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Illustrations of “The Merchant of Venice” Richard Parkes Bonington. Bassanio and Portia, c. 1826. Although other titles have been suggested for this small picture, the source is clearly Act III, Scene ii, of The Merchant of Venice. Bassanio has wisely chosen the lead casket on the table behind them and found inside it Portia's picture. He now claims her with a kiss as he has been directed by the poem that accompanies "fair Portia's counterfeit": You that choose not by the view Chance as fair, and choose as true. Since this fortune falls to you Be content and seek no new. If you be well pleased with this And hold your fortune for your bliss, Turn you where your lady is, And claim her with a loving kiss. In the background of the picture stand Portia's maid Nerissa and Bassanio's friend Gratiano, two lovers who have had no need of caskets or poems to make their choice of mates. Sir Samuel Luke Fildes. Jessica, exhibited in 1888. By permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library "There will come a Christian boy, will be worth a Jewess' eye" (The Merchant of Venice, Act II, Scene v). Fildes's Jessica was shown in 1888 in an exhibition of twenty- one paintings sponsored by the newspaper Graphic. The series of pictures was entitled Shakespeare's Heroines. Sir John Gilbert. Shylock After the Trial. Steel engraving, approximately 6.5 x 10.5 inches, by G. Greatbach. The engraving is from Charles Knight's two-volume Imperial Edition of The Works of Shakespere(London: Virtue and Company, 1873-76). The title of Gilbert's painting is a misidentification and is thus misnamed. After the trial (Act IV, Scene i), Shylock leaves the stage and we hear no more of him. The action Gilbert illustrates occurs in Act II, Scene vii after Shylock learns that his daughter Jessica has eloped with Lorenzo--and a sizeable portion of his money. Salerino and Salanio, friends of Antonio's, describe Shylock running madly through the streets lamenting his lost daughter and money. Salanio: The villain Jew with outcries raised the duke, Who went with him to search Bassanio's ship. Salarino: He came too late, the ship was under sail: But there the duke was given to understand That in a gondola were seen together Lorenzo and his amorous Jessica: Besides, Antonio certified the duke They were not with Bassanio in his ship. Salanio: I never heard a passion so confused, So strange, outrageous, and so variable, As the dog Jew did utter in the streets: 'My daughter! O my ducats! O my daughter! Justice! the law! my ducats, and my daughter! A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats, Of double ducats, stolen from me by my daughter! And jewels, two stones, two rich and precious stones, Stolen by my daughter! Justice! find the girl; She hath the stones upon her, and the ducats.' Frederic Leighton. Two Venetian Gentlemen, c. 1862-3. Oil on canvas, 38.5 x 28.5 inches. Private collection. Thomas Sully. Portia and Shylock, 1835. By permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library Oil on canvas, 29 x 38 inches. The Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D. C. An inscription on the back of the canvas says it illustrates The Merchant of Venice, Act IV, Scene i, lines 230-232. The relevant passage is "Be merciful. / Take thrice thy money; bid me tear the bond." In Sully's painting Portia is poised to tear the bond in two, but Shylock, holding the scale with which he intends to weigh the pound of flesh cut from Antonio, looks harshly upon her and points to the bond. The painting seems unconcerned with fidelity to the text; Portia is not disguised effectively as a judge and Sully is more intent on depicting the merciful, feminine Portia than a "Daniel come to judgment." Henry Woods. Portia, exhibited in 1888. By permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library "Tarry, Jew: The law hath yet another hold on you" (The Merchant of Venice, Act IV, Scene i). Portia was shown in 1888 in an exhibition of twenty-one paintings sponsored by the newspaper Graphic. The series of pictures was entitled Shakespeare's Heroines. Welcome to Renaissance England It’s Time! It’s time to don your doublet! Tighten your trussing! Get on your galligaskins! Females, fit on your farthingales! Smooth your stomachers! Remember your ruffs! Slip on your shoes! And grab your gloves! Gentlemen? Ladies? Is everybody ready? We’re going to the theatre! Shakespeare 1563-1616 Born: Stratford upon Avon, England Wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets He started out as an actor Stratford upon Avon •Shakespeare’s birthplace and burial place •Shakespeare’s residence outside of London •Anne Hathaway’s cottage still stands here along with other monuments •Home of the Royal Shakespeare Company London •Shakespeare’s workplace as an actor and playwright •Home of the Globe Theatre (1599) which was built by (and for the performances of) ‘The Lord Chamberlain’s Men’ until it burnt in 1613. The Globe! Shakespeare’s theatre is located just outside of London, England. The Globe Theater 1599 The Theatre Plays produced for the general public Roofless- open air No artificial lighting Courtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries The New Globe Theater 1999 Spectators Wealthy got benches “Groundlings”- poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”) All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterate Much more interaction than today Staging Areas Stage>platform that extended into the pit Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage Second-level gallery> upper stage> famous balcony scene in R & J Trap door>ghosts “Heavens”> angelic beings Differences No scenery Settings > references in dialogue Elaborate costumes Plenty of props Fast-paced, colorful- 2 hours! Actors Only men and boys Young boys whose voices had not changed play women‟s roles Would have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage A groundlings Thewhite flag have paid their The afternoon,are dressing stagemen time for It’sTheand areisstanding to watch pennyflying. a a lower class isyoungis higher class Poetry There’sto start. roles. up to take a female profession, the play. and no women will the play the there. than of arttoday!play writing is. play appear The wealthy are in the upper decks. We’re in for a real treat! It’s good the plague is over and the theaters are open again. The of Shakespeare’s tragedies! It’s oneplay is about to begin! William Shakespeare What do we know he When he retired vocabulary His purchased a about Shakespeare? went back to HeHe married was monument He has ahuge: Stratford-on-Avon of arms best coatWestminsterto He died Anne was TheyHebought1616. in inthree His company His actingwrote 37 had 26! father His hometown and was the Hemake town. wasin to born She 17,000hishe’s Abbey thoughLord “The was called including house middle class aHathaway very successful children, Elizabeth Stratford-on- is34,000 words! 1564. inbutcher,Men.” Evenmovedburiedplays.was QueenLondon and in Stratford- upper family hemayor, HeChamberlain’s when to on-Avon. set18 years & twins. of playwright, aan actor,class. old. it became LaterAvon.glovemaker. enjoyed his plays! became “The King’s Men.” and theater owner. What do we know about Shakespeare? He has had an amazing influence on our English language. Shakespeare wrote: Comedies Histories Tragedies Have you heard these phrases? I couldn’t sleep a wink. He was dead as a doornail. She’s a tower of strength. They hoodwinked us. I’m green-eyed with jealousy. We’d better lie low for awhile. Keep a civil tongue in your head. They are just some of the many expressions coined by that master of language, William Shakespeare. Now, let the show begin! Shakespeare’s Language Using the handout provided, write the following definitions on your sheet. Elizabethan (QE1) Words An,and: If Anon: Soon Aye: Yes But: Except for E‟en: Even E‟er: Ever Haply: Perhaps Happy: Fortunate Hence: Away, from her Hie: Hurry Marry: Indeed Whence: Where Wilt: Will, will you Withal: In addition to Would: Wish Blank Verse unrhymed verse iambic (unstressed, stressed) pentameter( 5 “feet” to a line) ends up to be 10 syllable lines Prose Ordinarywriting that is not poetry, drama, or song Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare‟s plays Why do you suppose that is? Plot The sequence of events in a literary work Exposition The plot usually begins with this: introduces>>>> setting characters basic situation Inciting Moment Often called “initial incident” thefirst bit of action that occurs which begins the plot What is the inciting moment in „The Merchant of Venice‟? Conflict The struggle that develops man vs. man man vs. himself man vs. society man vs. nature Crisis Thepoint where the protagonist‟s situation will either get better or worse protagonist>good guy antagonist>bad guy Climax Theturning point of the story>everything begins to unravel from here Thus begins the falling action Resolution Theend of the central conflict Denouement Thefinal explanation or outcome of the plot Ifthis is included in literature, it will occur after the resolution. Theme Central idea or … Insight about life which explain the downfall Dramatic Foil Acharacter whose purpose is to show off another character Can you think of any in „The Merchant of Venice‟? Round characters Characters who have many personality traits, like real people. Flat Characters One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy Static Characters Characters within a story who remain the same. They do not change. They do not change their minds, opinions or character. Dynamic Character Charactersthat change somehow during the course of the plot. They generally change for the better. Monologue Oneperson speaking on stage- may be other character on stage too Find an example from the text. Soliloquy Longspeech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage. Find an example from the text. Aside Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters Pun Shakespeare loved to use them!!! Humorous use of a word with two meanings > sometimes missed by the reader because of Elizabethan language and sexual innuendo Dramatic Irony A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true Verbal Irony Wordsused to suggest the opposite of what is meant Situational Irony An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience Comic Relief Use of comedy within literature that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness. Find an example from the text.
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