient width to
the Capital City Trail crosses Nicholson Street        accommodate a bicycle and parked
and Park Street to alleviate crossing hazards          vehicle. Parking and bicycle lanes may
at these locations.                                    optionally have a solid line between
                                                       parked vehicles and the bicycle riding
Brunswick West                                         area (see photograph of Daly Street
A number of intersection treatments sill help          below).
to improve connectivity in the Brunswick West
area, notably the intersection of Grantham
Street and Dawson Street. Pearson Street is
already a popular cycling route and could be
enhanced by further line-marking.

Coburg/Coburg North/Pascoe Vale/Pascoe Vale
South
There are several roads of sufficient width in
the Coburg and Pascoe Vale areas that could
be effectively marked with edge lines or
bicycle lanes to improve the separation
between cyclists and moving vehicles.

A number of intersection and signal               This edge line in Turner Street, Pascoe Vale,
treatments would also improve connectivity        encourages drivers to track outside the cycling space.
(see the table of works in section 5.2).

Glenroy/Fawkner
On the whole, cycling conditions in this
northern part of the municipality are
reasonably good, so only several minor
treatments are proposed to improve the
connectivity of existing routes.

5.2     Works Program

Typical Treatments
The engineering treatments being considered
include the common treatments described in
the AustRoads guidelines3. These include the      Parking and bicycle lane in Daly Street, Brunswick West.
following:
                                                      Wide kerbside lane
                                                       Where there are multiple lanes on a

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     carriageway, a wide kerbside lane allows
     space for bikes and motor vehicles to         Table 5.2: Unit Rates For Cost Estimates
     coexist in the same lane.                                          Item                         Cost
                                                                                                      ($)
                                                    2.5 m concrete bicycle path                         $130 / m
    Exclusive bike lane                            2.5 m gravel bicycle path                             $30 / m
     An on-road bike lane adjacent to the kerb      Line marking                                       $500 / km
     where there is no parking permitted.           Remove line marking                                $500 / km
                                                    Kerb ramp/pram crossing                            $500 each
                                                    Holding rail                                   $300 installed
    Shared footway                                 Bike parking rail                              $250 installed
     A footpath shared by cyclists and              Sign                                           $150 installed
                                                    Fence                                                 $50 / m
     pedestrians delineated by „shared              Removal of bluestone paving                       $50 / m2**
     footway‟ signs.                               ** Add $35/m2 for replacement in asphalt
                                                   Costed Program
One outcome of line marking treatments
                                                   Table 5.3 summarises the proposed list of
above, or in general on any road, should be to
                                                   engineering works to be considered in the 5
advantage and/or make cycling safer. Line
                                                   year period from 1999 to 2004.
marking should never make cyclists feel
„squeezed‟ or otherwise disadvantaged.
                                                   The table describes the location and
                                                   estimated cost of each project with an
    Signals
                                                   indication of its priority. (The „H‟, „M‟ and „L‟
     Either the installation of new
                                                   project identifier prefixes refer to „high‟,
     pedestrian/cyclist signals or the
                                                   „medium‟ and „low‟ priorities respectively. So,
     adjustment of phasing at an existing set
                                                   for example, H03 refers to a high priority
     of signals.
                                                   project, while L03 refers to a low priority
                                                   project). The general nature of the project is
                                                   indicated by the squares in the middle of the
                                                   grid. Further comments are given on the right.

                                                   Maps of the project locations are presented in
                                                   Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2.

                                                   5.3       Signing Routes

                                                   A major finding of the discussion groups of
                                                   active cyclists was the degree to which
                                                   navigation through the street system is a
                                                   problem – even to regular cyclists. Useful
                                                   short cuts have remained undiscovered for
Exclusive bike lane on Park Street, Brunswick.     months.

    Resurface                                     Signage also makes a major contribution to
     Resurfacing rough pavement or removing        creating a visible bicycle network.
     bluestone paving makes cycling on these
     pavements safer and more comfortable.         The signage strategy includes the following
                                                   elements:
Unit Rates
Table 5.2 lists the unit rates that were used to        All new signs should incorporate
prepare the preliminary cost estimates for the           destination information and distance (as
works program.                                           all recent signs have).


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     The Merri Creek and Moonee Ponds              along their length and are important for the
      Creek provide useful „destinations‟ for       slow drainage of stormwater run-off.
      recreational riders.
     Signage should be carefully located to        A number of laneways on cycle routes have
      ensure continuity along routes. This          been recommended for asphalting as part of
      includes signs at all changes of direction,   this Bike Plan. An example of this is the lane
      and reassurance signs at the departure        to the south of Staley St Brunswick, which
      side of major decision points.                was brought to Council‟s intention during the
     Only routes that are up to an appropriate     most recent period of public consultation on
      standard should be signed – advertising       this document. Council will monitor the
      a sub-standard facility would be counter-     condition of other strategic laneways on cycle
      productive.                                   and pedestrian routes and upgrade them as
     The coverage of bike route signage            funds, heritage and drainage requirements
      varies markedly across the municipality –     allow. Lighting on these laneways would also
      ideally areas that have poor or non-          be upgraded to improve safety for cyclists
      existent route signage should be targeted     and pedestrians.
      first.
     The completion of „missing links‟             Recommendation
      provides the opportunity for the signage      Council will monitor and investigate
      of routes that could also coincide with       opportunities provided by re-developments in
      publicity following an „opening event‟ of     strategic areas to add to, and/or upgrade, the
      the route.                                    existing laneway network.
     The cost of signage depends on the
      number of routes covered and their            5.5     Contra-Flow in One-Way Streets:
      complexity. A sum of around $15,000 per             Safety and Legal Issues
      annum for signage is recommended. This
      would allow for signing approximately 10      Several projects in the works program will
      km of the bike network per year,              improve network connectivity by permitting
      including maintenance of existing signs,      cyclists to travel against the traffic flow
      and planning and design of unsigned           direction on certain one-way streets. Because
      routes. It further allows for implementing    these streets are narrow, painted lanes could
      any changes that are recommended as a         not be used to separate bicycles from motor
      result of the Moreland Signage Project.       vehicles.
                                                    Council will implement these projects as part
5.4     Using Laneways to Improve the               of the works program, however, to ensure that
      Connectivity of the Bicycle Network           the safety of cyclists is paramount and legal
                                                    risk to Council and VicRoads is minimised,
Moreland has many laneways that are used to         the following precautions will be taken in
access properties from the rear, or used as         these projects:
delivery entrances for commercial premises.
Some laneways provide important pedestrian               Council will investigate other sites in
and cyclist links, particularly where they offer          Melbourne where cyclists can travel
continuous connections to adjoining streets               against the traffic flow to gain an
and shopping precincts.                                   understanding of precautions used
                                                          elsewhere;
Typically, these rights of way are paved with            Council will obtain VicRoads approval
bluestone cobbles which, while attractive,                before installing signs permitting cyclists
provide an uneven surface for motor vehicles,             to travel in the contra-flow direction;
cyclists, prams, wheelchairs and pedestrians.
Most laneways have a spoon drain running

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     at each site “Cyclists Excepted” signs will      marking or lighting) together. A concentrated
      be installed for a trial period, the situation   program of works would also have benefits
      monitored, and an analysis of risks              for publicity – for example, in releasing maps
      conducted;                                       of the upgraded routes. However, it may be
     based on the trial results and risk              more difficult to group expensive projects
      analysis, Council will make a final              (such as the Upfield Path extension), as these
      recommendation on whether each                   will be staged over a number of years.
      contra-flow project will remain.                 Based on Council‟s current bicycle works
                                                       funding of $250,000 per annum, all high
5.6     Guidelines For Staging and                     priority projects could be completed in the
      Budgeting the Works Program                      first 1 year of the Bike Plan. Most other small
                                                       and medium-scale projects could be
The works program includes 60 projects with            completed by the end of 2002.
a total value of approximately $4 million (if
paving of the northern Merri Creek Path is             Depending on contributions from other
excluded, this figure falls to $2.7 million).          funding sources, the entire works program
Funding for some of these projects would be            could be completed in an 8-10 year time
contributed by VicRoads, Parks Victoria, the           frame at the current rate of Council
Community Support Fund, land developers                expenditure. This does not allow for annual
and possibly corporate sponsors.                       maintenance, signage and lighting expenses
                                                       (see Maintenance Budget below and 5.3
The following guidelines will be adopted for           Signing Routes above).
staging and budgeting the bicycle works
program:                                               5.7     Shared Pathway Maintenance
                                                             Budget
     high priority projects will be completed
      first, with medium and low priority              A recommendation of this report is that
      projects carried out later as funds allow;       Council create an annual shared pathway
     funding applications for projects to be          maintenance budget of $10,000 pa in addition
      financed by other organisations will be          to the existing bike budget. The reasons for
      initiated as soon as practicable;                recommending the creation of a bike
     high-cost projects, such as the widening         maintenance budget are:
      of the Merri Creek Path, will be staged          The extent and value of the existing network
      over a number of years as funds allow;           of off-road paths – shared footways in
     if there are related development projects        Moreland are valued at over $3M;
      (for example, new land developments,             The age and condition of older pathways –
      Sydney Road improvements, traffic                some asphalt paths pre-date the 1988 bike
      management programs and resurfacing              plans. (Sections of the Upfield path are
      of streets), bike projects will be planned       overdue for path maintenance and fence
      to coincide with these;                          replacement. Recent works to upgrade a
     line marking will be undertaken                  degraded section of path between Victoria
      progressively on all streets and/or at           Street and Brunswick railway station, and to
      intersections where possible and where           remove bumps caused by tree roots south of
      appropriate, in the following priority           Dawson Street, used funds that could have
      order: the bike network, streets and             provided new infrastructure.)
      roads or intersections on the road               The high priority given to path maintenance
      hierarchy above „local street‟ category.         by Moreland cyclists consulted in the
                                                       development of this plan.
Council may achieve efficiencies by
completing similar projects (such as line-

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The figure of $10,000 is derived from a
comparison with the maintenance budget for
Moreland‟s footpaths (0.03% of the total value
of the asset). The budget is targeted at repairs
to shared footways and associated
infrastructure (mainly fencing, linemarking
and leaning rails). It does not include
maintenance to bridges, retaining walls,
signs, on-road line marking and other assets
in the carriageway, or tree pruning, which are
covered by separate budgets and programs.

5.8        Maintenance Items Submitted to
         Council during Consultation on
         Previous Draft of Bike Plan

A number of significant maintenance items
were raised during the public consultation for
the Bike Plan. These will be referred to
Council‟s general road and drainage
maintenance programs. These are as follows:

        Reynard Street, Coburg – Make all grates
         (which are in some cases recessed in
         pits up to 6 cm deep) flush with the road
         pavement.
        Coonans Road, Pascoe Vale South –
         repair broken concrete slabs on shared
         path on west side.
        Moreland Road east of Hopetoun Street,
         Brunswick West – repair broken concrete
         slabs on footpath on south side.
        York Street, Pascoe Vale – reconstruct
         gutters which have risen and are quite
         steep in places. The Bike Plan
         recommends that this be prioritised in
         Council‟s maintenance program.

Notes

1
  Jamieson Foley & Associates (1999), „Sydney Road/Upfield
Corridor Transport Improvements: Options for Implementation
Final Report‟, Jamieson Foley & Associates, Sydney.
2
  Source: cyclist surveys and public meetings.
3
  AustRoads (1993), „Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice‟,
Part 14 – Bicycles, AustRoads, Sydney.




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Table 5.3: Proposed Engineering Works Program                                                                  Note: Projects marked with a ‘*’ have been recommended in previous Bike Plans, but have not yet been implemented




                                                                                                            WIDE KERBSIDE
                                                                                                            PARKING EDGE
                                                                                                             BICYCLE LANE




                                                                                                             BICYCLE LANE
 PROJECT ID




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   COMMENTS
                                                                                                             PARKING AND




                                                                                                                                                                          ESTIMATED
                                                            LOCATION




                                                                                                 PRIORITY
                                                                                   SUBURB




                                                                                                                                                      RESURFACE
                             STREET




                                                                                                                EXCLUSIVE




                                                                                                                                                                            COST
                                                                                                                                            SIGNALS



                                                                                                                                                                  OTHER
                                                                                                                                    SIGNS
                                                                                                                     LANE
                                                                                                                      LINE
                                                                                                                                                                                   Following consultation with BrunsBUG, one outcome of
                                                                                                                                                                                   Council’s integrated approach to the reconstruction of this
                                             Between Sydney Road and
H01* Albion Street
                                             Holmes Street
                                                                            Brunswick         High                                                                N/A     street is a segregated bike facility - a shared footway on the
                                                                                                                                                                                   north side. Consider treatments to promote lower vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                   speeds.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Install ancillary right-arrow signal to face Park Street (east)
H02           Park Street/Lygon Street       Intersection                   Brunswick East High                                                                   $10,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   when pedestrian signals are red.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Install ancillary right-arrow signal to face Park Street (east)
H03           Park Street/Nicholson Street   Intersection                   Brunswick East High                                                                   $10,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   when pedestrian signals are red.
                                             At railway crossing (Upfield
H04           Park Street
                                             Track)
                                                                            Brunswick         High                                                                $80,000 Install puffin signals
                                                                                                                                                                                      Liaise with VicTrack for resurfacing between railway tracks to
H05           Park Street                    At railway crossing            Brunswick         High                                                                N/A
                                                                                                                                                                                      remove large bumps.
                                             Between Grantham Street and
H06           Dawson Street
                                             Pearson Street
                                                                            Brunswick West High                                                                       $600 Make the footpath on the northern side a shared footway.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Install pedestrian crossing lines and signal on the west side of
              Dawson Street/Grantham
H07
              Street
                                             Intersection                   Brunswick West High                                                                    $8,000 the intersection and change signal phasing appropriately.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Install shared footway on SW corner.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Provide/update warning signs and line marking on blind
H08           Upfield Path                   Various locations              Brunswick         High                                                                 $2,500
                                                                                                                                                                                   corners (will require a field survey to determine locations).
                                                                            Brunswick/Cobu                                                                                         Upgrade lighting along the Upfield Path (will require a field
H09           Upfield Path                   Various locations
                                                                            rg
                                                                                           High                                                                   $80,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   survey to determine locations).
                                             Between Sydney Road and                                                                                                               Liaise with VicRoads for intersection treatments to ensure
H10           Brunswick Road
                                             Nicholson Street
                                                                            Brunswick         High                                                                 $2,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   continuity of existing bike lane.
                                                                            Brunswick/Cobu
H11           Merri Creek Path               All concreted sections
                                                                            rg
                                                                                           High                                                                     $5,000 Paint central line along all concreted sections of path.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Complete the paving of the path in currently unsealed
H12           Merri Creek Path               Unsealed sections in Fawkner   Fawkner           High                   $1,100,000 sections.
                                             Between Boundary Road and                                                                                                             Construct 2.5 metre wide path beside railway line with pram
H13           Upfield Path
                                             Fawkner Railway Station
                                                                            Fawkner/Glenroy   High                                                               $110,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   crossings and rails at Boundary Road.
                                             Between Fawkner Railway                                                                                                               Construct 2.5 metre wide path beside railway line with pram
H14           Upfield Path
                                             Station and Box Forest Road
                                                                            Fawkner/Glenroy   High                                                               $240,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   crossings and rails at Box Forest Road.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Construct 2.5 metre wide path beside railway line (possibility
                                             Between Box Forest Road and
H15           Upfield Path
                                             Western Ring Road
                                                                            Fawkner/Glenroy   High                                                               $260,000 to stage project by extending the path from end of Sages Rd
                                                                                                                                                                                   first).
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                                                                                                        WIDE KERBSIDE
                                                                                                        PARKING EDGE
                                                                                                         BICYCLE LANE




                                                                                                         BICYCLE LANE
 PROJECT ID




                                                                                                                                                                                                       COMMENTS
                                                                                                         PARKING AND




                                                                                                                                                               ESTIMATED
                                                      LOCATION




                                                                                             PRIORITY
                                                                                 SUBURB




                                                                                                                                           RESURFACE
                          STREET




                                                                                                            EXCLUSIVE




                                                                                                                                                                 COST
                                                                                                                                 SIGNALS



                                                                                                                                                       OTHER
                                                                                                                         SIGNS
                                                                                                                 LANE
                                                                                                                  LINE
                                                                                                                                                                         Re-open negotiations with VicRoads to have the footway
                                       Between Upfield Rail Line and                                                                                                     declared shared, except for Melville Road shopping area.
H16           Bell St
                                       Springhall Pde
                                                                        Coburg            High                                                           $5,000
                                                                                                                                                                         Budget includes some kerb crossing improvements and
                                                                                                                                                                         signage. See Appendix G for results of further investigations.
                                                                                                                                                                         Ensure bike network connectivity and safety are enhanced in
                                       Between Sydney Road and                                                                                                           reconstruction of this street which is budgeted for the
M01 Harding Street
                                       Nicholson Street
                                                                        Coburg            Medium                                                         $4,500
                                                                                                                                                                         1999/2000 financial year. See Appendix G for results of
                                                                                                                                                                         further investigations.
                                                                                                                                                                         Liaise with VicRoads to mark bike and parking lanes on
                                                                                                                                                                         Moreland Road. Discuss possibility of continuing parking and
                                       Between Sydney Road and Merri
M02 Moreland Road
                                       Creek
                                                                     Coburg               Medium                                                         $5,500 bike lane into Thornbury with Darebin City Council. Note that
                                                                                                                                                                         Moreland Road is on the PBN. See Appendix G for results of
                                                                                                                                                                         further investigations.
                                       Between City Link and Upfield
M03 Moreland Road
                                       railway line
                                                                        Brunswick         Medium                                                       $10,000 Continuation of project M02.
                                                                                                                                                                        Widen left lane to allow easier passage of bicycles between
                                       Between Sydney Road and
M04 Brunswick Road
                                       Stranger Street
                                                                        Brunswick         Medium                                                        $2,000 Sydney Road and the bicycle lanes east of Stranger Street.
                                                                                                                                                                        Note: on PBN.
                                                                                                                                                                        Resurface bluestone cobbled section. Investigate possibilities
                                       South of Ewing Street Between
M05* Laneway
                                       Brunswick Road and Park Street
                                                                        Brunswick         Medium                                                        $7,000 for widening gap between adjacent garages. Consider
                                                                                                                                                                        heritage issues.
M06 Brunswick Road                     On City Link overpass            Brunswick West    Medium                                                         $600 Declare this footpath as a shared footway.
                                       Between Gardiner Street and                                                                                                      Extend existing shared parking and bike lane to the Upfield
M07 Albert Street
                                       Upfield railway line
                                                                        Brunswick         Medium                                                        $1,000
                                                                                                                                                                        Path.
                                       Between Holmes Street and                                                                                                        Paint parking edge line between Holmes Street and Nicholson
M08 Albion Street
                                       Nicholson Street
                                                                        Brunswick         Medium                                                        $1,000
                                                                                                                                                                        Street
                                                                                                                                                                        Change signal operation to assist cyclists crossing Bell Street
M09 Bell Street/Hudson Street          Intersection                     Coburg            Medium                                                        $3,000
                                                                                                                                                                        when the railway booms are down.
                                       Between Albion Street and                                                                                                        Although not on the designated network, Pearson Street is a
M10 Pearson Street
                                       Dawson Street
                                                                        Brunswick West    Medium                                                        $6,000
                                                                                                                                                                        popular route.
                                       Between Victoria Street and                                                                                                      Ensure bike network connectivity and safety are integrated
M11 Clifton Park
                                       Albert Street
                                                                        Brunswick         Medium                                                       N/A
                                                                                                                                                                        into new path design.
                                                                                                                                                                        Ensure bike network connectivity is enhanced in design for
M12 Blair Street                       Near Albert Street               Brunswick         Medium                                                       N/A
                                                                                                                                                                        new open space.
 34




                SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                                                                                 ME01660: 4759A776-9200-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4B64-BEE5-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               3ED012948758.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOC
                                                                                                                                                                                           Moreland Bike Plan June 2000




                                                                                                   WIDE KERBSIDE
                                                                                                   PARKING EDGE
                                                                                                    BICYCLE LANE




                                                                                                    BICYCLE LANE
 PROJECT ID




                                                                                                                                                                                                     COMMENTS
                                                                                                    PARKING AND




                                                                                                                                                          ESTIMATED
                                                        LOCATION




                                                                                        PRIORITY
                                                                          SUBURB




                                                                                                                                      RESURFACE
                        STREET




                                                                                                       EXCLUSIVE




                                                                                                                                                            COST
                                                                                                                            SIGNALS



                                                                                                                                                  OTHER
                                                                                                                    SIGNS
                                                                                                            LANE
                                                                                                             LINE
                                                                                                                                                                      Trial a "Cyclists Excepted" sign to the "No Entry" sign so that
                                                                                                                                                                      cyclists can legally travel in the counter-flow direction. Ensure
M13* Beith Street                    At Albert Street              Brunswick          Medium                                                        $1,000
                                                                                                                                                                      warning signage for drivers is also installed. (Includes
                                                                                                                                                                      provision for monitoring)
                                                                                                                                                                      Trial a "Cyclists Excepted" sign to the "No Entry" sign so that
                                                                                                                                                                      cyclists can legally travel in the counter-flow direction. Ensure
M14* Burchett Street                 At Blyth Street               Brunswick          Medium                                                        $1,000
                                                                                                                                                                      warning signage for drivers is also installed. (Includes
                                                                                                                                                                      provision for monitoring)
                                                                                                                                                                      Trial a "Cyclists Excepted" sign to the "No Entry" sign so that
                                                                                                                                                                      cyclists can legally travel in the counter-flow direction. Ensure
M15* Edmends Street                  At Blyth Street               Brunswick          Medium                                                        $1,000
                                                                                                                                                                      warning signage for drivers is also installed. (Includes
                                                                                                                                                                      provision for monitoring)
                                     Between Albion Street and                                                                                                        Install bicycle lanes. Note that the section south of Albion
M16 Decarle Street
                                     Rennie Street
                                                                   Brunswick/Coburg Medium                                                          $5,500
                                                                                                                                                                      Street is too narrow to continue the lanes.
                                                                                                                                                                      Ensure cycling safety and bike network connectivity are
                                     Between Brunswick Road and
M17 Sydney Road
                                     Bell Street
                                                                   Brunswick/Coburg Medium                                                        $14,000    enhanced in changes to Sydney Road. Seek views from
                                                                                                                                                                      Bicycle User Groups and other users.
                                                                                                                                                                      Construct new 2.5 m path to link Merri Creek with Edwardes
                                     Between Merri Creek and
M18 Edgars Creek
                                     municipal boundary
                                                                   Coburg North       Medium                                                     $450,000    Lake Park in Reservoir. Liaise with Darebin City Council to
                                                                                                                                                                      coordinate the funding application to Parks Victoria.
                                     Between Albert Street and                                                                                                        Construct new path to link Albert Street with the path beside
M19 Fleming Park
                                     Victoria Street
                                                                   Brunswick East     Medium                                                      $32,000
                                                                                                                                                                      the oval. Construct pram crossings at each end.
                                                                                                                                                                      There is insufficient width for a shared lane, but edge lines
                                     Between Sydney Road and                                                                                                          will help to keep moving vehicles from parked vehicles (3.0m
M20 Gaffney Street
                                     Railway Parade
                                                                   Coburg/Pas. Vale   Medium                                                         $3,500
                                                                                                                                                                      wide vehicle lanes will allow an edge line 3.0-3.2m from the
                                                                                                                                                                      kerb). Gaffney Street is on the PBN.
                                                                                                                                                                      There is not quite enough width for marked bicycle lanes, but
                                     Between Sydney Road and Derby                                                                                                    edge lines will help separate moving and parked vehicles
M21 O'Hea Street
                                     Street
                                                                   Coburg/Pas. Vale   Medium                                                         $2,000
                                                                                                                                                                      (3.0m wide vehicle lanes will allow an edge line 3.0-3.3m
                                                                                                                                                                      from the kerb).
                                                                                                                                                                      Trial a "Cyclists Excepted" to the "No Entry" sign at the north
M22 Roosevelt Street                 At Charles Street             Coburg North       Medium                                                        $1,000   end of Roosevelt Street. Ensure warning signage for drivers is
                                                                                                                                                                      also installed. (Includes provision for monitoring)
                                     Between Boundary Road and Box                                                                                                    Re-mark lines to allow for a 4 metre kerbside lane (cost
M23 Sydney Road
                                     Forest Road
                                                                   Fawkner            Medium                                                        $7,000
                                                                                                                                                                      allows for removal of existing lines).
 35




              SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                                                                                 ME01660: 4759A776-9200-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4B64-BEE5-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             3ED012948758.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOC
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Moreland Bike Plan June 2000




                                                                                                            WIDE KERBSIDE
                                                                                                            PARKING EDGE
                                                                                                             BICYCLE LANE




                                                                                                             BICYCLE LANE
 PROJECT ID




                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS
                                                                                                             PARKING AND




                                                                                                                                                                   ESTIMATED
                                                         LOCATION




                                                                                                 PRIORITY
                                                                                      SUBURB




                                                                                                                                               RESURFACE
                           STREET




                                                                                                                EXCLUSIVE




                                                                                                                                                                     COST
                                                                                                                                     SIGNALS



                                                                                                                                                           OTHER
                                                                                                                             SIGNS
                                                                                                                     LANE
                                                                                                                      LINE
                                                                                                                                                                               Construct new 2.5 m path along railway between Munro and
                                         Between Munro Street and Bell                                                                                                         Bell Streets with safety rail and signage. Ensure path is
M24* Upfield Path
                                         Street
                                                                             Coburg            Medium                                                      $80,000
                                                                                                                                                                               integrated with plans for proposed modal interchange at
                                                                                                                                                                               Coburg Station.
                                         Between Bell Street and O'Hea                                                                                                         Construct new 2.5 m path along railway between Bell Street
M25* Upfield Path
                                         Street
                                                                             Coburg            Medium                                                      $80,000
                                                                                                                                                                               and O'Hea Street with safety rail and signage
                                         Between Reynard Street and                                                                                                            Construct new 2.5 m path along railway between Reynard
M26 Upfield Path
                                         Munro Street
                                                                             Coburg            Medium                                                      $80,000
                                                                                                                                                                               Street and Munro Street with safety rail and signage.
                                                                                                                                                                               Install pedestrian/cyclist operated signal to link proposed
                                         At railway crossing near Coburg                                                                                                       Upfield Path (projects M24 and M25) across Bell Street. Note:
M27 Bell Street
                                         Railway Station
                                                                             Coburg            Medium                                                      $80,000
                                                                                                                                                                               if a modal interchange is developed at Coburg Station, signals
                                                                                                                                                                               might be included as part of the development.
                                                                                                                                                                               Construct pedestrian/cyclist bridge from Beavers Road,
M28 Merri Creek Path                     Beavers Road                        Thornbury         Medium                                                      $50,000    Thornbury to the Merri Creek Path near CERES. (Possibility of
                                                                                                                                                                               Parks Victoria shared funding).
                                                                                                                                                                               Paint bicycle and parking lanes in this section of Barrow
                                         Between Rennie Street and                                                                                                             Street. Note that section between Rennie Street and the Grove
M29 Barrow Street
                                         Albion Street
                                                                             Brunswick/Coburg Medium                                                         $2,500
                                                                                                                                                                               will require a bike lane less than 1.5m wide. See Appendix G
                                                                                                                                                                               for results of further investigations.
                                                                                                                                                                               Trial "Cyclists Excepted" to the "No Entry" signs at Albion,
                                                                                                                                                                               Mitchell, Donald and Davies Streets. Paint lines to guide
                                         Between Albion Street and                                                                                                             cyclists around half road closures at these intersections.
M30 Dunstan Av
                                         Moreland Road
                                                                             Brunswick         Medium                                                        $3,000
                                                                                                                                                                               Install smooth pram crossings at the Albion/Lygon Street
                                                                                                                                                                               intersection. Ensure warning signage for drivers is installed.
                                                                                                                                                                               (Includes provision for monitoring)
                                                                                                                                                                               Continuation of projects M02 and M03. Mark dashed bicycle
                                         Between Upfield railway line and                                                                                                      lane and bicycle symbols close to kerb to alert car drivers to
M31 Moreland Road
                                         Sydney Road
                                                                          Brunswick            Medium                                                          $500
                                                                                                                                                                               presence of bikes during peak periods. Note: peak period
                                                                                                                                                                               parking restrictions in this section.
                                                                                                                                                                               Strategic pedestrian and cyclist link. Reconstruct lane to
                                         South of Staley Street linking to
M32 Laneway
                                         Victoria Street
                                                                             Brunswick         Medium                                                        $6,000   improve safety and rideability. See Appendix G for detailed
                                                                                                                                                                               comments.
                                                                                                                                                                               Create shared footway on north-west approach, install a bike
              Nicholson Street/Harding
M33
              Street
                                         Intersection                        Coburg            Medium                                                       $6,000   signal lantern on the pedestrian crossing, extend loop on east
                                                                                                                                                                               approach.
                                                                                                                                                                               Redesign bollards to improve access which is overly
M34 Footbridge                           At The Boulevard                    Pascoe Vale South Medium                                                        $1,500
                                                                                                                                                                               restrictive for cyclists, wheelchairs, prams etc.
 36




               SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                                                                                       ME01660: 4759A776-9200-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4B64-BEE5-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3ED012948758.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             DOC
                                                                                                                                                                                              Moreland Bike Plan June 2000




                                                                                                        WIDE KERBSIDE
                                                                                                        PARKING EDGE
                                                                                                         BICYCLE LANE




                                                                                                         BICYCLE LANE
 PROJECT ID




                                                                                                                                                                                                       COMMENTS
                                                                                                         PARKING AND




                                                                                                                                                               ESTIMATED
                                                         LOCATION




                                                                                             PRIORITY
                                                                                  SUBURB




                                                                                                                                           RESURFACE
                               STREET




                                                                                                            EXCLUSIVE




                                                                                                                                                                 COST
                                                                                                                                 SIGNALS



                                                                                                                                                       OTHER
                                                                                                                         SIGNS
                                                                                                                 LANE
                                                                                                                  LINE
                                                                                                                                                                         Construct footway to bridge across Moonee Ponds Creek. See
M35 Footbridge                          At Margaret Street              Glenroy            Medium                                                          $500
                                                                                                                                                                         Appendix G for detailed comments.
                                                                                                                                                                         Designate south footpath as a shared footway. (Note: a
                                        Between Turner Street and
M36 Bell Street
                                        Gallipoli Parade
                                                                        Coburg             Medium                                                        $2,500 connection into Melville Road would also be desirable, but
                                                                                                                                                                         would be difficult to implement).
                                        South side between Upfield
M37 Bell Street
                                        railway line and Royal Parade
                                                                        Coburg             Medium                                                        $5,000 Designate south footpath as a shared footway. Widen
                                                                                                                                                                        Extend the kerb crossing at the driveway on the northern side
M38 Upfield Path                        At Bakers Road                  Coburg North       Medium                                                         $500 to allow easy access to bike path. Install leaning rail and paint
                                                                                                                                                                        lines.
                                                                                                                                                                        Install new kerb crossing so cyclists don't have to cross Albion
                                                                                                                                                                        Street on a sharp diagonal. Paint a "Keep Clear" zone near
M39 Upfield Path                        At Albion Street                Brunswick          Medium                                                       $3,800
                                                                                                                                                                        railway booms. Reduce slope on north side. See Appendix G
                                                                                                                                                                        for detailed comments.
                                                                                                                                                                        Negotiate use of land on northern boundary of Reggio Calabria
L01           Brunswick Road            East of City Link overpass      Brunswick West     Low                                                        $130,000 Club for shared path. Negotiate with Transurban for
                                                                                                                                                                        construction of path under off-ramp.
                                                                                                                                                                        Resurface and re-profile bluestone entrance to Daly Street
L02           Daly Street               At Victoria Street              Brunswick West     Low                                                          $3,500
                                                                                                                                                                        (south) and Burnell Street (north).
                                                                                                                                                                        Resurface and re-profile bluestone entrance to Burnell Street
L03           Burnell Street            At Hope Street                  Brunswick West     Low                                                          $3,500
                                                                                                                                                                        (north and south).
                                                                                                                                                                        Install pedestrian refuge on Moreland Road between Walhalla
L04* Moreland Road                      At Walhalla Street              Coonans Hill       Low                                                           $5,000 and Everett Streets to assist a staged crossing (may require
                                                                                                                                                                        removal of parking).
                                                                                                                                                                        Reconstruct approximately 20 metres of the path to flatten the
L05           Upfield Path              North of Albion Street          Brunswick          Low                                                                 $3,000
                                                                                                                                                                        sharp slope on the approach to Albion Street.
                                                                                                                                                                        There is not quite enough width for a marked bicycle lane, but
                                        Between O'Hea Street and                                                                                                        edge lines will help to separate moving and parked vehicles
L06           Derby Street
                                        Boundary Road
                                                                        Pascoe Vale        Low                                                           $2,000
                                                                                                                                                                        (3.0m wide vehicle lanes would allow for an edge line
                                                                                                                                                                        approximately 3.1m from the kerb).
                                                                                                                                                                        In locations where painted medians are present, these may
                                                                                                                                                                        need to be narrowed slightly. Lines may not be desirable
                                                                                                                                                                        through the retail area near Gaffney St. The width of
                                        Between Bell Street and
L07           Cumberland Road
                                        Boundary Road
                                                                        Pascoe Vale        Low                                                          $3,500 Cumberland Road would potentially allow for a narrow shared
                                                                                                                                                                        bicycle and parking lane - if this was deemed appropriate,
                                                                                                                                                                        then an extra $3,000 should be added to the cost of this
                                                                                                                                                                        project.
 37




                SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                                                                                 ME01660: 4759A776-9200-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4B64-BEE5-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               3ED012948758.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOC
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Moreland Bike Plan June 2000




                                                                                                           WIDE KERBSIDE
                                                                                                           PARKING EDGE
                                                                                                            BICYCLE LANE




                                                                                                            BICYCLE LANE
 PROJECT ID




                                                                                                                                                                                                           COMMENTS
                                                                                                            PARKING AND




                                                                                                                                                                  ESTIMATED
                                                         LOCATION




                                                                                                PRIORITY
                                                                                    SUBURB




                                                                                                                                              RESURFACE
                              STREET




                                                                                                               EXCLUSIVE




                                                                                                                                                                    COST
                                                                                                                                    SIGNALS



                                                                                                                                                          OTHER
                                                                                                                            SIGNS
                                                                                                                    LANE
                                                                                                                     LINE
                                        Between Waterloo Road and
L08           Glenroy Road
                                        Wheatsheaf Road
                                                                          Glenroy            Low                                                              $600 Install shared footway signs on southern footpath.
                                                                                                                                                  Paint a parking and bike lane on the west side. Paint an
                                        Between Murray Road and
L09           Champ Street
                                        Sydney Road
                                                                          Coburg             Low                                $2,000 exclusive bike lane on the east side where there is indented
                                                                                                                                                  parking.
                                                                                                                                                  Add a "Cyclists Excepted" sign to the "All Traffic Turn Right"
L10           O'Hea Street              At Cumberland Road                Pascoe Vale        Low                                   $200
                                                                                                                                                  sign.
                                                                                                                                                  There is insufficient width for bicycle or parking lanes.
                                        Between Sydney Road and Rose
L11           Munro Street
                                        Street
                                                                          Coburg             Low                             $60,000 Consider local area traffic management in this street to calm
                                                                                                                                                  traffic.
                                        Between Park Street and railway                                                                           Construct pedestrian refuge on west side of railway line
L12           Devon Road
                                        crossing
                                                                        Pascoe Vale          Low                             $5,000 and/or improve approaches on each side of Devon Road.
                                                                                                                                                  Widen gap between traffic islands and kerb on the west side,
L13           Dawson Street             At Gaffney Street                 Coburg North       Low                             $5,000 and paint a cycle contra-flow indication. Be mindful of
                                                                                                                                                  entrances to industrial premises.
                                                                                                                                                  Pave and upgrade the connection from Outlook Drive to the
L14           Outlook Drive             At Moonee Ponds Creek             Gowanbrae          Low                             $15,000 Moonee Ponds Creek Path
                                                                                                                                                  Widen the Merri Creek Path to 3.0m so that the central join
                                        Between St Georges Road and
L15           Merri Creek Path
                                        Moreland Road
                                                                          Brunswick/Coburg Low                                      $400,000 can be used as a centre line (current width is approximately
                                                                                                                                                  1.5m).
                                        Between Sydney Road and                                                                                   Make each side of Albion Street a "No Standing Any Time"
L16           Albion Street
                                        Upfield Path
                                                                          Brunswick          Low                                   $800
                                                                                                                                                  zone and paint edge lines.
                                                                                                                                                  Install cyclist/pedestrian signals (subject to detailed site
L17           Glenlyon Road             At John Street                    Brunswick East     Low                             $80,000 assessment).
                                                                                                                                                  Construct pedestrian/cyclist bridge across Merri Creek on
                                                                          Coburg
L18           Merri Creek Path          At Normanby Avenue
                                                                          East/Thornbury
                                                                                             Low                             $50,000 north side of Normanby Avenue. (Possibility of Parks Victoria
                                                                                                                                                  shared funding).
                                                                                                                                                  Moreland Open Space Strategy identifies a future pedestrian
              Broadmeadows and Sydney                                     Pascoe Vale, Oak                                                $ to be links along these lines. Investigate feasibility and
L 19
              Rail Lines
                                        In Moreland
                                                                          Park Glenroy
                                                                                             Low                            investigated opportunities of providing a hard surface shared path to cater
                                                                                                                                                  to cyclists as well.



Additional Projects Worth Further Investigation, But Not Included in This Bike Plan
                                       Between Vanberg Road and                                                                                                               Construct path on Moreland side to eliminate detour into side
X01 Moonee Ponds Creek Path
                                       Moreland Road
                                                                            Brunswick West   Excluded              $665,000
                                                                                                                                                                              streets. Construction will include two footbridges.
 38




                SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                                                                                     ME01660: 4759A776-9200-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4B64-BEE5-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3ED012948758.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOC
                                                                                                             Moreland Bike Plan June 2000


                                                                                          Paint parking edge lines in sections of Newlands Road with
                                                                                          sufficient width. (Note: the road is wide enough for bicycle
X02   Newlands Road           Selected sections   Coburg North   Excluded      $1,500
                                                                                          and parking lanes in some sections, however these would not
                                                                                          be continuous if implemented).
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                                                                                                                                                                              Moreland Bike Plan June 2000

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          Figure 5.2: Map of Proposed Engineering Works (Northern Section)



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6. Encouraging Bicycle Use in Moreland
6.1     Factors Discouraging People From           6.2        Cyclist Types and Needs
      Cycling
                                                   Programs that encourage bicycle use must
There is a large amount of evidence                recognise the different types of cyclists in
supported by surveys that indicates that the       Moreland and their specific needs. Table 6.1
primary impediment for non-cyclists is traffic     lists the main types of cyclists observed in
safety – or lack thereof. Other factors            Moreland and the main needs of each group.
sometimes mentioned include weather,
topography and inability to carry large loads.     Table 6.1: Typical Needs of Cycling Groups In
Perceived lack of traffic safety, however,         Moreland
remains the dominant factor.                                Cycling Group                           Typical Needs
                                                    Primary school children               network of off-road paths and
                                                                                           safe road crossing points
Levels of ridership vary greatly between            Secondary school children             network of off-road and quiet
otherwise similar urban areas. This would                                                  on-road paths near schools
                                                    University students                   a well-connected network of
indicate that cultural and attitudinal factors                                             paths towards the south of the
could also be important impediments to                                                     municipality
increased cycling.                                  Women                                 safety, visibility and lighting
                                                                                          good end-of-trip facilities
                                                    Regular commuters                     direct routes
By concentrating on improvements to                                                       smooth riding surface
facilities in the following areas, the Bike Plan                                          good separation from cars on
                                                                                           arterial roads
aims to reduce anxiety in non-cyclists and          Casual utility cyclists (generally    a network of off-road and on-
hence encourage more cycling:                       engaged in shopping, visiting,         road paths linking community,
                                                    personal business, etc.)               retail and commercial centres
                                                                                           with residential areas
     promotion of off-road routes such as the                                            good separation from traffic on
      Upfield, Merri Creek and Moonee Ponds                                                busier roads
      Creek Trails;                                                                       adequate bike parking at
                                                                                           destinations
     promotion by increased signage of                                                   assistance/information about
      continuous routes along local streets                                                carrying loads (eg: child,
      parallel to busy arterial roads;                                                     shopping, etc.)
                                                    Recreational cyclists                 pleasant off-road paths and
     increasing the lateral separation of                                                 quiet local street connections
      cyclists and vehicular traffic on roads                                              (particularly for less-
      where speeds are high (eg. parking and                                               experienced cyclists)
                                                                                          access to toilets and shops
      bike lanes);                                                                        directional and interpretive
                                                                                           signage along cycling routes
The Moreland Community Safety Plan and its          Sporting cyclists                     on-road routes with a smooth
                                                                                           surface
component strategies: Road Safety, Injury                                                 good separation from traffic on
Prevention and Crime Prevention provide                                                    arterial roads
                                                                                          a network of routes that include
other avenues to address cyclist safety in                                                 leisure centres and swimming
Moreland.                                                                                  pools


The remainder of this chapter looks at means       The cyclist profiles presented in Chapter 4
by which Council might influence attitudinal       indicate that about three-quarters of
and behavioural change.                            Moreland‟s cyclists are males, with the most
                                                   common cycling age groups being the 20s
                                                   and 30s. Among the under-represented
                                                   groups (females and younger riders),
                                                   recreational off-road cycling appears to be
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more popular than other forms of cycling               riders must travel in bicycle lanes if they
(based on the results of the Merri Creek                are present;
survey).                                               bikes should not be ridden across
                                                        pedestrian crossing points (including
To encourage cycling in Moreland, planners              children‟s crossings);
developing promotional programs and                    helmet-wearing is compulsory;
engineering works would be well-advised to             riders must observe normal vehicle road
consider how the needs of under-represented             rules (unless otherwise excepted in the
groups might be better met – particularly               rules).
women and teenagers. Much of the potential
for increased cycling will also lie with those      In cycling encouragement and education
who currently cycle irregularly, such as some       programs, Council will support safe cycling
recreational and casual utility cyclists.           and adherence to these rules.
Behavioural programs should consider how
these groups can be encouraged to cycle             6.4     Moreland Council’s Bicycle
more often.                                               Programs for Youth

                                                    In recent years bike oriented activities have
6.3     Cycling Provisions in the New               been incorporated in a number of the
      Australian Road Rules                         programs run by the Youth Services section
                                                    of Council. Three examples are described
In December 1999, the States and Territories        below:
adopted a new set of Australian Road Rules.
These new rules aim to unify driving and                 A program run with a group of teenagers
cycling regulations around Australia and                  drawn from diverse cultural
include specific provisions for making cycling            backgrounds. They had little interest in
safer.                                                    bikes as a mode of transport or as form
                                                          of recreation. The program was part of
Moreland City Council broadly supports the                „Morebikes‟. The use of bikes in this
rules that encourage safer cycling, in                    context was unsuccessful.
particular:                                              A day‟s outing in the teenage holiday
                                                          program. This program has been run
   rules prohibiting drivers from driving or             with 12 to 18 year olds where it was an
    parking in bicycle lanes;                             optional activity for one of the days. It
   children under 12 being permitted to ride             included a ride on the Merri Creek Trail
    on footpaths;                                         and a barbecue. The organisers have
   rules relating to the shared use of bicycle           hired a bike trailer (with bikes) from the
    paths by bicycles, pedestrians, roller-               City of Darebin and also from the City of
    bladers and people in wheelchairs.                    Yarra. The program is popular but
                                                          requires a degree of effort in the logistics
Council will advocate for responsible footway             of providing the bikes. This includes the
cycling to be made an option for all cyclists             picking up of the bike trailer the night
on the grounds that the new rule is: difficult to         before, its safe storage overnight
enforce, benefits vulnerable and elderly                  (normally at the Moreland Depot), and its
cyclists and legalises what many cyclists do              return before 4pm on the day of the
already.                                                  outing. The quality of the bikes is
                                                          variable. This program is effective in
The rules also place responsibility on cyclists           extending the geographic range of the
to ride safely, specifically:                             participants and opening up some of the
                                                          lesser known parts of Moreland.

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     Seven week bike based program with               limited to attracting more people to
      year 7 and year 8 students. This after           cycling but should also aim, in line with
      school program was run in Box Forest             the sustainable transport objectives in
      and incorporated riding skills, bike             MITS, to attract more people to walking
      maintenance, health awareness, diet and          and public transport. Such programs
      fitness. It was supported by a local bike        could form a useful extension to the work
      shop owner and was very popular with             currently being trialed on David
      the 10 to 20 young riders who attended.          Engwicht‟s Traffic Reduction Kit in
      The participants used their own bikes.           Brunswick and Coburg. Further
                                                       investigation is required to determine the
Of these three programs, the third one seems           most effective means of Council support
to be the most useful model on which to base           in terms of achieving the aim of creating
future youth programs involving bikes. The             a mode shift to sustainable forms of
essential elements are:                                transport.

     The target group have a pre-existing            Development of more secure bike
      interest in bikes;                               parking at the major recreational
     Bikes are provided by the participants           facilities, especially swimming pools. At
      rather than by Council;                          each location the need is for secure
     Health, fitness, and diet are incorporated       undercover parking. However the means
      in the program;                                  by which it can be achieved will be
     Bike maintenance, safe-riding skills and         different because of the different physical
      other bike activities are also included.         arrangements. This requires a
                                                       cooperative and practical effort by the
This type of program should be effective in            management of each centre and the
encouraging cyclists who already ride by               users. Issues include the possible
supporting them in ways which will continue            wheeling of bikes through the inside of
their interest. In past generations, this role         buildings. The selected location for bike
was played by other members of the family.             parking needs to be visible, at least by
                                                       the public, and preferably by staff.
This type of program could also be                    The bike parking at outdoor pools should
specifically targeted at groups with low               be reviewed. The need at these facilities
ridership, such as older adults and females of         is for secure bike parking for larger
all ages. If used with older adults, this model        numbers of cyclists but on a sporadic
could be used as a way of increasing their             basis during summer. Triathlon athletes
circles of friends at the same time as                 are frequent users of Moreland‟s
increasing the amount of cycling.                      swimming pools. Possible parking
                                                       options include installing bike parking
6.5     Moreland Council’s Recreation                  inside pool enclosures and using space
      Programs                                         in nearby car parks.
                                                      The detailed improvement of off road
On the basis of discussions with Council               trails near recreational centres. This
officers the following actions appear to be            includes signing to improve the visibility
most useful in increasing the enjoyment of             of trails. It also includes improved
recreational cycling in Moreland.                      lighting along the Upfield track for early
                                                       morning recreational riders who often
     Council sponsored programs to                    combine the trip with a visit to the
      encourage more people to take up                 Brunswick Baths. In some locations it
      cycling for transport. Programs aimed at         may mean the redesign of car parking
      modal shift should not however be

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     and passenger drop off facilities to                  complete other recognised bicycle
     reduce conflict at peak times.                        training courses.
                                                          Arranging school events, such as one-off
                                                           Bike-Ed programs, visiting speakers,
                                                           breakfasts and “Ride To School” days
                                                           where appropriate.

                                                     The development and promotion of a large
                                                     loop encircling the entire municipality is also
                                                     practical – but in the longer term. This large
                                                     loop would incorporate the Western Ring
                                                     Road Path, the Moonee Ponds Creek Path,
                                                     the Capital City Trail and the Merri Creek
                                                     Path. This loop would be about 40 kilometres.
                                                     Most of this loop is already developed to an
                                                     appropriate standard except for the following
                                                     sections:

                                                          a direct connection between the Moonee
                                                           Ponds Creek Path and the Capital City
                                                           Trail; and
                                                          the standard of the northern end of the
                                                           Merri Creek Path south of the Western
                                                           Ring Road.

                                                     With the completion of a northern extension
                                                     of the Upfield Path, cyclists will also be able
Bicycle parking outside Brunswick Baths.
                                                     to ride two smaller off-road loops
    Combining bike activities in
                                                     6.6     Leading By Example: Moreland City
     neighbourhood festivals, neighbourhood
     picnic and other public events. These                 Council’s Cycling Incentive Schemes
     are typically bike rides with the origin or
                                                     Moreland City Council already has a number
     destination (or both) at the event. It
                                                     of incentives in place to encourage bike riding
     requires relatively little additional
                                                     by its own employees and visitors. These
     organisation and has the benefit of
                                                     include:
     adding an extra dimension to the event.
    Development of recreational riding loops
                                                          an undercover bicycle parking room
     particularly for off-road riders. In practice
                                                           within the Bell Street Council office
     for the short term, this may mean signed
                                                           complex containing parking rails and a
     routes along the local street network that
                                                           lockable door;
     connect to the Merri Creek Trail and the
                                                          a bicycle salary-packaging scheme
     Moonee Ponds Trail.
                                                           whereby Council buys on behalf of the
    Support for construction of a BMX
                                                           employee a bicycle (or annual public
     skateboard facility in conjunction with
                                                           transport ticket) and which they
     Recreation Services. The development
                                                           subsequently pay off in regular
     of a local facility would encourage the
                                                           instalments from their salary;
     use of bikes for recreation.
                                                          visitor bike parking at Council offices;
    Running regular bicycle maintenance
                                                          bike seat hire (see below)
     classes and subsidising residents who


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     Council staff participation in cycling                new sections of shared pathways;
      promotional activities such as Bicycle                new lane-marking on roads;
      Victoria‟s “Ride To Work Day”.                        new bike parking;
                                                            new signage schemes.
Council will continue to support and enhance
these programs, and encourage other large              These public celebrations would normally
employers in the municipality to implement             include:
similar schemes.
The bike seat hire scheme was a service                     a councillor or cycling identity opening
offered by Council when it ran the baby                      the facility;
capsule hire service. It is currently suspended             photo opportunities for the press;
pending negotiations with the private operator              material written for the press and for
since capsule hire was contracted out.                       Council publications;
                                                            a group ride along the facility;
                                                            a barbecue or other activity.

                                                       The benefits of these celebrations as the
                                                       primary method of encouragement of more
                                                       cycling are as follows:

                                                            they are newsworthy and therefore will
                                                             attract local media attention;
                                                            they promote the idea that cycling is
                                                             socially responsible and can be fun;
                                                            the cycling identities provide role
                                                             models;
                                                            they alert the general public to the
                                                             possibilities that are being created for
                                                             their own behaviour – “this new facility
                                                             means that I can now …”;
                                                            they require relatively little organisation
                                                             or expense.

                                                       6.8     Shared Pathway Codes

                                                       There is congestion and conflict between
                                                       different types of users of the Merri Creek
                                                       Path, such as dog-walkers and people riding
                                                       bikes. Important aspects of reducing this
                                                       problem are as follows:
Undercover bike parking at the Moreland City Council
Offices in Bell Street.                                     the path is a shared path where no
                                                             particular type of user is meant to have
6.7     Promotional Activities                               absolute priority;
                                                            widening of the path is unlikely in the
The most cost-effective way in which cycling                 short term;
can be promoted by Council is the public                    the Moreland code of behaviour
celebration of new pieces of infrastructure as               indicating acceptable behaviour for
they are built. These could include:                         walkers, cyclists and skaters needs to be
                                                             simplified if it is to be more effective,

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      displayed on signs and accepted by                automated bicycle counter, such as the unit
      users;                                            currently used by the City of Port Phillip.
     the National Cycling Strategy
      incorporates the objective                        6.10   Moreland’s Street Landscape
      “to develop and implement a national                     Strategy
      public communication strategy to
      improve the awareness of path users as            Centre-Of-The-Road Treatments
      to how they can best share our paths”.1           The planting of street trees along the centre
                                                        of existing streets and roads will lead to
Moreland City Council is currently developing           drivers tracking further to the left. This is the
a code of practice for shared paths in                  area where cyclists generally ride. If there is
consultation with users of the Merri Creek              sufficient width then cyclists and cars can
Path.                                                   coexist. The Moreland Street Landscape
                                                        Strategy (MSLS) section 4 recognises this in
6.9     Targets and Monitoring                          Median Planting Guideline No. 5 (p. 59):

The National Cycling Strategy supports a                “…where the road pavement exceeds 15.6 m
target of doubling bicycle usage over the               (kerb face to face) for roads without a bike
period 1999-2004. In line with this strategy,           route and 16.6 m for roads with a bike route.”
Moreland aims to double the number of short
trips under 5 kilometres, particularly among            There have been some recent instances
female and younger riders.                              where cyclists have reported being
                                                        disadvantaged by centre-of-the-road planting
While Moreland is supports this goal, it                that would not meet this guideline (for
recognises that it is difficult to set specific         example Ewing Street in Brunswick). It would
ridership targets at a local level. The two main        seem that awareness of the guideline ought
issues are as follows:                                  to be raised with road designers and
                                                        landscape architects.
     Council is able to influence ridership
      levels through improving bicycle facilities       Following a review of the provisions in the
      and running encouragement programs.               MSLS, evaluation of recent experiences and
      However, Council does not have direct             consultation with BrunsBUG, the following
      control over the results of these actions.        points are noted:
     It is difficult to obtain reliable cycling data
      across the municipality to gauge                     Moreland‟s stated aim under MITS is to
      changes in ridership levels.                          encourage cycling for transport and
                                                            therefore no street treatment or policy
Council will address these issues by:                       should actively discourage cycling.
                                                           The distinction between roads with a
     implementing the recommendations of                   „bike route‟ and those without is not
      the Bike Plan by the year 2005;                       useful given the fact that some of the
     conducting ongoing monitoring                         highest flows of cyclists are on routes
      programs to assess trends in ridership                that are not nominated as „bike routes‟.
      levels (these would be conducted at a                Where on-street parking does not exist
      minimum of ten locations several times                then the cyclist and driver have an
      during the year to account for seasonal               additional 2 metres width.
      and weather effects).                                Cyclists can travel nose-to-tail with
                                                            motorists if vehicle speeds are low – an
Bicycle monitoring would be enhanced in the                 average of about 20 km/h.
longer term by the purchase or loan of an

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                                                           “…where the road pavement exceeds 15.6 m
                                                           (kerb face to face) for local streets and 16.6 m
                                                           for arterial roads.”

                                                           This is in keeping with Council‟s
                                                           acknowledgment that every street is a
                                                           potential cycling street.

                                                           The safety of cyclists, pedestrians and motor
                                                           vehicle drivers should be paramount in any
                                                           considerations of median tree planting. Where
                                                           safety would be compromised by planting
                                                           (even if designers adhere to the Median
                                                           Planting Guideline), then safety will take
                                                           precedence.
The guidelines for centre-of-the-road treatments will
eliminate situations such as this, where there is little
room for cyclists to travel beside cars.                   6.11   Making Streets More Bicycle-Friendly

     Busy higher-speed arterial roads such as             The details of normal traffic engineering can
      Blyth Street require more generous width             have a marked effect on the comfort and
      for acceptable side-to-side coexistence              safety of cyclists. It is critical that Council‟s
      than lower speed and lower volume                    traffic engineers, VicRoads engineers and
      roads;                                               engineering consultants pay attention to the
     AustRoads guidelines do allow parking                factors that affect cyclists during the planning,
      and cycling lane widths to total less than           design and construction of works. These
      3.7 metres, providing that vehicle speeds            details frequently have no effect on other road
      are lower than 40 km/h and/or traffic                users and are not always brought to the
      volumes and parking turnover are low.                attention of road designers in design
     An alternative centre-of-the-road street             handbooks and guidelines. The Guide to
      tree planting configuration, which is safer          Traffic Engineering Practice (Part 14) by
      for cyclists and has the potential to fit            AustRoads is a very useful reference1.
      more trees into the street, is proposed in
      Appendix F.                                          More importantly, it is critical that designers
                                                           maintain a „bike consciousness‟ in their
Other centre-of-the-road treatments such as                everyday work. Table 6.2 lists a number of
pedestrian refuges – painted or constructed –              the more frequent problems that beset
have the effect of shifting the tracking of                cyclists.
vehicles to the left. Care should be exercised
on a site-by-site basis to ensure the interests            Council also advocates a blanket 40 km/h
of cyclists are considered as well as the                  speed limit in local streets to improve
beneficiaries of the treatments.                           residential amenity and make streets better
                                                           cycling and walking environments (MITS,
Recommendation                                             Chapter 6).
On the basis of the points noted above,
Council will seek to change the wording of
Median Planting Guideline No. 5 to:




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Table 6.2: Frequent Cycling Problems                                      of local and overseas engineering treatments
           Issue                          Specific Problems
                                                                          to enhance cycling conditions in urban
 Left side road surface       unswept                                    streets.
                              loose gravel                               6.12 Bicycle Parking
                              underground services not flush
                              ledge on edge of seal
                              ledge on tray of kerb
                                                                          Bicycle parking in Moreland is an on-going
                              uneven cobblestone surface                 program that is funded at the rate of about
                              no regulation of surface with delayed      $5,000 per year (30 – 40 rails) using the
                               top coat of asphalt
                              grating aligned in wrong direction
                                                                          shared footways budget. Rails are provided at
 Lateral tracking of          undefined tracking for motor vehicles      strategic locations such as shopping areas,
 bikes and motor              undefined road space at busy               recreation facilities, public buildings. Rails are
 vehicles                      intersections
                              squeeze points formed by kerbs, narrow     also provided in public spaces at the request
                               bridges, parking                           of owners and/or users of public facilities.
                              squeeze points formed by central           Bike parking has also been required of
                               islands and slow points
                              narrow kerbside lanes                      developers in new developments, since the
                              roadside foliage projects into kerbside    adoption of a bike parking policy in
                               lane                                       Brunswick in 1992, though in practice the
                              unsealed road shoulders
 Large roundabouts            poor design across the exit points of      requirement has not been consistently
                               large roundabouts                          applied. The intention of Section 7, Bicycle
                              squeeze points at entry throats            Policy, is to have a systematic uniform policy,
                              no bypass route around the roundabout
                               along a shared path                        so as to clarify Council‟s intentions and
 Traffic signals              Under-road detectors that don’t register   requirements for developers.
                               cyclists’ approach
                              Narrow approach lanes caused by S-
                               lanes or additional turning lanes          Council is currently negotiating with a private
                              Exclusive left turn lanes with no          company (AdShel) for the provision of about
                               provision for straight-ahead cyclists      140 new and improved bus shelters. In line
 Exclusive left turn          Fast traffic weaving across long
 lanes                         exclusive left turn lane                   with recommendations in MITS, this is an
 Parking                      angle parking manoeuvres into cyclist      opportunity for increasing the catchment of
                               space                                      public transport stops and promoting dual
                              opening doors into cyclist space from
                               parallel on-street parking                 moding.
 Crossing arterial roads      no assistance in crossing
                              central refuge too narrow                  Recommendation
                              steep pram ramps at pedestrian-
                               operated signals                            Council will negotiate with AdShel for the
                              slow response times at signals
                              absence of legal approach on footpath
                                                                            provision of a bike parking rail at each
 Miscellaneous                Bus lanes that do not allow cyclists         shelter.
                              Partly-indented bus bays                    Council will continue to install bike
                              Poor connections between off-road
                               paths and entry points from roads
                                                                            parking in public spaces at the current
                              Uneven parallel planks on timber bridge      rate, following current practice.
                               decks
                              Low handrails on bridges
                                                                          6.13   Moving Towards an Integrated
                                                                                 Transport Network
The appendices of the Bike Plan give details
                                                                          The Moreland Integrated Transport Strategy
of sample treatments that help to alleviate
                                                                          advocates a move towards a better-integrated
some of these common cycling problems.
                                                                          transport network. To increase the share of
Appendix D provides specifications for
                                                                          trips using public transport and non-
Council‟s preferred vehicle crossing design.
                                                                          motorised modes, Council will seek to plan
Appendix E describes recent Australian
                                                                          bicycle facilities that provide good
research into designing bicycle-friendly
                                                                          connections to railway stations and bus
intersections. Appendix F provides samples
                                                                          stops, as well as ensuring that the cycling

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network in Moreland gives residents viable
alternatives to the car for short trips.

This Bike Plan seeks to encourage a better-
integrated cycling network with other
transport modes through:

        making bike paths along the Upfield
         railway line a high priority;
        promoting better bicycle parking at
         railway stations, in retail centres and in
         new developments;
        encouraging Council to take up issues
         that improve the integration of public
         transport and cycling with public
         transport operators (for example, bicycle
         carriers on buses).
Notes

1
 AustRoads (1993), „Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice‟,
Part 14 – Bicycles, Austroads, Sydney.




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7. Bicycle Facilities in New Urban Developments
7.1     Purpose                                     Table 7.1: End-of-Trip Facility Targets

The purpose of this policy is to ensure that         Strategies                   to facilitate the fitting of end-of-trip
                                                                                facilities for cyclists in appropriate
appropriate facilities for cyclists and                                         existing buildings, transport nodes and
pedestrians are included when assessing new                                     public places consistent with national
developments in Moreland1. This policy is                                       standards.
                                                     Responsibility             three spheres of government
aligned with the sustainable transport               Performance measure        programs/initiatives are in place to
objectives of Moreland City Plan and the                                        encourage the fitting of end-of-trip
Moreland Integrated Transport Strategy.                                         facilities for cyclists by 2004;
                                                                                end-of-trip facilities are widely
                                                                                available by 2004.
The specific objectives of the policy are to:       Source: AustRoads2


     provide linkages and access to open
      space, public transport, community            The State Planning Policy Framework makes
      facilities, commercial centres and to         explicit provision for cyclists in the design of
      employment;                                   new facilities. (25th March 1999). The
     increase the number of bicycle parking        following extracts are from the Framework:
      facilities throughout the municipality,
      particularly at transport nodes,              “Consideration should be given to all modes
      commercial centres, places of work and        of travel, including walking, cycling, public
      in new residential developments;              transport, taxis and private vehicles
     reduce bicycle theft;                         (passenger and freight) in providing for
     establish design guidelines for the           access to new developments" (Clause 18-02-
      provision of bicycle parking facilities for   2)
      both large and small sites;
                                                    18.03         BICYCLE TRANSPORT
     encourage the provision of pedestrian         18.03-1       OBJECTIVE
      paths and links within the urban                            To integrate planning for bicycle travel with land use
      environment for the safe and convenient                     and development planning and encourage cycling as
                                                                  an alternative mode of travel.
      movement of pedestrians;                      18.03-2       GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION
     enhance the overall environment and                         Wherever possible, off-road bicycle networks should
      livability of the City.                                     be planned for in new urban development.
                                                                  Responsible authorities should require that adequate
                                                                  bicycle parking and related facilities to meet demand
7.2     Existing Policy and Legislation                           be provided at education, recreation, shopping, and
                                                                  community facilities when issuing planning
                                                                  approvals. Bicycle facilities should be developed in
The National Bicycle Strategy (1999-2004)2                        accordance with Guide to Traffic Engineering
makes explicit mention of end-of-trip facilities                  Practice Part 14-Bicycles (AUSTROADS 1993)”
and the role of local government to support
this strategy (see Table 7.1).                      At local government level, Moreland City Plan
                                                    requires major urban development projects
                                                    to:

                                                    “incorporate landscaped pedestrian and
                                                    bicycle paths as links to open space where
                                                    possible.” (Section 21.05-6)




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This strategy contributes to the wider                   is generated by the proposed
objective of Moreland City Plan of creating an           development.
open space network for outdoor recreation.              providing connectivity and permeability in
                                                         the street network.
The Moreland Integrated Transport Strategy
(MITS) includes secure, well-sited bike            Other associated works include:
parking as an important aspect of making            flush pram crossings;
cycling more accessible to the community. In        additional traffic lights (pedestrian/bike
particular, MITS states:                               signal) where possible, if the need is
                                                       generated by the proposed development;
“As far as possible during the design               bicycle leaning rails and parking facilities.
approval process, Council will encourage            appropriate street line marking and
developers to install good bicycle parking             signage;
facilities… Bike-parking rails should be sited      adequate lighting;
under cover… Parking rails should be sited to       seating at appropriate locations.
allow maximum surveillance, and, where
possible, lockers should be provided.”             Council should also consider the interactions
(Section 8.3)                                      between new developments and existing
                                                   bicycle linkages. These include the following:
7.3     What This Policy Applies To
                                                        consideration of the maintenance of
This policy applies to all planning permit               existing informal paths across
application where they trigger a requirement             development sites where practicable;
for car parking with the following exception –          identification of opportunities for new
small scale residential developments which               linkages across sites which could be
can demonstrate sufficient bike parking                  possible as part of redevelopment;
space, either within the dwellings or in private        incorporation of the needs of cyclists
open space on the property.                              should be a normal part of traffic impact
                                                         statements.
Carparking requirements will be assessed
separately. Provision of bike parking is not a     7.5     Bicycle Parking Facilities
justification for dispensation of carparking.
                                                   Bicycle parking facilities for employees,
7.4     Bicycle Links in New Large-Scale           residents and visitors should be provided for
      Developments                                 any new development or use, including
                                                   extensions of existing buildings or
Links can be provided in new developments          intensification of an existing use, where it is
by a number of methods including:                  considered by Council that the development
                                                   or use would generate a greater need for
     provision of wider footpaths;                bicycle parking.
     provision of on-street and/or off-street
      shared paths;                                Definitions
     retention and re-surfacing of laneways       In the following descriptions, class 1 refers to
      where possible, if the need is generated     a long-term bicycle facility and class 2 refers
      by the proposed development.                 to a short-term parking facility.
     designing the development to make use
      of existing laneways                         Location of Bicycle Parking Facilities
     provision of pedestrian/cyclist bridges or   Bicycle parking facilities can either be
      underpasses where possible, if the need      provided on-site specifically for the occupiers
                                                   of the premises, for example in new
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residential or industrial developments, or                                             Footpath facilities may be provided by the
provided on the public footpaths, primarily for                                        owner of the site, subject to the design
visitors to the premises, such as in the case of                                       guidelines outlined in this document, or by
shops. On-site facilities are primarily for long-                                      the City of Moreland at the applicant‟s cost. In
term parking (that is, greater than two hour                                           the event that bicycle parking facilities on
duration), while footpath facilities are primarily                                     public footpaths cannot be provided
for short term bicycle parking (usually less                                           immediately adjacent to the subject premises,
than 2 hour duration). Council, after                                                  Council may choose an alternative site not
discussion with the applicant, will determine                                          further than 50 metres from the subject
where the parking facilities are to be located.                                        premises.

On-site facilities may be provided by the                                              Garages are an acceptable form of long-term
owner of the site, subject to the design                                               parking, providing that there is sufficient
guidelines outlined in this document, or by                                            space for bicycles as well as a car.
the City of Moreland at the applicant‟s cost.
Table 7.2: Recommended Bicycle Parking Ratios

 Land Use                               Employee/Resident Parking Spaces                    Class     Visitor/Shopper Parking Spaces               Class
 Amusement Parlour                                                                                    2 plus 1 per 100 m2                            2
 Dwelling/Accommodation                 1 per 4 habitable rooms                               1       1 per 16 habitable rooms                       2
 Art Gallery                            1 per 1500m2 gross floor area (gfa)                   1       2 + 1 per 1500m2 gfa                           2
 Bank                                   1 per 200m2 gfa                                       1       2 + 1 per 400 m2 gfa
 Cafe                                   1 per 25m2 public area                                1       2 + 1 per 100 m2 gfa
 Consulting Rooms Medical Centre        1 per 8 practitioners                                 1       1 per 4 practitioners                          2
 Drive-In Shopping Centre               1 per 300m2 sales floor                               1       per 500m2 sales floor                          2
 Furniture & Carpet Sales               1 per 750m2 sales floor                               1       per 1000m2 sales floor                         2
 General Hospital                       1 per 15 beds                                         1       1 per 30 beds                                  2
 General Industry                       1 per 150m2 gfa
 Health Centre                          1 per 400m2 gfa                                       1       1 per 200m2 gfa                                2
 Hotel                                  1 per 25m2 bar floor area & 1 per 100m2               1       1 per 25m2 bar floor area & 1/ 1 per           2
                                        lounge, beer garden                                           100m2 lounge, beer garden
  Library                               1 per 500m2 gfa                                        1      4 plus 2 per 200m2 gfa                           2
  Light Industry                        1 per 1000m2 gfa                                       1
  Major Sports Ground                   1 per 1500 spectator places                            1      1 per 250 spectator places                       2
  Market                                                                                              1 per 10 stalls                                  2
  Motel                                  1 per 40 rooms                                        1
  Museum                                 1 per 1500m2 gfa                                      1      2 & 1 per 1500m2 gfa                             2
                                                     2
  Office                                 1 per 200m gfa                                        1      1 per 750m2 over 1000m2                          2
  Public Hall/Place of Assembly                                                                       2 per 50 seats or max capacity                   2
  Research Centre                        1 per 300m2 gfa                                       1
  Residential Bldg                       1 per 4 lodging rooms                                 1      1 per 16 lodging rooms                           2
  Restaurant                             1 per 100m2 public area                               1      2 + 1 per 100 m2 gfa
  School                                 1 per 5 pupils over year 4                            2
  Service Industry                       1 per 800m2 gfa                                       1
  Service Premises                       1 per 200m2 gfa                                       1      2 + 1 per 200 m2 gfa
                                                     2
  Shop                                   1 per 300m gfa                                        1      1 per 500m2 over 1000m2                          2
  Swimming Pool                                                                                       2 per 20m2 of pool area                          2
  Take-away                              1 per 100m2 gfa                                       1      1 per 50m2 gfa                                   2
  Tech. Institute/                       1 per 100 f/t students                                1
  University                             2 per 100 f/t students                                2
Note:           Adapted from AustRoads Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice. - definitions may not necessarily coincide with those in the Moreland Planning
Scheme. In the event of a conflict or missing definition, Moreland City Council will apply the best or closest fit definition between this table and the Moreland
Planning Scheme.

Legend:       Class 1 – Long term parking facility
              Class 2 – Short term parking facility
              gfa – gross floor area




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Bicycle Parking Ratios
Table 7.2 outlines the recommended bicycle
parking ratios for a number of land uses that
may generate a need or benefit for bicycle
use. This table is based on AustRoads Guide
to Traffic Engineering Practice (Part 14)1.

These rates will be applied in the assessment
of planning permit applications. The ratios
shown in the table may be reduced if Council
considers that sufficient bicycle parking
facilities already exist, or that the new use or
development does not warrant such a level of
bicycle parking facilities. These rates will be
applied in the assessment of planning permit
applications.




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7.6     Design Principles for Bicycle Parking             or U-lock. Alternatives may also be
      Facilities                                          acceptable.

                                                         Siting – Parked bicycles must be sited to
Table 7.3 summarises the key design                       provide easy and safe access for
elements that should be considered when                   dismounted cyclists and constructed to
designing parking facilities.                             leave sufficient clearance between
                                                          adjacent parked bicycles so that parking,
Long Term (Class 1)                                       locking and removing the bicycle can be
Long term parking would normally be                       performed with reasonable convenience
provided by bike lockers a „no-go‟ compound,              and in safety.
a locked cage or equivalent means of safely
securing bikes for long periods. These could              Parked bicycles must not unduly obstruct
be in areas not explicitly set aside for bike             pedestrian movement or other activity
parking. A long term parking facility should              such as delivery of goods, opening of car
also provide weather protection and be                    doors, operations of blinds and awnings,
adequately lit at night.                                  etc.

Where garages are used to provide long-term          Figure 7.1: Council’s Preferred Bicycle Rail Design*
parking, the minimum internal width or length
must be increased by 500mm (ie. revised
minimum internal dimensions of 3.5m x 6m or
3m x 6.5m for a single garage).

Short Term (Class 2)
A short term bicycle parking facility (class 2)
should satisfy the following design criteria
where possible.

     Security – A bicycle must be able to be
                                                                                                 Source: Austroads1
      locked to the frame and one wheel. The
      bicycle must not be susceptible to             *The continued use of this rail is subject to future
      damage from other vehicles, opening car        recommendations of a Moreland standard design
      doors etc. In the past Council has used        manual, or Technical Notes (in development).
      the bike rail design shown (see Figure
      7.1). This rail is low cost and easy to use.
      It supports the whole bicycle and
      provides for easy security by chain, cable




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Table 7.3: Bicycle Parking Installation Checklist

  USER TYPE AND NEEDS                                               CATEGORY OF PARKING FACILITY
  Security                      Users             Convenience       Class 1            Class 2
  High a                        Regular           Low / High        Locker / Enclosure n/a
  Medium b                      Casual            High              Enclosure^         Bike Rail
  Key Design Elements                                               Class 1            Class 2
  In Public View                                                    Not Essential      Desirable
  Placement                                                         Grouped            Dispersed
  Access from Road                                                  < 30m              < 10m
  Proximity to Destination                                          < 70m              <30m
  Signage                                                           Required           Stencil
  Pedestrian Safety                                                 n/a                Ok
  Lighting                                                          Required           Required *
  Official Supervision                                              Required           Desirable
  Showers                                                           Close Proximity    Required **
  Weather Protection                                                Required           Required **
  Ground Surface                                                    Hard Surface       Hard Surface
a
  eg: at rail stations, office buildings, major shopping centres, staff parking, etc.
b
  eg: picture theatres, shopping centres, restaurants, swimming pools, etc.
^ a bike rail with chain and lock guard provided is an acceptable alternative here
* if night use anticipated
** for regular users

                                                                                                      1
               7.7      Recommendations For Policy                                                      Acknowledgment: much in this section is based on materia
                                                                                                      written by Connie Whytcross for Moreland City Council.
                      Implementation                                                                  2
                                                                                                        AustRoads (1999), „Australia Cycling 1999-2004 The Nation
                                                                                                      Strategy‟, p11. This has a target of June 2001 for completion
                     that Council exempt residential
                      development applications from these
                      provisions where there are fewer than six
                      units;
                     that alternatives to the provision of bike
                      parking shown above be considered on
                      an application-by-application basis (this
                      would include measures such as the
                      building of slightly larger garages to
                      accommodate bikes);
                     that Council trial the new provisions and
                      refine where necessary;
                     the Council provide seminars for
                      planning staff, developers and designers
                      to raise awareness of these guidelines
                      and ensure their consistent and
                      appropriate application
                     these guidelines be published as a stand-
                      alone document, together with a
                      summary brochure, for use with potential
                      developers
                     a Planning Scheme amendment be
                      prepared to make Section 7 of the
                      Moreland Bike Plan a Local Policy under
                      the Moreland Planning Scheme.

               Notes


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      8. Appendices
      8.1 Appendix A

      Cyclists Questionnaire andBUG Pamphlet


      8.2 Appendix B

      Summary of Discussion at Public Meetings


      8.3 Appendix C

      Merri Creek Bike Survey


      8.4 Appendix D

      Preferred Vehicle Crossing Design


      8.5 Appendix E

      The Model Bicycle Intersection


      8.6 Appendix F

      Recent Innovations in Bicycle Facility Design


      8.7 Appendix G

      Report on Requests from Public Consulation
      for Additions to the Works Program




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