Executive Overview by wuyunyi

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									                                         National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                  Corporate University Business Case
                                  Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                  Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                       May 26, 2009




       National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group

               Corporate University Business Case

         Current State of Training and Leadership
                        Readiness
                            And
           Corporate University Mental Model


                         May 26, 2009




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                                                                                 National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                                          Corporate University Business Case
                                                                          Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                                          Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                                               May 26, 2009

Table of Contents

Overview ......................................................................................................................... 3
Methodology .................................................................................................................... 5
  Approach ..................................................................................................................... 5
  Definitions .................................................................................................................. 11
High-Performing Learning Function Characteristics and Constructs ............................. 13
Current State of Training ............................................................................................... 16
  Current State of Training SWOT ................................................................................ 17
Leadership‘s Readiness to Support Change ................................................................. 22
  Leadership Readiness SWOT ................................................................................... 23
Platform for Change ...................................................................................................... 27
Purpose of Learning and Development for the Wildland Fire Community ..................... 30
  Vision and Mission ..................................................................................................... 30
  Goals ......................................................................................................................... 30
  Scope ........................................................................................................................ 31
Structure........................................................................................................................ 35
  Schools ...................................................................................................................... 35
  Form .......................................................................................................................... 37
  Governance ............................................................................................................... 43
Expected Outcomes ...................................................................................................... 44
Budget ........................................................................................................................... 45
Summary ....................................................................................................................... 47
Appendix A: Compiled Findings from Training Representative Interviews and Focus
Groups ............................................................................................................................ 1
Appendix B: Compiled Findings from Leadership Interviews and Focus Groups ........... 1




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                                                         National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                  Corporate University Business Case
                                                  Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                  Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                       May 26, 2009



Overview
Formed in the early 1970‘s, The National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group (NWCG) is
focused on coordinating the programs of participating federal wildland fire management
agencies in partnership with the states. The effort is intended to avoid wasteful
duplication and to provide a means of constructively working together among the fire
agencies. NWCG‘s goal is to provide more effective execution of each agency‘s fire
management program.

The NWCG provides a formalized system to agree upon various standards including
training, equipment, qualifications, and other operational functions. One of NWCG‘s
opportunities for standards is in consistent leadership at all levels. The NWCG prides
itself on providing and promoting leadership throughout all agency activities.

Recently, the NWCG commenced a restructuring effort to streamline coordination of
business processes among the five agencies. Implementation of the restructuring
efforts is still underway.

From a training perspective, the NWCG is interested in cascading the spirit of
coordination led by the restructuring effort to training. The NWCG Fuels Management
Workforce Development Plan (November 2008) and the Quadrennial Fire Review 2009
(January 2009) indicate that opportunities to unify and standardize some elements of
training and workforce development exist today among the federal wildland fire
management agencies. While some training standardization currently exists within the
wildland fire and aviation community, workforce development needs are being
addressed by individuals and units without adhering to common practices and standard
training approaches. The desire for standardization is compounded by the growing
learning and development needs within the wildland fire and aviation community due to
the complexity of the fire environment and increased activity on all risk incidents.

To evaluate the opportunity and determine if a case to align training associated with fire
and fire management throughout the fire agencies exists, NWCG has commissioned an
investigation of the current state of training and leadership‘s readiness to support any
changes in training alignment and integration. NWCG is exploring launching the
Wildland Fire and Aviation University as a possible construct for unifying the current
learning and development resources if a positive business case for change exists.
Thus, the investigation also explores the concept of the corporate university to
determine its value as a viable option for NWCG to consider in addressing any
opportunities for alignment.



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                                                       National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                Corporate University Business Case
                                                Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                     May 26, 2009

Corporate University Enterprise, Inc. (CUE) was contracted to define the business case
for unifying and aligning the existing training associated with fire and fire management
within the five agencies and for exploring the corporate university as a possible model
for addressing any such integration efforts.

This report compiles and analyzes data regarding the current state of training
associated with fire and fire management and leadership‘s readiness to consider
aligning training among the five agencies. It also examines the business case for
changing the current approach to training‘s structure and explores the corporate
university as a possible construct for addressing opportunities. This report synthesizes
the data collection efforts to create a business case for restructuring learning and
development in the wildland fire and aviation community.




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                                                          National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                   Corporate University Business Case
                                                   Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                   Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                        May 26, 2009



Methodology
Approach

In April 2009, CUE began the in-depth internal analysis of the current state of learning
and development and leadership‘s readiness to support any kind of change in the way
that training is currently offered and structured today in the wildland fire and aviation
community. The analysis included a review of various reports and studies recently
commissioned by NWCG to assess the current state of workforce development and to
identify top strategies associated with fire management.

Although a variety of reports and studies unique to particular agencies were reviewed
as part of this analysis (some dated back to 1998), several recent and critical reports
that look across the five agencies were considered and leveraged as part of this
analysis:

    1. The NWCG Fuels Management Workforce Development Plan (November 2008)
    2. The Quadrennial Fire Review 2009 (January 2009)
    3. The Leadership Development Initiative of the National Wildfire Coordinating
       Group (September 2006)
    4. Management Efficiency Assessment of the Interagency Wildland Fire Training
       and Related Services (July 2008)

Data collection also included interviews and focus groups with various representatives
from NWCG and the five agencies. During the weeks of April 20 and April 27, CUE
conducted five focus groups and five interviews for the current state analysis and one
focus group and 12 interviews with leaders.

All focus group and interview participants were invited through internal scheduling
channels within NWCG. The focus groups and interviews were conducted via
teleconference. The data collection effort encompassed the following (Table 1):

 Information to Collect         Group or Individual                  Format
                          Training Working Team (TWT)        Focus Group
                                 Jim Glenn
                                 Merrie Johnson
     Current State of            Don Johnson
    Training Analysis            Chuck Wamack
                                 Sue Curd
                                 Gordon Sachs
                                 James Cook

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                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

 Information to Collect          Group or Individual                       Format
                                 Mark Koontz
                                 Joel Rogauskas
                                 Robert Bennett
                                 Rosemary Thomas
                                 Kevin Conn
                                 Dave Koch
                          Geographic Area Training              Focus Group
                          Representatives (GATR‘s):
                                 Renee Beams
                                 Kim Bang
                                 John Grosman
                                 Tony Doty
                                 Debra Corner
                                 Cindy Forrest
                                 Diana Van Curler
                                 Nichol Webb Smith
                                 Jan Britt
                                 Dennis Baldridge
                                 Robert E Bell
                                 Debra Burgos
                                 Charley Luevano
                                 Madonna Lengerich
                          Training Coordinators/Project         Focus Group
                          Leaders:
                                 Noble Dunn
                                 Ed Secakuku
                                 Jan Hendrick
                                 Ingrid Sather
                                 Leigh Anne Squires-Kazimir
                                 Jon Kessler
                                 Bob Kambitsch
                                 LaMar St.John
                                 Wendell Welch
                                 Deborah Corner
                                 Mike E Williams
                                 Tim Peterson
                                 Celeste A Gordon
                                 Paula Nasiatka
                                 David Christenson
                                 Travis Dotson
                                 Jim Durrwachter
                                 Nate Gogna
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                                                                       Corporate University Business Case
                                                       Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                       Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                            May 26, 2009

 Information to Collect          Group or Individual                         Format
                                 Michael Howorth
                          Mixed Specialists:                     Focus Group
                                 Stephen A Gage
                                 Billy Terry
                                 Tom G Zimmerman
                                 Lisa Elenz
                                 Clint Cross
                                 Dave Curry
                                 Tim Sexton
                                 Cheryl L Dickson
                                 Kristy Lund
                                 Jim Sanders
                                 Dennis Dupuis
                                 Emily Irwin
                                 Bill Molumby
                                 Cliff.Liedtke
                                 Boo Walker
                                 Craig Cook
                                 Sharon Allen Brick
                          Field Representatives:                 Focus Group
                                 Jack Kirkendall
                                 Stuart
                                 Dan Kleinman
                                 Vince Mazzier
                                 John Truett
                                 Steve Weaver
                                 Mark Ruggiero
                                 Shawna Legarza
                                 Brian
                          Merrie Johnson, Director, NAFRI        Interview
                          Deb Epps, NWCG Development             Interview
                          Unit Leader
                          Vince Mazzier, Co-Chair of             Interview
                          IOSWT, Interim Chair of OWDC
                          Wendell Welch, Distance Learning       Interview
                          Unit Leader, NWCG Training
                          Renee Beams, GATR Chair                Interview
                          (Pacific Northwest)
                          Paul Fieldhouse, Training Center       Interview
                          Manager, Northern
                          Rockies Training Center

                          Branch Coordinators and                Focus Group
Leadership’s Readiness
                          NWCG Program Manager:
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                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

 Information to Collect           Group or Individual                       Format
                                  Paul Schlobohm
                                  Tim Blake
                                  Elaine Waterbury
                          Mike Hilbruner, Forest Service –      Interview
                          Fire Research
                          Dan Smith, Fire Director, National    Interview
                          Association of State Foresters
                          Karyn Wood, Forest Service            Interview
                          representative
                          Kirk Rowdabaugh, OWFC                 Interview
                          Tom Harbour,                          Interview
                          Lyle Carlyle, BIA representative      Interview
                          Tim Murphy , BLM representative,      Interview
                          NWCG
                          Jim Douglas, Fire Executive
                          Council
                          Hugh Wood, US Fire                    Interview
                          Administration
                          Tom Nichols, Park Service             Interview
                          representative
                          Bill Kaage, Park Service
                          representative
                          Jim Erickson, tribal representative   Interview
                          Brian McMannus, FWS Director          Interview
                          for Wildland Fire at NIFCE
                          Aitor Bidaburu, Boise contact for     Interview
                          Fire Administration
                                                                                               Table 1

One CUE consultant was present for all focus groups and interviews to both facilitate
the discussions and record notes. Interviews were scheduled for 60 minutes and focus
groups were scheduled for 90 minutes.

Focus group sessions were attended by as few as three representatives and as many
as 12 representatives. The CUE consultants engaged several question protocols,
which were presented to and approved by the Director of the National Advanced Fire
and Resource Institute (NAFRI) and the NWCG Development Unit Leader, to guide the
interview and focus group sessions.

To guide the interviews and focus groups addressing the current state of training in the
five agencies, CUE posed the following questions:




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                                                           National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                    Corporate University Business Case
                                                    Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                    Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                         May 26, 2009

    Training Processes
       1. How are current and emerging wildland fire learning and development needs
           identified?
       2. What is the process for developing wildland fire training programs? How does your
           geographic area or agency/bureau develop these programs?
       3. What delivery methods are currently used to support wildland fire learning (i.e.
           instructor-led training, online and CD courses, e-Learning, webinars)?
       4. Who delivers your agency/bureau/geographic wildland fire training programs (i.e.
           subject-matter experts, full- or part-time agency trainers, contractors)?
       5. How do you evaluate wildland fire training courses and programs? Is there any
           evaluation of these training courses and programs against agency and NWCG
           goals?

    Qualification Processes
      1. Are requirements for the Wildland Fire Qualification System clear and readily
           accessible?
      2. How are position qualifications determined? How are these qualifications updated?
      3. To what extent do the Position Task Books (PTB‘s) contain the critical competencies
           and proficiencies required to meet existing and future job requirements? How
           frequently do agencies augment the qualifications standards to meet their specific
           needs?
      4. Are the appropriate individuals responsible for each step of trainee certification?
           Why or why not?
            Certifying Official from the Home/Unit Agency?
            Coach?
            Training Specialist?
            Evaluator?
            Final Evaluator?
      5. What mechanisms exist for tying qualification completion to the effectiveness of the
           training or development method (i.e. on-the-job learning, mentoring)?

    Organization Structure
       1. How do the training processes and qualification processes work in your
          agency/bureau?

    Funding
       1. How are wildland fire learning and development opportunities funded in your
          agency/bureau/geographic area (central training fund, charge-back model,
          interagency funding)?

    Workforce Development Practices
      1. Does your agency have a workforce development plan?
      2. To what extent do career paths exist for all fire roles in your agency/bureau?
      3. Does your agency/bureau have a mentoring and/or coaching program? If so, please
          describe it (i.e. formal or informal, mentor/protégé or coach/coachee selection,
          program focus, program evaluation).

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                                                                        Corporate University Business Case
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        4. How is your agency planning for the increasing rate of retirements in the wildland fire
           workforce?
        5. What cross-agency workforce development programs exist?

    Tools and Technologies
       1. What agency-specific tools and technologies exist for
            Decision support?
            Resource coordination?
            Logistical support?
           What interagency tools and technologies exist to support these activities?
       2. How is information communicated in real time to the public in wildland fire situations?
           How is real-time direct access to incident management situations provided?

    NWCG Partnerships and Departmental (USDA/DOI) Relationships
      1. What kinds of NWCG partnerships exist? How well are these partnerships working?
      2. What kinds of departmental (USDA/DOI) relationships exist? How well are these
         relationships working?
      3. How well is the NWCG restructuring working (i.e. combining federal only with
         incident only)?

To guide the interviews and focus groups addressing leadership‘s readiness to support
any changes in the current state of training, CUE posed the following questions:

    1. When you hear the term ―Wildland Fire and Aviation University,‖ what mental image
        comes to mind?
    2. Why do you think it is important for the NWCG to take on the challenge of launching a
        Wildland Fire and Aviation University? Is this the right time?
    3. Given the future environmental trends facing the wildland fire workforce, what new skills
        will be required for wildfire personnel?
    4. What specific topics would you like the University to offer (i.e. dispatch, fire investigation,
        incident command system, leadership, management, prevention, refresher, prescribed
        fire, suppression skills)?
    5. What workforce development components would you like to see the University address
        (i.e. career paths, mentoring or coaching programs, interagency workforce development
        programs)?
    6. What other activities would you like to see the University conduct (i.e. training needs
        assessments, instructional design, training evaluation, instructor certification, research,
        marketing)?
    7. What current learning and development programs would you like to see protected as
        NWCG begins the design of the Wildland Fire and Aviation University?
    8. What encourages you to support your employees in learning and development
        activities?
    9. What barriers are you currently experiencing in supporting your employees in learning
        and development activities (i.e. time, budget)?
    10. What problems do you hope this University can work to resolve?

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                                                                       Corporate University Business Case
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    11. What are the ―quick wins‖ that you would like to see addressed first in the Wildland Fire
        and Aviation University?
    12. What challenges do you think will arise in creating a Wildland Fire and Aviation
        University?
    13. What forms of ongoing accountability will be required to fully implement a Wildland Fire
        and Aviation University? Will there be the commitment to personnel allocation and
        funding needed for this initiative? Will you champion a Wildland Fire and Aviation
        University?
    14. What specific long-term results would you want to see from the University?

Participants received advance copies of the focus group and interview questions.
Appendix A contains the compiled data from interviews and focus groups conducted to
assess the current state of training. Appendix B provides the compiled data from the
interviews and focus groups conducted to determine leadership‘s readiness for change.


Definitions

Several specific terms and phrases, prevalent in the learning and development
community, are used throughout this report. These phrases are defined below to
ensure uniform interpretation:

Succession Planning: Succession, or replacement, planning entails the identification of
those employees who have the right skills to meet the challenges the organization
faces. Succession planning usually includes analysis of key positions, candidate
assessments, individual development planning with targeted candidates, and final
candidate selection into key positions. (Adapted from ASTD Info-Line Publication
―Succession Planning‖ Issue 9312).

Career Path: A Career Path is a progressive series of milestones that position an
individual to move from one position to another within an organization in support of
career mobility and succession planning. Prescribed learning programs are often
associated with Career Paths to help an individual develop the right skills and
knowledge to qualify for his/her next milestone.

Talent Management: Talent management is the act of acquiring, developing, deploying,
engaging, and retaining employees. (Adapted from ASTD LX Briefing, Volume 4, Issue
3, March 2009).

Corporate University: The process by which an organization integrates strategic,
results-driven, and continuous learning throughout its entire workforce chain.


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                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
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Kirkpatrick Four Level Evaluation: Created by Donald Kirkpatrick in 1959, the
Kirkpatrick Four Level Evaluation model is the most widely engaged approach to
determining the effectiveness of learning:

               1. Level 1: Reaction – Measures participants‘ satisfaction with a learning
                  program.
               2. Level 2: Learning – Measures the acquisition of new knowledge, skills,
                  and/or attitudes in a learning program.
               3. Level 3: Behaviour – Measures the transfer of knowledge, skills, and/or
                  attitudes back to the workplace as a result of completing a learning
                  program.
               4. Level 4: Results – Measures the tangible organizational impacts that
                  result from learning such as quality improvement, reduced turnover, and
                  safety improvements.




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                                                                  Corporate University Business Case
                                                  Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                  Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                       May 26, 2009


High-Performing Learning Function Characteristics and
Constructs
According to an Accenture study reported in HR Magazine in 2005, companies with high
performing learning functions outperformed competitor organizations that did not attend
to learning in the same comprehensive way. The performance indicators included 27%
greater productivity, 40% higher revenue growth, and 40% higher new income growth.

In a general sense, companies with high performing learning functions, regardless of
their industry, do a number of critical things to integrate learning as a competitive
variable, according to a study performed by the Corporate Executive Board in 2003:

    First, high performing learning functions align learning with business goals and
    objectives. This characteristic is probably the most important element as it ensures
    that training has a strategic place in the organization and that training performs
    against stated business goals.

    Second, high performing learning functions offer a variety of services and activities.
    Rather than just distribute training classes, organizations with strong learning
    functions integrate development activities such as career consulting, development
    planning, career management, talent management, performance consulting, and
    organization design as part of a full suite of learning opportunities that can
    strengthen individual and organizational performance.

    Third, high performing learning functions have distinct organizational structures.
    While there is no standard organization design or reporting hierarchy, high
    performing learning functions deliberately create a structure that aligns with their
    corporate hierarchy. This trend does not demand a re-organization or dictate
    centralization or decentralization. It simply requires a deliberate decision about an
    appropriate structure.

    Fourth, high performing learning functions consistently use performance consulting
    methods to connect the needs of the business and the individual to ensure that
    training is part of the solution for a noticed workplace problem. This tactic places
    more emphasis on diagnosis and solution-building rather than simply trying to fix a
    noticed workplace problem with a stand-alone training class.

    Fifth, high performing learning functions integrate multiple delivery methods. All
    kinds of delivery methods are introduced—coaching, on-the-job training, technology
    tools, job aids, mentoring, e-learning, simulations, demonstrations, and action
    learning—all blur the line between learning and work and add variety to meet varied
    learning styles and to distribute learning as efficiently and effectively as possible.
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    Sixth, high performing learning functions conduct robust evaluation activities. They
    focus on measuring reaction, learning, behavior, and results and place greater rigor
    around demonstrating value.

One way that organizations can achieve the high-performing learning function status is
through the corporate university approach. Corporate universities emerged in the
twentieth century as a continuation of a workforce education trend. Instead of coping
with the perceived slowness and inapplicability of theoretical learning found in traditional
colleges and universities, business and industry turned inward and created training and
development departments to foster the need for continuous learning. These business
units were designed to provide employees, both rookie and veteran, with the skills
necessary to perform their duties with precision and efficiency. Training departments
relied on their ability to teach employees routines, patterns, and tasks that would enable
them to perform in a skill-based economy.

As the economy shifted to information- and knowledge-based, learning became not a
one-time, instructional endeavor, but a continuous process that required employees to
learn quickly and regularly in order to keep pace with technological advancements,
global competition, and rapid change. In light of these changes, training departments
looked to management models to revamp and revolutionize the way that they designed
and delivered learning in organizational settings. The training industry found that it had
been neglecting critical elements of good business practice: strategy and value.
Training had to develop clear connections to organizational missions and goals and had
to prove that it contributed to the organization meeting those missions and goals.
Corporate universities started to take shape to help make those connections.

In the federal government, the corporate university model has become one of the most
important management and business practices in aligning learning with strategic
imperatives, finding efficiencies, modernizing delivery methods, and maximizing the
return on investment in training. In fact, one of the most widely-recognized and
benchmarked corporate universities is the Defense Acquisition University (DAU). DAU
has integrated all training certification and soft skills learning for over 130,000
acquisition professionals who service defense acquisitions. Another example is the US
Department of Health and Human Services University (HHSU) that provides core and
common training employees of all Operating Divisions (e.g. the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, Federal Drug Administration, Indian Health Services, etc.) that
comprise the Department.

A corporate university is not a prescribed solution or cookie-cutter approach. Rather,
the term ―corporate university‖ applies solely to the construct or framework that an
organization uses to address enterprise-wide learning needs strategically. Corporate
universities are strategic in that they are aligned with organizational goals and are
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deliberately planned. They are enterprise-wide in that they consider the right way to
address learning needs across the entire organization. Note that these assertions do
not lead necessarily to complete centralization of all training nor do they indicate that a
new facility for learning must be constructed. The shape that each corporate university
takes is driven primarily by the goals and strategies of the organization coupled with
corporate culture, budget, structure, and geographic distribution. In other words, no two
corporate universities are alike, and there is no single corporate university solution that
applies to all organizations. The term ―corporate university‘ is merely a label used to
describe an organization‘s strategic and holistic approach to learning and development.




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Current State of Training
The focus groups and interviews and document reviews targeted to define the current state of training in the five agencies
centered on seven key areas:

       Training processes
       Qualification processes
       Workforce Development practices
       Organization structure
       Funding
       Tools and technologies
       NWCG partnerships and departmental (USDA/DOI) relationships

The key areas informed the kinds of questions posed in the focus groups and interviews and guided the documentation
reviews.

The key areas also provide the frame for the analysis of the current state. Compiled by areas of Strength, Weakness,
Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT), the analysis addresses each of the seven key areas as represented in the table below
(Table 2).

Strengths describe current practices that are solid and well-functioning that may be leveraged in a re-design and re-
alignment of training among the five agencies. Weaknesses are current practices that do not operate effectively today
and should be either revamped or discarded in a re-design and re-alignment effort. Opportunities are intriguing
perspectives and possible avenues that, if addressed appropriately, could be leveraged in a re-design. Threats are
significant risks and/or limitations that jeopardize the efficiency or effectiveness of training.




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Current State of Training SWOT

           Strengths                      Weaknesses                           Opportunities                            Threats
Training Processes
 Wildland fire learning and        There is no formal,                  Developing a standard,             Course development
   development needs are             standardized annual needs             formal needs assessment             generally takes eighteen
   identified at all levels –        assessment process to                 process that includes               months to three years,
   local (zones), state,             gather, vet, and prioritize           review of training AAR‘s,           resulting in outdated
   geographic area,                  learning and development              reports, and studies as well        materials.
   agency/bureau, and                needs across the wildland             as on-demand needs would           By not addressing learning
   interagency – on an annual        fire workforce. Moreover,             ensure that individual              and development needs for
   basis within the fire             needs associated with on-             needs are tied to                   day job roles, there will be
   agencies.                         demand and in-the-moment              organizational needs and            a shortage of individuals in
 The NWCG Training is               requests as well as                   goals. Additionally, such a         the pipeline to step into
   beginning to document             influences from studies and           process would eliminate             leadership roles.
   processes for training            reports are often not                 duplication in training            If courses are not delivered
   analysis, design,                 considered.                           content.                            by individuals with both
   development, certification,      Learning and development             Identifying the workforce‘s         technical and training
   and evaluation.                   programs are geared                   needs for day job roles             expertise, the credibility of
 Extensive training                 toward achieving incident             would address the 80% of            training will be decreased.
   programs exist for wildland       and response line                     time spent on regular jobs.        Without a formal evaluation
   fire personnel.                   qualification positions, and         Using a rapid design and            strategy and process, there
 Delivery methods to                little attention is paid to the       development process                 is no way to tie job
   support wildland fire             workforce‘s day job roles             would decrease the time             performance back to
   learning are varied.              (i.e. everyday jobs).                 necessary for course                Individual Development
 Subject matter experts            The process for developing            development and revision            Plans (IDP‘s) and
   (SME‘s) primarily deliver         wildland fire training                and would ensure currency           organizational success.
   training. However,                programs varies greatly               of training materials.             DHS control of content may
   contractors (i.e. retirees,       and is impacted by internal          Developing and                      create challenges
   university professors), and       politics, human resources,            implementing a ―SME‘s as            associated with alignment
   agency trainers are also          and funding.                          Instructors‖ training               and adherence to PCB‘s
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           Strengths                          Weaknesses                         Opportunities                          Threats
    used.                             SME‘s who are used to                program, addressing how            and practical realities. The
   Courses are evaluated at           develop courses often do             to select, develop, manage,        impact of DHS and its new
    Level 1 (Satisfaction) and         not have an understanding            and evaluate instructors,          control of course content
    Level 2 (Learning), and            of adult learning principles         would better position SME‘s        writing in unknown and
    some Level 3 (Behavior)            and instructional design.            to combine subject                 uncertain.
    evaluations are conducted.        It is difficult to convene           expertise with adult
   The amount of time that the        SME‘s for course                     learning.
    fire agencies needs to             development due to                  Using more blended
    contribute to course writing       budgets and travel                   delivery methods would
    is decreasing, to some             limitations.                         enhance student learning,
    degree, as DHS has taken          Instructor-led training is the       make it accessible to
    over 60% of the course             predominant delivery                 geographically dispersed
    writing responsibilities.          method.                              individuals, and decrease
                                      SME‘s are often content              travel costs and time away
                                       experts but do not have              from the office.
                                       backgrounds in training
                                       delivery, or vice versa.
                                      With the current evaluation
                                       process, there is no formal
                                       way to evaluate how
                                       students are applying
                                       learning on the job.
                                       Moreover, there is no
                                       evaluation of courses or
                                       programs against agency
                                       and NWCG goals.
Qualification Processes
 Requirements for the                Updates to 310-1                    Create and implement a            There is an emphasis on
  Wildland Fire Qualification          qualifications are not well-         process to communicate             pushing trainees through
  System (310-1) are                   communicated.                        changes to 310-1                   the certification process so
  generally accessible and            Individuals are not trained          qualifications.                    they can serve in fires,
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            Strengths                        Weaknesses                         Opportunities                         Threats
    easy to use.                      in their roles to support          Develop and implement a             which results in certifying
   Clear processes exist for         trainee certification and do        program to train individuals        individuals who may not be
    determining position              not always have the                 in their roles in trainee           competent in necessary
    qualifications and updating       knowledge base to properly          certification.                      skills.
    them as needed.                   do their jobs.                     Develop a process to
   Since the 310-1                  The role of the Coach is            evaluate each of the
    qualifications address            underutilized, and often            training and development
    minimal standard, agencies        trainees do not know that           methods used in trainee
    have the flexibility to           they have a coach.                  certification.
    augment the standards to         There is an insufficient
    meet specific needs.              number of Training
                                      Specialists to support the
                                      number of trainees.
                                     There are no mechanisms
                                      for tying qualification
                                      completion to the
                                      effectiveness of the training
                                      and development methods
                                      used (i.e. on-the-job
                                      learning, mentoring).
Organization Structure
 Training exists at all levels      Training processes are             Develop and implement              A lack of standard
   and is delivered through           fragmented.                         standard processes for              processes will result in
   various methods.                  There is no clear structure         training analysis, design,          lessened credibility of
                                      for day job learning.               development, delivery, and          training and an inability to
                                                                          evaluation, as well as              link training to
                                                                          certification.                      organizational needs and
                                                                         Integrate incident and              goals.
                                                                          response and day job               By not integrating incident
                                                                          learning to create tangible         and response and day job
                                                                          value to the workforce, thus        job skills, there will not be a
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               Strengths                  Weaknesses                      Opportunities                           Threats
                                                                     providing the right training         ready workforce to meet
                                                                     to the right people at the           current and future needs.
                                                                     right time.
Funding
 Funding for training exists.      Funding comes from             Put a structure around              Without a coordinated,
                                     different sources, is           funding strategies by                clear understanding of
                                     inconsistent, and is not        developing rules and                 funding strategies, there
                                     well-defined.                   guidance for obtaining               will be confusion, misuse of
                                                                     funding from various                 funds, and duplication of
                                                                     sources.                             effort.
Workplace Development Practices
 Agencies recognize the        There is no unified,               There are opportunities to          Without succession
   need for workforce            coordinated effort for              develop cross-agency                 planning, there will be no
   development planning and      workforce development               workforce development                pipeline to meet personnel
   are taking steps to create    planning.                           programs (i.e. career                needs in incident and
   plans.                       There are no formal,                pathing, mentoring,                  response and day job roles.
 Informal career paths exist.   documented career paths             succession planning).
 Mentoring has been             for most job roles, including      Workplace development
   acknowledged as an            that of the training                practices can be applied to
   important workplace           professionals.                      people‘s day-to-day jobs,
   development practice, and    There are very few formal           not just incident and
   a few informal and formal     mentoring programs.                 response roles.
   mentoring programs exist.    Succession planning has
 Agencies are beginning to      not gained much traction.
   do some succession
   planning.
Tools and Technologies
 Many agency-specific and      Technologies are widely            Develop a process for               The number and types of
   interagency tools and         dispersed and may be                identifying new                      technologies being used
   technologies exist for        redundant.                          technologies, refreshing old         can cause disconnections
   decision support, resource   Agencies have mandated              technologies, and retiring           among offices and
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          Strengths                    Weaknesses                     Opportunities                     Threats
  coordination, and logistical   Learning Management            legacy systems.                locations.
  support.                       Systems (LMS‘s) and none  Implement a centralized           If new technologies are not
 There is a wide variety of     are linked.                    LMS for all agencies.          developed and
  ways in which information                                                                    implemented quickly,
  is communicated to the                                                                       agencies will not be
  public in real-time which                                                                    positioned to meet
  may or may not be a                                                                          emerging incident and
  learning and development                                                                     response and day job
  function.                                                                                    needs.
NWCG Partnerships and Departmental (USDA/DOI) Relationships (The environment surrounding this study.)
 Many NWCG partnerships        In practice, some             Create a clear funding        If the NWCG does not
  exist and are working well     departmental relationships     strategy and guidance          restructure, there will be no
  which can be leveraged for     are tenuous which could        structure in training if the   way to integrate wildland
  integration within the         weaken the platform for        training restructuring         fire workforce development
  training groups.               training integration.          through the corporate          to meet the needs of the
 Multiple departmental         Communications about the       university model moves         fire community (i.e. NWCG,
  relationships exist.           restructuring have not         forward.                       agencies, states, local).
 The intent of the NWCG         penetrated the organization  Develop and deploy a           States‘ resistance to the
  restructuring is positive.     completely. Many parties       communications plan to         NWCG restructuring could
                                 are unaware that a             keep the entire organization   impact progress.
                                 restructuring is even taking   informed about a training     The NWCG restructuring is
                                 place.                         restructure if, in fact, the   taking a long time, appears
                                                                corporate university is        disorganized, and has not
                                                                developed and deployed.        been communicated clearly
                                                                                               to the field. This current
                                                                                               climate may threaten the
                                                                                               openness of the
                                                                                               organization to accept
                                                                                               another change in training.
                                                                                                                             Table 2


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Leadership’s Readiness to Support Change
The focus groups and interviews and document reviews targeted to define leadership‘s readiness to support any change
in learning and development across the five agencies centered on four key areas:

       Value of a re-design using the corporate university as a model
       Curriculum and services that learning and development should address
       Challenges and problems that may face a re-design effort
       Commitment and accountability to re-design

The key areas informed the kinds of questions posed in the focus groups and interviews and guided the documentation
reviews.

The key areas also provide the frame for the analysis of the current state. Compiled by areas of Strength, Weakness,
Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT), the analysis addresses each of the four key areas as represented in the table below
(Table 3).

Strengths describe current practices that are solid and well-functioning that may be leveraged in a re-design and re-
alignment of training among the five agencies. Weaknesses are current practices that do not operate effectively today
and should be either revamped or discarded in a re-design and re-alignment effort. Opportunities are intriguing
perspectives and possible avenues that, if addressed appropriately, could be leveraged in a re-design. Threats are
significant risks and/or limitations that jeopardize the efficiency or effectiveness of training.




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Leadership Readiness SWOT

           Strengths                     Weaknesses                         Opportunities                          Threats
Value of a Corporate University
 The majority of leaders          Some leaders expressed             Communicate individually         Confusion about the
   interviewed are aligned with     concern about the scope of          with leaders to address           corporate university
   the corporate university         the corporate university            their concerns about the          approach will result in the
   approach. This includes          initiative and the costs            corporate university              exchange of erroneous
   establishing a framework         associated with it.                 approach.                         information among leaders,
   for learning and                A few leaders indicated that       Keep abreast of interim           which could undermine the
   development across the fire      the timing of launching a           findings in contracted            initiative.
   agencies that is unified,        corporate university was            studies and continually          Moving forward with
   proactive, and strategic.        premature. Reasons                  evaluate the impact of            designing and developing
   Leaders commented that           included the NWCG                   these findings on the             the university without
   the corporate university         restructuring, lack of              corporate university              reviewing the findings of
   seems like a good model          discussion on a policy level,       initiative.                       contracted studies could
   for improving coordination       and not knowing the                                                   result in considerable
   and efficiencies (i.e. time,     outcomes of contracted                                                rework.
   resources, funding).             studies that are underway
   Leaders viewed the               to address succession
   corporate university as an       planning, recruitment and
   entity that would coordinate     retention, business
   and integrate learning and       practices, and training.
   development opportunities
   and processes.
 A few leaders visualized
   the corporate university as
   having ―colleges‖ that
   would have curriculum
   specialty areas.
 Most leaders indicated that
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           Strengths                        Weaknesses                       Opportunities                            Threats
   now is the right time to
   launch a Wildland Fire and
   Aviation University.
   Reasons included
   standardization and
   consistency of business
   processes, the NWCG
   restructuring, workforce
   development issues, and
   resource shortages.
Curriculum and Services
 Leaders articulated the             Some leaders are focused         Specific topics and services       If incident and response
   need for skills and topics in       primarily on skills needed        offered in the focus groups         and day job topics are not
   incident and response and           for incident and response         and interviews provide a            integrated, agencies will not
   day job roles. Emphasis             roles, creating specialists       solid foundation for                have well-rounded
   was placed on both                  rather than generalists           conducting a formal,                individuals who are
   technical and soft skills.          capable of adding greater         comprehensive needs                 prepared to advance to
 Leaders would like to see            value to their agencies.          assessment to define                upper management and
   the university address             Leaders expressed                 particular gaps in training.        leadership roles.
   workforce development               concerns with the current                                            The ability to fill vacant
   components.                         capability and capacity to                                            positions quickly and have
 Leaders would like to see            develop fire managers.                                                a prepared pipeline of
   the university conduct                                                                                    qualified individuals is a
   activities in addition to                                                                                 current and real threat to
   learning and workforce                                                                                    NWCG.
   development. Such
   activities include training
   needs assessments,
   instructional design, course
   and program evaluation,
   fire research, and instructor
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            Strengths                      Weaknesses                        Opportunities                            Threats
   selection and certification.
Overcoming Challenges
 Leaders recognize that a           Resistance to change              Develop and implement a            There is a perception that
   corporate university, like        Turf battles                       comprehensive change                the corporate university
   any large organizational          Funding                            management strategy for             approach is primarily a
   initiative, will fail if          Organizational politics            everyone affected by the            mechanism for improving
   significant challenges are        Lack of communication              corporate university to             business practices. It is
   not overcome.                     Full support of leadership         document the approach to            important to note that
 Leaders believe that the           Time it takes to                   change and gain buy-in.             learning and development
   challenges can be                  develop/revise training           Create and implement a              will not solve all problems
   addressed and mitigated           Budget for training                communications strategy             related to business
   effectively.                                                          and protocol for sharing            practices. In order to move
                                     Workload
                                                                         information about learning          forward with developing a
                                     Time away from the office
                                                                         and development.                    solid business case for the
                                     No plan for backfilling when
                                                                        Develop an integrated               Wildland Fire and Aviation
                                      individuals are in training                                            University, there will need
                                                                         funding strategy for
                                     Length of time it takes to                                             to be clearly communicated
                                                                         learning and development.
                                      fully develop an individual
                                                                        Draft a plan to backfill            reasons for embracing a
                                                                         individuals when they are in        different approach to
                                                                         training.                           learning and development.
                                                                        Reevaluate training                If the corporate university is
                                                                         opportunities and                   not properly staffed with the
                                                                         certification qualifications        right number and mix of
                                                                         and develop a strategy to           people, it will be
                                                                         decrease the amount of              unsustainable.
                                                                         time needed to become              Without a plan for
                                                                         fully competent in each             backfilling when individuals
                                                                         wildland fire role.                 are in training, day job, day-
                                                                                                             to-day activities will not be
                                                                                                             completed, negatively
                                                                                                             impacting the business.
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               Strengths                  Weaknesses                       Opportunities                             Threats
                                                                                                          The length of time it takes
                                                                                                           to develop and revise
                                                                                                           courses results in outdated
                                                                                                           materials.
                                                                                                          The length of time it takes
                                                                                                           to fully develop individuals
                                                                                                           in their role creates a
                                                                                                           shortage of personnel in
                                                                                                           critical positions.
Accountability and Commitment
 Leaders indicated that            The majority of leaders had      Brainstorm creative ways to        If leaders do not fully
   accountability rests with         trepidations about                realign personnel and               understand the Wildland
   individuals and groups at all     committing to and                 dollars to staff and fund the       Fire and Aviation University
   organizational levels, from       championing the corporate         university.                         approach, they will not
   leadership down.                  university approach              Communicate one-on-one              commit to and champion it.
 Most leaders are                   because they do not yet           with leaders to provide             Even one vocal naysayer
   proponents of continuing          know what it means, will          information about the               can undermine the effort.
   the exploration of a re-          cost, or the impacts it may       corporate university and
   alignment effort and the          have on the organization.         gain commitment to the
   corporate university as a         They have requested               approach.
   way to shape the re-              additional details (i.e.
   alignment.                        concept, costs,
                                     requirements) to determine
                                     if they will commit to it.
                                                                                                                                     Table 3




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Platform for Change
Many organizations uncover compelling reasons for change as they explore the
possibility of re-aligning their training approaches and infrastructures. For instance,
British Columbia Ferries in Vancouver, Canada, was compelled to evaluate their
learning and development offerings after one of their ships sunk, resulting in the
drowning of two passengers. This incident prompted multiple investigations and
demanded a complete overhaul of the company‘s safety and evacuation procedures
training, the qualification standards and processes associated with certifying a mariner
or terminal operator, and the supports that the company provides that enable
employees to participate in the right training at the right time.

The compelling platform for change within NWCG is not as dramatic as the case with
BC Ferries; however, the wildland fire and aviation community has three key internal
drivers that emerged from data collection about the current state of learning and
development and the readiness to embrace a new approach:

    1. A shrinking talent pipeline influenced by anticipated and pending retirements and
       pace at which qualifications are met
    2. Weather and climate changes and their influence on fuels management,
       budgetary processes, and smoke management
    3. Changing workforce demographics with new learner profiles

These three key internal drivers are conditions the NWCG faces regardless of any
action it may take to avoid them.

NWCG could choose to do nothing in anticipation of these challenges. If unaddressed,
the consequences could be just as devastating as the situation that BC Ferries
experienced in 2006. Those consequences include too few individuals to fill vacant
positions, devastation and loss associated with increasing numbers of severe wildland
fires, and individuals who are ill prepared for their roles because training is not delivered
in ways that best align with their learning styles.

Clearly, doing nothing is not a prudent approach. The fire agencies have a
responsibility to address these issues to mitigate the consequences.

These three key internal drivers for change, however, do not necessarily need to be
addressed by NWCG. Each fire agency could confront these issues individually and
arrive at their own approaches to resolve them independent and separate from each
other. This independent approach, however, counters the spirit of collaboration and
cohesion created and represented by the NWCG.

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The platform for change becomes stronger as opportunities that surround the drivers
are considered in conjunction with the ideals of NWCG. While each fire agency could
address the key internal drivers independently, a unified and integrated approach would
enable NWCG not only to address the key internal drivers but also to create efficiencies
in training that do not exist today. Those efficiencies include (as identified in the
Management Efficiency Assessment of the Interagency Wildland Fire Training and
Related Services report, July 2008):

    1. Cost of training and use of collective training funds to meet the collective learning
       and development needs of the wildland fire and aviation community
    2. Shared infrastructure and technology-enabled learning systems
    3. Elimination of redundant or duplicated training efforts
    4. Leverage of training courses throughout the entire wildland fire and aviation
       community
    5. Creation of a seamless learning model from cradle to grave for fire personnel
    6. Contribution of training to achieve the strategic priorities outlined in the
       Quadrennial Fire Review 2009

If NWCG considers the efficiency opportunities, as outlined in the list above, the
platform to unify training resources throughout the fire agencies becomes far more
compelling. Moreover, the charter for the NWCG drives themes of integration,
standardization, and cohesion in all aspects of the wildland fire and aviation community
as evidenced by the NWCG‘s strategic plan (Figure 1):

                                                 The NWCG’s Vision for the future is:
             The Nation‘s resources and communities are protected and enhanced through safe,
                   comprehensive, and cohesive interagency wildland fire management.

                            NWCG Mission                                                                            NWCG Goals
                                                                                                           STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
    Provide National Leadership and establish, implement,                                  Wildland Fire organizations share common standards and
      maintain and communicate policy, standards, and                                      guidelines, which are developed through collaborative
      guidelines for wildland fire program management                                      interagency processes


                                                                                                                   QUALIFICATIONS
                               Guiding Principles                                          All Wildland Fire organizations share the same interagency
                                                                                           competency-based certification processes
    SAFETY: We believe safety is our core value, therefore, public and
    firefighter safety is the first priority in all wildland fire management activities.
                                                                                                                     COMMUNICATIONS
    COST EFFECTIVENESS: We believe the wise and efficient use of funds is a                All Wildland Fire organizations share a joint communications plan
    high priority, therefore, we will consider and evaluate the costs associated           that is clearly articulated, and is an efficient and effective
    with implementing NWCG‘s objectives.                                                   mechanism for transmitting policies, decisions, standards, and for
                                                                                           reporting and receiving feedback
    INTERAGENCY COMMUNICATION, COORDINATION & COOPERATION:
    We believe that interagency communication, coordination and cooperation
    are vital to the effective and efficient use of the nation‘s wildland fire                                       FIRE POLICY
    management resources, therefore, we will base our actions on the collective            All Wildland Fire organizations share a common interagency fire
    needs and capabilities of the interagency community.                                   policy
    LEADERSHIP: We believe effective wildland fire management is the result
    of leadership at all levels, therefore we will provide and promote leadership
                                                                                                            PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
    throughout all NWCG activities.
                                                                                           All Wildland Fire organizations share common interagency
    TRUST & INTEGRITY: We believe trust and integrity are inherent to the                  program development and implementation processes
    success of the NWCG, therefore deliberations will be open and transparent
    and we will honor, respect, and support the decisions of the NWCG.
                                                                                                              INCIDENT OPERATIONS
    RESPECT: We believe in mutual respect for the differences in member                    The response to and management of wildland fire incidents is
    organizations‘ responsibilities, missions, and capabilities, therefore, NWCG           safe, seamless, cost-effective, timely, and efficient; above all, it is
    decisions represent a consensus and are supported by all.                              responsive to changing climates, demographics, budgets, and
    EXCELLENCE: We believe in excellence throughout all NWCG activities,                   other factors
    therefore, we are deliberative in our decision-making process and are
    accountable for our actions.                                                                                Working Document for the Development    Version 8.8
                                                                                                                     of the NWCG Strategic Plan.         10/11/07
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The current learning and development practices, however, are not aligned with the spirit
of the NWCG charter and are not positioned to achieve the efficiencies outlined above.
Learning and development in the wildland fire and aviation community is fragmented
and somewhat disconnected. There is duplication in course development and delivery,
a limited mix of delivery methods to reach all audiences at the point of need, no formal
career paths, diverse numbers of learning and development resources, and little
connection to organizational strategy.

Thus, the state of learning today in the wildland fire and aviation community is not
positioned to address the key internal drivers and the opportunities. Left independent
and unaligned, learning and development will not be able to influence the major drivers
for change, realize the spirit of collaboration outlined in NWCG‘s goals, or achieve high-
performing learning organization status.

Different approaches to learning and development exist. One option is to outsource the
entire learning and development infrastructure throughout the wildland fire and aviation
community to a third party. This option would achieve instant integration and likely
address the efficiency opportunities; however, outsourcing puts learning and
development in the hands of non-fire personnel. That characteristic alone makes
outsourcing a less than desirable option. Another approach could be to simply
introduce a new training group that provides a shared set of services, such as learning
technologies and instructional design services. That model would achieve some of the
efficiencies and even address elements of cohesion within learning and development. It
would not necessarily reduce overlapping training courses or build a curriculum that
addresses learning needs from hire to retire within the wildland fire and aviation
community.

A learning and development approach that integrates all current training and
development groups and fills the gaps that currently exist in learning and development
is recommended. Often called a ―corporate university‖ as defined in the high-performing
learning function section of this report, this kind of learning and development approach
positions a unified learning strategy that addresses needs consistently throughout an
organization. Whether NWCG chooses to call its new enterprise-wide approach to
learning and development a ―corporate university‖ or something else is irrelevant. What
is significant is the comprehensiveness of the learning strategy and the practical plan for
implementation and on-going management of such a large, cross-cutting endeavour.
While the other two options fall short of addressing all the needs, the corporate
university model is the only approach that can achieve all the efficiencies and the
internal drivers holistically.



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                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
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                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009


Purpose of Learning and Development for the Wildland Fire
Community
Vision and Mission

One of the critical differences between a standard training approach and a corporate
university approach is in the purpose, or intent, of learning and development throughout
the organization. A corporate university focuses on a holistic view of learning and
development throughout the enterprise that is tied to organizational goals and
imperatives. Through the data collection exercises, the purpose for learning and
development for the wildland fire and aviation community emerged quite strongly:

    To prepare the current and future wildland fire and aviation workforce
                             from hire to retire

To meet that purpose, the NWCG envisions:

                  An integrated learning and development network

This vision focuses on integrating current and emerging learning and development
functions to best meet the demands of a changing wildland fire and aviation
environment.

To achieve the vision, the corporate university will follow a unified mission that defines
its operational focus:

        Leverage ideas, resources, and responsibility for learning and
    development to collaboratively fulfill the common needs of the wildland
                         fire and aviation community

Goals

To achieve the vision and fulfill the mission, the corporate university must be clear about
its own goals and objectives. From the data collection, the key internal drivers emerged
and form the direction of the corporate university (Table 4):

               Goals                                            Objectives
                                           Define succession plans for key positions within the
Strengthen the talent pipeline in the       wildland fire and aviation community
wildland fire and aviation community       Develop learning paths to address critical vacancies
                                           Augment training solutions with performance support
                                            and other informal knowledge transfer techniques
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               Goals                                             Objectives
                                            Leverage learning and development as a marketable
                                             benefit for new individuals who are considering
                                             careers in fire and aviation

                                            Develop and deploy curricula that address the ―soft‖
                                             skills and ―hard‖ skills associated with careers in fire
Improve workforce capability in             Build ways to identify and leverage key lessons
addressing dynamics that change              learned and best practices
the way the wildland fire and aviation      Use subject experts and technical experts to define,
community must perform both                  develop, and deliver curricula
incident and non-incident duties            Create processes for understanding pending
                                             changes and new trends that impact the way that
                                             wildland fires are addressed

                                            Introduce delivery styles (technology enabled when
                                             possible) that align with the preferences and
                                             demographics of new generations
Increase the speed to competence            Build consistency in the way that new personnel are
for the next generation of fire              evaluated in meeting PTB qualifications
personnel                                   Introduce performance supports to reinforce positive
                                             behaviors on the job
                                            Teach supervisors and managers how to lead and
                                             support new generations

                                                                                                 Table 4

Scope

To address the opportunities to change the current approach to learning and
development and to achieve the vision and mission, the corporate university will need to
provide a series of services and content to the wildland fire and aviation community.

NWCG‘s corporate university is intended to unify existing training resources and
collectively address gaps in learning and development associated with both incident and
non-incident related topics. The table on the next page defines the initial mental model
for the corporate university, what it is and is not intended to be (Figure 2):




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                    Our CU Is Not                                                  Our CU Is

    •      A new training group                          •       An integrated, collaborative network of existing
                                                                 training groups throughout the wildland fire and
                                                                 aviation community

    •      A centralized training function               •       A unification of existing training resources that still
                                                                 report through their respective commands but
                                                                 have new, dotted line accountability to the learning
                                                                 and development network

    •      An initiative that focuses only on            •       Our vehicle to provide training, education,
           training                                              succession planning and talent management for
                                                                 the wildland fire and aviation community

    •      A single physical building or campus          •       A series of existing training sites, both physical
                                                                 and electronic, and a new integrated web portal to
                                                                 support unified delivery of learning and
                                                                 development

    •      A smorgasbord of courses that address         •       A series of learning solutions related to incident
           only incident-related topics specific to              and non-incident topics applicable throughout an
           on-boarding                                           employee‘s career



                                                                                                                Figure 2


Further clarity on the mental model emerges when the audiences, topics, and services
that the corporate university will provide are defined. From an audience perspective,
many individuals and groups will benefit from an integrated learning and development
approach in the wildland fire and aviation community. This corporate university will
target specific audiences to define and customize its curriculum. Those audiences are
defined in the table below as ―In Scope‖ (Table 5). All other audiences will be ―Out of
Scope.‖ They may benefit and use the corporate university‘s curriculum but will not be
considered a primary audience for defining new learning needs and creating new
learning solutions.

                                                      Audience
                      In Scope                                                  Out of Scope
       Fire-funded Personnel within the Federal,                Contracted Personnel within the Federal,
        State, and Local NWCG Agencies                            State, and Local NWCG Agencies
            – Employees                                          The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
            – Militia                                            International Wildland Fire Agencies
            – Instructors                                        Non-fire Agencies
            – Administratively Determined                        Universities and Colleges that Deliver
                Emergency Firefighters                            NWCG Training through Formal
            – Non-fire, Aviation Users                            agreements
                                                                 Communities (i.e. Emergency Response
                                                                  Teams)
                                                                                                                   Table 5

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The corporate university will deliver a specific curriculum from cradle to grave as related to
incident, non-incident, and aviation topics. The scope of content that is ―In Scope‖ applies
across the wildland fire and aviation community. ―Out of Scope‖ includes learning solutions that
apply to only one agency and software applications (Table 6):

                               Learning and Development Topics
                    In Scope                                 Out of Scope
   Topics that Apply to More Than One          Agency-specific Training
    NWCG Agency                                 Software and Applications Training
   Leadership Development
        – Incident
        – Non-incident
        – General
   310-1 Qualifications
   Incident Training
   Incident Education
   Non-incident Training
   Non-incident Education
   On-demand and Special Topics (Foam,
    HRSP, GISS, Investigator, Cost) related to
    both Incident and Non-incident Needs
   Aviation
   Training to Qualify Instructors
                                                                                              Table 6

In addition to the development and delivery of learning solutions related to the topics
above, the corporate university will address and provide a series of services. The
services that are ―In Scope‖ represent a common infrastructure and set of processes
that will enable the existing training groups to perform in unison (Table 7). Items that
are ―Out of Scope‖ include research and more academic areas that are beyond the
capability of the existing training resources even as they are unified.

                              Learning and Development Services
                    In Scope                                   Out of Scope
   A Common Learning Content Management  Academic Think Tank for Fire-related
    System (LCMS) and Learning                    Solutions
    Management System (LMS)                      Research in Fire-related Areas
   Single Oversight of Training Delivery        A New Funding Source for Training
   Common Course and Program Evaluation          throughout the Wildland Fire and Aviation
    in All Learning Solutions                     Community
   Unified Feedback Mechanism (Lessons
    Learned Communities of Practice and
    AAR)
   Coordinated Needs Assessment
    Processes
   Technology Transfer
   Standard Data Sets (IQCS/IQS)
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                               Learning and Development Services
                      In Scope                                Out of Scope
   Instructional Design
   Training Standards
   Coordination of Workforce Development
    Activities (i.e. Succession Planning, Career
    Pathing)
   Partnerships with Universities and
    Colleges to Facilitate Access to Credited
    Learning
   Development and Administration of PTB
    Response Qualifications
   Development and Administration of
    Competencies for Non-incident Jobs
   Standards to Qualify Instructors
   Course Logistics Management
   Knowledge Management
   Publications and Publications Management
   Coordination of Mentoring Programs
   Varied Delivery Techniques
                                                                                            Table 7

The topics and services defined as ―In Scope‖ above apply to all the ―In Scope‖
audiences. Specifics related to the topics and services will be informed by strategic
priorities, certification and qualification requirements for particular positions, department
or committee demands and requests, and individual learner preferences. In all cases,
however, the corporate university will provide curriculum and related services only if
they apply to more than one NWCG agency. If a topic or service applies to only one
agency, then the respective agency training group will address that topic on its own.




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Structure
Schools

One of the cornerstones of a corporate university is a unified content model that houses
all learning offerings and services available to target audiences under one common
framework. This model puts groups of courses, learning offerings, and learning-related
services together with standards and guidelines for how to catalog learning consistently
throughout the organization.

The recommended content model for the NWCG corporate university leverages
NWCG‘s structure and establishes a series of Schools that align with the Committees
established in the recent re-structuring effort. These committees—which fall under the
Branches of Policy, Planning, and Management; Equipment and Technology; and
Preparedness—each will form a School in the NWCG content model (Figure 3):


                                               Equipment and Technology                             Preparedness
         Policy, Planning, and
                                                       Branch                                          Branch
         Management Branch
                                                                                                       Incident Business
                  Fire Policy
                                                 Information Technology (IT)                       Workforce Management
           Interagency Fire Planning
                                                   Equipment Technology                               Risk Management
       Fuels Management/WUI Mitigation
                                                       Fire Environment                     National Response Framework (NRF)/
                     Smoke
                                                 National Interagency Aviation          National Incident Management System (NIMS)
        Prevention, Education, Outreach




                                                                                                                         Figure 3


The Schools and sample topics within the curriculum of each School are depicted in the
table below (Table 8):

      Branches                                Schools                                Sample Curriculum Topics
                                   Fuels Management and WUI                         NWCG curriculum (RX courses)
                                   Mitigation                                           NWCG Training
                                                                                          Development, PFTC and
                                                                                          NAFRI courses

Policy, Planning, and              Smoke                                            Smoke Mgmt. (RX-410)
Management Branch                                                                   BAER
                                                                                    Fire Effects (RX-310, RX-510)

                                   Prevention, Education,                           Prevention & Education (P
                                   Outreach                                          courses)

   Equipment and                   Information Technology                           Computer Specialist, GIS
 Technology Branch
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      Branches                 Schools                   Sample Curriculum Topics
                     Equipment Technology               RAWS
                                                        Foam

                     Fire Environment                   Tech Transfer
                                                        Fire Environment (S-190 thru S-
                                                         590)
                                                        Fire Investigation (FI Courses)

                     Interagency Aviation               NWCG curriculum (S-270, S-
                                                         273, S-372…)
                                                        IAT training

                     Incident Business                  NWCG Business Mgmt. Courses
                                                         (S-260, S-481, etc.)

                     Workforce Management               Leadership (NWCG curriculum
                                                         (L-180, L-280,
                                                         L-380…)
                                                        NWCG Training Development
    Preparedness                                         and NAFRI courses
       Branch                                           Refresher training

                     Risk Management                    All risk management courses

                     NRF/NIMS                           IQCS
                                                        NWCG curriculum (I/S/D/RX
                                                         courses)

                                                                                        Table 8

The content areas provide a way to categorize all learning for ease of reference,
clarification of accountability, and integration of learning that may be funded and/or
developed by various groups within the wildland fire and aviation community. Grouping
all learning within a common content model does not change ownership and
accountability; it generates a unified system for learning with the intent of creating
synergies and reducing redundancies.




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Form

An important part of maintaining a corporate university is dedicating learning
professionals to conduct the on-going design, facilitation, and support activities
associated with learning and development. The corporate university through NWCG
requires that individuals currently performing training functions independently unify
without re-drawing or changing existing reporting lines. In other words, current training
groups and teams will continue to report to their existing agencies, states, and/or
authorities. They will assume a new level of responsibility, however, in belonging to the
learning network defined by NWCG‘s corporate university.

Moreover, the corporate university calls for the assignment of a Core Corporate
University Team that works centrally and reports to a Chief Learning Officer (CLO). The
Core Corporate University Team, represented in the table below by the grey boxes,
collaborates with a variety of resources from different training groups and field
resources—represented by the white boxes—to create a comprehensive staff
infrastructure (Figure 4):
                                           Planning Team

                                       Board of
                                                      CLO
                                       Directors




                     Delivery Team                                                 Design Team

                                         Delivery               Instructional
       Academies           States                                                     Deans           SME‘s
                                       Coordinators              Designers




                      Metrics Team                                               Technology Team
    Policy, Planning, and Management      Needs                  Learning
                                        Assessment              Technology                             IT
                Committees
                                         Specialist             Specialists


        Equipment and Technology        Evaluation
              Committees                Specialists                    Workforce Development Team

                                                                Development
               Preparedness                                                                           SME‘s
                                                                Consultants
                Committees


                                                                                Best Practices Team
                   Deans

                                                              Lessons Learned                    Lessons Learned
                                                                Coordinator                          Center


                                                                                                       Figure 4


Note that the Core Corporate University team members report directly to the CLO yet
work collaboratively with the field resources in seven different teams. The teams are

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Planning, Design, Delivery, Technology, Workforce Development, Best Practices, and
Metrics. These teams are represented by the red fields in the diagram above.

The corporate university will not only unify existing training resources but also create
new positions in several under-represented training and development capacities. As
evidenced by the data collection exercises, the current learning and development
infrastructure lacks resources and processes in needs assessment, evaluation, and
technology-enablement in both delivery and infrastructure. If the corporate university
effort moves forward, funding for these positions will need to be identified and allocated.

Staffing models from other corporate universities, in the federal government and in other
industries, vary widely in terms of size of the dedicated learning team. The size of the
staff correlates to variables such as the amount of outsourcing, the size of the learning
customer population, the complexity and scope of the curriculum, the number of
regulatory-driven training requirements, the delivery methods, and the number of new
learning activities introduced each year. These factors will need to be considered to
finalize a complete staff structure prior to launching the corporate university.

From a placement standpoint, the corporate university could reside in two different
areas in the NWCG structure and be effective. The first option is to place the corporate
university within the Preparedness Branch and have it become the Workforce
Management Committee. The single most significant challenge associated with this
placement, however, is the distance between the CLO and the NWCG leadership. The
CLO would report to the Branch Coordinator who would need to funnel pertinent
information up through the NWCG hierarchy. The bottom-up model is not ideal, but it
can be successful. A more desirable option is to create a new Branch specifically for
the corporate university with its own Branch Coordinator known as the CLO. This
option positions learning and development more strategically and demonstrates to the
organization that leaders are serious about the significant role that learning and
development plays in the fire and aviation community. This second option is more
dramatic, displays the importance of learning and development, and aligns the
corporate university closer to leaders within NWCG. Both options are viable; the
second is preferred.

These resources will work together to perform seven major steps that comprise the
workflow of the corporate university. The seven major steps are: Needs Assessment,
Prioritization and Funding, Development, Infrastructure, Delivery, Evaluation, and
Lessons Learned. Each of these steps is represented by a grey oval in the flow
diagram on the next page (Figure 5):




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         eds  t
       Ne smen
         es                      Metrics Team                                            n/                 Planning Team
     Ass                                                                             atio
                                                                                 itiz
         Policy, Planning, and Management             Needs                 Prior nding                 Board of
                                                    Assessment                  Fu                                             CLO
                     Committees                                                                         Directors
                                                     Specialist
                                     Interagency
               Fire Policy
                                    Fire Planning
                                                                           ent   Design Team                             Workforce Development Team
                                                                       opm
                                                                    vel
                                                                  De
              Fuels
                                                                                                                                                 Development
           Management/                   Smoke                              SME‘s                       Deans                  SME‘s
                                                                                                                                                 Consultants
           WUI Mitigation


                           Prevention,                                               Instructional
                           Education,                                                 Designers
                            Outreach


               Equipment and Technology               Needs                                                     Technology Team
                                                                                                   re
                                                    Assessment                                  ctu
                     Committees                                                             stru
                                                     Specialist                      In f ra                                   Learning
                                                                                                                IT            Technology
               Information           Equipment
                                                                                                                              Specialists
               Technology            Technology


                                       National                                                                     Delivery Team
                   Fire
                                     Interagency
               Environment
                                       Aviation
                                                                                                  ry       Academies              States
                                                                                              live
                                                                                          De
                       Preparedness                   Needs
                                                    Assessment
                        Committees
                                                     Specialist                                                          Delivery
                                                                                                                       Coordinators
                Incident             Workforce
                Business            Management                            s
                                                                       son
                                                                    Les rned                                                  Metrics Team
                                                                     Lea
                                                                                                                  n
                                                                           Lessons                            atio
               Risk                                                                                        alu
            Management
                                     NRF/NIMS                              Learned                       Ev               Deans
                                                                                                                                            Evaluation
                                                                                                                                            Specialists
                                                                            Center

                                                                                                                                                      Figure 5
The flow shows how one major step, performed by one of the Teams, progresses and
contributes to a full, comprehensive business cycle for the corporate university.

The table on the next several pages defines the work that each Team will need to
perform within each major step (Table 9):




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                                                                                 Representatives from the Fire and Aviation
                               Corporate University Core Team
    Process                                                                                     Community
                        Position                    Role                       Position                      Role
                     Needs            1. Develop standard needs             Branch          1. Receive and review training
                     Assessment          assessment process and             Committees          evaluation results and lessons
                     Specialists         schedule to collect needs                              learned
                                         throughout the wildland fire and                   2. Conduct needs assessment
                                         aviation community                                     activities
                                      2. Communicate the needs                              3. Validate needs with representative
                                         assessment process and                                 committees
                                         schedule to appropriate                            4. Describe needs to Needs
    Needs                                representatives throughout                             Assessment Specialists
  Assessment                             NWCG
                                      3. Support representatives
                                         throughout NWCG in collecting
                                         needs assessment data
                                      4. Receive and compile needs
                                         assessment data
                                      5. Report needs to the Board and
                                         CLO

                     CLO              1. Brief the Board of Directors on    Board of          1. Review needs, evaluation results,
                                         needs, evaluation results, and     Directors            and lessons learned
                                         lessons learned                                      2. Prioritize needs
Prioritization and                    2. Provide state of the budget                          3. Provide funding for priorities or
    Funding                           3. Draft policies for NWCG‘s                               seek additional funding from
                                         corporate university                                    NWCG
                                                                                              4. Approve and advise on policy

                     Instructional    1. Apply instructional design         Deans             1. Oversee design of new learning
     Design          Designers           practices to build new learning                         solutions
                                         solutions                                            2. Manage content and learning
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                                                                            Representatives from the Fire and Aviation
                            Corporate University Core Team
    Process                                                                                Community
                      Position                      Role                  Position                        Role
                                   2.   Collaborate with SME‘s on                          solutions within assigned School
                                        content                                        3. Evaluate and manage the impact
                                   3.   Collaborate with Learning                          of new learning solutions on
                                        Technology Specialists to                          existing learning solutions
                                        select delivery methods                        4. Communicate upcoming learning
                                   4.   Build appropriate evaluation                       solutions to respective committees
                                        tools to support new learning   SME‘s          1. Consult with Instructional
                                        solutions                                          Designers regarding content for
                                   5.   Establish and maintain design                      new learning solutions
                                        standards                                      2. Build learning materials to support
                                                                                           the instructional design process
                   Development     1. Coordinate succession             SME‘s          1. Support workforce development
                   Consultants        planning activities throughout                       activities as necessary
                                      NWCG agencies
                                   2. Identify key positions and
                                      vacancies
  Development                      3. Develop learning paths to
                                      address key positions and
                                      vacancies
                                   4. Coordinate talent management
                                      activities throughout NWCG

                   Learning        1. Oversee the LMS and LCMS          Academies         1. Coordinate electronic delivery in
                   Technology      2. Select and manage all             States               the field as necessary
                   Specialists        technologies that support
                                      learning and development
  Infrastructure
                                      delivery
                                   3. Oversee and manage all
                                      learning technologies that
                                      support data processes, such
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                                                                            Representatives from the Fire and Aviation
                           Corporate University Core Team
    Process                                                                                Community
                     Position                    Role                      Position                    Role
                                      as survey and testing tools

                 Delivery         1. Establish master calendar of       Academies         1. Handle course logistics
                 Coordinator         learning solution delivery         States            2. Conduct registration
                                  2. Set and oversee the Trainer                          3. Distribute communications
                                     qualification standards                              4. Produce and distribute course
     Delivery                     3. Develop all marketing and                               materials
                                     communication packages and                           5. Schedule and manage instructors
                                     campaigns                                            6. Conduct and manage instructor
                                                                                             qualification process

                 Evaluation       1. Prepare and manage standard        Academies         1. Collect evaluation data
                 Specialists         learning and development           States            2. Prepare data for standard
                                     scorecards                                              scorecard
                                  2. Interpret evaluation results
                                  3. Communicate evaluation
   Evaluation
                                     results and lessons learned to
                                     the committees
                                  4. Collaborate with the Lessons
                                     Learned Center

                 Lessons          1. Compile lessons learned and        Lessons        1. Identify best practices, internally
                 Learned             best practices from the Lessons    Learned Center    and externally
                 Coordinator         Learned Center staff               Staff          2. Identify critical lessons learned
Lesson Learned                    2. Identify opportunities from                          from previous situations and
                                     lessons learned and best                             incidents
                                     practices that apply to learning
                                     and development
                                                                                                                              Table 9

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This flow is a high-level business structure of the corporate university. This structure is
an integrated and matrixed approach to learning. Given the vision of integrating existing
resources, this structure optimizes existing groups and keeps the creation of new roles
to a minimum. It also forms a unified and cyclical approach to performing the processes
that underlie an integrated learning and development team.

Governance

Two of the groups described in the Form section serve in governing capacities. Most
corporate universities around the world, including all those in the federal government,
form and engage groups of individuals who provide input into the corporate university‘s
offerings or to make decisions regarding resources, content, and priorities. This best
practice has been considered in recommending two governing bodies for the corporate
university for NWCG.

The first governing body is represented by the Board of Directors. This group of
decision-makers and leaders address a significant success factor of corporate
universities: involvement and participation of senior staff in learning. Engaging a group
like this one ensures that executives consider learning and development to be a regular
business practice within the organization and give it as much attention as any other
business priority. Moreover, this governing body has decision-making authorities to
direct what learning programs become components of the corporate university
curriculum. In this way, the Board of Directors is constantly engaged in aligning
learning with the most important priorities and strategies facing the overall organization.

The Board of Directors is responsible for determining how to fund each learning
program or service that it approves. This responsibility ensures that each learning
program or service gets appropriate funding support and resources from all the
participating entities and prorated for the target audiences. At times, their choices may
require them to approach the NWCG for additional funding requests. Seats on the
Board of Directors are limited to Branch Coordinators and Committee Chairs.

The second governing body is the set of Deans who oversee the Schools. Deans
oversee the content of the Schools and ensure that the Schools deliver a relevant
curriculum within their particular subject areas. Deans are appointed based on their
unique and deep subject matter expertise that makes them uniquely qualified to provide
insights into the Schools‘ curricula. Using Deans from the field ensures that learning is
embedded in the business as a regular practice and that the domain expertise that
already exists in the organization is leveraged in a formal and regular manner.




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Expected Outcomes
The goals of the corporate university are the driving force behind the expected
outcomes. The corporate university must be clear about what outcomes it is trying to
achieve as related to the original goals, as presented earlier in this plan (Table 10):

           Goals                      Business                             General
                                         Metrics                          Indicators
                            Speed to fill key positions        Number of key positions filled

                            Cost savings for promoting         Number of key vacancies filled with
                            from within rather than hiring     individuals who completed learning
Strengthen the talent
                            externally                         paths
pipeline in the wildland
fire and aviation
                            Cost savings related to            Instances of performance support
community
                            informal, self-paced learning      and informal learning usage

                            Cost savings related to            Size of candidate pools during peak
                            recruiting                         recruiting

                            Positive behavioral changes in     Employee satisfaction with ―soft‖
                            both ―soft‖ and ―hard‖ skills      and ―hard‖ course offerings

Improve workforce           Instances of lessons learned       Number of lessons learned used to
capability in addressing    used on the job                    inform new curriculum
dynamics that change the
way the wildland fire and
aviation community must     Better acquisition of              Number of SME‘s engaged to
perform both incident and   knowledge and skills scores in     design and deliver training
non-incident duties         courses designed or taught by
                            SME‘s
                            Cost savings associated with       Number of learning solutions
                            designing and delivering           developed and deployed related to
                            training proactively               strategic changes ahead of time
                            Consistent or better acquisition   Mix of delivery methods
                            of knowledge and skills scores
                            in courses for new generations
Increase the speed to       delivered through different
competence for the next     delivery styles
generation of fire          Quicker improvements in on-
personnel                   the-job performance

                            Quicker evaluation processes       Number of PTB evaluation
                            related to PTB‘s without           processes standardized
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           Goals                      Business                               General
                                       Metrics                              Indicators
                          sacrificing performance


                          Positive behavior changes in       Number of supervisors and
                          supervisors and managers in        managers trained in leading new
                          leading new generations            generations
                                                                                            Table 10

In NWCG‘s corporate university, the evaluation approach will reside within each School
in the content model. In other words, the Corporate University Core team will apply the
corporate university‘s goals to each content area to demonstrate how each content area
impacts the business.

These Expected Outcomes will inform a consistent and regular scorecard for each
School and collectively for the corporate university. Data to show progress against
these Expected Outcomes, however, will have to be compiled from a variety of sources
both within the corporate university network and from other groups and units within the
wildland fire and aviation community.

To ensure that these Expected Outcomes are measured, monitored, and reported
consistently, a thorough evaluation strategy will be necessary. The strategy needs to
include specific instructions and approaches for measuring the effectiveness of specific
courses that the corporate university provides as well as various efficiency measures
about the corporate university‘s performance. If NWCG moves forward with the
corporate university, that evaluation strategy will need to be developed prior to launch to
ensure that the Expected Outcomes are populated with the right data points at the right
times.

Budget
As previously described, the Board of Directors is responsible for applying funds to new
learning programs and services that emerge as recommendations from the needs
assessment process and Committee inputs. Complicating this practice is the way in
which funding for learning and development is supplied today that will likely not change
with the implementation of a corporate university. Academies, training groups, and
states are all funded through their respective agencies today. Integrating learning and
development for the wildland fire and aviation community demands that each of these
groups provide some portion of funding to make the network successful.

Most corporate universities engage a hybrid funding strategy that sets aside some
centralized funds as part of the regular budget cycle for overhead costs associated with
delivering learning and disperses other training dollars to business units so that the
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individuals within those units can choose the learning events and activities that best
apply to them. Dispersed funds can be allocated to business units where managers
have discretion for spending. Or, they can be allocated to individuals in a per person
training allotment. In rare instances, corporate universities operate on pure centralized
or pure decentralized funding capacities.

The hybrid funding approach applies to NWCG‘s corporate university. While all
agencies and states are encouraged to take advantage of the programs offered by the
corporate university, they do have discretion to select the ones that best apply to their
respective employee populations.

Some funds must be pooled and allocated centrally to cover overhead costs and on-
going administration. Examples include the core corporate university staff, technology
to support the delivery and management of training, and marketing (Table 11):

                 Personnel
                    • Labor
                    • Benefits
                    • Bonuses
                    • Development
                 Technology
                    • LMS User Fees
                    • LMS Maintenance Fee
                    • E-learning Authoring Tool License
                    • AV Equipment
                    • LMS Hosting Fees (optional)
                 Miscellaneous
                    • Marketing
                    • Supplies
                    • Facilities and Technologies for Staff
                                                                                          Table 11

These funds should be supported with each agency and state providing its fair share of
the costs associated with the on-going management and support of the corporate
university.   The prorated portions, based on size of the respective employee
populations, are determined annually and charged back to the participating agency and
state.

Given that an agency or state may use only some of the programs and services that the
corporate university offers, a charge back process based on participating target
audience size is warranted for direct costs associated with the courses, programs, and
services that the corporate university offers. Direct costs associated with the corporate
university are (Table 12):

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                  Instructional Design
                      • Development
                      • SME Consult
                      • Beta Testing
                  Facilitation
                      • Labor
                      • Travel
                  Materials
                      • Printing
                      • Delivery/Distribution
                  Facilities
                      • Room Rental
                      • Catering
                      • Equipment Rental
                                                                                          Table 12

Agencies and states with audiences that participate in particular courses and programs
are expected to fund their fair share of the direct costs based on the size of their
participating target audiences. This kind of charge back can be reconciled monthly.

As noted in the Form section, various subject experts who will not necessarily report
into the CLO and the core corporate university team will serve as either consultants
during instructional design and/or as trainers. When such instances occur, their time
can be coded to a corporate university charge code.

Summary
The evolving business environment for the wildland fire and aviation community
mandates an agile, integrated approach to learning, development, and career
management in order to meet workforce and organizational needs. While there is
nothing imminently broken in the current approach to training, drivers and opportunities
exist that compel NWCG to examine and address training with the same scrutiny and
care that all other business practices encompassed in the restructuring effort
experienced.

The restructuring effort offers a compelling reason for addressing training integration
now. The agencies are in the coordination and integration mindset already; there is a
natural fit to position change in training as part of the restructuring. More importantly,
however, the spirit of coordination and integration paved by the restructuring provides a
smooth entrance for NWCG to take on the training needs today.

The coordination among the fire agencies will be critical if the wildland fire and aviation
community desires to address the key internal drivers and opportunities that this data
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collection effort and mental model exercise surfaced. No one agency will be positioned
to meet the needs independent of the others. Integration and a combined approach are
critical for the success of learning and development across the agencies as related to
fire and fire management.

A customized corporate university construct that focuses primarily on integration efforts
in the short-term would be one way to address challenges in the status quo. The
mental model developed in this report offers an initial platform for a corporate university
that addresses the key internal drivers and achieves the efficiency opportunities.
Clearly, the mental model is only a foundation, not a complete business plan or
operating model for the corporate university.

In order for it to be viewed as an investment that is visible and valuable to all
stakeholders, the envisioned Wildland Fire and Aviation University must concentrate on
the several themes that, if fully addressed, will create a strong corporate university
design for NWCG (Table 13):

      Theme                       Description                       Implications for NWCG
                     There is interest in achieving a learning   Consider a design that
                     culture that is created through             includes training, experiential
                     integrated solutions, not just stand-       learning, and development
 Learning Culture
                     alone training.                             opportunities such as career
                                                                 planning, coaching, and
                                                                 mentoring.
                     Focus group participants and leaders
                     indicated a desire for unifying the         Design a coordinated,
     Needs
                     process for assessing individual needs      standardized needs
   Assessment
                     and linking them to organizational          assessment process.
                     needs.
                     Across the board, individuals expressed
                     interest in significantly decreasing the
                     amount of time it takes to develop and
                     revise courses to ensure that
                     individuals maintain currency in
                     wildland fire topics.
                                                                 Incorporate an agile learning
 Time to Develop                                                 function that can rapidly
                     Health Care Service Corporation
   and Revise                                                    design and develop learning
                     (HCSC), which includes Blue Cross
    Courses                                                      for delivery through multiple
                     plans of Illinois, Texas, New Mexico,
                                                                 methods.
                     and Oklahoma, has engaged a rapid
                     learning design and development
                     process. The design team provides a
                     course development toolkit with
                     templates and tools to supervisors and
                     specialists in the field to develop and

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      Theme                    Description                       Implications for NWCG
                  deliver training whenever it is needed
                  and to whoever needs it. This toolbox
                  is used for multiple blended learning
                  approaches.
                  Focus group and interview participants
                  consistently commented on the desire
                  to have a comprehensive evaluation
                  program that encompasses student
                  satisfaction, learning, application of
                  learning to the job, and business
                  results.

                  DAU uses Metrics that Matter™, a web-
                  enabled tool, to conduct Kirkpatrick‘s      Build a comprehensive
                  four evaluation levels. DAU evaluates       evaluation strategy and
                  all classes at Levels 1, 2, and 3. A        scorecard with effectiveness
    Evaluation
                  small number of courses are evaluated       and efficiency measures and
                  at Level 4; these courses are generally     regularly assess progress
                  high-cost offerings or a new offering       against metrics.
                  that DAU wants to support with
                  comprehensive feedback. To track its
                  organizational execution, DAU uses the
                  Chief Learning Officer (CLO)
                  Dashboard, a web-enabled reporting
                  and evaluation system for strategic
                  initiatives. This dashboard includes
                  goals, enabling strategies, tasks, and
                  targets.
                  There was a desire to integrate subject
                  expertise with solid instructional design
                  and adult learning principles in
                  developing and delivering training.

                  Capital One implemented a SME‘s as
                  Faculty program that includes self-
                  service tools, guidelines, coaching and     Implement a SME‘s as
    SME’s as
                  a documented certification process to       Developers training program
 Developers and
                  ensure quality SME facilitated courses.     and an instructor development
   Instructors
                                                              and management program.
                  Intel‘s Leader-as-Teacher program has
                  trained teachers worldwide to integrate
                  technology in the classroom. Through
                  this program, teachers learn how to use
                  technology in ways to engage students
                  creatively and use higher-level thinking
                  skills.
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      Theme                        Description                       Implications for NWCG

                     At KPMG, rated #2 in this year‘s
                     Training Magazine‘s Top 125, SME‘s
                     complete two-year rotations to the
                     training team to play an integral role in
                     developing and delivering training.
                     Focus group members and leaders
                     indicated an interest in embracing a
                     blended learning approach and
                     enhancing and integrating experiential
                     learning with formal training.

                     DAU‘s AT&L Performance Learning
                     Model is based on 24/7 learning assets
                     for the classroom and the workplace.
                                                                  Incorporate blended learning
                     Included are classroom, e-Learning,
                                                                  methods into delivery and
Delivery Methods     and online training courses,
                                                                  ensure the full integration of
                     performance support (i.e. consulting,
                                                                  experiential learning.
                     rapid deployment training, targeted
                     training, and training on policies),
                     knowledge sharing (i.e. knowledge
                     management system, online
                     collaboration communities, virtual
                     library), and continuous learning (i.e.
                     conferences). DAU also uses
                     simulations, podcasts, and
                     telepresence to deliver learning.
                     An overall theme was the importance of
  Learning and       training individuals for their day job       Provide additional learning
 Development for     roles to ensure the sustainability of the    and development
  Day Job Roles      day-to-day business of the wildland fire     opportunities for day job roles.
                     and aviation community.
                     Across the board, there was interest in
                     decreasing the time to fully develop
  Time to Fully                                                   Consider ways to streamline
                     individuals in their incident and
    Develop                                                       and accelerate the
                     response and day job roles to ensure
Personnel in Their                                                certification process to ensure
                     individual competency and
      Role                                                        a ready workforce each year.
                     organizational value, while maintaining
                     the quality of learning.
                     Focus group members and leaders              Integrate a communication
                     expressed a need for clear, ongoing          strategy that engages various
    Clear            communication about the corporate            methods and channels to
 Communication       university.                                  distribute information about
   Channels                                                       the integrated training
                                                                  opportunities. Build and
                                                                  maintain an active intranet
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      Theme                       Description                       Implications for NWCG
                                                                 page for the corporate
                                                                 university that will serve as
                                                                 the central repository for all
                                                                 corporate university
                                                                 information.
                    Agency-specific and interagency
                    succession planning were viewed as
                    necessary to develop a pipeline of
                    individuals capable of filling incident
                    and response and day job roles.
                                                                 Spearhead an interagency
                    DAU has begun to integrate HR and            succession planning effort to
    Succession
                    learning to shape the acquisition            identify and prepare for future
     Planning
                    workforce. Specifically, DAU helps to        personnel needs and build the
                    develop careers; identify, recruit, and      leadership pipeline.
                    retain talent; and develop future
                    leaders. Recently, DAU created the
                    dual title of CLO and Director of Human
                    Capital to address the link between
                    learning and talent management.
                    Across the board, there was a strong
                    interest in explicitly connecting and        Develop interagency career
                    aligning structured learning and             paths that are linked to
   Career Paths
                    development activities with careers          learning and development
                    within the wildland fire and aviation        opportunities and IDP‘s.
                    community.
                                                                                             Table 13

Prior to developing a much larger business plan, however, senior leaders throughout
the wildland fire and aviation community must agree that this approach is the one that
aligns with NWCG goals and addresses the gaps identified in the data collection
process. If that buy-in and commitment is achieved, a full business planning process
can begin to build a customized corporate university construct that focuses primarily on
integration efforts to build the current and future workforce of the wildland fire and
aviation community.

Again, a corporate university is not a preconceived solution but rather an approach that
helps an organization define the process for learning that best addresses the goals it
hopes to achieve and the challenges and conditions it faces. Calling NWCG‘s learning
strategy and approach a ―corporate university‖ is irrelevant. Addressing the key internal
drivers and opportunities for efficiency through training, however, is non-negotiable.
There is a compelling platform for change in training that must be answered through an
organized, cohesive, and planned effort.


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Appendix A: Compiled Findings from Training Representative
Interviews and Focus Groups
Current State Analysis Focus Groups
        Focus Group #1: Training Working Team
        Focus Group #2: Geographic Area Training Representatives
        Focus Group #3: Training Coordination/Project Leaders
        Focus Group #4: Mixed Specialists
        Focus Group #5: Field Personnel

Training Processes
1. How are current and emerging wildland fire learning and development needs
   identified?
                Mission changes (identified by NWCG) create shift for program
                   directors and learning and development
                Training working team gets requests for shifts through other
                   working teams and GATRs
                Can come from any level: local level (zones), geographic training
                   working team, GATR of training working team chair can forward to
                   NWCG
                Both proactive and reactive approaches taken – can be proactive if
                   they know what‘s coming down
                Hit or miss on how to identify every day job roles – is more reactive
                Used course analysis to decide - apply reports to it, but also group
                   policy decision
                Very reactive – depends on who has the money or the biggest gripe
                No process for how information is vetted or filtered
                Have allocation of forces template, conduct a TNA and tie it to the
                   allocation of forces (business plan), we look 1.5 years out. On
                   interagency side they are working on having that allocation of forces
                   so they can have what they need. They have training fire
                   qualifications committee – look at efficiency models for location and
                   timing of courses and instructors. All employee training comes out
                   of geographic area training centers.
                Needs are identified through the 310-1/5109 qualifications or what
                   they‘re told is needed on the professional series to do their job.
                   Reports and investigations are also used to determine training
                   needs. Theoretically and realistically are different. IDP put in place
                   (individual needs) – still driven by happenstance, not linked to
                   succession planning. Organizational needs – do a good job
                   meeting at unit level. Above unit level (zone, geographic area,
                   nationally) – meeting needs is different and not meeting
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                   organizational needs
                  Conduct same needs analysis each year. Get together yearly and
                   have agency meeting to discuss needs, then interagency meeting,
                   and then interagency allocation meeting. Everyone brings needs to
                   the table to determine training that needs to be done. Run multiple
                   regional training centers.
                  Year and a half needs analysis, interagency working team makes
                   final decisions, there‘s a national rotation for putting on training,
                   might get direction from regional office that determines training
                   needs
                  An interagency needs assessment was conducted this past year
                   and was reasonably accurate, interagency training committee
                   developed a list of classes based on needs assessment results,
                   also have national rotations for delivering training
                  20 state programs in 4 compacts (zone level), each state and
                   agency does a needs assessment, collect information in needs
                   survey each summer and submit to geographic area level which
                   sends information to training academies. Don‘t have organized
                   resources for national mobility.
                  Formal needs assessment survey is conducted and filtered up to
                   training officers; local, state, and forest academies look at needs
                   informally throughout the year
                  Course evaluations – looked at by steering committee to decide if
                   revisions are needed
                  Looking at quals of people who come through and talking with
                   cooperators and field coordinators and module mates
                  Needs analysis at local levels and forwarded on to geographic area
                  After-action reviews and rollouts and information collection teams
                  Information from training specialists and goes through GATRs
                  Future – 69 courses analyzed for DL feasibility
                  Decisions are based on who‘s in charge and what they think
                  Try to structure a training plans to meet all needs
                  Workshop to explain changes
                  Very laborious to develop courses - takes two years
                  People who develop courses are generally SME‘s and they have
                   other jobs to do
                  Current education level and future needs – annual individual
                   development plan
                  Student FB at end of Academy would like more training in X area
                  TWT assesses positions within 310-1 and needs to meet; training
                   program geared toward achieving fire line qualification jobs,
                   collateral duty to regular jobs; difficult to add and delete courses or
                   change content; Lacking continuing education for regular jobs and
                   fire jobs and refreshers; difficult to develop training for day job,

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                    training away from office and travel. Program Managers and
                    people who work are fire are easily identified
                 Different logistics or plans, mini universities that promote people
                    academically have taken up a lot of this
                 National Dispatch Training Steering Committee under TWT
                    identifies training that‘s viable across dispatch. TWT buys off on it
                 Interagency needs assessment and with their partners
                 2 meetings with training groups (spring and fall) – 300 and below
                 Same as above – not well coordinated effort to match individual
                    needs to national levels
                 Need better employee / manager relationships
                    - people get funneled into a career track right away – choices are
                    voluntary
                 No good succession plan
                     - the 520 study from 2-3 years ago
                     - * need a well rounded curriculum
2. What is the process for developing wildland fire training programs? How does your
   geographic area or agency/bureau develop these programs?
                 Depends on who‘s sponsor and manager – who is there to push
                    training through
                 Both management direction and from the ground level
                 Leadership Program – solicited for interagency SME‘s to work with
                    a project leader for 18 months to 3 years to develop a course, have
                    retooled the process
                 At the curriculum level a lot of special interest groups develop the
                    curriculum
                 On larger programs, there will be more NWCG directive, but there
                    will still be requests from GATR‘s and training working teams
                 Policy and process changes inform changes in 500 and 600 level
                    courses and courses not in 301-1, changes come to the faculty and
                    steering group who make the changes in the training programs,
                    workforce analysis for fuels management – interagency group is
                    looking at the regular job side of fuels management specialist – this
                    will be a new way to meet the needs of people
                 States don‘t have the resources to develop curriculum – they take
                    NWCG‘s off-the-shelf curriculum and modify it to add what is unique
                    to a particular state
                 Process doesn‘t exist for everyday job skills
                 Curriculum is processed through the NWCG before it hits the
                    agencies, developing new curriculum doesn‘t happen often, we‘re
                    looking at each course to see if it really meets a need
                 NWCG just switched process in the last year
                     Analysis and Design – using a front-end analysis tool (NWCG
                         and the field inputs comments, the design team writes a report

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                       with recommendations and gives it to the curriculum leads), has
                       been helpful in projecting workloads, putting teams together is
                       something new – everyone is involved from the beginning
                    A little bit of work has been done in defining the processes for
                       development, certification, and evaluation
                    Hopefully process changes will result in quicker turnaround of
                       courses and won‘t abuse SME‘s
                  When a required skill or competency is identified we look at existing
                   curriculum to see if it meets the need – if not, then we develop our
                   own materials to meet the need.
                  As far as developing the programs they develop what they need
                   based on policy and guidelines – needs assessment, look at
                   available curriculum, funding is done by person. No formal
                   assessment of needs. Regarding skills that need to be developed if
                   nothing exists to meet need – (at local level). Discuss need and get
                   input from various perspectives. Develop strategy and plan to
                   develop.
                  Engine Operator Course – other states and the national office led
                   the development and BLM was part of it.
                  Have quite a few geographic courses (two week engine academy,
                   medical first responder). Gather SMEs (regional training finds them
                   and provides guidance) to develop the course. After each course
                   there is an after action review.
                  Find SME‘s, alpha and beta test all classes (including different
                   delivery methods) – find same standard of instructors
                  Use NWCG standards for instructors. Do alpha and beta testing for
                   Deb‘s group. We‘re not looking for niches that aren‘t being filled.
                  Amount of staff per state greatly varies. Larger programs – have
                   trainers hired, commit resources against development (use the
                   ADDIE model), deploy formal packages and measure them against
                   NWCG standards. Variation in programs depending on size.
                   Smaller programs – NWCG develops. Don‘t have much connection
                   to federal programs.
                  Do very little in course development, don‘t have any professional
                   instructional designers, have a couple of training staff who
                   collaborate on delivery.
                  500 and 600 level courses – interagency steering committees of
                   SME‘s develop changes or new lessons for courses
                  Field input from after– action reviews and initial workshops. SME‘s
                   or NWCG curriculum people develop
                  Speaking with people in field from perspective of what‘s missing
                   cooperatives for experiential learning.
                  Look at evaluations and assign project leader, for staff and SME‘s;
                   ADDIE Model – close to this model
                  Moving more into front end analysis approach and look at entire
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                      curriculum. Look at metrics – when courses last revised, FB for
                      target audience, what areas to look at
                  Develop – project leader and team assigned. Policy changes
                      incorporated, look at PTB's. Alpha and beta testing in the field and
                      things modified
                  Time consuming and laborious
                  NWCG – 2 years to develop or revise a course. SME‘s have
                      collateral duties – goes into course development and studies
                  Delays – SME‘s can‘t meet during summer months, requires travel
                      and scheduling
                  Things change quickly and can‘t incorporate changes in 2 year
                      development cycles
                  Local delivery recognizes need to address currency. GPS – local
                      into developed on own
                  Deciding hosts and identifying delivery
                  Turnaround time for the need is validated – 6 months for some, 12
                      months for others – seems okay because qualifications last a year.
                      Seems to be an annual cycle
                  Use of SME‘s, contractors, training resources
                  High use of PTB‘s
                  DHS will be taking over 60% of our training design process. DHS
                      will control a lot of our content.
3. What delivery methods are currently used to support wildland fire learning (i.e.
   instructor-led training, online and CD courses, e-Learning, webinars)?
                  Instructor-led training – predominantly
                  Online and CD courses
                  E-learning
                  Webinars
                  Self-study
                  On-the-job training (OJT) – use the PTB‘s as the framework
                  Simulations
                  Experiential learning
                  NAFRI – video conferencing (in the embryonic stage). If funds
                      aren‘t available for travel use VTT technology if have available on
                      site
                  Staff rides used as learning tools – site visit and virtual site ride
                      using maps, pictures, and interviews in last year
                  NWCG – performance based training system, formal courses
                      prepared study – be qualified as trainee
                  ―Go to Meeting‖ up to 16 people or webinar with up to 1000
                      different locations – mutli –agency
                  All delivery methods listed as examples in the focus group question
                  Job aids that support eight positions and are aligned with PTB‘s

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                   Classroom, blended, and self study, online, simulation, ILT
                   We do whatever we can to enhance the delivery methods – there
                    are great opportunities to use different delivery methods.
                 Money isn‘t coming for 300 and 400 level courses. Comes at 100
                    and 200 level courses.
                 People in CA not being able to get to training center is fueling
                    different ways of delivery
                 Experiential side (very little time attending to this) – coaching, OJT,
                    trainee assignments, more training and coaching and then
                    demonstrate competency for core tasks
                 Hands on learning – experiential; reinforcing NWCG courses
                 Pre-work
                 Simulations: web based trials, using forward thinking
                 PTB‘s after instructional learning
                 ―Go To Meeting‖ up to 16 people or with webinars up to 1000
                    different locations – multi agency
                 NWCG: performance based training system – formal courses,
                    prepare studies, be qualified as trainee
                 NAFRI – video tele-training (in embryonic stage) if funds aren‘t
                    available for travel, use VTT technology if have available at site –
                    will also use in panelist session
                 Predominantly instructor led training
                 self-study
                 not much online
                 Tucson – ―Go To Meeting‖ (field misses personal interactions with
                    instructor and students)
                 High percentage is ILT
                 Trying to go more electronic/distance delivery
                 More focus on field training/hands on
                 Feedback regarding NBT/CBT has been mixed – must be
                    connected to ILT and hands on
                 Some challenges with bandwidth and high speed lines
                 Blast to many
4. Who delivers your agency/bureau/geographic wildland fire training programs (i.e.
   subject-matter experts, full- or part-time agency trainers, contractors)?
                 All of the above
                 A mix of SME‘s, agency trainers, and contractors
                 Some training is delivered by universities or junior colleges
                 Predominantly SME‘s from the field
                 States use their own staff who are SME‘s, a contract exists for all
                    state governments to use for delivering leadership and supervisory
                    training
                 Interagency SME instructors from management positions,
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                    contractors (university professors)
                   Local and 300 and 400 level courses – existing employees
                    (volunteers) and contractors
                  Rarely will have a FT agency trainer – Fire Training Specialist
                  Instructors
                  SME‘s require 40 hours of instructor training – SME‘s are often
                    content experts but can‘t train or are trainers without content
                    expertise
                  All of the above
                  No full time instructors
                  Permanent training folks assigned to the academy – become
                    trainers
                  No full-time instructors, those who deliver training programs are
                    doing it as a second job
                  A lot of instructors are potluck due to availability and to get the best
                    expertise we might not get the best instructor
                  What comes out of NWCG is boring and it takes a lot of time and
                    effort to deliver materials in an engaging way
                  SME‘s primarily
                  Contractors that they bring in
                  Instructor qualified people
                  Pre-course work – download test and email back
                  Professors from the universities
                  At local and 300 and 400 level they use SME‘s and instructors
                  Rarely will have a FT agency trainer – Fire Training Specialist
                  Predominately SME‘s are brought in to instruct
                  Retirees used as contractors – used to be SME‘s
                  FUDA – almost extensively SME‘s, agency trainers don‘t exist, FT
                    training personnel are coordinators – mostly retirees
                  SME‘s and contractors who used to be SME‘s
                  Hard to convene SME‘s regularly
                  Budgets and travel limitations are limiting ILT models
                  Majority are instructed SME‘s and retirees – not usually contractors
                  The way that SME‘s who are serving as instructors is not well
                    managed today. We have variances in how they are paid and how
                    their time is tracked.
5. How do you evaluate wildland fire training courses and programs? Is there any
   evaluation of these training courses and programs against agency and NWCG
   goals?
                  Some responsibility of the agency coordinator – end-of-class
                    feedback
                  Beta tested courses have evaluation groups
                  Pay attention to the entire evaluation process
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                  There‘s very little evaluation of training once it has been developed
                   unless feedback is provided voluntarily
                  People can complete PTB‘s but there is no evaluation that relates
                   completion back to agency and NWCG goals
                  End-of-course evaluations that are distributed to the people who
                   wrote the curriculum, no long-term evaluation exists
                  Course evaluation process goes or continually field evaluation
                   during development. Voluntary FB from instructors and studies.
                   Doing full curriculum analysis – align with PTB‘s. Aviation courses
                   first in line for review
                  Cooperator levels with cooperating agencies. NWCG courses and
                   DFTC workshops and sessions
                  End-of-course smiley sheets
                  Have always been weak in evaluation – it‘s not easy for the field to
                   provide feedback and NWCG doesn‘t have the personnel to go out
                   and evaluate courses
                  It takes too long to make changes to courses so evaluation doesn‘t
                   go anywhere
                  Most often just Level 1 evaluation
                  Limited Level 3 evaluations
                  Look at 3-4 classes per year and conduct analysis (i.e. how are
                   students using knowledge from classes? What positions are
                   students in?)
                  If 59 people take a course, is there space for 59 people to go to
                   fires? – Are people who are getting qualified wasting their time? Do
                   we have more and more people with no place to go?
                  We don‘t. Levels 1 and 2.
                  Course evaluation process goes on continually, field evaluation
                   during development, test course evaluation for instructor and
                   students, voluntary FB from instructor and students, doing full
                   curriculum analysis – align with PTB‘s (aviation courses first in-line
                   for review)
                  Cooperator evaluations with cooperating agencies, NWCG courses
                   and DFTC workshops and sessions
                  End of course paper-based evaluations
                  Evaluator of draft courses. Deliver courses and evaluations. After
                   course comes out – end of class forms
                  Identify issues with course delivery and come up with
                   enhancements
                  Evaluations per class, per workshops, and per Academy use FB for
                   very next delivery rather than wait
                  Not much in place today
                  Mostly level 1 instructor and student used primarily to make slight
                   changes
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                   No scorecard to show if meeting needs
                   Some review of level 1 with reporting to NWCG
                   Courses are tested with a beta before full development (good
                    practice)
                   Not a great retirement process

Qualification Processes
1. Are requirements for the Wildland Fire Qualification System clear and readily
   accessible?
                 Yes
                 Requirements are clear but complex so they‘re not always easily
                   understood
                 Requirements are accessible if people know where they are
                 Technical specialist requirements are not articulated – these are
                   part of regular day job and are not covered in 310-1
                 Some people may be confused with terminology
                 Yes – people know that NWCG requirements are in 310-1
                 None 310-1 information if difficult to find
                 National Training web site is a good place to find 310-1
                   requirements
                 Some qualifications are blurred
                 Larger agencies have other qualifications
                 There may be multiple qualification systems within an agency
                 Rockies – a lot of confusion, complicated system. Not required
                   training for some positions
                 Yes – can find online
                 N/A – not applicable to field
                 Haven‘t changed much – easy to use
                 Not necessarily clear; readily accessible if you know where to look
                 Always questions about what‘s required – not a certain position
                 Sometimes new requests for different courses don‘t come out
                 Often unclear to the field – 310-1 and 5109 – there are still
                   misunderstandings
                 Clear and understandable but do not address the L&D side
                 Confusion – 5109: Forest Service and 310-1: The Baseline for
                   National Mobilization (2 modules being used)
2. How are position qualifications determined? How are these qualifications updated?
                 At the field level for agency-specific requirements
                 Interagency requirements are determined and updated by the IOS
                 Position qualifications are reviewed periodically
                 An agency or geographic area goes through IOSWT to propose a
                   requirement, IOSWT will coordinate with the TWT if a training
                   course is required
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                   NWCG keeps an eye on 310-1 and has a good process for
                    updating it but we don‘t have a good way of communicating
                    changes to 310-1
                 Special interest groups are often involved in pressuring for changes
                 IOSWT determines qualifications and qualifications are specific for
                    some agencies
                 When revamped all PTB‘s
                 PTB‘s revised by IOSWT and then updated if necessary
                 Local training officer, PTB is followed and signed off, determines if
                    person is qualified
                 Federal agencies – information entered into qualification system, if
                    go out of currency – go back in
                 Determined by what is perceived to be needed on the field – any
                    geographic area or rep can suggest a change – has to be bought
                    off by all agencies
                 National Dispatch Training Steering Committee under NWCG TWT
                 SME‘s assist with qualifications (5-yr rotation for updating studies –
                    training – lesson – 3 years)
                 310-1 updated every year or 2x a year. Could change a 310-1
                    anytime by memo. Will put out another version of 310-1 this month.
                    Change through a perceived need in the field - working team or
                    geographic area or agency representative. Discuss and can be
                    implemented by all agencies, otherwise it can be a negotiation
                 On-line today which makes annual updating possible
                 Annual seems ok based on the fire cycle
3. To what extent do the Position Task Books (PTB‘s) contain the critical competencies
   and proficiencies required to meet existing and future job requirements? How
   frequently do agencies augment the qualifications standards to meet their specific
   needs?
                 Pretty good
                 They‘re better now than they were in the last generation
                 Agencies don‘t augment qualification standards too frequently and
                    when it does occur it‘s to meet a very specific need
                 They clearly allow agencies to add trainings, etc. to get the job done
                 Qualifications standards only lend themselves a bit into the future –
                    what someone picks up in one level applies to the next level
                 Some agencies have their requirements that go beyond the
                    specifications of NWCG standards
                 PTB‘s were recently revised – used to just be tasks that were
                    specific to the fire world, now they‘re more generic in competencies
                    but tasks are still specific
                 Forest Service thinks they have to augment qualification standards
                    often, other agencies seldom augments standards
                 They have some but not all requirements. Closer and better
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                    because they rewrote them. Biggest problem is administration of
                    task books.
                 Book would be massive if it had everything
                 Job of Certifying Official to make sure it is great – doing adequate
                    job
                 Across the board the committees will take a critical look to see if
                    someone is qualified. Lot better than what they used to have
                 In some ways they do – leadership is being included in PTB‘s
                 To full extent
                 All agencies looking at requests
                 Some agencies have their requests that go beyond 310-1 studies
                 Augmentation as needed basis
                 Augmented what‘s in PTB‘s
                 PTB‘s went though modifications 2 years ago. Check list –
                    competencies, behaviors and tasks. PTB‘s formed by SME‘s
                 PTB‘s geared toward incident qualifications and gaps
                 Do not address the behaviors well enough
                 Now evaluate as a whole person
                 PTB‘s are not future oriented
                 Minimal efforts at strategic succession planning but starting to take
                    a stab at it
                 PTB‘s are specific to incident management – they should not be
                    future oriented
                 The individual development plan is another place to look – but they
                    are still used to define where the individual wants to go rather than
                    where the agency needs to go
4. Are the appropriate individuals responsible for each step of trainee certification?
   Why or why not?

                  Certifying Official from the Home/Unit Agency?
                  Coach?
                  Training Specialist?
                  Evaluator?
                  Final Evaluator?
                      The system works well but some people don‘t use the system
                         appropriately – people get certified when they shouldn‘t be certified
                      Certifiers and qualifiers may not have the knowledge base to do
                         their jobs properly
                      Certifying Officials lack experience and motivation to get people
                         certified
                      People get certified to avoid dealing with performance issues
                      It‘s profitable to get people certified so people get certified when
                         they shouldn‘t be certified
                      Role of the coach is underutilized – typically trainees go straight to
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                   evaluating without a coach
                  Role of a training specialist is hit or miss – Type 1 teams have them
                   while Type 3 teams have never had this role
                  There aren‘t enough training specialists to support the number of
                   trainees
                  People understand their roles – they‘re looking at the person rather
                   than a task so it gives a way to say that a trainee isn‘t cutting it
                  Until the system is tested in court, nothing will change
                  Roles are identified but not everyone knows what they‘re doing –
                   they don‘t always get the right people in the roles
                  Different standards are applied in different home units
                  Training Specialists are qualified to be on incidents but they don‘t
                   know anything about PTB‘s
                  There aren‘t enough experienced people to train the trainees
                  We have a good group of training specialists from multiple
                   agencies. We have conference calls, half-day sessions, and a
                   workshop of all training specialists once a year
                  At unit level they do fairly well – don‘t rush people into positions
                   because the impact will be felt at the unit level. Also don‘t hold
                   people back because they need a pipeline. Otherwise they are
                   rushing people to get qualified before they are ready to assume
                   responsibilities because there is a need to fill critical positions. The
                   process is cumbersome and they don‘t recognize skills people have
                   already learned.
                  Coach – weakest point because have least knowledge of system.
                   Not apparent that people think they have a coach
                  Process is very good – if followed properly it works
                  State, rural, municipalities don‘t know who to go to (don‘t know local
                   officials)
                  Getting better each year and is working
                  Concept is pretty good
                  How implemented depends on quality
                  Coach – isn‘t normally used – this role got turned into the evaluator
                  Has been difficult to get evaluators who are qualified in the position
                   that they are evaluating
                  Often the Training Specialist, Coach, and Evaluator roles seem to
                   be combined
                  Encourage honest evaluations, constructive feedback is not
                   provided – people are qualified based on the ―good ol‘ boys
                   network‖ or friendship
                  Doesn‘t think that a lot of final evaluations are accurate – thinks
                   they can do better
                  Checks and balances are set up in the system – task books that are
                   signed off still have to go to red card committee – can‘t question
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                     them because then you won‘t get anyone certified. Recommend
                     people without all the checks if you know the person and can vouch
                     for them
                  Try to make evaluation records more useable
                  No task book for final evaluators
                  Training really doesn‘t exist for people in the various roles – Tucson
                     has an all-fire day to explain the roles
                  All are part of the Red Card committee
                  Coach – not really used anymore, merged with Evaluator
                  Training Specialist – not the right people, they are not on the fire
5. What mechanisms exist for tying qualification completion to the effectiveness of the
   training or development method (i.e. on-the-job learning, mentoring)?
                  There‘s room for improvement in the system – cannot differentiate
                     between a trainee who is being sent to an incident to check off a
                     task in the PTB from someone who wants to go to an incident for
                     knowledge gain (to learn)
                  Documents completion of tasks as well as whether trainee received
                     training on tasks
                  Has apprentices and trainees
                  None
                  Pre-work for 520 – would like to figure out how to evaluate
                     mentoring
                  What questions need to be asked to monitor quality?
                  No metric exists
                  Looking at surveying year down the road. Was training effective in
                     helping you complete the task book?
                  Documenting what people come in with and what they go out with.
                     Contact after 3 years down the road to see what happened after
                     they left. See if being there had jump started them or if they
                     languished
                  If something is tied to a computer program you can trace the
                     effectiveness to qualification completion
                  Administers survey to Academy graduates (Did the Academy help
                     you achieve qualification? Did it help you in your daily job?
                  Do it to some extent, but may not be best practice
                  OJT has been evaluated but the value is not perceived – too
                     expensive, have been dinged for using this method

Organization Structure
1. How do the training processes and qualification processes work in your
   agency/bureau?
                 Depends on funding, staffing, positions, complexity, need; state-
                    level and district-level training people may or may not exist; a
                    training development unit exists; a local FMO is responsible but
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                     how this occurs varies
                    Has 800 employees, paid training managers initiate PTB‘s, train,
                     and certify, a state training manager certifies for higher level
                     positions
                    Has a training coordinator, PTB‘s are issued by a supervisor at the
                     district level, there‘s a nationwide certifying committee, a trainee
                     must demonstrate proficiency at a minimum of three incidents
                     before sign-off on tasks
                    There are regions that don‘t have dedicated training officers
                    Qualifications process – interagency or agency peer review
                     committees (i.e. red card committees are interagency groups that
                     recommend certification)
                    Holistic, broad scale, interagency. Use local colleges.
                    Each entity has its own qualification processes
                    Follows 310-1
                    Has additional qualifications
                    310-1 – basis for all signing agencies. Agencies may add tasks

Funding
1. How are wildland fire learning and development opportunities funded in your
   agency/bureau/geographic area (central training fund, charge-back model,
   interagency funding)?
                 Agencies carry it out completely (development and delivery) until
                    you get to a national initiative, money is not generally identified off
                    the top and is not captured in bill-back
                 It‘s inconsistent – charge-back, off the top
                 States receive federal dollars through the Forest Service and use
                    substantial amounts of this money to support training
                 Agreements that the host agency bears the cost of training
                 Forest Service pays for all learning and development opportunities
                 Have to take advantage of any funding opportunities turn up
                 Can‘t plan on getting money
                 Depends on who has the dollars – funding comes from different
                    directions and it‘s not well defined
                 A big chunk of the budget comes from BLM and then a percentage
                    also comes from each agency based on the number of firefighters
                    in the agency
                 Online training – money is so dispersed
                 Special interest groups developed rural and volunteer firefighters
                    online training and then delivery is pushed down to the field where
                    tuition is collected
                 Funding won‘t change unless there‘s one wildland fire agency
                 Have to beg borrow and steal, lists tuition to establish fair market
                    value of a seat
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                   Tuition based
                   Covered at regional level. Tuition grants for states, charge tuition for
                    some
                   Forest Service funds most, also state and private
                   Almost everything is tuition-based and charge-back
                   BLM provides all tuition up front at the beginning of the year
                   Mostly the host agency who has the course funds it, don‘t charge
                    tuition
                   FS provides the biggest chunk
                   Extra money at the end of the year for fuels courses (generated by
                    BIA)
                   No tuition for BIA students
                   Tuition only for out of region students
                   For the past 9 years they have developed some courses – money
                    came from Regional Officer. 20,000-25,000 reimbursable
                   There are different ways
                   Some as local project dollars – forest allowed two trainings a year
                   Some off the top with national funding
                   Depends on the agency
                   Influenced by other factors – budget and travel
                   Some by inter-agency funds – Pac NW
                   Needs to be addressed at a strategic level and apply budget
                    process to it
                   FMO and ASFMO support training – funding is taken off the top and
                    money is set aside for Academy training for day job employees
                   Training field people is a budget line item
                   Cost-sharing budget cycle for course development
                   Plan budgeting for courses and training centers and goes down to
                    the unit for unit-specific items
                   Interagency Steering Committee and interagency money
                   Funded off the top (nationally from the Forest Service and also with
                    local interagency contributions)
                   National Fire Administration and NWCG share funds for Cross Walk
                    between structural side and wildland fire
                   Off the top
                   $2,000 for each individual
                   Training Working Team – with annual budget, they spend it how
                    they see fit
                   Some funding shortages for operational training

Workplace Development Practices
1. Does your agency have a workforce development plan?
                In the process of putting together one that is focused on career
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                   paths for positions
                  Not a common practice until the unit leader level, there‘s no
                   concentrated and consistent effort, there could be a train wreck if
                   there is turnover or BLM receives a mission change
                No
                Are in the infancy to childhood phase of developing one
                Is beginning the process for ICS qualifications
                Many states are just starting to create a workforce development
                   plan
                Career pathing for wildland fire jobs in one region, uncoordinated
                   effort otherwise
                Has an allocation of forces (workforce development plan)
                Some states have one
                Talk about it but don‘t have one
                Collaborated with FEMA – FAMCAT (positions and career tracks
                   online)
                Some semblance of one
                Hit or miss – some units are doing well with this
                Has some HCM surveys. IDP's used. Professional development in
                   401 series (Technical Fire Management), student programs – being
                   involved in BLM
                Has human capital management set of pages – posted is an
                   analysis of people who were leaving and where there would be
                   critical shortages but doesn‘t identify critical knowledge. Doesn‘t
                   identify where we would be needing people of certain skills
                Have a planning succession website
                Yes, not fully aware of it
                Working on it
                Not very aggressive in having a coordinated way of doing this
                Contracted for someone to develop a workforce development plan –
                   plan exists but hasn‘t been implemented
                ―FAMCAD‖
                Regional plan has been shared at national level
                   - Career Advancement Tool (New Mexico)
                IFPM – flawed attempt to determine education requirements
2. To what extent do career paths exist for all fire roles in your agency/bureau?
                In the process of putting them together for positions
                Random hit or miss, identification of 401 professional series in one
                   functional area
                Not much at all
                Most of the people who come to work there don‘t even think about a
                   career path for 10 years
                Haven‘t done a good job of moving people forward from GS 7/9
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                       positions (a lot of entry level people are seasonal)
                      There are clear paths if you wants to figure them out, but there is a
                       need for making them clearer
                   6-7 states have a template that has slots with goals
                   If too many exist then you can‘t offer training
                   CALFIRE for other functional areas, dual path within ICS
                   Don‘t exist for all roles – some are so well worn that people coming
                       from unique directions aren‘t given consideration for jobs.
                   Career paths – so many opportunities for people if they‘re willing to
                       move. Need good mentors to help people find career paths
                   IDP‘s are only training that exists. Supervisors may counsel a bit –
                       usually have to find their own way
                   Detail opportunities arise – not planned or consistent
                   Career pathing has been voluntary – have not been based on
                       agency needs
                   Need to make paths clear – also it‘s unclear how long it will take to
                       get through
                   Informal career paths exist
                   A lack of specific career paths was highlighted in the National Fuels
                       Group workforce development plan
                   Some mentorship/apprenticeship to help individual get into a new
                       position
                   Some in leadership
                   Some for IMT‘s (Incident Management)
3. Does your agency/bureau have a mentoring and/or coaching program? If so, please
   describe it (i.e. formal or informal, mentor/protégé or coach/coachee selection,
   program focus, program evaluation).
                   Has a mentoring program – formal, application process for mentors
                       and mentees, developing people for a management role (e.g. FMO)
                       – people who are almost to the FMO level and those who are new
                       FMO‘s, re-did the model to identify NPS needs, new cohort began
                       in March, will do evaluation checks, have identified details and
                       shadow assignments, is a nationally funded program, also working
                       with a local university to develop a handbook or job aid to help
                       capitalize on informal mentoring
                   Has a mentoring program that is floundering badly, biggest issue is
                       getting suitable mentors because those individuals are very busy
                   No
                   Have a leadership program that has mentoring and coaching – just
                       started it last week
                   Has a mentoring program but very few fire people are involved, was
                       an FMO mentorship that lasted two years
                   Mentoring program for Type 1 and 520 but not a lot of applicants –
                       Air Tactical Group Supervisors had trainee rotation
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                  Formal mentoring program in the region but isn‘t well used. If it
                   gets too formal it becomes cumbersome and doesn‘t work
                 Mentoring program – had at one time, not as strong now
                 Yes
                 Leadership programs are available
                 Local areas do informal mentoring
                 Mentoring is being added – job descriptions for system
                 Detail programs exist for people who may not be completely
                   qualified for a position
                 Has a formalized mentoring program but it doesn‘t attract attention,
                   mentees meet with a mentoring lead and a plan is developed and a
                   mentor is assigned, details about the amount of time to be spent on
                   mentoring are documented
                 Mentoring in higher leadership positions
                 Type 1 IMT – candidates for F-520 are assigned to mentors
                 Had an active mentoring program about five years ago, came out of
                   the National Training Officer, individuals applied to the program and
                   were assigned a mentor
                 Heard about a mentoring program but never saw anything formal
                   about it, program was agency-wide – beyond just fire,
                   mentees/mentors received $2,500
                 Informal mentoring program – 21-day detail in the prescribed fire
                   arena, 18 people go through the program each year in teams of
                   workers based on positions they need to attain, program has been
                   fairly well accepted and is going well
                 Incident Management has a mentoring component to help with
                   achieving PTB‘s
                 In 520 – apprentices who want to be a supervisor, works well
                 Fire Mentoring
4. How is your agency planning for the increasing rate of retirements in the wildland fire
   workforce?
                 Agencies are re-hiring retirees rather than developing people
                   internally
                 Not good at it
                 Not seeing an increased rate of retirements
                 Has a strong civil service system that makes it difficult to do
                   succession planning, can only do general preparation
                 Has five Type 2 teams, larger pool to draw from, reduction in
                   federal participation in these teams, 10% of the time teams are
                   made up of retirees because active internal people don‘t exist
                 Succession planning for incident management team, nothing being
                   done for agency fireland professionals
                 Need for succession planning – 80% or more of upper or mid-
                   management could retire now
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                 Question if those who are ready to leave have mentored those
                  behind them
                None known of, if one exists then it‘s not being improved upon
                Positions that are identified as critically short go out to agencies
                MINCS plan – what classes and who should be in them
                Priority training program and getting trainees out on incidents
                Succession planning – above the unit level it‘s hit or miss, no global
                  strategy on how to do. Have a sense working toward a goal but
                  they don‘t have a strategy to get there.
                Succession planning – is on everyone‘s radar but they are behind
                  the power curve. Pulled together people and are working on getting
                  a plan together for the region
                A lot of talk but nothing in concrete
                Knowledge Sharing and Conservation Program – 100 people
                  across country. 70% of agency scheduled to retire in 3-5 years.
                  Capturing oral histories before they leave. Critical knowledge 6
                  months – 1 year before retirement also used – new people around
                Assignment for Fire Ecology - looking at ways to get people who
                  are developing courses and academic institutions talking to each
                  other. Input into potential new employees
                Looking at 4 generations in workforce and develop learning from
                  Generation X to Generation Y
                Retention of younger generations is much shorter
                Succession planning – agency is worried about it – not sure what‘s
                  being done
                Hiring back retirees
                Minimal succession planning is being done
                Minimal effort
                Lots of hand-wringing
                Struggling everywhere
                NIMS may be a first step that will help in the future
5. What cross-agency workforce development programs exist?
                None – need to go there but struggling how to go about it
                Interest in working with Australia
                Cross Walk from structural to wildland to get structural people up to
                  speed
                Is one year away from interagency allocation of forces
                Inter-agency TWT – focus on getting people certified and out
                Not aware of any
                NWCG studies that agencies agree to
                Interagency Fire Training Program
                Fire Planning Analysis – interagency look at resources, numbers,
                  and locations – remove duplication to provide a better pool to fill
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                    positions (program hasn‘t been implemented)
                   NWCG reorganization effort – workforce development and planning
                    in coordinating different directions
                   Some initial movements but no real traction yet
                   Just starting down this path

Tools and Technologies
3. What agency-specific tools and technologies exist for
    Decision support?
    Resource coordination?
    Logistical support?

    What interagency tools and technologies exist to support these activities?
                 Decision support – fire management plans, fire program analysis
                   program, wildland fire decision support tools, fire behavioral
                   analysis tools
                 Resource coordination – IQCS, ISWEET, ROSS
                    States use IQS (recordkeeping for qualifications)
                    Web-based land management plans where suppression tactics
                       need to be modified
                    Agrilife Research Center at Texas A&M has a decision matrix,
                       net meetings to communicate to locations during fire season
                 Logistical support
                    A non-issue because 99% of fires only go for 1 day
                    CACHE system tracks equipment and supplies, expanded
                       dispatch centers, Multi-agency Coordination Centers (MACC)
                 Interagency tools and technologies – IQCS, ISWEET, ROSS,
                   MACC, ERWIN (technology that enables other technologies to
                   speak to one another)
                 Almost every fire is supported by technology
                 Resource coordination - IQCS not useful unless it‘s applied to
                   everyone – states aren‘t using it so it won‘t work
                 ROSS – used to dispatch resources to incidents
                 National Wildland Fire web site for information coordination
                 Interagency tools and technologies – aircraft and helicopter
                   simulator
                 Agencies have mandated LMS‘s and none of them talk to each
                   other
                 Inter-agency – Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems
                 Pull data out of IQCS – don‘t have all the needed information
                   inputted
                 Resource Coordinator – dispatch coordination tools must be
                   available. ROSS – people still finding workarounds because still
                   aren‘t functioning
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                   Resource Coordinator – Number of people who have red cards and
                    need to weed out those who do not perform in their position
                  Geographic Information Systems at type 1, 2, and 3 level. WINS
                    and EVAR
                  Interagency – Decision support – decision support documents,
                    Wildland Fire Decision Support System, electronic format for
                    sharing fire information and tracking costs; Resource coordination –
                    IQCS (federal qualifications and fire training requirements for USDA
                    and DOI personnel), ROSS, Dispatch Coordination System,
                    ISWEETS; Others – CACHE, NOAA for weather
                  NITPORS (reports prescribed fire anchors)
                  Speak to the IRM folks to get a comprehensive list of technologies
                  Decision Support: Wildland Fire Decision Support Tool
                  Resource Coordination: ROSS
4. How is information communicated in real time to the public in wildland fire situations?
   How is real-time direct access to incident management situations provided?

                    A ton of local, agency, and national web sites (i.e. WildCATS,
                     National Fire Map)
                    Lessons Learned Center at NAFRI – internal incident management
                     and external incident management
                    Community meetings
                    Bulletin boards at certain points at different areas
                    Drop off leaflets at rural areas
                    Information centers
                    Public Information Officers
                    Web sites
                    When there‘s an accident people start using their cell phones to
                     relay information – trying to manage this
                    Expectations to be updated immediately: public expects it
                    Social media
                    PIO system updates
                    NC web
                    Local or other agency units will post information on local web sites
                    Public Information Officers
                    Public Affairs Officers
                    Public web sites
                    Web
                    Multiple geographic area news
                    IMT‘s
                    Public town meetings; face to face meetings
                    Lessons Learned Center (incident management teams)
                    News media public information access
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                   Prescribed Fire – partnerships through Prescribed Fire Councils
                    doing great job getting information out
                   Bulletin Boards
                   Downside – use of blogs, etc. – information getting out that
                    shouldn‘t be released for public knowledge
                   Firewise done through participating agencies and states
                   PSA's
                   Internet web sites
                   NIFCE home page
                   Geographic areas have their own web pages
                   Social media
                   Personal interviews with the media
                   Safety alerts
                   How well information is communicated depends on Public
                    Information Officer
                   LMS – only on DOI for day job, - only the IQCS system (completion
                    of fire qualifications for 310-1), - a Lessons Learned system

NWCG Partnerships and Departmental (USDA/DOI) Relationships
4. What kinds of NWCG partnerships exist? How well are these partnerships working?
                DoD – use military when we get real busy but DoD changes
                   personnel every year so personnel have to be continually retrained
                International – Australia, Canada, Mexico
                U.S. Fire Administration (on the structural side)
                Department of Homeland Security – all risk standards for training
                   and qualifications (it‘s unclear where NWCG fits in and whether
                   everyone is taking the best approach, it‘s unclear who is developing
                   the standards)
                Use U.S. Fire Administration‘s LMS for e-Learning – positive
                   relationship
                I-100 self paced type course
                Partnership of NWCG is huge
                DoD
                DHS (relationship has gone up and down) – when DHS wanted to
                   use ICS they came to NWCG for help and then when they learned it
                   they did their own thing and NWCG had to follow what DHS was
                   doing – we had to push ourselves into their world for a while
                US Fire Administration – representative on NWCG has provided
                   inroads
                A lot of them, they are everywhere
                Standards from IOSWT and training from TWT are often conflicting
                   groups – merging them under the NWCG reorganization is positive
                Eastern Region has 4 compacts of 20 states and 6 Canadian
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                    provinces and this is working well
                   GATR relationship – NWCG hands GATR‘s training to deliver and it
                    often doesn‘t work as planned
                  Rockies - Excellent inter-agency communication and coordinated
                    work. Northern Rockies Training Center – for all agencies. Some
                    interaction with city fire departments, University of Montana
                  TWT and GATRs have a strong relationship, work well together,
                    TWT always supports GATRs in region – have a proactive TWT
                  3-4 years with Department of Homeland Security
                  FEMA
                  US Coast Guard
                  Australia, New Zealand, Mexico and Canada
                  Gone to Greece, Italy, Africa, India, S.Korea to teach instant
                    command systems
                  PFTC – hosted people from 12-14 countries, work with NGO‘s (ie
                    TNC), University of Florida, state agencies within SE
                  US Fire Administration (Emmetsburg) – Plateau LMS, S-130 and S-
                    190 courses online through them; I-100 self-paced course
                  National Administration of State Foresters
                  NWCG is a partnership
                  IT – how technology programs are divided
                  Predictive Services
                  National CACHE System
                  Tucson – state, fire, BLM, FWS representatives for every fire
                  National Interagency Management System (NIMS) for DHS
                  EPA – a shadow group to go out with IMT‘s this year
                  Publication Management System – all materials in one place
                  National Training Center (In Tallahassee, FL)
5. What kinds of departmental (USDA/DOI) relationships exist? How well are these
   relationships working?
                  National Response Framework (primarily Forest Service with DOI
                    and U.S. Fire Administration as support agencies)
                  Forest Service – leadership in training (LMS and other initiatives)
                  Interagency Training Officers (DOI and Forest Service)
                  BLM‘s National Training Center has a Forest Service person
                  8-10 states employ an interagency Wildland Fire Academy
                  Don‘t know much about this
                  States are a huge part of the workforce
                  70% in the east are state
                  National Inter-Agency Prescribed Fire Training Center
                  All wildland fire is inter-agency local level agreements
                  No formal MOV – contracted work through OPM under TMA for DL
                  DOILEARN – tried to develop relationships but hasn‘t taken off
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                   Forest Service – tried to put programs on their server but can‘t do it
                   Managing qualifications – adding on qualifications (other than 310-
                    1) that affect other agencies
                  Intention is there but in practice it‘s rocky
                  We work well on the ground together – when we begin speaking
                    about money we struggle because of how everyone is paid
                  Crucial for the long-term
6. How well is the NWCG restructuring working (i.e. combining federal only with
   incident only)?
                  The next 18 months will be pivotal
                  It‘s taking so long to set things up that the world is passing us by –
                    committees aren‘t there
                  Skepticism about having state representatives talking about day-to-
                    day jobs for federal agencies – there‘s a time when we‘re not all the
                    same and states are different, don‘t see where a federal effort fits
                    into a national organization but if the funding exists there‘s not
                    much we can do about it
                  Slowly
                  The intent is good and it needed to happen
                  Pulling NFAEB in worries states
                  A lot is about change and trying to address a lot of issues
                  The business hasn‘t changed, the restructuring is positive and it‘s
                    set up to support what we‘re doing
                  Not applicable – they‘re not involved in the restructuring
                  This is the first they have heard of this
                  Concepts are good, scope is good – include career development in
                    incident goal positions
                  NWCG restructuring – not working well. Not affecting relationships
                    with NWCG. Spending a lot of time developing courses in region
                    (have a training center in the region).
                  Too low on totem pole to know
                  Sounds favorable based on restructuring workshops
                  Too early to tell
                  Like the concept – agree with direction it is going in
                  Knows what the long term vision and future is and as of right now
                    the restructure is moving fairly slow – going to be going on over a
                    long period of time
                  Teams have become committees (just name changes) and changes
                    in supervision line
                  OWDC – two working teams were slammed together
                  Not so sure we‘ve become more efficient
                  We need a substructure to make it all work – perhaps a corporate
                    university could help

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                       This is a long-term project and it won‘t be done overnight
                       New flowchart – on the right track, still lots of sub-committees
                       Haven‘t heard much about it in the field
                       Progressing at different speeds, seems slow
                       Somewhat schizophrenic from an implementation standpoint

Final Thoughts:
               -       All for a CU that builds fire as a profession
               -       Want better integration
               -       Better design and delivery – a professional approach
               -       Enrich the understanding of fire roles, responsibilities, and expectations
               -       Hurdles – NWCG courses are trying to be all things to all people. Need to
                       better consider the varied policy issues in the agencies. Need a core with
                       off-shoots
               -       Need college credits for courses (lower level courses are accredited in
                       geographic areas, most courses in CA are tied in with local community
                       colleges
               -       Need to evaluate the different kinds of knowledge that can be applied to
                       positions – broadening the managerial and communications basis would
                       make it easier to hire people
               -       NWCG is trying to move into an area of less prescriptive requests and
                       looking at unique individuals to assess what‘s qualified. Pushback re:
                       people thinking things should be happening the same way
               -       A lot of great things are being developed at grass roots level and don‘t want
                       to lose value of this – system is better for it




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                 -

Appendix B: Compiled Findings from Leadership Interviews
and Focus Groups
1. When you hear the term ―Wildland Fire and Aviation University,‖ what mental image
   comes to mind?
                Integrating diverse learning and development opportunities to
                  prevent everyone from going in their own direction (i.e. unique
                  training centers, courses being developed and delivered that no one
                  knows about, contractor-developed courses, assessment and
                  testing of simulations)
                All delivery under the CU to standardize processes and be able to
                  move resources where needed
                Bring training development needs together and standardize the
                  development process
                Learning and development programs will be funded so agencies
                  don‘t have to beg, borrow, and steal to get dollars for training
                  programs
                Workforce development (there‘s no one in the fire community
                  whose job it is to do this)
                Ability to take training completion records for IQCS and populate
                  USDA and DOI LMS‘s
                Skills paths (learning paths) – need to look at the entire employee
                  holistically (i.e. who will be the next Fire Directors?)
                Integrated training program that is all encompassing, a one stop
                  shop that is well organized, and efficient.
                Current way of doing business works well on the state and local
                  levels. 75-80% of wildland fires are state and local government
                Takes advantage of diversity of opportunities for people to do
                  learning
                Way to bring learning together and make it accessible through
                  universities, agencies, and private sectors
                Look at what particular areas that aren‘t served well now – future
                  land management side of fire less developed under NWCG. Smoke
                  stuff carries over to land management.
                May entail new NWCG courses but a lot will be in conjunction with
                  universities. Mechanical fuel treatment in CO, fire ecology work
                  throughout the country, technical fire management in Seattle
                Positive reaction to it. Optimistic about change
                Positive / Neutral – big undertaking – big leap on the ―how‖
                Scope concerns
                Seeing people in the classroom, some e-learning

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                  Seems technical
                  Conjures image of a campus
                  See as a ―bee-hive‖ with a flurry of activity. Lots of activity
                   coordinated around a hub. An organized/ collective approach
                  Could a different model do the same thing?
                  Use SME‘s a lot more in developing courses
                  Not a place or a building
                  Curriculum that encompasses all trainings for fire
                  An interagency University that also includes the states
                  A central repository for quality control, delivery standards,
                   recruiting, and mentoring to get people through the system with
                   quality opportunities and skills for the agencies
                  Ability to track all fire personnel – what they do and where they go
                  Eliminate redundancies (outdated requirements/qualifications)
                  More distance learning (very effective/very efficient)
                  Sees departments, majors, minors – very much like an academic
                   environment
                  A better way to fulfill IFPM requirements
                  Bring order to chaos – have chaos on a large order but some
                   pockets of order within certain training areas exist
                  Very skills focused
                  Visualizes a lot of on-line learning
                  Not just re-branding what we have – adding to it
                  Step one is unification – get a handle on the training
                  An eye toward efficiency
                  Ties training specifically to needs
                  Rejects the whole notion of even pursuing the CU
                  Want some table of training/the matrix – wastage reduction,
                   efficiency
                  2 Phases of the CU
                    - Agencies‘ Issues/US Forest Service Issues
                            - Inter-agency Community
                  Speed – Agility – Focus: the overall mantra must apply to the CU
                  Fire Management University:
                   - not as worried about 500-600 levels
                   - a place where students come for learning: open, good thinking,
                   safe, best instructors, attractive, give and take
                   - a think tank for philosophic questions/debate
                   - create an experience that inspires their own continuous
                   improvement (a GE Crotonville Model)
                   - classic inquisition
                  Unification is only the entry point
                  Very reactive – who has the money or the biggest gripe; no plan for
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                    how identified, just react to it; no process for how information is
                    vetted or filtered
                 Like military model – TRADOC for training and development. Core
                    doctrine, principles and design
                 Studies would take place about effectiveness, course descriptions
                    and DL using the proper technology. Using DL properly
                 Facility
                 Equivalent to Fire Academy
                 He was the originator of the idea of the CU concept through NWCG
                    restructuring
                 Much of the work in L&D in the past has been opportunistic and
                    reactive, not proactive and strategic
                 Sees the CU as an integration opportunity to find efficiencies
                    among all the existing schools and academies
                 Get more proactive
                 From experience-based to training and experience based
                 Currently not meeting all the needs
                 Wants to train mentors
                 Goal is to turn fire people into better fire managers
                 More succession planning
                 More role-based learning to develop fire managers
2. Why do you think it is important for the NWCG to take on the challenge of launching
   a Wildland Fire and Aviation University? Is this the right time?
                 It‘s imperative that this initiative is undertaken now to bring
                    standardization and consistency to how learning and development
                    opportunities are identified, developed, delivered, and evaluated
                 Yes, it‘s the right time. Critical right now. Should at least explore
                 Haven‘t done so well with succession planning to make sure that
                    they are maintaining resources. They run out of critical positions
                    pretty quickly
                 Seems like a good model for better coordination and efficiency
                 More effective we can be with training the better we will be – budget
                 Concerned that there is so much reorganization going on with
                    NWCG right now – maybe should wait until everything else is in
                    place, but could be okay to do with other reorganization
                 Yes it is the right time to launch the Wild Fire and Aviation
                    University
                 Because of the reorganization and expanding of scope NWCG has
                    been going through
                 There are too many scattered resources that the university could
                    help condense and define in curriculum
                 Opportunities to be more cost effective – need best and broadest
                    curriculum at a reasonable price
                 The speed of change is so fast – need better way to keep pace
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                  Aligns with NWCG restructure
                  Need techniques of development to stay ahead – for technology to
                   be more nimble
                  Critical to explore the CU concept
                  Right time to see if the CU fits with the restructuring
                  It‘s the right time – budget deficits and economic indicators show
                   that we need to be efficient, no longer can everyone have their own
                   training centers
                  Cost concerns – only drawback
                  Can‘t think of competing priorities
                  Great time to tag onto the restructuring
                  Good idea and must be beyond NWCG, has to be beyond fire
                  Appropriate management response – must be included
                  Scope has to be defined by what fire managers must do throughout
                   their careers
                  NWCG may not be the best spearhead
                  No discussion on a policy level - very premature
                  Management Efficiency Study (just awarded the contract)– just
                   hired a contractor, DOI and Forest Service, assess all the business
                   practices, training will be addressed
                  Recruit, retain, promote = workforce study
                  Fire Executive Council wants a compelling enough case to make it
                   worthwhile
                  Should be able to surface some burning platforms – Workforce
                   Succession Planning Audit will help to make the case
                  NWCG – curriculum is processed through NWCG before it hits the
                   agencies, new curriculum doesn‘t happen often. Looks at each
                   course to see if it really meets a need – more tweaking and
                   maintaining is needed
                  Courses – just switched the process in the last year (SME‘s used to
                   develop them) – analyze what‘s broken and design. Use FEA tool.
                  Wildland community has doctrine (studies, qualifications, career
                   path)
                  Structural community does not have doctrine
                  Doctrine has to stay intact and understand changes
                  Ensure safety factors
                  Need to move quickly
                  How sophisticated career development – 20 years to become fully
                   developed. 20 year retirement
                  Pool of people interested in wildland fire careers is changing – more
                   urbanized. Fewer people interested in natural resources
                  It‘s the right time to start down this path as NWCG moves toward
                   more consolidation and integration in all business processes

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                                                                                       Page B-4 of 94
                                                             National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

                     Climate changes are moving quicker than they are preparing people
                     Resistance is coming from people who are uninformed
                     Has some concerns about long-term funding and turf wars
                     Expects a long transition period and incremental changes in training
3. Given the future environmental trends facing the wildland fire workforce, what new
   skills will be required for wildland fire personnel?
                    Need to train on a broader spectrum of skills (generalists rather
                      than everyone being specialists), 310-1 has evolved into everyone
                      being a specialist, need to minimize a lot of the 310-1 requirements
                      to create more generalists
                    Fire has combined risk area knowledge with ICS versus learning
                      how to demonstrate skills and then learn how to apply ICS as a
                      management tool – need to pull out need-to-know information to
                      check into any incident
                    The computer skills and technology (GIS, GPS) will continue to be
                      invaluable
                    Smoke management is important especially as feds are revising
                      their policies
                    Need to manage smoke and preserve health
                    Managing long term fires and restoration and rehabilitation of fires
                      and fire land – may need more skills to maintain and improve
                    Stateside- be more general training, doesn‘t see budgets being able
                      to staff up for full time fire
                    Public safety within wild fire environments
                    In the future – more interactions with communities pertaining to
                      safety and fire incidents
                    Assess risks and make informed decisions about strategy and
                      tactics
                    Climate changes judge what‘s appropriate – fires, rehabilitation,
                      land management practices
                    Treatment on landscape
                    Not suppressing wildland fires, but recognizing purpose of wildland
                      fire as an environmental phenomenon
                    Smoke will become more important – cheaper to burn out areas but
                      produces too much smoke – need to reduce smoke even though it‘s
                      more expensive
                    Fire management – smarter folks
                    Hazard response – earthquakes, shuttle recovery, etc
                    Broader vision for their people
                    Improve communications – better able to talk to the public and to
                      stakeholders (business and perspectives)
                    Leadership training
                    Interpersonal relationships – help teams to work better
                    Interagency collaborations – fight fire not each other
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                                                                                         Page B-5 of 94
                                                              National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                       Corporate University Business Case
                                                       Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                       Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                            May 26, 2009

                     Soft skills
                     Needs specialists in places such as long term planning, but in fire
                      management well rounded is best
                  3 areas – 1) technical and suppression oriented (for people who
                      want to fight fires, emergency response), 2) land management,
                      including ecology and fuels management (for resource managers
                      who specialize in fire, 3) business administration and leadership (for
                      people who want to move up in an organization to lead fire at the
                      local, regional, and national levels
                  Resource management skill sets have been lost
                  GIS
                  Bridge to professional job series – creating a vocational bridge,
                      vocational to professional
                  All GS levels must be addressed
                  Get to a consensus on what an interagency Wildland Fire University
                      is – lots of holes that can be filled
                  Conduct studies to find out what‘s going on
                  Site awareness
                  Differences in his own training – social-economic factors that
                      influence how to manage fires.
                  Business acumen
                  Political social sensitivities that govern how we do business
                  Less about fire and more about environmental landscape and
                      community of landscape and political environment
                  Prepare people well for building fire line
                  Have done a good job preparing people for day job activities –
                      advancement that is not solely wildland fire
                  Fire environment is changing drastically and challenges in wildland
                      fire accelerating at a phenomenal rate
                  Interactions with other entities is critical
                  Leverage partners
                  Heavier workloads
                  Dealing with climate changes
                  Management skills
4. What specific topics would you like the University to offer (i.e. dispatch, fire
   investigation, incident command system, leadership, management, prevention,
   refresher, prescribed fire, suppression skills)?
                  More personal employee development opportunities (i.e. getting
                      along with difficult people, personal styles, planning for future
                      career opportunities
                  Leadership track
                  Focus on regular jobs
                  Continue to focus on incident command leadership.
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                                                                                          Page B-6 of 94
                                                           National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                    Corporate University Business Case
                                                    Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                    Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                         May 26, 2009

                  Mid level operations positions and supervisors
                  Aviation management positions (helicopters)
                  Prescribed fire and smoke management – focus on training there
                  Dispatch, fire investigation, incident command system, leadership,
                   management, prevention, refresher, prescribed fire, suppression
                   skills
                  Land management topics: landscape fuel treatment design, fire risk
                   in treated and untreated areas, working with the public, fire ecology
                   and post fire rehab
                  Fire environment: fire behavior, fire weather and fire danger
                  Logistics, Planning and Finance = national gap areas
                  Offer a wide range of opportunities in skill development across all
                   levels
                  Workforce Succession Planning Needs
                  Don‘t limit itself to this list – needs to focus on a wider range of
                   opportunities
                  Flexible, dynamic curriculum
                  Workforce planning/succession
                  Colleges or college by branch: operations, finance, logistics,
                   planning and command. Soft skills = leadership and management
                  AUDIENCE SCOPE: Needs to include the partners, not just the
                   federal employees. Could be a bartering system. Really wrestling
                   with the scope: just fire fighters or archeologists. Perhaps go small
                   bites.
                  Lots of S and I courses exist – would be nice to pull them together
                   under one system
                  Pull all training centers together under the University
                  More fire prevention
                  More Public Education
                  Prescribed fire topics
                  Communication
                  Create a place for open thinking
                  Everything required under NWCG for students qualifications – wide
                   range
                  Already have a good curriculum
                  Critical thinking
                  Data analysis (sorting out information and critically evaluate and
                   analyze it)
                  Roles and responsibilities of government at all levels and how fire
                   workforce fits in
                  More widely spread
                  More in-line with homeland security
                  Risk analysis plans and teams
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                                                                                       Page B-7 of 94
                                                            National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                     Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                          May 26, 2009

                    Need more focus on fuels management
                    Smoke management
                    Turning fire people into fire managers
5. What workforce development components would you like to see the University
   address (i.e. career paths, mentoring or coaching programs, interagency workforce
   development programs)?
                  Career pathing – keep it simple
                  Succession planning
                  Diversity – need to integrate this more
                  Working with Veterans and bringing them into the workforce (they
                     have military experience that could easily support the University
                     programs)
                  Gap analysis – how do we do that? – need state level, regional area
                     and national level
                  Need to shorten the time frame that people need to go through
                     training and meet qualifications – takes way too long
                  Biggest concern (university might be able to address) – time it takes
                     to get qualified when moving through the ranks
                  Concentrated efforts to prepare people to move up more quickly
                  Partnerships with universities – work toward reasonable way for
                     advancement especially with retiring workforce
                  All of the above would be beneficial
                  Coaching and mentoring is needed for the younger members of the
                     staff. Demographics are changing (getting younger).
                  Need to get better overall on the workforce issues – can‘t tell
                     anyone now how to negotiate through careers. Really need to
                     focus on this issue
                  Recruiting for fire personnel
                  Introducing diversity into the workforce and making it stick –
                     University could be the hub for hiring for the Cooperative Student
                     Program
                  System to define where we need people to help define who might
                     be nearly ready for a new role
                  Mentoring – but not overly prescribed
                  The ILT model is ok, but we need some new mechanisms
                  Need an underlying framework for what is offered and what that
                     means in one‘s career
                  Career tracks and alignment with talent plans
                  Workforce planning
                  Workforce Development: In 2 months – an IG Audit (Forest Service
                     only) of their Workforce Planning will influence the CU and many
                     other areas will influence
                  SME use – must be a more directed and even required for SME‘s to
                     design and deliver. Appendix 3 – Quadrennial Fire Review ‗09
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                                                                                        Page B-8 of 94
                                                             National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

                   Professional Fire Education – really raise awareness of what PFE
                    is, professionalize the fire training experience
                Early stages of employee‘s career – guidance and how to navigate
                    through resources available
                Mentoring, internships, career counseling in inter-agency context.
                    More around in different agencies, states, local governments, local
                    fire departments
                Testing for certification to move through levels
                Competency based assessment
                Fire Management Officer (FMO) training – predominantly on the job
6. What other activities would you like to see the University conduct (i.e. training needs
   assessments, instructional design, training evaluation, instructor certification,
   research, marketing)?
                Needs assessment
                All of the above
                Course and program evaluation
                Maintaining currency of simulations
                Strategic planning for the training function
                Help develop training plans and schedules that could fit local, state
                    and regional wildland fire community. Multiple plans
                Communication skills – need to focus on them in the ever changing
                    wildland fire world. Need to keep people in the loop, not just
                    employees but homeowners as well
                Explore tighter link with fire research
                NWCG committees and steering committees including research
                    folks which increases their involvement which is good
                Course development and course presentation – dialogue to help
                    researchers understand manager‘s problems and to bring current
                    issues to the forefront
                Tracking employee or student progress (LMS and CCMS)
                Coordination and linkages to other universities (National Fire
                    Academy)
                Delivery and instructor certification
                Storing and managing assets – revise courses rather than
                    redesigning
                Having the right person teach the right course - selection
                Overwhelmingly positive reaction to online course that was created
                    – more difficult for the older generation to accept online courses
                    and how they could be better than hands on. Newbies ready and
                    wondering why it isn‘t offered
                Coordination of work experience (i.e. field camps), especially for
                    entry level
                A centralized system for crediting and recordkeeping with
                    connections into agencies‘ individual systems
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                                                                                         Page B-9 of 94
                                                               National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                        Corporate University Business Case
                                                        Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                        Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                             May 26, 2009

                   Multiple delivery methods
                   Instructional Design – same for DL as for classroom. Validation
                    studies, predictability studies
                 Need business plan and implementation plan
                 Recognition Prime Decision Making – based on research from
                    military. Studied people who needed to make decisions in
                    compromised situations
                 Understand changing workforce
                 Comprehensive TNA
                 Assistance with job placements after training is completed
                 Research
                 ―Package‖ for multiple schedules
                 Instructional Design
                 Better assessment of needs, both short and long term
                 Better metrics
7. What current learning and development programs would you like to see protected as
   NWCG begins the design of the Wildland Fire and Aviation University?
                 No response
                 Would assume that the NWCG courses would stay as they are –
                    they have a good review and revision process.
                 None – everything should be explored
                 Leadership Curriculum – very successful. #1 attendance. Not even
                    required – first movement towards soft skills
                 Facilities
                 Only drop what has case to drop – cost should be a factor in
                    deciding what to keep and drop
                 Core curriculum safety
                 Operational Training (not offered anywhere else) – cannot water it
                    down (tactical, fire prediction, fire behavior
                 Current process to move people up in the Operations side is just
                    right – just try to make it a little quicker but don‘t sacrifice safety or
                    quality for speed
8. What encourages you to support your employees in learning and development
   activities?
                 Seeing my successors in positions that I had held
                 Seeing that people in the field are well-prepared to do their jobs
                 Always been a strong supporter of training – makes everyone better
                    off – turns chaos into order
                 Change – nothing is static
                 Status quo is not sufficient
                 Be sensitive to changes and use new information and knowledge to
                    do a better job
                 Personal philosophy – see the value
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                                                                                          Page B-10 of 94
                                                            National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                     Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                          May 26, 2009

                   Very self-directed, thorough – rewarding to help others grow
                    (mentorship role)
                 The agencies do not support managers
                 A passion to bring knowledgeable people with motivation and
                    innovation into the agency for the future of the agency and for the
                    individuals themselves
                 I‘ve seen people mismatched in their jobs and doing poorly and
                    then go into other positions and excel
                 Better pre-planning would help
                 High interest in mentoring
                 Need a better sense of future workforce needs – nothing in place to
                    project
                 The discipline that is required for them to do their job
                 Providing service
                 Necessity – how to do this – there‘s no alternative
                 Review competencies and steer them
                 Provide incentives to get qualifications (money or promotions)
                 Seems like it‘s sheer internal motivation
9. What barriers are you currently experiencing in supporting your employees in
   learning and development activities (i.e. time, budget)?
                 Current culture – everyone needs to approve everything
                 People can‘t figure out how the larger system works (i.e. navigating
                    through the system)
                 Starts out with budget and restrictions on travel ―time away from the
                    office‖, time
                 Annual goals
                 Local work commitments
                 Need to look at long term benefits – allowing time for employees to
                    do training
                 Time and budget are issues but need to look at costs of not having
                    a workforce that is not up to date
                 Response time to agency needs is a barrier
                 People who work ad-hoc during the summer aren‘t getting the
                    training because their bosses don‘t want to pay for it
                 Interagency IT security issues will throw a lot of hurdles with access
                    and data standards – may hinder CU design process
                 Pathways are not defined
                 Pace of change and time to create training – need to be quicker in
                    design and deployment. 2 year turn around from need to
                    deployment when SME‘s involved – a lot faster with external
                    supplier with excellent project
                 Backfill when someone is in training for those who are not in Fire
                 Not sure what strengths people have
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                                                                                       Page B-11 of 94
                                                            National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                     Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                          May 26, 2009

                  Distance learning and online training are not interactive and don‘t
                   account for auditory and kinesthetic learners
                 Video conferencing is better than conference calling but we don‘t
                   have the bandwidth for high definition quality
                 The crush of business to deliver something – don‘t have time for
                   training
                 Burden shifts – supervisors are taking on more personnel and
                   payroll functions than the ever had to do previously
                 Staffing
                 Leadership attitudes
                 Cost is used as an excuse but it‘s not a good reason
                 The Cross Walk needs to take place in the future – needs to be
                   enhanced and to be used effectively; not sure if it‘s being used in
                   high risk areas
                 Younger generations have different expectations with their careers
                   – motivating this generation is an issue, are happy where they are
                 Family
                 Workload
                 Managers don‘t always see the big picture and results that can be
                   achieved through training – make a small time sacrifice for a bigger
                   gain
                 Production targets
                 While there are no backfill requirements, there are sometimes
                   concerns about having enough staff to fill in when someone is in
                   training – not a huge deal, though
10. What problems do you hope this University can work to resolve?
                 Inconsistency in processes
                 Lack of standardization
                 Improved training coordination
                 Training is prioritized, delivered, and the best that we can get at the
                   time
                 Have touched on them
                 Simplification of the system – many gates to pass through to get
                   anything done – need something as effective without the complexity
                 Be more responsive on a larger scale – audience is getting bigger
                 Turnaround times
                 Need a machine to address issues – think tank a problem incubator
                 Connection of colleges to SME groups. Improve SME participation
                   in development of uniformity
                 Training SME‘s in standards for adult learning and instructional
                   design principles
                 Helping to recruit new talent and raise profile of the fire careers
                   - School to work programs/ co-op education programs

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                                                                                       Page B-12 of 94
                                                             National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

                    Address the IG/GAO study outcomes
                    Address the recommendations and vision of the QFR
                    Nothing has been put in place to address the QFR – the CU could
                     be the vehicle for driving the QFR
                  Frame the right questions
                  Help develop strategy
                  CU should be the place where all broad organizational problems
                     are solved
                  Duplication
                  Training won‘t solve all problems – need to work on strategy and
                     development
                  Painting a picture of what risk is today and what the future will bring
                  Help develop strategy
                  CU should be the place where all broad organizational problems
                     are solved
                  University as a tool – viable workforce for the future
                  Better earth to grave process for developing fire managers
                  Prepare for the changing climate implications
                  Build more capability
                  Align with the Fire Management Efficiency study
11. What are the ―quick wins‖ that you would like to see addressed first in the Wildland
    Fire and Aviation University?
                  Standardize the way in which tuition is charged
                  Learn training development methods to teach younger generations
                  NWCG – determine who‘s going to pay for what and establish
                     guidance for this
                  Bring together some aviation and fire training – bring them together
                  Succession planning
                  Nothing comes to mind – research applications perhaps
                  Local point for managing training – The Hub
                  See it as a more long-term thing
                  Address staff gaps quick – vacancies
                  One umbrella called the CU – one stop shop, one place to call,
                     organized
                  S-420 course is problematic and needs to be fixed – this course is a
                     prerequisite for F-520 and when people take F-520 they fail
                     miserably
                  Deliver more 100 level courses online and through distance
                     learning
                  Determine how to best deliver courses (instructor-led, technology
                     based, blended learning)
                  Something like the Apprenticeship Academy in Sacramento on a
                     larger scale
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                                                                                        Page B-13 of 94
                                                            National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                     Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                          May 26, 2009

                  See a structure of how it would operate
                  Look at the NWCG courses and begin to evaluate whether they
                   have the content needed or not
                 Long term plan – see the end (more like next step)
                 Make this concept understandable in a way where there is a
                   comprehensive business and implementation plan – showing the
                   strategy of how to get there
                 Nice to know that training can be accessed in one place: a
                   seamless user experience, a consolidated portal, consolidated
                   communication
                 Leverage contractors – 40% of workforce is contractors – if
                   outsourcing is more and more prominent then we must
                   accommodate them
                 Have to handle the sub-structures in place
                 Defers to the training community
                 Address things beyond fire
                 Holes in allowing people into GS 10 – 12 Levels
                 Skill development in areas defined in the pending IG report (must
                   be first, immediate focus)
                 Build and sustain the right job skill mix
                 Make CU concept understandable to Stakeholders
                 Comprehensive business and implementation plan
                 Technology
                 University with colleges: Wildland Fire, Aviation, Risk, etc.
                 Identifiable distinction between training centers and university – not
                   just retitled
                 Removing irrelevant courses
                 Consolidate some of the fragmented training
                 Fire Behavior courses to be revamped
                 Standardize trainer qualifications
                 A Fire Manager development program
12. What challenges do you think will arise in creating a Wildland Fire and Aviation
    University?
                 People understanding the CU approach – need to continually
                   communicate
                 Management being 100% invested in supporting the University
                 The full inclusion of the states and the locals and meeting their
                   needs and then also to make sure we are meeting the geographic
                   area needs
                 States and local areas would be involved with representation on the
                   Training Working Team and engaging more state and local folks – a
                   couple from each area to work together and interact to make sure
                   all needs are met

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                                                                                       Page B-14 of 94
                                                             National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

                    Resistance to change
                    Turf battles
                    Getting interagency communities to come together on requests
                    FS – separate training and qualification system (more rigorous)
                     that‘s not part of 310-1; more requests
                  Need to evaluate quals
                  Look at new ways to do this – can‘t do this the way they have been
                     training qualifications and definition of positions for land
                     management
                  Diverse workforce – multiple agencies and partners outside of the
                     agency as well
                  Scope – rural and volunteer departments, partners, archeologists
                  Must be connected with what is already planned and moving ahead
                  Mindshift – changing the way we think
                  Protection of special programs
                  Budget – getting upfront dollars is difficult
                  Territoriality in agencies – do we really need to have all of the
                     training centers?
                  Technology – people who are managing and leading didn‘t grow up
                     with technology – need a middle ground between old school and
                     new technology
                  State participation in the University – each state is so different and
                     training is very uneven
                  Political
                  ―Are all of the children going to play?‖ – restructuring seems to be
                     helping removing some of the policy and red tape
                  On-going funding
                  Attitude that the sub-structure is busy work
                  Inter-agency Wildland Fire Community – lots of voices, everyone
                     has a veto card, alignment of selfish interests around an opportunity
                     that benefits everyone, participation is voluntary
                  Collection of local interests around a common goal
                  Shame if unification is all we can achieve though
                  Right people running it – don‘t skimp on the hiring of a good
                     mix/enough people
13. What forms of ongoing accountability will be required to fully implement a Wildland
    Fire and Aviation University? Will there be the commitment to personnel allocation
    and funding needed for this initiative? Will you champion a Wildland Fire and
    Aviation University?
                  Accountability – management support, people involved in training
                     need to have accountability and transparency in operations so
                     everyone knows what one another is doing
                  Accountability - The bulk will be in the NWCG executive board

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                                                                                        Page B-15 of 94
                                                             National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                      Corporate University Business Case
                                                      Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                      Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                           May 26, 2009

                  Accountability – however it ends up being structured people need to
                   have experiences where they gain knowledge and skills people
                   need to be properly prepared; costs to develop and maintain
                   program
                  Personnel allocation and funding – need to be creative. Examples:
                   Science applications training curriculum – look at how spending
                   money and what‘s being done
                  Accountability – can see it improving. Each agency has to pony up
                   funds
                  Accountability – need expectations for how people should be able
                   to use training, fiscal accountability – cost/benefit, accountability for
                   course content and delivery standards
                  Accountability – leadership and everyone else
                  Accountability – asking critical questions, information for decision
                   making. Comprehensive evaluation program
                  Governance – not sure what model would be best – but let‘s not
                   create another Board that will slow things down
                  Governance: no need to reinvent the Governance Structure.
                   Follow the DOD Service universities, get a Board of Governors, get
                   some councils to run it
                  Commitment – needs to know more about the CU approach
                  Commitment – need details about University (i.e. what it is, costs)
                   and then the CU concept will be approved, if we make the
                   commitment then it‘ll be done
                  Commitment – yes, a commitment to focus on it. Getting to the
                   ultimate place they want to be
                  Concerned about time commitment – how big is it? What will the
                   agency need to produce/ provide during implementation
                  Commitment – this is not a major commitment in personnel and
                   funding because personnel and dollars can be rearranged and
                   realigned
                  Commitment – bulk would have to come from the federal agencies
                   and take a look at the current organizations and use existing
                   positions to make this happen. Can the existing entities be rolled
                   into a university? How many extra bodies would be needed?
                  Championing CU – yes
                  Champion – will on the surface but needs to know more about CU
                   concept, business plan and implementation plan
                  Championing CU – yes. I think it goes back to us all being open to
                   new ways of doing business and a new world. Willing to take a
                   fresh look at it. Wants state foresters be briefed so that their buy in
                   could be gotten as well. Fire Academy equivalent to Fire Executive
                   Council
                  Championing – has stronger interest, especially on research side

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                                                            National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                     Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                          May 26, 2009

                    Governance – each agency will need to participate
                    Championing – will champion the exploration – not necessarily the
                     big model – getting more momentum
                  Champion – yes, but it has been haphazardly presented. Needs to
                     be shown in a more positive light. Seems like it could work. Way of
                     the future.
                  Champion – most definitely. We have go to do it
                  Champion – support that. See it as an improvement. If it could
                     take care of a couple bad courses alone that would be worth it.
                  Political bombshells will come in
                  Will champion if the value proposition is sound
                  Needs a governing board
                  Measurement of competencies
                  Must be clear about objectives and goals
                  Clear metrics
                  Designated Incidence Commander/ Chancellor
14. What specific long-term results would you want to see from the University?
                  More efficient and effective training for the field, including
                     decreased time for training
                  Pathways and guidance to help employees advance their careers
                  A focus on what the organization needs
                  More efficient delivery of timely training
                  Getting what we need when we need it and we stay out in front and
                     maintain enough of our critical positions staffed so we can be ready
                     at the local and national level whenever fires occur
                  Being prepared to deal with changes – looking at future challenges
                  Career paths
                  Solving the challenges of working with other companies
                  Meet mission needs
                  Career development
                  A highly qualified, diverse workforce
                  A place for people to do graduate work or research
                  Using latest technology for development and delivery
                  Workforce status report that tells us how the CU is helping us meet
                     qualifications
                  Data to help make decisions
                  Trend analysis – age of workforce; are we filling the right positions
                  Value to the fire managers enhancing the way we do training
                  Aligned with the QFR
                  Is training working? Are we cranking out better skilled people?
                  Metrics/Scorecard – demographics, skill characteristics, where are
                     we and where we should be

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                                                            National Wildland Fire Coordinating Group
                                                                     Corporate University Business Case
                                                     Current State of Training and Leadership Readiness
                                                                     Corporate University Mental Model
                                                                                          May 26, 2009

                   Effectiveness
                   Viable
                   Short-term and long-term focus – determine program health
                   Structure fits intent of CU model – remote training groups maintain
                    autonomy and understand how they can be effective in the parent
                    organization – everyone working together
                   Wants to leverage the CU to help retain employees and attract new
                    ones
                   Contribution to filling new/vacant positions – getting enough people
                    qualified for particular vacancies and always having a vibrant pool
                    of employees qualified as they face more retirements
                   Speed to qualification
                   Attracting new and retaining current employees

Final Thoughts:
               - Do not disregard current practices
               - Ensure great coordination – especially with academics that can create
                 curriculum that aligns with qualifications
               - Pleased to see Merrie is thinking this way
               - Encouraged that conversations are occurring early




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