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					Level                   Level Description
                        Association
                                     Macro Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where
4. Scientific accounts Identify and distinguish among organic
tracing matter and     substances, inorganic substances, and
energy separately      energy forms consistently.
                       Positive
                       1) recognize that food and human body are
                       made of organic substances
                       2) distinguish organic substances (e.g.
                       food) from inorganic substance (e.g. water)
                       in terms of energy
                       3) recognize that breathing does not
                       contribute to growth.
                       Negative
                       1) May or may not know the name of
                       specific organic substances that make up
                       human body




Level 3: Incomplete     Identify and distinguish among organic
scientific accounts,    substances, inorganic substances, and
recognizing changes     energy forms inconsistently:
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Recognize that organic substances (e.g.
energy conversions      glucose, fats, proteins) as the components
                        of foods and body structure.
                        2) Recognize the girl's body structure and
                        food as matter, but cannot distinguish
                        organic and inorganic substances
                        consistently.
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize organic substances as
                        the MAJOR building blocks of foods and
                        body structure.
                        2) Do not correctly associate organic
                        materials with energy, either (a) confusing
                        material energy sources (glucose, ATP)
                        with energy or (b) identifying essential
                        inorganic inputs (water) as energy sources.
Level 2: Elaborated    Identify solids and liquids, but not gases,
force-dynamic          as material kinds:
accounts, tracing      Positive
enablers through       1) Recognize that food are useful for the
subsystems, but        girl's body due to its micro composition--
without conversions    food contains useful stuff such as vitamins,
between actors and     nutrients, etc.
inanimate matter       2) Identify water and air as enablers for
                       bodily functions (e.g., air helps blood
                       circulation.)
                       3) Recognize that bodies have different
                       systems with different functions

                       Negative
                       1) Do not recognize that food made up
                       human body.
                       2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as qualities
                       of air rather than components of air




Level 1: Simple force- Associate natural ability with the girl's body.
dynamic accounts,      Associate functions of enablers (i.e., foods,
focusing on actors, water, air, etc.) with psychological
abilities, and needs, phenomena such as perceptions and
as well as on ―natural feelings. (e.g., food makes the girl not
tendencies‖ of dead hungry. Water hydrates her body. With air,
or inanimate           the girl will not suffocate.)
materials              Negative
                       1) Treat air as in-substantial kinds—a type
                       of condition to help people breathe.
                       2) Do not recognize air as mixture.
                       3) Treat living and non-living materials as
                       fundamentally different kinds.
                       4) Answer questions about material kinds
                       with parts of the body




                                                 Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it
Level 4: Scientific      A: Associate mass with matter consistently:
accounts tracing         Positive
matter and energy        1) Recognizes that baby growth implies
separately               changes in her mass, but not in density or
                         size
                         2) Relates mass changes in the baby to
                         mass of the food (or its materials, as
                         organic matter)

                         SCL)1) Identify weight gain in body growth
                         as the result of organic matter
                         transformation.
                         2) Recognize that solids, liquids, and gases
                         have mass related to weight gain/loss.




Level 3: Incomplete      A: Associate mass with matter inconsistently:
scientific accounts,     Positive
recognizing changes in   1) Recognize baby growth as in increment of
matter and energy, but   mass/weight caused by food materials,
with matter-energy       however, in some cases explain grow as
conversions              changes in size or volume.
                         SCL 1) Recognize that solids, liquids, and
                         gases have mass.
                         2) Identify weight gain in body growth as the
                         result of changes involving material kinds.

                         Negative
                         1) Recognize that food and body structure are
                         made up of organic matter




Level 2: Elaborated      A: Associate felt weight with solids and
force-dynamic            liquids, but not gases:
accounts, tracing        Positive
enablers through         1) Identify that food has weight and
subsystems, but          contributes to baby growth.
without conversions      2) Explain growth as weight gain rather
between actors and       than size increase.
inanimate matter
                         Negative
                         1) Even though recognizes that food helps
                         growth, do not explain the food materials
                         contribute to the baby's weight gain
Level 1: Simple force- A: Mainly, associate growth with size
dynamic accounts,      increase
focusing on actors, Food is a essential enabler, not necesarily
abilities, and needs, related to growth.
and on ―natural        Negative
tendencies‖ of dead 1) Do not treat enablers and actors as
on inanimate           material kinds.
materials              2) Do not distinguish weight from density,
                       amount, or size .




                                 Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Wher
Level 4: Scientific   A: Associate energy with energy indicators
accounts tracing      consistently
matter and energy
separately            Positive
                      1) Identify chemical energy in organic
                      substances (e.g., C-C and C-H bonds)
                      2) Associate energy with different energy
                      indicators (heat & motion).
                      3) Consistently distinguish between
                      chemical energy and energy-rich materials
                      4) Indentify food/glucose as girl's major
                      source of energy for driving growth

                      Negative
                      Do not need to know the names of organic
                      molecules that contain chemical energy.
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
scientific accounts,    inconsistently
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers
energy conversions      (e.g., food/glucose) as inputs for growing
                        from other enablers but not consistently.
                        2) Associate energy with organic
                        substances/molecules.

                        Negative
                        1) May identify low-energy substances as
                        energy sources for growing.
                        2) May identify all reactants as energy
                        sources for growing.
                        3) Do not distinguish chemical energy from
                        organic molecules (glucose, ATP)


Level 2: Elaborated     A: Vital power from enablers
force-dynamic
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        Responses use hidden mechanism to
subsystems, but         explain how energy is used in baby
without conversions     growing including:
between actors and
inanimate matter        1) Associating vital power with all enablers.
                        2) Recognizing that actors (e.g., baby) do
                        not create vital power by e.g., resting,
                        sleeping and exercing.
                        3) Recognize that vital power is not
                        associated with baby's will/feelings

                        Negative
                        1) Do not distinguish among the enablers
                        in terms of matter or energy in baby
                        growing
                        2) Do not identify organic
                        substances/molecules as energy sources
                        in baby growing.
Level 1: Simple force- A: Natural abilities of actors and enablers
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Identify actors of the event: babies have
and on "natural        natural ability to grow and live. They can
tendencies" of dead restore their natural ability to grow by
on inanimate           breathing, eating, resting etc
materials              2) Identify enablers (e.g., food, air, water)
                       of growing and explain that they are
                       important because babies need them to
                       express their natural abilities e.g., growing.
                       3) When asked about energy, associate
                       energy with psychological factors such as
                       feeling, being healthy, strong etc




                                      Micro Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible ch
Level 4: Scientific    A: Associate chemical identity with
accounts tracing       molecules consistently
matter and energy
separately             Positive:
                       1) Identify glucose as one of the key
                       organic molecules that compose the girl's
                       body.
                       2) For cellular respiration, identify glucose
                       and oxygen as reactants and carbon
                       dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) as
                       products.
                       3) Recognize that organic molecules have
                       high chemical potential energy due to their
                       C-C and C-H bonds.

                       Negative:
                       1) Do not need to identify all the organic
                       molecules involved in this event other than
                       glucose.
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Identify atoms and molecules without
scientific accounts,    recognition of chemical identify
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive:
but with matter-        1) Recognize that the girl's body is made of
energy conversions      carbon atoms and/or organic molecules.
                        2) Associate energy with familiar organic
                        molecules or carbon atoms.

                        Negative:
                        1) Do not identify organic molecules
                        (including glucose) that compose the girl's
                        body.
                        2) Do not recognize that organic molecules
                        have high chemical potential energy due to
                        their C-C and C-H bonds.


Level 2: Elaborated     A: Identify hidden structures and properties
force-dynamic           of material kinds.
accounts, tracing
enablers through        Positive:
subsystems, but         1) Recognize cells as units in human
without conversions     bodies.
between actors and      2) Recognize that foods are made of
inanimate matter        invisible parts or contain useful stuff for
                        humans.

                        Negative:
                        1) Do not recognize functions of atoms and
                        molecules in processes
                        2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as conditions
                        or qualities

Level 1: Simple force- A: Macro actors and mechansims:
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Netative:
abilities, and needs, 1) Associate natural ability with the girl's
and on ―natural        body.
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Associate functions of enablers (i.e.,
or inanimate           foods, water, air, etc.) with psychological
materials              phenomena such as perceptions and
                       feelings. (e.g., food makes the girl not
                       hungry. Water hydrates her body. With air,
                       the girl will not suffocate.)
                                                                 Indicator
                Tracing
Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
                Trace matter and energy successfully             1. Food transforms into other organic
                through biosynthesis and digestion               substances that build the body structure
                Positive                                         2. Both food and body structure are made
                1) Trace matter within and across two            of organic substances.
                categories—organic substances and
                inorganic substances
                Recognize organic substances of food are
                transformed into other types of organic
                substances, which build girl's body structure.
                2) Trace matter and energy separately in
                biosynthesis/digestion.

                Negative
                Do not trace matter or energy quantitatively
                (may because the item do not ask to trace
                quantitatively)



                Trace matter and energy unsuccessfully:          1. Food somehow become the girl's body
                Positive                                         structure.
                1) Describe baby growth as changes
                involving matter and/or energy
                2) Describe how food change into human
                body
                3) Show commitment to broad sense of
                conservation: matter and energy for human
                growth must come from things that people
                take in and go somewhere after
                biosynthesis/digestion
                Negative
                1) Use matter-energy conversion
                2) Describe gas cycle (CO2-O2 cycle)
                separated from nutrient cycle
                3) Identify energy sources, but not energy
                transformation or degradation
                4) Do not use digestion and/or biosynthesis
                to describe growth
              Material kinds change without reaction            1. Food/air powers growth.
              Positive                                          2. Useful stuff in food like nutrients and
              1) Trace materials through some body              vitamin power growth.
              systems                                           3. Food/air is energy that powers growth.
              2) Explain body growth as the results of          4. Food/air powers organ functions or
              bodily functions that enabled by foods, air,      other bodily processes.
              and/or water.                                     5. Useful stuff is abstraced out of food
              3) Explain body growth in terms of changes of     and then distributed over the body. The
              qualities/properties of foods and do not          rest stuff goes out the body.
              identify change of material kinds: Useful
              "stuff" of food is absorbed by the body and
              the body use the "stuff" to grow and the
              waste part of the foods is expelled out of the
              body.
              Negative
              1) Do not associate growth with changes of
              the matter/energy of food.
              2) Recognize digestion/biosynthesis as
              producing material products or wastes, but
              not through changes of matter and/or energy
              of food.



              Trace within not across categories:               1. Food helps growth, because it helps
              Negative                                          you do not feel hungry.
              1) Recognize that enablers (air, water, food,     2. With water, you don't feel thirsty.
              rest, etc.) are essential for human growth but    3. With air, you will not suffocate.
              do not trace them through human body.
              2) Explain baby growth in terms of
              macroscopic force-dynamic reasoning:
              When the body gets life necessities such as
              air, water, foods, etc., it grows.
              3) Understand the relation between two
              categories—living things and dead living
              things or inanimate things as the following:
              living things die, but dead or inanimate things
              cannot change into the living things‘ body.




Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it contribute to weight gain/loss?
T: Conserve mass consistently:                       1. Weight gain comes from that food
Positive                                             transforms into other organic substances
1) Conserve mass between food materials              that build the body structure.
and baby growth, (also traces mass loss              2. Both food and body structure are
through respiration).                                organic substances.
2) Explain how materials contained in food           3. Weight gain and growth involves
are transformed into materials of the growing        reordering atoms or carbon bonds,
baby                                                 compared to food.
                                                     4. Mass of the food is used for create
SCL 1) Recognize wight gain as orgarnic              body structure and for cell respiration
matter transformation with conservation of
mass
Negative
Do not need to explain the proportions of
food's mass, used to gain weight or to cell
respiration


T: Conserve mass inconsistently:                     1. Food becomes energy in the body.
Positive                                             2. Weight gain comes from nutrients,
1) Explain baby growth, in terms of mass increase    vitamins, or other "essential stuff".
from food materials.                                 3. Weight of different body parts/organs
2) May identify CO2 as a product of cell             comes from food
respiration, but do not trace mass loss by           4. Gases have weight but is not related to
respiration.                                         body weight increase
Negative                                             SCL)1. Food becomes materials of the
1) Recognize that food provides materials for        body
growth, but cannot explain how these materials in
food are transformed into materials of the growing
baby.
2) Do not recognize gas’ role in weight loss, by
cell respiration.
SCL 2) may use matter-energy conversion for
reasoning.


T: Use processes-matter chain for reasoning:         1. Explain food use for processes like
Positive                                             cells, blood circulation, food dissolving
1) Growth and weight gain is caused by food.         etc.
2) Relates food with weight and size                 2. Growth in size is related to weight
increase, as well.                                   gain.
Negative                                             3. Food is digested and it helps grow.
2) Solids and liquids as causes of weight
gain/loss, but not as the matter that become
mass gained or lost.
                T: Describe growth, but it is not related to      1. Identify growth in size but do not
                weight gain                                       recognize weight gain.
                Negative                                          2. Describe that foods, water, and air
                1) Describe that growth is an action of getting   helps grow in size increase.
                larger.                                           3. Explain food as a need for being alive,
                2) Recognize change of sizes but not weight       rather than a contribution for growth and
                gain/loss.                                        gain weight




Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
                T: Trace energy successfully:                   1. Food has chemical energy in its
                                                                molecular bonds
                Positive                                        2. Some of the chemical energy of food is
                Trace energy separately from matter and with transformed, in the presence of oxygen,
                degradation--- i.e., correctly recognize energy into the chemical energy of the baby
                transformation from one form to another         through chemical processes to drive
                                                                growth; carbon dioxde and water are
                Negative                                        released.
                Do not need to make prediction about the        3. Some of the chemical energy of food is
                quantitative relations between the energy       transformed into the chemical energy of
                consumption, generation and/or CO2 and          organic molecules constituting the baby's
                H2O generated                                   body---the baby's organic
                                                                matter/molecules and/or cells are
                                                                characterized by chemical energy
                                                                4. Some of the chemical energy of food is
                                                                lost as heat into the baby's environment
T: Trace energy unsuccessfully                  1. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, and
                                                water are mixed together to generate
Positive                                        energy.
1) Trace energy backward and forward but        2. State that food is used to generate
with misconceptions                             energy through cellular (chemical)
2) Correctly identify high-energy sources for   processes, but may think that food
growth                                          (sugars/glucose) is energy
                                                3. State that food is an energy source,
Negative                                        but also think that e.g., CO2 and water
Responses about baby growing include            are energy sources
explanations that unsuccessfully use
principled reasoning including:
1) Tracing energy without degradation and
vice versa;
2) Incorrectly relating energy transformation
to chemical reactions.
3) Using matter-energy conversion for
reasoning.

T: Trace the power-result chain                 1. Baby needs (e.g., food and water) and
                                                does not need oxygen to grow.
Positive                                        2. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide
1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital     when the bay uses it to power growth.
power triggers hidden processes                 3. Useful stuff such as nutrients are used
2) Trace vital power backward: babies need      by the baby to power growth.
to gain a certain type of power or essence
from enablers to grow.

Negative
Do not trace power forward. When being
asked to explain where power/energy goes,
give answers based on guessing.
                T: Trace cause-result chain                        1. Nutrients makes the body stronger
                                                                   2. Air helps the baby to breathe
                Negative                                           3. Water hydrates the baby to be healthy.
                1) Describe two causes of result:                  4. Without needs (e.g, air, food, water),
                Cause 1: babies breath to grow and live and        baby will die or unhealthy
                that is how the natural world works.
                Cause 2: Enablers (e.g., air, food, water) can
                help the baby to keep in good conditions
                such as being healthy and strong and that is
                how the natural world works.
                2) Explain downhill events: when babies lose
                their powers or abilities they cannot resist the
                natural tendencies to die, to be hungry, to
                stop growing, to die or go "downhill."
                3) When being asked about energy, do not
                use energy to explain how and why growing
                happens.


Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible changes behind the macro phenomena?
                T: Explain chemical reactions in terms of          1. Food has energy because of C-C and
                atom re-arrangement                                C-H bonds.
                                                                   2. Carbon atoms move from food to body
                Postive:                                           structure.
                1) Successfully trace carbon from foods to         3. A large part of chemical energy of food
                parts of the girl's body by describing             becomes chemical energy of body.
                processes that involve chemical changes
                between organic and inorganic molecules.
                2) In explaining cellular respiration as part of
                the processes involved in growth, describe
                atom re-arrangement among the reactants.
                3) Successfully explain how chemical energy
                is passed on from foods to the girl's body
                structure.


                Negative:
                1) Do not determine quantitative relationships
                among the reactants and products in cellular
                respiration using stochiometry.
T: Changes involving cells, atoms,               1. Specify organic molecules of food.
molecules, and energy forms:                     2. Food molecules become energy of the
                                                 body.
Positive:                                        3. Food has energy because of bonds.
1) Explain running in terms of changes           4. Carbon atoms from foods build the
involving atoms, molecules, and/or energy        girl's body. (Reason based on carbon
forms                                            atoms rather than organic molecules).
2) Matter-energy conservation at atomic-
molecular scales.

Negative:
1) Do not successfully trace carbon atoms or
chemical energy. (e.g., carbon atoms move
from food to body without involving in any
chemical change.)



T: Hidden processes or mechanisms:               1.Useful stuff is abstraceted from food for
                                                 the body to use and the rest part of food
Positive:                                        is expelled from body.
1) Explain running in terms of the power-        2. Gas cycle: Oxygen is good air, carbon
result chain: the enablers, or the essence or    dioxide is bad air for people to breath and
"useful stuff" contained in the enablers         survive.
powers hidden processes.

Negative:
1) Do not trace enablers to cellular scales




T: Force-dynamic accounts about changes          1. Food makes the girl not feel hungry.
                                                 2. Water hydrates the girl's body.
Negative:                                        3. With air, the girl will not suffocate.
1) Explain baby growth in terms of               4. Air helps the girl breathe.
macroscopic force-dynamic reasoning (actors
use enablers to reach their goals): When the
body gets life necessities such as air, water,
foods, etc., she can run.
2) May describe physical movement of
enablers in the actor's body, but do not
describe any hidden process that involve
change of materials or energy
               Example


o they come from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: So what do you think are the final products of
               this process? Do you know what I'm saying? In other words,
               what would the food change into? After going through all this
               process?
               STUDENT: Well since food has a lot of different parts to
               begin with, it doesn't always end up at the same spot. But the
               fat can either be used as energy, or it winds up as in part of
               the body as any of a number of things. And the carbohydrates
               are used as energy. And as I already mentioned earlier, can
               be converted into CO2, and then exhaled.




               INTERVIEWER: Okay. So what does the baby use the food to
               do? How does it help her grow?
               STUDENT: It gets made in the carbon gets bonded with other
               atoms, which go into building more skin molecules to increase
               the size of other parts of the body.
               INTERVIEWER: Okay. So she takes the food in and the body
               turns it into other parts of the body?
               STUDENT: Yes. And makes it bigger since babies are born
               with more bones and the bones come together as the person
               gets older.
               INTERVIEWER: Oh Okay. All right. So. Let‘s say we start at
               the little girl and she gets taller, where does the matter come
               from to make her taller?
               STUDENT: From the food she eats.
                 INTERVIEWER: What kind of things does that baby need in
                 order to grow or does any baby need?
                 STUDENT: They need Vitamin C to help grow and they need
                 food and they need oxygen to be able to breath and stuff.
                 INTERVIEWER: Do our bodies use all of those things in the
                 same way or do they have different effects?
                 STUDENT: Food, it goes through your digestive system and it
                 digests and it transfers the good food and it uses that through
                 the blood circulation and then the waste comes out as your
                 waste you know, and then oxygen…
                 INTERVIEWER: …So is that food that we used or weren‘t able
                 to use?
                 STUDENT: I think we could use it but I think it‘s not good for
                 our body or something. And then our oxygen goes through our
                 respiratory system and it goes into the blood and the CO2 is
                 more dark blood is what CO2 is in, it goes through your lungs
                 and then the CO2 comes out and then the oxygen comes in
                 and it keeps circling around in the system.




                 INTERVIEWER: Okay. Some other students may have
                 mentioned that the baby also needs sleep or exercise to grow.
                 Do you think that both of those are necessary for her to grow?
                 STUDENT: Yeah. You need sleep because sleep rests your
                 bone – well, your body – and then you have energy in the
                 morning to go throughout the day. And once you eat breakfast
                 you might get a little, if you eat the right one of protein.




ontribute to weight gain/loss?
INTERVIEWER: Okay. So what does the baby use the food to
do? How does it help her grow?
STUDENT: It gets made in the carbon gets bonded with other
atoms, which go into building more skin molecules to increase
the size of other parts of the body.




INTERVIEWER: Does the air, carbon dioxide, have a role to adding
weight or is it not really involved with the weight aspect?
STUDENT: Yeah. Sometimes carbon dioxide does have weight, but
air but I do not think it adds weight to our body. IF THE STUDENT
GIVE FURTHER EXPLANATION OF HIS ARGUMENT, HE
COULD BE AT LEVEL 4.

INTERVIEWER: how does she actually get heavier, where does that
matter come from that she is now bigger five years down the road?
STUDENT2: Some comes from muscle, I know that some muscle
weighs a lot more than fat sometimes but usually when you eat, some
fat never gets transferred out and so it goes in certain types of areas
and just stays there for a little bit until you want to lose weight or
something, like you run to lose it. So it just sits there or something,
so that’s how she gains weight, when she eats her food and stuff.



 INTERVIEWER: Yeah. Yeah. Okay. So the food in this case
when she grows what is happening to it in her body.
STUDENT: It's dissolving I think and making her - I just know
food dissolves in your body and then I know you have to sleep
to grow too. When you sleep you grow more. When you eat it,
it dissolves and then I think if it dissolves or something you
grow. I do not
               INTERVIEWER: The baby gets heavier as she grows, from
               here to here she went from 22 pounds to 50 pounds. How
               does that happen?
               STUDENT: It happens by when you grow, eventually, when
               you eat, you put just a little bit of weight on, and eventually you
               will get taller or bigger. And then, once you grow, you get
               heavier because – well, my brother's like 60 pounds and he
               used to be like 20 pounds when he was a baby. And now he's
               60 pounds and he's in second grade.
               INTERVIEWER: Where do all those pounds come from? Is it
               right from the foods that you eat? You said you use the food
               for energy and growing.
               STUDENT: If you don't eat as much food then you'd probably
               get skinnier because if you don't eat, pretty much all of the
               energy and growing just stops and you just get skinnier and
               skinnier and skinnier and skinnier and so on. But if you eat the
               right amount of food then you will eventually get bigger and
               bigger and bigger and bigger and taller, and eventually you'll
               grow up because, over the years, you put on pounds.

do they come from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: Ok um so lets go back to using food for
               energy. How does the baby get the energy from the food?
               STUDENT: There‘s chemical energy that‘s stored in the food
               and then it gets in the body where the baby can use it
               INTERVIEWER: Ok is it um still chemical energy when the
               baby like uses it from the food?
               STUDENT: Um no its changes into like motion and yeah
               OR
               INTERVIEWER: Okay. So does the baby‘s body need energy
               to grow do you think?
               STUDENT: Energy I would say yes it would need energy
               because it need energy to combine the atoms together.
               INTERVIEWER: So you‘re saying that it takes energy to
               combine all the atoms together? ...Where do you think that
               energy was before it was used to combine the atoms
               together?
               STUDENT: In the C-C bonds and the CH bonds.
INTERVIEWER: Let's think about each, even though you
mentioned a couple of things. How does food help the baby to
grow?
STUDENT: It supplies it with energy and fat, which is also …
INTERVIEWER: Fat?
STUDENT: Yeah. It can also be used as energy but there is
still going to be fat left.




INTERVIEWER: You mentioned vitamin C right off the bat a
while ago, do you need a lot of it or just a little to be effective,
how does a vitamin work for you?
STUDENT: You know how people usually take their vitamins
to help grow and stuff, I think you need a lot of vitamin C to
help grow, because first its good for your body and it helps you
grow, well I don‘t say you need a lot of it, but just enough to
help you grow and have strong bones like milk.
              INTERVIEWER: Okay. Some other students may have
              mentioned that the baby also needs sleep or exercise to grow.
              Do you think that both of those are necessary for her to grow?
              0:07:08.7
              STUDENT: Yeah. You need sleep because sleep rests your
              bone – well, your body – and then you have energy in the
              morning to go throughout the day. And once you eat breakfast
              you might get a little, if you eat the right one of protein.




nges behind the macro phenomena?
              INTERVIEWER: Okay. So what does the baby use the food to
              do? How does it help her grow?
              STUDENT: It gets made in the carbon gets bonded with other
              atoms, which go into building more skin molecules to increase
              the size of other parts of the body.
INTERVIEWER: Let's think about each, even though you
mentioned a couple of things. How does food help the baby to
grow?
STUDENT: It supplies it with energy and fat, which is also …
INTERVIEWER: Fat?
STUDENT: Yeah. It can also be used as energy but there is
still going to be fat left.
INTERVIEWER: So give me more depth. Do you think… how
does food change into energy and fat? Could you say a little
bit?
STUDENT: Food has a lot of stuff in it, including
carbohydrates which can easily be broken down into energy.
And then it also contains fats which can be broken down into
energy but it is not as readily available. It is not as easy to
break down as the carbohydrates.



STUDENT: And then our oxygen goes through our respiratory
system and it goes into the blood and the CO2 is more dark
blood is what CO2 is in, it goes through your lungs and then
the CO2 comes out and then the oxygen comes in and it
keeps circling around in the system.
INTERVIEWER: So if the oxygen comes in and the CO2
comes out, where does that carbon come from that comes
out?
STUDENT: I think the carbon comes from some of your waste
that comes out; I don‘t really know that one.




INTERVIEWER: So do those things help us in different ways,
say the sleep or the food and milk, I mean does our body use
them differently? [0:01:05.9]
STUDENT: Yeah.
INTERVIEWER: Can you talk a little bit about how we use
them or how they help us?
STUDENT: Like they help us get stronger and help us
healthier and all that.
INTERVIEWER: M-hmm, anything else we need?
STUDENT: Oh (sighing).
INTERVIEWER: You can take your time.
STUDENT: Protein and all that.
INTERVIEWER: Okay, m-hmm. How about air, do we need air
at all?
STUDENT: Uh-huh, [overlapping voices]
INTERVIEWER: Okay.
STUDENT: …to help us breathe and [that‘s all] (ph).
Level                    Level Description
                         Association
                                      Macro Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where
4. Scientific accounts
tracing matter and
energy separately
                         Identify and distinguish among organic substances,
                         inorganic substances, and energy forms consistently.
                         Positive
                         1) Recognize organic substances as the major building
                         blocks of body structure, which contain energy
                         2) Distinguish organic substances from inorganic
                         substances in terms of energy.
                         3) Distinguish organic substances from energy forms.
                         4) identify CO2 as product and O2 as reactant of
                         cellular respiration, and recognize C come from the
                         organic substances in human body.
                         Negative
                         Do not need to know the names of specific organic
                         substances


Level 3: Incomplete
scientific accounts,
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,
but with matter-
energy conversions

                         Identify and distinguish among organic substances,
                         inorganic substances, and energy forms inconsistently:
                         Positive
                         1) Recognize that organic substances (glucose, fats,
                         proteins) as one of the components of foods and body
                         structure.
                         2) Recognize that the human body, foods, and gases
                         (CO2 and O2) as matter
                         3) Identify gaseous reactant (O2) or product (CO2), or
                         both.

                         Negative
                         1) Do not recognize organic substances as the MAJOR
                         building blocks of foods and body structure.
                         2) Do not correctly associate organic materials with
                         energy, either (a) confusing material energy sources
                         (glucose, ATP) with energy or (b) identifying essential
                         inorganic inputs (water ) as energy sources for running.
Level 2: Elaborated   Identify solids and liquids, but not gases, as material
force-dynamic         kinds:
accounts, tracing     Positive
enablers through      1) Use material kinds to describe enablers and results
subsystems, but       2) Recognize that bodies have different systems with
without conversions   different functions
between actors and    3) Recognize that human body and food as material
inanimate matter      kinds that have weight and properties
                      Negative
                      1) Do not recognize that living things and dead living
                      things are made of the same materials.
                      2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as qualities of air rather
                      than components of air




Level 1: Simple force-
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors,
abilities, and needs,
as well as on ―natural Associate things in terms of three categories: living
tendencies‖ of dead things, dead and inanimate things, and in-substantial
or inanimate           kinds:
materials              Negative
                       1) Treat air as in-substantial kinds—a type of condition
                       to help people breathe/run.
                       2) Do not recognize air as mixture.
                       3) Treat living and non-living materials as
                       fundamentally different kinds.
                       4) Answer questions about material kinds with parts of
                       human body


                                               Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it
                      A: Associate mass with matter consistently:
                      Positive
                      1) Recognize that the girl lost materials which have
                      mass.
                      2) Recognize that CO2 and O2 have mass




Level 4: Scientific
accounts tracing
matter and energy
separately
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate mass with matter inconsistently:
scientific accounts,    Positive
recognizing changes     1) Recognize that the girl lost weight,but still have
in matter and energy,   some confusion about whether these changes are also
but with matter-        in density, or volume as well
energy conversions      2) Recognize that solids and liquids have mass, or may
                        state that gases have mass, but do not relate mass of
                        gases to weight gain/loss.
                        3) Recognize that CO2 comes from the process of cell
                        respiration, but do not state this gas has mass.
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize that density is not the measure of
                        the amount of matter.
                        2) Do not relate mass of gases to weight gain/loss.




Level 2: Elaborated
force-dynamic           A: Associate felt weight with solids and liquids, but not
accounts, tracing       gases:
enablers through        Positive
subsystems, but         1) Associate weight loss with changes in size or shape.
without conversions     2) Recognize some materials and substances which
between actors and      have weight (food and water)
inanimate matter        3) Recognize air as mixture or identify O2 and CO2, but
                        do not recognize that they have weight.
                        4) Distinguish weight from size.

                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize that gases have weight

Level 1: Simple force- A: Associate felt weight with solids and liquids, but not
dynamic accounts,      gases:
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Even though recognize weight loss, do not relate to
and on ―natural        running.
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Do not distinguish weight from density, amount, or
on inanimate           size .
materials




                                   Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Wher
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate energy with energy indicators consistently
accounts tracing
matter and energy       Positive
separately              1) Identify chemical energy in organic substances (e.g.,
                        C-C and C-H bonds)
                        2) Associate energy with different energy indicators
                        (heat, light, motion, food)
                        3) Consistently distinguish between chemical energy
                        and energy-rich materials
                        4) Link running to relevant chemical processes (e.g.,
                        cellular respiration)

                        Negative
                        Do not need to know the names of organic molecules
                        that contain chemical energy.



Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
scientific accounts,    inconsistently
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers from other
energy conversions      enablers but not consistently.
                        2) Associate energy with organic substances/molecules

                        Negative
                        1) May identify low-energy substances as energy
                        sources.
                        2) May identify all reactants as energy sources.
                        3) Do not distinguish chemical energy from organic
                        molecules (glucose, ATP)
                        4) May not successfully link running to relevant
                        chemical processes


Level 2: Elaborated     A: Vital power from enablers
force-dynamic
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Associate vital power with all enablers.
subsystems, but         2) Recognize that girl does not create vital power by
without conversions     e.g., sleeping, resting, exercising etc.
between actors and      3) Recognize that vital power is not associated with
inanimate matter        girl's feelings.

                        Negative
                        1) Do not distinguish among the enablers in terms of
                        matter or energy
                        2) Do not identify organic substances/molecules as
                        energy sources.
Level 1: Simple force- A: Natural abilities of actors and enablers
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Identify actors of the event: Girl has natural ability to
and on "natural        run. Girl can restore her natural ability to run by
tendencies" of dead sleeping, exercising, resting, etc.
on inanimate           2) Identify enablers of an event (e.g.,running): Enablers
materials              are important because girl needs them to express her
                       natural abilities e.g., running
                       3) When asked about energy, associate energy with
                       psychological factors such as feeling, being healthy etc




                                      Micro Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible ch
Level 4: Scientific     A:Associate chemical identity with molecules
accounts tracing        consistently
matter and energy
separately              Positive:
                        1) Distinguish organic and inorganic substances in
                        terms of C-C and C-H bonds
                        2) Associate chemical properties with molecules rather
                        than atoms.

                        Negative:
                        1) Do not need to know the names of specific organic
                        substances



Level 3: Incomplete     A: Identify atoms and molecules without recognition of
scientific accounts,    chemical identify
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive:
but with matter-        1) Recognize that foods are made of carbon atoms
energy conversions      and/or organic molecules.
                        2) Associate energy with familiar organic molecules or
                        with carbon atoms.

                        Negative:
                        1) Do not recognize the relationship between
                        atoms/molecules and cells in organism's body.
                        2) Do not identify chemical identity of organic
                        molecules such as the chemical energy with C-C and C-
                        H bonds.
Level 2: Elaborated   A: Identify hidden structures and properties of material
force-dynamic         kinds:
accounts, tracing
enablers through      Positive:
subsystems, but       1) Recognize body fuction power running process
without conversions
between actors and    Negative:
inanimate matter      1) Do not recognize functions of atoms and molecules
                      in processes
                      2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as conditions or qualities




Level 1: Simple force- A: Macro actors and mechansims:
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative:
abilities, and needs, 1) Associate natural ability with the girl's body.
and on ―natural        2) Associate functions of enablers (i.e., foods, water,
tendencies‖ of dead air, etc.) with psychological phenomena such as
or inanimate           perceptions and feelings. (e.g., food makes the girl not
materials              hungry. Water hydrates her body. With air, the girl will
                       not suffocate.)
                                                                  Indicator
                Tracing
What things are involved? How do things change? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
                Trace matter and energy successfully:             1. Fat mostly becomes carbon dioxide.
                Positive                                          2. Oxygen reacts with fat and then they
                1) Trace matter within and across two             become carbon dioxide and water.
                categories—organic substances and inorganic       3. Energy of fat is released and become
                substances                                        kinetic energy and heat.
                2) Trace matter among solids, liquids, and
                gases
                3) Trace matter separately from energy
                4) Trace energy with degradation, some of the
                chemical energy convert to heat
                SCL 1) Recognize gas cycle with girl's
                respiration
                Negative
                Do not need to trace matter or energy
                quantitatively




                Trace matter and energy unsuccessfully:           1. Fat becomes waste substances after it
                Positive                                          is used.
                1) Describe running as changes involving          2. Fat becomes sweat.
                matter and/or energy                              3. State that oxygen is used, but cannot
                2) Describe how matter and/or energy of           tell where oxygen goes. May state that
                human body substance change during running        O2 is a source of energy rather than a
                (e.g., body structure becomes sweat).             reactant in cellular respiration
                3) Show commitment to broad sense of              4. May state that fat becomes energy for
                conservation: matter and energy for running       running
                must come from somewhere and go
                somewhere
                Negative
                1) Use matter-energy conversion
                2) Describe gas cycle (CO2-O2 cycle)
                separated from nutrient cycle; do not recognize
                CO2 contribute to weight loss and/or cannot
                explain the role of O2 in cellular respiration.
                3) Identify energy sources, but not energy
                transformation or degradation
                4) Do not use cellular respiration to describe
                running
                 Material kinds change without reaction              1. Oxygen is good air and carbon dioxide
                 Positive                                            is bad air.
                 1) Trace materials through some body systems        2. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide
                 2) Describe mechanical changes of foods in the      when it goes through the lung.
                 girl's body (e.g., foods go to the stomach and      3. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide
                 then is used by the girl's body).                   after the body uses it.
                 Negative                                            4. Useful stuff such as nutrients is
                 1) Do not associate running with changes of the     abstracted from food and then used by
                 matter/energy of enablers (air and human            the body to power running.
                 body).                                              5. Useful stuff in the body is used up to
                 2) Recognize running as producing wastes, but       power running.
                 not through changes of matter and/or energy of
                 air and human body.




                 Trace within not across categories:                 1. Food makes the body stronger
                 Negative                                            2. Air helps the girl to breathe
                 1) Recognize that enablers (air, water, food,       3. Water make her not feel thirsty
                 rest, etc.) are essential for running but do not    4. The girl needs sleep, so that she will
                 trace matter/energy through the process.            not be tired.
                 2) Describe running as being the result of the
                 girl's intention and help from enablers (e.g. Air
                 provides a good condition for the girl to run.)
                 3) Understand the relation between two
                 categories—living things and dead living things
                 or inanimate things as the following: living
                 things die, but dead or inanimate things cannot
                 change into the living things‘ body.




ases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it contribute to weight gain/loss?
                 T: Conserve mass consistently:                      1. Fat/glucose reacts with oxygen and
                 Positive                                            they become carbon dioxide and water.
                 1) Relates girl's mass loss to the increase of      2. Most of the weight loss is because fat
                 the mass in air CO2.                                becomes carbon dioxide.
                 2) Recognize that CO2 and H2O are the               3. The mass of air CO2 increased
                 products of respiration which go to the air.        because it cames from organic matter
                 3) Connect mass of the O2 and CO2 of the air
                 with the process of girl running
                 Negative
                T: Conserve mass inconsistently:                   1. Fat or other materials of the body
                Positive                                           become sweat.
                1) May relate weight loss to the release of gas    2. Fat or other materials of the body
                cycle, but do not explain this as a mass           become waste solids or liquids.
                transference.                                      3. Losing energy/calorie causes weight
                2) Explain the weight/mass loss as                 loss.
                matter/energy conversion                           4. State that (lost) materials (e.g. fat) are
                3) Explain the weight loss essentially as a        used as energy during running resulting
                transference of materials to water, movement       in loss of weight.
                and heat
                Negative
                1) Recognize that the body have materials for
                running, but do not explain this transference to
                the air.
                2) Do not recognize gas‘ role in weight loss.




                T: Use processes-matter chain for reasoning:       1. Hidden processes in the body causes
                Positive                                           losing weight.
                1) Explain girl's weight loss as using the food    2. After oxygen is used, it somehow
                materials rather than nutrients in cells.          becomes a type of waste gas--carbon
                2) Describe that girl's weight loss is caused by   dioxide.
                loss of water, food, or heat.                      3. Activity (e.g. running) increases
                                                                   O2/CO2 exchange with little reference to
                Negative                                           weight loss
                1) Solids and liquids as causes of weight
                gain/loss, but not as the matter that become
                mass gained or lost.



                T: Identify perceptual changes but not weight      1. Do not identify oxygen in air.
                gain/loss.                                         2. Air provides a good condition for the
                Negative                                           girl to run.
                1) May describe changes in size.                   3. Do not identify weight loss.
                                                                   4. When being asked to explain weight
                                                                   loss, the student explains that as the
                                                                   result of the body's action.




actice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
T: Trace energy successfully:                    1. Food has chemical energy
                                                 2. Some of the chemical energy of food is
Positive                                         transformed, in the presence of oxygen,
Trace energy separately from matter and with     into the motion (may use kinetic) energy
degradation---link energy inputs to energy       of the girl through chemical processes to
outputs                                          drive running; carbon dioxde and water
                                                 are released.
Negative                                         3. Some of the chemical energy of food is
Do not need to make prediction about the         lost as heat into the baby's environment
quantitative relations between the energy
consumption and CO2 and/or H2O released




T: Trace energy unsuccessfully                   1. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, and
                                                 water are mixed together to generate
Positive                                         energy for running
1) Trace energy backward and forward but with 2. State that food is used to generate
misconceptions                                   energy through cellular (chemical)
2) Correctly identify high-energy sources        processes, but may think that food
                                                 (sugars/glucose) is energy
Negative                                         3. State that food is an energy source,
Responses unsuccessfully conserve energy         but also think that e.g., CO2 and water
including:                                       are energy sources
1) Tracing energy without degradation;
2) Incorrectly relating energy transformation to
chemical reactions.
3) Using matter-energy conversions




T: Trace the power-result chain                  1. Girl needs (e.g., food and water) and
                                                 does not need oxygen to run.
Positive                                         2. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide
1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital      when the bay uses it to power running
power triggers hidden processes                  3. Girl needs other useful things such as
2) Trace vital power backward: Girl needs to     less nutrients, body organs/tissues (e.g.,
gain certain type of power or essence from       lungs, blood and heart) to run
enablers to run.

Negative
Do not trace power forward. When asked to
explain where power/energy goes, give
answers based on guessing.
                T: Trace cause-result chain                       1. Nutrients makes the body stronger
                                                                  2. Air helps the girl to breathe
                Negative                                          3. Water hydrates the girl to be healthy.
                1) Describe two causes of result:                 4. Without needs (e.g, air, food, water),
                Cause 1: Girl grows and moves and that is how girl will tired/weak or not run
                the natural world works.
                Cause 2: Enablers can help the girl to keep in
                good conditions such as being healthy,
                energetic, and happy and that is how the
                natural world works.
                2) Explain downhill events: When the girl loses
                her powers or abilities to run. she cannot resist
                the natural tendencies of stopping or getting
                tired or go "downhill."
                3) When being asked about energy, do not use
                energy to explain how and why running
                happens
What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible changes behind the macro phenomena?
                T: Explain chemical reactions in terms of atom     1. Glucose or other organic molecules
                re-arrangement                                     reacts with oxygen and becomes carbon
                                                                   dioxide and water.
                Positive:                                          2. Carbon atoms of organic molecules go
                1) Successfully trace carbon between organic       to carbon dioxide.
                and inorganic molecules in celluar respiration.    3. Organic molecules have C-C and C-H
                2) Explain cellular respiration in terms of atom   bonds, which contain energy.
                re-arrangement.                                    4. Chemical energy becomes kinetic
                                                                   energy and heat.
                Negative:
                1) Do not need to use stoichiometric ratio to
                make prediction about the mass of
                reactant/product.


                T: Changes involving cells, atoms, molecules,      1. Fat molecules or other organic
                and energy forms:                                  molecules become energy to power
                                                                   running.
                Positive:                                          2. Fat molecules or other organic
                1) Explain running in terms of changes             molecules become ATP, which is energy
                involving atoms, molecules, and/or energy          that powers running.
                forms                                              3. Energy of organic molecules becomes
                2) Matter-energy conservation at atomic-           kinetic energy. (do not identify heat).
                molecular scales.

                Negative:
                1) Do not successfully trace carbon atoms or
                chemical energy. (e.g., carbon atoms move
                from food to body without involving in any
                chemical change.)
T: Hidden processes or mechanisms:                 1. Describe cell functions
Positive:                                          2. Describe blood circulation or other
1) Explain running in terms of the power-result    bodily processes
chain: the enablers, or the essence or "useful     3. Air powers bodily functions
stuff" contained in the enablers powers hidden     4. Nutrients in food powers bodily
processes.                                         functions.
Negative:                                          5. Do not describe how one material kind
1) Do not trace enablers to cellular scales        changes into other material kinds.




T: Force-dynamic accounts about changes            1. The girl needs to breathe in air, so that
Negative:                                          she will not suffocate.
1) Explain baby growth in terms of macroscopic     2. The girl needs foods, so that she does
force-dynamic reasoning (actors use enablers       not feel hungry or tired.
to reach their goals): When the body gets life     3. The girl needs water, so that she does
necessities such as air, water, foods, etc., she   not feel thirsty.
can run.                                           4. The girl needs sleep and rest, so that
2) May describe physical movement of               she will not feel tired.
enablers in the actor's body, but do not
describe any hidden process that involve
change of materials or energy
               Example


e from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: So after the girl running not
               one time, because some people try to lose
               weight, they use running. After running one
               month, two month they will become slim. So
               where does the weight go?
               JIM: It goes into your CO2 because they sweat,
               they breathe it out.

               OR
               INTERVIEWER: Sure. So the matter that used
               to be in the fat after she ran a lot, where did it
               go?
               STUDENT: Some went into. Some went into
               carbon dioxide and others went into hydrogen
               attached to oxygen in the form of water.




               1. INTERVIEWER: How does your body use
               oxygen?
               STUDENT: When she breathes it, it‘s a source
               of energy for her.

               2. INTERVIEWER: Okay, (chuckling) okay,
               that‘s good. So and think about the girl, you
               know she runs every day, and after a month
               she finds that she lost weight, where does the
               lost material go?
               STUDENT: Your body uses it kind of like
               energy. Like when you run then you can lose
               weight by, like your body uses the extra fat that
               your body has as energy.
               INTERVIEWER: Okay, I guess what I'm
               thinking is, does she change the air, at all, as
               she breathes? So the air, coming in, she needs
               to take that oxygen from there. Is there anything
               different about the air, going out?
               STUDENT: The air, going out, is CO2, or
               carbon dioxide.
               INTERVIEWER: Mm. Okay. And can you
               explain where that comes from, a little bit?
               STUDENT: Okay, I'll try to explain this, my
               best. Like, there's like, in your body, there's like
               this bad blood, it's waste and stuff, and when it
               goes through your lungs or heart, it filters
               through and then, and when it goes through
               your lungs, you breathe it out and then you take
               the good air. And it uses the good air and when
               it's used up it goes through the lugs, again, and
               then turns, and then you breathe it out and stuff.


               INTERVIEWER: How does food help her run?
               STUDENT: Make her bigger.
               INTERVIEWER: Oh, okay, so food makes her
               bigger. How does being bigger help her to run?
               STUDENT: Strong bones so they can be taller,
               and energy to make them be a little bit longer
               so she can run faster.
               INTERVIEWER: Okay, yeah. And you said
               sleep, right? How does sleep help her run?
               STUDENT: So she‘s not lazy, so she doesn‘t
               not want to do it and goes slow, and she doesn‘t
               want to run.




weight gain/loss?
               INTERVIEWER: Okay. I think there is good
               coverage there. Let us see here. Well, I guess
               one other question would be does running
               change her weight at all? Over the short term,
               let us say. Over - in a half hour of running.

               STUDENT: In a very, very, very small way, yes,
               because you are going to have some of these
               precursor molecules that have carbons that
               give up the carbon to carbon dioxide and the
               carbon dioxide is exhaled. And so she is kind of
               - she is inhaling oxygen, which is O2, and
               exhaling carbon dioxide, which is CO2. For
               every one-to-one exchange you are losing one
               carbon atom.
               1. INTERVIEWER: So let‘s say that the girl ran
               everyday for a month and the girl lost weight.
               How does that happen?
               STUDENT: Because when she‘s sweating that
               is all the excess fatty weight coming out.
               INTERVIEWER: Where do the lost materials
               go?
               STUDENT: The sweat?
               INTERVIEWER: Yeah. If you lose a bunch of
               weight where does it all go?
               AG: Through the sweat. It comes out of your
               body.

               2. INTERVIEWERE: Okay, (chuckling) okay,
               that‘s good. So and think about the girl, you
               know she runs every day, and after a month
               she finds that she lost weight, where does the
               lost material go?
               STUDENT: Your body uses it kind of like
               energy. Like when you run then you can lose
               weight by, like your body uses the extra fat that
               your body has as energy.

               INTERVIEWER: Do you think you produce
               more CO2 when you‘re running or active or
               when you‘re just sitting there growing?

               STUDENT: I think you produce more when
               you‘re active, because it goes, I think your
               system starts to go faster and the transfer to
               oxygen coming in and the CO2 coming out, so
               you need to keep more oxygen coming in or
               else we cant complete that cycle.




               INTERVIEWER: Mmm hmm. You know, a lot of
               people will talk about exercise and running like
               that as a way to lose weight, especially once
               their adults...
               STUENT: yeah.
               INTERVIEWER: Right? So where - how does
               that work? What happens - how do you lose
               weight when you exercise?
               STUDENT: When you exercise if you do a
               certain amount at a time you can lose weight
               because you‘ve been like doing crouches, push
               ups. When you lay down there‘s like a machine
               that you get out then push one of those...

me from? Where do they go?
INTERVIEWER: Would there be any outputs
from the girl as she runs, either of energy or of
matter?...

STUDENT: Yes, all the precursor molecules.
So she is obviously going to be in-taking
oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. Some of
the chemical potential energy is going to go
towards movement, obviously, because it is
going to be used to move. But some of that is
going to be released as waste heat, which is
basically going to be her body heat.




I: What changes happen to the child's body?
STUDENT: The child is losing energy. The child
probably loses some weight. He loses fat,
energy. Fat may released as energy.




INTERVIEWER: Ok um so is the energy used
up or does it change into other things or do you
think it does not change?
KAC: I think it changes because I think it
changes from moving to um helping you think
and also from changing to um hmm also from
moving to thinking and I think it also changes
um because it helps you just get healthy and
um keeps you keeps you keeps your blood
flowing so you can grow
              INTERVIEWER: Okay. What kind of energy
              would you need? Or where would you get that
              energy?
              STUDENT: From running like those girls are
              doing
              INTERVIEWER: Oh so the running actually
              makes the energy to keep running going?
              STUDENT: Sometimes. Usually when people
              run they sort of get tired but a lot of people if
              they just stop for a second then they get back
              on track and start running again.




d the macro phenomena?
              INTERVIEWER: Okay. And so when you said
              the oxygen helps get rid of the seeds the food
              that we eat, what do you mean by that?
              STUDENT: Well most foods have carbon
              hydrogen or carbon chains so once we eat it,
              the bonds that holds it together gets broken
              down and what we don‘t use gets put onto
              oxygen molecules to create CO2 and then we
              breath it out...




              STUDENT: The human body needs energy to
              do anything really. And that energy is provided
              by food sources. After you consume the food
              your body breaks it down and then takes those
              nutrients and all that and keeps your cells
              running. And then your cells create energy that
              helps you run.
              INTERVIEWER: Alright. When you say, ‗create
              energy‘, can you be a little bit more specific.
              How do they go about that?
              STUDENT: ATP is like a form of energy in the
              cells which is created to break down
              molecules...
INTERVIEWER: Okay. Do we need the air to
run?
STUDENT: Yes, you need air. Like I don‘t know
how we need air, but we need air to keep your
body going, like your cells to keep going or
something.
INTERVIEWER: Do you think that as that girl
runs she‘s changing the air around her at all?
STUDENT: Yeah, because when she runs she
like gets like more, her body like going more,
like her pump so her blood comes like in, like
goes through your chest. So the air like – I don‘t
know (chuckling).

INTERVIEWER: Okay, yeah. And you said
sleep, right? How does sleep help her run?
STUDENT: So she‘s not lazy, so she doesn‘t
not want to do it and goes slow, and she doesn‘t
want to run.
Level                   Level Description
                        Association
                                      Macro Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where
4. Scientific accounts Consistently identify and distinguish among
tracing matter and     organic substances, inorganic substances, and
energy separately      forms of energy
                       1. Recognize that tree's body is made of organic
                       substances (as the major building blocks of food &
                       body structure), which contain energy.
                       2. Identify CO2 as a reactant and O2 as a
                       byproduct of photosynthesis
                       3. Distinguish organic substances from inorganic
                       substances in terms of energy
                       4. Distinguish organic substances from forms of
                       energy
                       Note: May or may not identify names of specific
                       organic substances

Level 3: Incomplete     Inconsistently identify and distinguish among
scientific accounts,    organic substances, inorganic substances, and
recognizing changes     forms of energy
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Recognize that organic substances (e.g.,
energy conversions      glucose, & proteins) as one of the components of
                        plant foods and body structure (including both
                        living and dead plants).
                        2) Recognize solids, liquids, & gases as matter
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize organic substances (e.g.,
                        glucose & cellulose) as the MAJOR building
                        blocks of plant food and body structure.
                        2) Do not correctly associate organic materials
                        with energy, either (a) confusing material energy
                        sources (e.g., glucose, ATP) with being energy or
                        (b) identifying essential inorganic inputs to energy
                        transforming processes (water, soil minerals) as
                        energy sources.
Level 2: Elaborated     Identify solids and liquids, but not gases, as
force-dynamic           material kinds
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Use material kinds to describe enablers and
subsystems, but         results
without conversions     2) Bodies described as having different systems
between actors and      with different functions
inanimate matter        3) Identify solids and liquids as material kinds that
                        have properties
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize that living plants and dead
                        plants are made of the same materials.
                        2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as qualities of air
                        rather than components of air
Level 1: Simple force- Associate things in terms of three categories: living
dynamic accounts,      things, dead and inanimate things, and in-
focusing on actors, substantial kinds:
abilities, and needs, Negative
as well as on ―natural 1) Treat air as in-substantial kind—a type of
tendencies‖ of dead condition to help a tree (recognized as actor)
or inanimate           breathe
materials              2) Do not recognize air as mixture of gases
                       3) Treat living (e.g., live tree---actor) and non-living
                       materials (e.g., water and soil---enablars) as
                       fundamentally different kinds
                       4) Answer questions about material kinds with
                       parts of systems (leaves, wood, muscles)
                       5. Identify sunlight as an enabler but treat it as
                       condition
                                                  Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it

                       A: Associate mass with matter consistently:
                       Positive
                       1) Recognize mass rather than density as
                       fundamental measure of amount of matter.
                       2) Recognize that solids, liquids, and gases have
                       mass and relate to their mass to weight gain/loss.
Level 4: Scientific
accounts tracing
matter and energy
separately




                      A: Associate mass with matter inconsistently:
                      Positive
                      1) Recognize mass/weight usually as fundamental
                      measure of amount, but still have some confusion
                      about whether changes in density or volume can
                      change mass
                      2) Recognize that solids and liquids have mass, or
                      may state that gases have mass, but do not relate
Level 3: Incomplete mass of gases to weight gain/loss.
scientific accounts, Negative
recognizing changes Do not recognize that density is not the measure of
in matter and energy, the amount of matter.
but with matter-      Do not relate mass of gases to weight gain/loss.
energy conversions
                       A: Associate felt weight with solids and liquids, but
                       not gases:
                       Positive
                       1) Identify solid and liquid enablers as being made
Level 2: Elaborated    up of material kinds and recognize that they have
force-dynamic          felt weight.
accounts, tracing      2) Recognize air as mixture or identify O2 and
enablers through       CO2, but do not recognize that they have weight.
subsystems, but        3) Distinguish weight from size.
without conversions    Negative
between actors and     1) Do not recognize that gases have weight
inanimate matter

Level 1: Simple force- A: Associate felt weight with solids and liquids, but
dynamic accounts,      not gases:
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Do not treat enablers and actors as material
and on ―natural        kinds.
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Do not distinguish weight from density, amount,
on inanimate           or size .
materials
                                   Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Whe
Level 4: Scientific    A: Associate energy with energy indicators
accounts tracing       consistently
matter and energy
separately             Positive
                       1) Identify chemical energy in organic substances
                       (e.g., C-C and C-H bonds)
                       2) Associate energy with different energy
                       indicators (heat & light).
                       3) Consistently distinguish between chemical
                       energy and energy-rich materials
                       4) Indentify sunlight as plant's major source of
                       energy (external) and photosynthesis or glucose
                       as another (internal)

                       Negative
                       Do not need to know the names of organic
                       molecules that contain chemical energy.
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
scientific accounts,    inconsistently
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers (e.g., light)
energy conversions      from other enablers but not consistently.
                        2) Associate energy with organic
                        substances/molecules.

                        Negative
                        1) May identify low-energy substances as energy
                        sources.
                        2) May identify all reactants as energy sources.
                        3) Do not distinguish chemical energy from organic
                        molecules (glucose, ATP)


Level 2: Elaborated     A: Vital power from enablers
force-dynamic
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        Use hidden mechanism to explain how energy is
subsystems, but         used in tree growing including:
without conversions
between actors and      1) Associate vital power with all enablers.
inanimate matter        2) Recognize that actors (e.g., trees) do not create
                        vital power by e.g., resting or being dormant.
                        3) Recognize that vital power is not associated
                        with plants' will/feelings

                        Negative
                        1) Do not distinguish among the enablers in terms
                        of matter or energy
                        2) Do not identify organic substances/molecules
                        as energy sources.

Level 1: Simple force- A: Natural abilities of actors and enablers
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Identify actors of the event: Trees have natural
and on "natural        ability to grow and live. They can restore their
tendencies" of dead natural ability by e.g., breathing air or drinking
on inanimate           water
materials              2) Identify enablers (e.g., air, sun, water) of the
                       event: Enablers are important because actors
                       need them to express their natural abilities.
                       3) When asked about energy, associate energy
                       with psychological factors such as feeling, being
                       healthy etc---may use human analogy in their
                       explanations

                                        Micro Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible c
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate chemical identity with molecules
accounts tracing        consistently:
matter and energy       Positive
separately              1) Distinguish organic (glucose) and inorganic
                        substances (CO2) in terms of C-C and C-H bonds
                        (but only if asked directly);
                        2) Correctly connect molecular structure with
                        cellular structure - glucose can be used as a
                        building block for growing cells.
                        3) Associate chemical properties with molecules
                        rather than atoms (chemical identity).
                        Negative
                        Do not need to know the names of specific organic
                        substances

Level 3: Incomplete     A: Identify atoms and molecules without
scientific accounts,    recognition of chemical identity.
recognizing changes     Positive
in matter and energy,   1) Identify cells (often 'leaf') and molecules (esp.
but with matter-        glucose, cellulose) in structures of organisms and
energy conversions      materials
                        2) Associate energy with familiar organic
                        molecules (glucose) or with carbon atoms in
                        particular.
                        Negative
                        1) Do not clearly recognize the relations between
                        atoms and molecules and cells (i.e. atoms and
                        molecules make up cells) in organisms‘ body.
                        Glucose is not seen as a substrate for building
                        new cells or materials.
                        2) Do not recognize chemical identity—the
                        configuration of atoms in molecules (e.g., C-C and
                        C-H) determines the chemical properties of the
                        substances.
Level 2: Elaborated     A: Identify hidden structures and properties of
force-dynamic           material kinds:
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        Identify hidden structure or components of liquids
subsystems, but         and solids (e.g., soil nutrients or minerals,
without conversions     chemicals, etc.)
between actors and      Negative
inanimate matter        1) Do not recognize functions of atoms and
                        molecules in processes.
                        2) CO2 is described as a type of air that the plants
                        need; they somehow change it to O2 during PS
                        and release it
Level 1: Simple force- A: Macro actors and enablers.
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative:
abilities, and needs, 1) Do not explain abilities or functions of trees in
and on ―natural        terms of functions of subsystems (e.g.,
tendencies‖ of dead photosynthesis, cells division, sugar and water
or inanimate           movement through cells etc.).
materials              2) Name enablers (e.g. sunlight, water, soil, air),
                       but do not analyze them in terms of parts or
                       material kinds (e.g., minerals in soil, CO2 and O2
                       in air).
                                                                       Indicator
               Tracing
ce: What things are involved? How do things change? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
               Trace matter and energy successfully:                   1. The tree's body is mainly made of
               1. Trace matter within and across organic and           organic molecules that contain carbon.
               inorganic substances                                    2. Carbon dioxide and water become
                2. Trace mattera among solids, liquids, and gases      organic matter of the tree and oxygen is
               3. Trace energy separately from matter                  released.
               4. Trace energy with degradation                        3. Organic matter of the tree's body
               Note: Do not need to quantitatively trace matter or     contains energy and the energy comes
               energy                                                  from sunlight.




               Unsuccessfully trace matter and/or energy               1. Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
               Positive                                                are mixed together to produce organic
               1) Describe macroscopic processes as changes            matter.
               involving matter and/or energy                          2. State that carbon dioxide is used to
               2) Describe how matter and/or energy of                 generate glucose/sugars in
               enablers/actors change                                  photosynhtesis, but may think that
               3) Show commitment to broad sense of conservation:      sugars/glucose is energy
               matter and energy must come from somewhere and
               go somewhere
               Negative
               1) Use matter-energy conversion
               2) Describe gas cycle (CO2-O2 cycle) separated from
               nutrient cycle
               3) Identify energy sources, but not energy
               transformation or degradation
               4) Describe ecosystems in terms of nutrient cycle.
               5) Do not use biosynthesis to describe growth


               Material kinds change without reaction                  1. Tree needs carbon dioxide and does
               Positive                                                not need oxygen.
               1) Trace materials (e.g., water & CO2) through some     2. Carbon dioxide changes into oxygen
               plant body systems (e.g., root & shoot)                 when the tree uses it.
               2) Recognize hidden processes (e.g., changes,           3. Useful stuff such as nutrients is used
               named or otherwise) as important sequences meeting      by the tree to power growth.
               needs of actors (e.g., tree growing)
               Negative
               1) Do not associate growth with changes of the
               matter/energy of enablers.
               2) Recognize processes as producing material
               products or wastes, but not through changes of matter
               and/or energy of enablers/actors.
                Trace within, not across, categories                        1. Nutrients makes the body stronger
                Negative                                                    2. Air helps the tree to breathe
                1) Recognize that enablers (air, water, food, rest, etc.)   3. Water hydrates the tree.
                are essential for tree growing but do not trace them        4. Water goes up in the tree's body.
                through systems or processes.
                2) Understand the relation between two
                categories—living things and dead (inanimate) things
                as follows: living things die, but dead (inanimate)
                things cannot change into the living things‘ body.
                3. Describe growing as the result of the tree's
                intention and help from enablers.




s/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it contribute to weight gain/loss?
                                                                            1. Most weight gain comes from carbon
                T: Conserve mass consistently:                              dioxide/carbon.
                Positive                                                    2. Carbon dioxide and water become
                1) Conserve mass within each processes;                     glucose molecules that build the tree's
                2) Recognize gas‘ contribution to weight gain and           body.
                loss.
                Negative
                Do not need to use stoichiometric ratio to make
                prediction about the mass of reactant/product.


                                                                            1. Nutrients from soil becomes the tree's
                                                                            body structure.
                                                                            2. Carbon dioxide is used in
                T: Conserve mass inconsistently:                            photosynthesis, but most weight gain
                Positive                                                    comes from soil.
                1) Conserve matter in some processes, which do not          3. weight gain comes from minerals.
                involve gaseous reactants/products (e.g., human
                growth);
                2) May identify gaseous reactant/product, but do not
                recognize gas‘ contribution to weight gain or loss.
                3) May describe gas cycle (O2-CO2), but do not
                recognize its role in weight gain or loss.
                Negative
                1) Recognize that food provides materials for growth,
                but cannot explain how materials in food are
                transformed into materials in plant and animal bodies .
                2) Do not recognize gas‘ role in weight gain or loss.
                                                                        1. Photosynthesis produces weight.
                T: Use processes-matter chain for reasoning:            2. Carbon dioxide becomes oxygen, but
                Positive                                                do not recognize gas' role in weight gain.
                1) Hidden processes causes weight gain/loss.            3. Carbon dioxide is used by the tree
                (Processes could include bodily processes, gas cycle,   and therefore becomes oxygen that is
                etc.)                                                   waste gas.
                2) Describe changes in size as the cause of changes     4. The weight comes from air or from
                in mass.                                                energy.
                Negative                                                5. Weight comes from the food that the
                2) Solids and liquids as causes of weight gain/loss,    tree made through photosynthesis (but
                but not as the matter that become mass gained or        cannot explain photosynthesis at atomic-
                lost.                                                   molecular scale).

                                                                        1. Do not identify oxygen in air.
                T: Identify perceptual changes but not weight           2. Air provides a good condition for the
                gain/loss.                                              tree to grow.
                Negative                                                3. Identify change of sizes, but do not
                1) Describe how enablers help the actors to change in   identify weight gain.
                size: growth is an action of getting larger.            4. When being asked to explain weight
                2) Recognize change of sizes but not weight             gain, the student explains that as the
                gain/loss.                                              result of the tree's action.

s Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
                T: Trace energy successfully:                           1. The tree's body is mainly made of
                                                                        organic molecules that contain energy---
                Positive                                                the tree's organic matter/molecules are
                Trace energy separately from matter and with            characterized by the chemical energy of
                degradation--- i.e., correctly recognize energy         the tree
                transformation from one form to another                 2. Sunlight/light energy is transformed
                                                                        into chemical energy of the tree and
                                                                        carbon dioxde is released.
                Negative
                Do not need to make prediction about the quantitative
                relations between the energy consumption and O2
                released.
                T: Trace energy unsuccessfully                             1. Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
                                                                           are mixed together to generate energy.
                Positive                                                   2. State that carbon dioxide is used to
                1) Trace energy backward and forward but with              generate glucose/sugars in
                misconceptions                                             photosynhtesis, but may think that
                2) Correctly identify high-energy sources                  sugars/glucose/food is energy

                Negative
                1) Trace energy without degradation and vice versa;
                2) Incorrectly relate energy transformation to chemical
                reactions.
                3) Use matter-energy conversion for reasoning.




                T: Trace the power-result chain                            1. Tree needs (e.g., carbon dioxide,
                                                                           water) and does not need oxygen to
                Positive                                                   grow.
                1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital power          2. Carbon dioxide changes into oxygen
                triggers hidden processes                                  when the tree uses it to power growth.
                2) Trace vital power backward: Trees need to gain          3. Useful things such as nutrients and
                certain type of power or essence from enablers to          sunlight are used by the tree to power
                grow.                                                      growth.

                Negative
                Do not trace power forward. When being asked to
                explain where power/energy goes, give answers
                based on guessing.




                T: Trace cause-result chain                                1. Stuff e.g., nutrients make the tree's
                                                                           body stronger
                Negative                                                   2. Air helps the tree to breathe
                1) Describe two causes of result:                          3. Water hydrates the tree.
                Cause 1: Trees breath to grow and live and that is         4. Water goes up in the tree's body.
                how the natural world works.
                Cause 2: Enablers (e.g., air, water) can help the
                actors to keep in good conditions such as being
                healthy and strong and that is how the natural world
                works.
                2) Explain downhill events: Trees that lose their
                powers or abilities cannot resist the natural tendencies
                of things to die/decay or go "downhill."
                3) When being asked about energy, do not use
                energy to explain how and why things happen.
ice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible changes behind the macro phenomena?
 T: Explain chemical reactions in terms of atom re-     1) Describes C from CO2 being taken up
arrangement:                                            by cells in the leaf and transferred to C in
Positive                                                glucose.
1) Recognize carbon transformation between organic      2) Able to identify O2 as a product, along
and inorganic forms.                                    with glucose.
2) Identify all reactants and products in chemical
reactions (given sufficient prompting)
Negative
Do not need to use stoichiometric ratio to make
prediction about the mass of reactant/product.




 T: Changes involving cells, atoms, molecules, and      1) Describes glucose as energy for the
energy forms:                                           growing plant, with vague connection to
Positive                                                energy of the sunlight.
1) Recognize key role of cells in PS in plants; trace   2) Unsure where material for growing
materials to and from cells                             plant comes from, w/ few specific ideas
2) Matter-energy conversion at atomic-molecular         beyond glucose and soil nutrients (and
scale (sunlight becomes glucose);                       water).
3) May cite chemical formulas and equations
Negative
Do not consistently conserve atoms (especially where
energy and gases are involved)
Do not trace carbon atoms with recognition of carbon
transforming between organic and in-organic forms
(CO2 is not explicitly connected to the carbon atoms
in glucose).




 T: Hidden processes or mechanisms:                     1) Plants use particular parts of soil
Positive                                                (water and nutrients) to help them grow.
1) Role of parts or subsystems (incl. leaves, stems &   2) Carbon dioxide is "useful" or "good" air
roots) recognized in actions of actors.                 for plants.
2) May describe water as moving up through tree to      3) Water moves through plant, but
leaves and being a part of photosynthesis there.        nothing else is discussed particularly.

Negative
1) Not tracing materials to and from cells (instead
operating at organ/tissue levels)
T: Force-dynamic accounts about changes.                      1) Although plants need all the enablers,
                                                              they are not described as being changed
Negative:                                                     while in the plant's body.
1) Describe trees‘ role in changes: Trees use enablers 2) Functions of enablers simply to create
(e.g., sunlight, water, soil, air) to reach their goals (i.e. good conditions for plant to grow.
to grow).
2) May describe physical movement of enablers in the
actor‘s body, but do not describe any hidden
processes that involve changes of materials or
energy.
              Example


from? Where do they go?
              INTERVIEWER: Ok um ok so you said that the
              tree needs the carbon dioxide and it breathes
              out oxygen. Where does the carbon atom from
              the carbon dioxide go?

              STUDENT: It is converted into glucose




              INTERVIEWER: Yes, good job yes. So it's
              actually getting the carbon dioxide. Alright so
              now that the carbon dioxide is in the tree, what
              does it do with this carbon dioxide?

              STUDENT: Probably uses it as energy and to
              produce oxygen.




              INTERVIEWER: What about water? How does
              the trees water to grow?

              STUDENT: Like you rinse it and it helps it make
              photosynthesis. Uses it as a drink.
                INTERVIEWER: Okay. And let‘s see, what else
                did you mention?

                STUDENT: Water.

                INTERVIEWER: Water, yeah, how does the
                water help it?

                STUENT: It goes through the plant and makes
                its leaves grow and stuff.




weight gain/loss?
                INTERVIEWER: So I will ask you questions
                about the matter that makes the trees the bark,
                wood and leaves. So did the matter exist
                outside the tree before it became part of the
                tree?
                STUDENT: Yes. The water, of course, was
                matter before and there is carbon dioxide—well
                sunlight and as that sort of mixture together
                inside the tree it became glucose and helped
                the tree grow.

                INTERVIEWER : Do you think the increased
                materials of the tree‘s body are changed from
                things outside the tree? So like the increase
                materials is it coming from things outside of the
                tree or is it coming from something that‘s
                already in the tree?
                STUDENT: Its taking stuff like the nutrients and
                stuff from outside of the tree like soil and from
                some stuff so
                INTERVIEWER: So where does the matter
                comes from?
                STUDENT: The matter comes from the air that
                is around it and in all the energy that it gets
                helps it grow and gives it food so that it can
                grow more weight and help it grow bigger and
                stronger.




                INTERVIEWER: How does that happen? How
                does that tree get heavier?
                STUDENT: Because it grows inside, which
                grows in mass, which is weight. So the bigger it
                gets, the heavier it is. Because I carry little TVs
                and then there's a big TV over there was
                heavier. So the littler it is, the bigger it is, the
                more weight it has.

me from? Where do they go?
                INTERVIEWER: How is light energy involved?
                STUDENT: Light energy is, first it‘s absorbed
                through the leaves. It is then converted to a
                stored energy by combining the hydrogen and
                carbon atoms into various molecules. That
                energy is stored in that bond for use later.
               INTERVIEWER: You said that the plant needs
               those things, especially sunlight for energy to
               grow, what happenes to sunlight once it enters
               the tree---how doe the tree use it?
               STUDENT: It stores the energy as starch, and
               then later on, if for some reason it couldn‘t
               pirate more energy or food, it would go to that
               starch and use that to get more energy for the
               time being.




               INTERVIEWER: How does tree use sunlight to
               grow?
               STUDENT: Because think, like, if it was dark all
               the time, I don‘t think the tree would grow as
               fast, but I think with that energy from the sun, it
               helps the tree grow faster.




               INTERVIEWER: You also mentioned that the
               tree uses water, what happens to water inside
               of the tree?
               STUDENT: It makes the tree – when it‘s inside
               the tree, it makes the tree bigger. Like strong
               and like the tree will be strong.




d the macro phenomena?
INTERVIEWER: Where does the carbon atom
from the carbon dioxide go?
STUDENT: It is converted into glucose




INTERVIEWER: Ok does the process of
the tree growing involve energy?
STUDENT: Yes
INTERVIEWER: Where does the energy
come from?
STUDENT: The glucose I think.




INTERVIEWER: Okay, alright. And you
also mentioned air, oxygen (inaudible -
0:06:56.8). So once again there's oxygen,
how does the tree get the oxygen?
STUDENT: Through the leaves.
INTERVIEWER: Alright so oxygen is
coming into the leaves or air.
STUDENT: Not oxygen it's carbon dioxide
but that's opposite.
INTERVIEWER: Alright so now that the
carbon dioxide is in the tree, what does it
do with this carbon dioxide?
STUDENT: Probably uses it as energy and
to produce oxygen.
INTERVIEWER: Water, yeah, how does the
water help it?
STUDENT: It goes through the plant and makes
its leaves grow and stuff.
Level                   Level Description
                        Association                                   Tracing
                                 Macro Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where do
4. Scientific accounts                                                Trace matter and energy successfully:
tracing matter and                                                    Positive
energy separately      Identify and distinguish among organic         1) Trace matter within and across two
                       substances, inorganic substances, and          categories—organic substances (e.g.
                       energy forms consistently.                     cellulose) and inorganic substances (e.g.
                       Positive                                       CO2)
                       1) Recognize organic substances as the         2) Trace matter among solids, liquids, and
                       major building blocks of tree, which           gases
                       contain energy                                 2) Trace matter separately from energy
                       2) identify O2, organic substance as           3) Trace energy with degradation, the
                       reactant and CO2, H2O as products of           chemical energy of the tree convert into
                       decay.                                         heat.
                       2) Distinguish organic substances from         Negative
                       inorganic substances in terms of energy.       Do not need to trace matter or energy
                       3) Distinguish organic substances from         quantitatively
                       energy forms.
                       Negative
                       Do not need to know the names of
                       specific organic substances


Level 3: Incomplete                                                   Trace matter and energy unsuccessfully:
scientific accounts,    Identify and distinguish among organic        Positive
recognizing changes     substances, inorganic substances, and         1) Describe decay as changes involving
in matter and energy,   energy forms inconsistently:                  matter and/or energy
but with matter-        Positive                                      2) Describe how matter and/or energy of
energy conversions      1) Recognize that organic substances          tree change during decay
                        (cellulose, lignin, etc.) as one of the       3) Show commitment to broad sense of
                        components of tree                            conservation: matter and energy must
                        2) Recognize tree and CO2 O2 gases as         come from somewhere and go somewhere
                        matter                                        Negative
                        3) Identify gaseous reactant (O2) or          1) Use matter-energy conversion
                        product (CO2) of decay.                       2) Describe gas cycle (CO2-O2 cycle)
                        Negative                                      separated from nutrient cycle, do not
                        1) Do not recognize organic substances        recognize O2-CO2 change contribution to
                        as the MAJOR building blocks of tree.         weight loss
                        2) Do not correctly associate organic         3) Identify energy sources, but not energy
                        materials with energy, either (a) confusing   transformation or degradation
                        material energy sources (glucose, ATP)        4) Do not use cellular
                        with energy or (b) identifying essential      respiration/decompostion to describe
                        inorganic inputs (O2) as energy sources       decay
                        for decay.
Level 2: Elaborated   Identify solids and liquids, but not gases,    Material kinds change without reaction
force-dynamic         as material kinds:                             Positive
accounts, tracing     Positive                                       1) Trace materials through the process of
enablers through      1) Use material kinds (plant body) to          decay; e.g., the matter goes somewhere
subsystems, but       describe enablers and results                  2) Recognize food chains as important
without conversions   2) Recognize that bodies have different        sequences meeting needs of actors, e.g.,
between actors and    systems with different functions               bacteria or other microorganisms eat the
inanimate matter      3) Identify solids and liquids as material     wood which helps to break it down.
                      kinds that have weight and properties          Negative
                      Negative                                       1) Do not associate decay with changes of
                      1) Do not recognize that living things and     the matter/energy of enablers, e.g.,
                      dead living things are made of the same        energy/materials from tree are not
                      materials.                                     transferred to bacteria/microorganisms.
                      2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as qualities       2) Recognize decay as producing material
                      of air rather than components of air           products or wastes, but not through
                                                                     changes of matter and/or energy of
                                                                     enablers/actors.



Level 1: Simple force- Associate things in terms of three            Trace within not across categories:
dynamic accounts,      categories: living things, dead and           Negative
focusing on actors, inanimate things, and in-substantial kinds:      1) Recognize that enablers (air, water,
abilities, and needs, Negative                                       food, rest, etc.) are essential for processes
as well as on ―natural 1) Treat air as in-substantial kinds.         but do not trace them through systems or
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Do not recognize air as mixture.              processes.
or inanimate           3) Treat living and non-living materials as   2) Understand the relation between two
materials              fundamentally different kinds.                categories—living things and dead living
                       4) Answer questions about material kinds      things or inanimate things as the following:
                       with parts of systems (leaves, wood,          living things die, but dead or inanimate
                       muscles)                                      things cannot change into the living things‘
                                                                     body; e.g.,

                                           Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it co
Level 4: Scientific   A: Associate mass with matter                  T: Conserve mass consistently:
accounts tracing      consistently:                                  Positive
matter and energy     Positive                                       1) Relates tree decay to the increase of the
separately            1) Recognize that the tree lost materials      CO2 mass of the air.
                      which have mass.                               2) Trace carbon atoms from the glucose to
                      2) Recognize that CO2 and O2 of the air        the CO2 in the air.
                      have mass                                      3) Recognize that CO2 and H2O are the
                                                                     products of decay which go to the air.
                                                                     3) Connects changes of air O2 and CO2
                                                                     mass with decay
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate mass with matter                   T: Conserve mass inconsistently:
scientific accounts,    inconsistently:                                 Positive
recognizing changes     Positive                                        1) May relate decay to gas cycle, but do
in matter and energy,   1) Recognize that tree decay lost               not explain this relationship as a mass
but with matter-        weight,but still is not clear the distinction   transference.
energy conversions      between changes in weight, density,             2) Explain decay and its weight loss as
                        volume                                          matter/energy conversion
                        2) Recognize that the tree has weight, but      3) Explain tree decay essentially as a
                        not the air.                                    transference of tree materials to the soil or
                        3) Recognize that CO2 released comes            by evaporation
                        from tree decaying, but do not recognize        Negative
                        this gas has mass.                              1) Recognize that the tree has materials,
                        Negative                                        but do not explain how the mass transfers
                        Do not relate mass of gases to weight           to the air.
                        gain/loss.                                      2) Do not recognize gas‘ role in weight
                                                                        loss.

Level 2: Elaborated     "A: Associate felt weight with solids and       T: Use processes-matter chain for
force-dynamic           liquids, but not gases:                         reasoning:
accounts, tracing       Positive                                        Positive
enablers through
                        1) Associate decay with changes in tree         1) Explain decay as a process of the tree
subsystems, but
                        weight, size or shape.                          weight loss, but is not clear to explain the
without conversions
between actors and      2) Recognize air as mixture of gases or         internal mechanism by which it occurs.
inanimate matter        identify O2 and CO2, but do not recognize       2) Explain tree decay, by saying the tree
                        that they have weight.                          weight went to the soil.
                        3) Distinguish weight from size.
                                                                        Negative
                        Negative                                        2) Solids and liquids as causes of tree
                        1) Do not recognize that gases have             weight loss, but not as the matter that
                        weight                                          become mass lost.




Level 1: Simple force- A: Associate felt weight with solids and
dynamic accounts,      liquids, but not gases:                          T: Identify perceptual changes but not
focusing on actors, Negative                                            weight gain/loss.
abilities, and needs, 1) Even though recognize changes in the           Negative
and on ―natural        tree, do not relate to decay.                    1) May describe changes in size or volume.
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Do not distinguish weight from density,          2) Explain decay as a consequence of tree
on inanimate           amount, or size .                                death
materials
                               Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where d
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate energy with energy             T: Trace energy successfully:
accounts tracing        indicators consistently
matter and energy                                                   Positive
separately              Positive                                    Trace energy separately from matter and
                        1) Identify chemical energy in wood/tree    with degradation
                        (e.g., C-C and C-H bonds)
                        2) Associate energy with different energy   Negative
                        indicators (e.g., heat and sometimes        Do not need to make prediction about the
                        motion)                                     quantitative relations between the energy
                        3) Consistently distinguish between         consumption and CO2 and H2O generated
                        chemical energy and energy-rich
                        materials
                        4) Recognize that some chemical energy
                        of wood is transformed into chemical
                        energy of decomposers through chemical
                        processes AND that some of it is
                        transnformed into and lost as heat

                        Negative
                        Do not need to know the names of
                        organic molecules that contain chemical
                        energy.



Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate energy with energy             T: Trace energy unsuccessfully
scientific accounts,    indicators inconsistently
recognizing changes                                                 Positive
in matter and energy,   Positive                                    1) Trace energy backward and forward but
but with matter-        1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers     with misconceptions
energy conversions      from other enablers but not consistently.   2) Correctly identify high-energy sources
                        2) Associate energy with organic
                        substances/molecules.                    Negative
                                                                 1) Trace energy without degradation;
                        Negative                                 2) Incorrectly relate energy transformation
                        1) May identify low-energy substances as to chemical reactions
                        energy sources.                          3) Use matter-energy conversion for
                        2) May identify all reactants as energy  reasoning.
                        sources.
                        3) Do not distinguish chemical energy
                        from organic substances/molecules
Level 2: Elaborated   A: Vital power from enablers                   T: Trace the power-result chain
force-dynamic
accounts, tracing     Positive                                       Positive
enablers through      Use hidden mechanism to explain how            1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital
subsystems, but       energy is involved in decay including:         power triggers hidden processes
without conversions   1) Associate vital power with all enablers.    2) Trace vital power backward: actors need
between actors and    2) Recognize that actors do not create         to gain certain type of power or essence
inanimate matter      vital power by sleeping, rest, etc.            from enablers.
                      3) Recognize that vital power is not
                      associated with actors' feelings.        Negative
                                                               Do not trace power forward. When being
                      Negative                                 asked to explain where power/energy goes,
                      1) Do not distinguish among the enablers give answers based on guessing or don't
                      in terms of matter or energy             know.
                      2) Do not identify organic
                      substances/molecules as energy sources.


Level 1: Simple force- A: Natural abilities of actors and enablers   T: Trace cause-result chain
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative                                         Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Identify actors of the event: Actors        1) Describe two causes of result:
and on "natural        have natural ability to grow and move.        Cause 1: Actors grow and move and that is
tendencies" of dead Actors can resort their natural ability by       how the natural world works.
on inanimate           sleep, rest, etc.                             Cause 2: Enablers can help the actors to
materials              2) Identify enablers of the event: Enablers   keep in good conditions such as being
                       are important because actors need them        healthy, energetic, and happy and that is
                       to express their natural abilities.           how the natural world works
                       3) When asked about energy, associate
                       energy with psychological factors such as     2) Explain downhill events: Actors that lose
                       feeling, being healthy etc                    their powers or abilities cannot resist the
                                                                     natural tendencies of things to decay or go
                                                                     "downhill."
                                                                     3) When being asked about energy, do not
                                                                     use energy to explain how and why things
                                                                     happen.
                                 Micro Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible chan
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate chemical identity with         T: Explain chemical reactions in terms of
accounts tracing        molecules consistently:                     atom re-arrangement:
matter and energy
separately              Positive:                                   Positive:
                        1) Distinguish organic (glucose) and        1) Successfully trace carbon atom in tree
                        inorganic substances (CO2) in terms of C-   decay from the tree's body to CO2.
                        C and C-H bonds (but only if asked          2) Explain tree decaying in terms of atom
                        directly);                                  re-arrangement in cellular respiration
                        2) Associate chemical energy with C-C       between organic and inorganic forms.
                        and C-H bonds.                              3) Successfully explain energy
                                                                    transformation--chemical energy
                        Negative:                                   transforms into heat.
                        Do not need to know the names of            4) Identify all reactants and products in
                        specific organic substances                 cellular respiration (given sufficient
                                                                    prompting)

                                                                    Negative:
                                                                    Do not need to use stoichiometric ratio to
                                                                    make prediction about the mass of
                                                                    reactant/product.




Level 3: Incomplete     A: Identify atoms and molecules without     T: Changes involving cells, atoms,
scientific accounts,    recognition of chemical identity.           molecules, and energy forms:
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive:                                   Positive:
but with matter-        1) Recognize that the tree's body is made   1) Explain decay in terms of changes
energy conversions      of carbon atoms and/or organic molecules    involving atoms, molecules, and/or energy
                        2) Associate energy with familiar organic   forms.
                        molecules (e.g., cellulose, glucose) or     2) Matter-energy conversion at atomic-
                        with carbon atoms.                          molecular scale
                                                                    3) May use chemical formulas and
                        Negative:                                   equations
                        1) Do not recognize the relations between
                        atoms and molecules and cells in the        Negative:
                        tree's body.                                1) Do not consistently conserve atoms
                        2) Do not recognize chemical                (especially where energy and gases are
                        identity—the configuration of atoms in      involved)
                        molecules (e.g., C-C and C-H) determines    2) Do not trace carbon atoms with
                        the chemical properties of the              recognition of carbon transforming between
                        substances.                                 organic and in-organic forms (CO2 is not
                                                                    explicitly connected to the carbon atoms in
                                                                    glucose).
Level 2: Elaborated   A: Identify hidden structures and             T: Hidden processes or mechanisms:
force-dynamic         properties of material kinds:                Positive
accounts, tracing     Positive                                     1) Explain decaying as in terms of hidden
enablers through      1) Identify hidden actors (e.g., bacteria,   processes: dead tree loses power, dead
subsystems, but       decomposers, etc.)                           tree breaks down into smaller pieces, or
without conversions   2) Recognize cells as units of plant body    matter disappearing.
between actors and    structure.                                   2) May describe force-dyanmic
inanimate matter                                                   process:Decomposers breaking down the
                      Negative                                     dead tree.
                      1) Do not recognize functions of atoms       3) May describe one substance changes
                      and molecules in decaying.                   into another type of substance somehow.
                                                                   Negative
                                                                   1) Not tracing materials at cellular scale.


Level 1: Simple force- A: Macro actors and enablers.            T: Force-dynamic accounts about changes.
dynamic accounts,      Negative                                 Negative
focusing on actors, 1) Name enablers (e.g. bug, water, soil), 1) Do not identify any hidden processes.
abilities, and needs, but do not analyze them in terms of parts
and on ―natural        or material kinds.
tendencies‖ of dead
or inanimate
materials
               Indicator                                      Example


How do things change? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
               1. Wood mostly becomes carbon dioxide.         INTERVIEWER: OK. And so if they're using it as food,
               2. Oxygen reacts with wood and then they       could you talk a little bit about the changes that would
               become carbon dioxide and water.               be occurring; if you looked at a smaller scale, down at
               3. Heat is released when wood reacts with      the molecular level, what might be going on in that
               oxygen.                                        rotting log? [0:19:25.8]
                                                              RESPONDENT: Some of the things in it, like carbon
                                                              or oxygen, could get released in the air or get
                                                              absorbed in the ground.
                                                              INTERVIEWER: OK. But both would be going on or is
                                                              there one that you think would be more likely or where
                                                              most of it is going?
                                                              RESPONDENT: I'd say most of it would be going into
                                                              the air.
                                                              INTERVIEWER: OK. As gases?
                                                              RESPONDENT: Yeah.
                                                              INTERVIEWER: OK. Carbon or oxygen or both? I
                                                              mean …
                                                              RESPONDENT: I'd say both.
                                                              INTERVIEWER: OK, and then that – what form would
                                                              that carbon be in, do you think?
                                                              RESPONDENT: I'd probably say carbon dioxide.
               1. Wood is broken down and becomes dirt        INTERVIEWER: That's what we're thinking about.
               when it decays.                                This is the stage where that tree is at now, it's dead
               2. Useful stuff of wood such as nutrients goes and it's disappearing. So what happens to that wood,
               back to soil for plants to use.                you know the bark, not the leaves, the hard part of the
               3. State that air oxygen changes into carbon tree? So what happens when the tree decays? What
               dioxide, but do not relate it to weight loss.  happens to that part?
               4. Oxygen is required for decaying.            STUDENT: It turns into dirt.
                                                              INTERVIEWER: It turns into dirt? How does it turn into
                                                              dirt?
                                                              STUDENT: It rots away and just dirt.
                                                              INTERVIEWER: So it rots away. So I guess what
                                                              causes that change to become from this strong oak
                                                              tree to that pile of dirt?
                                                              STUDENT: Bacteria.
                                                              -OR-
                                                              STUDENT: Plants, animals that use the nutrients from
                                                              the tree to grow.
                1. Bacteria or other micro-organisms eat         INTERVIEWER: Ok what about the weather? How
                wood.                                            does the weather cause the changes in the tree?
                2. Wood matter evaporates.                       STUDENT: Because stuff like water and snow just
                                                                 slightly hits away at it and slowly just starts to erode
                                                                 away.
                                                                 INTERVIEWER: Alright so it‘s like eroding? Um so the
                                                                 tree loses a lot of materials over time. Where do you
                                                                 think the lost materials might have gone?
                                                                 STUDENT: Into the soil
                                                                 INTERVIEWER: Ok is there anywhere else or just into
                                                                 the soil?
                                                                 STUDENT: Into the soil




                1. The tree cannot get things from soil, so it   INTERVIEWER: Yeah. What makes it so soft and
                decays.                                          smooshy?
                2. The tree is too old.                          STUDENT: Well, it doesn't have food to keep it
                                                                 healthy. It's like you know you have to have calcium to
                                                                 keep your bone strong.
                                                                 INTERVIEWER: Ah ha.
                                                                 STUDENT: And like in a tree, the wood of the tree,
                                                                 like the bones of a body, you need calcium to keep
                                                                 your bones strong. You need like photosynthesis to
                                                                 keep the wood strong and bark to protect the tree from
                                                                 getting diseases.


s it have weight/mass? Does it contribute to weight gain/loss?
                1. Wood reacts with oxygen and they become
                carbon dioxide and water.
                2. Most of weight loss is because wood
                becomes carbon dioxide.
                3. Tree has carbon atoms and, when
                decaying, they are in air CO2
               1. Wood materials WEIGHT becomes                   INTERVIEWER: Ok um now we are gonna go on to a tree
               materials of the soil (i.e. different from macro   decaying so this picture is of a tree fall in forest and after
               practice)                                          many years the tree will appear as a long soft lump barely
               2. Wood becomes nutrients/fertilizer in soil.      distinguishable from the floor of the forest floor. Um what
                                                                  happens to the wood of the tree as the tree decays?
               3. Losing energy/calorie causes weight loss.
                                                                  STUDENT: Um it breaks down and becomes soil
               4. Wood becomes gases (CO2 or O2), but             INTERVIEWER. OK, what causes the changes in the wood.
               cannot explain how.                                STUDENT: Um decomposers eating away at it and the
               5. Matter is eaten by decomposers and then         weather cauing to wither away
               transfered to the soil.




               1. Wood was eaten by decomposers and               INTERVIEWER: So what happens when the tree decays?
               goes to the decomposers' body.                     What happens to that part
               2. Wood disappears or rotted.                      STUDENT: It turns into dirt
                                                                  INTERVIEWER: It turns into dirt? how does it turn into dirt?
               3. Wood "evaporated"
                                                                  STUDENT: it rots away and just dirt
               4. Wood became part of the soil
                                                                  INTERVIEWER: So, it rots away. So I guess what causes
                                                                  that change to becme from this strong oak three to that pile
                                                                  of dirt
                                                                  STUDENT: Bacteria




               1. Do not identify weight loss.                    INTERVIEWER: do you think that the decaying tree is
               2. When being asked to explain weight loss,        about the same size as it was when it was initially
               the student explains that as the result of the     killed or when it was alive?
               tree getting old or lacking life necessities.      STUDENT: Yeah.
                                                                  INTERVIEWER: So we've got these insects that are
                                                                  working on it and eventually they're going to you know
                                                                  cause … well they kind of cause it to actually, it's
                                                                  actually smaller. So where do you think all that
                                                                  material is going?
                                                                  STUDENT: In the bug.
                                                                  STUDENT: Yeah, I think energy is given out.
                                                                  INTERVIEWER: How is it given out?
                                                                  STUDENT: Because the tree is dead so all the energy
                                                                  is lost.
that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
1. Tree has chemical energy                        INTERVIEWER: Okay. Well how about we move on…
2. EITHER:                                         do you think energy is involved in breaking down that
a. Recognizes that some of the chemical            three, rotting that tree?
energy of wood/tree is transformed, in the         STUDENT: I think that the energy, (inaudible) energy
presence of oxygen, into the chemical energy       from the wood and it would be energy involved but
of decomposers through chemical processes,         (inaudible) would be getting the energy that was
OR                                                 eating the wood.
b. Recognize that some of the chemical             INTERVIEWER: Okay. So do you think it still has
energy of the decaying tree is lost as heat        energy then when it (tree) dies? ...why?
into the tree's environment,                       STUDENT: Because the animals are eating the wood
                                                   and (inaudible) the wood is giving that energy to the
                                                   animals.




1. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, and water         INTERVIEWER: Okay. Again, is there any energy
are mixed together by decomposers to               involved in this process? Does it take energy for it to
generate energy for tree decaying                  happen, or does it release energy when the tree
2. State that the decaying tree is used to         decays or what do you think? Is there no change?
generate energy through cellular (chemical)        STUDENT: Yes
processes, but may think that the tree itself is   INTERVIEWER: And how might it be involved?
energy for or is transformed into the energy of    STUDENT: The decomposers need energy to eat
decomposers                                        away at the decaying tree
3. State that tree is an energy source for         INTERVIEWER: Ok where are they getting the energy
decomposers, but also think that e.g., CO2         from?
and water are also energy sources                  STUDENT: From the um from the tree as they eat it?
                                                   INTERVIEWER: Ok and why is that like in what form
                                                   is the energy?
                                                   STUDENT: Probably in chemical energy form
                1. Responses include hidden mechanisms to        INTERVIEWER: So do you think energy is involved in
                explain causes of events, but the focus is on    the tree turning into that dirt?
                the tree's needs (e.g., air, decomposers, and    STUDENT: Yes.
                water) or process (decomposition) rather than    INTERVIEWER: Alright, how?
                on tracing energy                                STUDENT: I don't know. ...I just know
                2. May not include the tree as a source of       INTERVIEWER: So you know that energy is involved,
                energy for decomposition, often including low-   we just don't know how it's involved and what it's
                energy enablers as energy sources                doing or where it's coming from.
                3. May explain that energy is involved in tree   STUDENT: Yes
                decaying but does not know how




                Responses do not use hidden mechanisms to        INTERVIEWER: Okay. Again, is there any energy
                explain causes of events, but the focus is on    involved in this process? Does it take energy for it to
                the tree's needs (e.g., air, decomposers, and    happen, or does it release energy when the tree
                water) or process (decomposition) rather than    decays or what do you think? Is there no change?
                on tracing energy including:                     STUDENT: I‘m not sure, but I think it takes energy.
                1. Bugs eat away the tree to live;               INTERVIEWER: What makes you say that?
                2. The dead tree does not need air to rot        STUDENT: The sun is still using energy to make it rot.
                3. Water/rain, makes the tree to rot
                4. Tree uses the sun to decay
                5. dead tree does not have energy




ble parts? Are there invisible changes behind the macro phenomena?
1. Cellulose/glucose or other organic           STUDENT: And the, in this one it's releasing heat -
molecules react with oxygen and becomes         INTERVIEWER: Okay.
carbon dioxide and water.                       STUDENT: - from breaking the chemical bonds.
2. Carbon atoms of organic molecules go to
carbon dioxide.
3. Organic molecules of wood have C-C and
C-H bonds, which contain energy.
4. Chemical energy becomes heat.




1. Cellulose/glucose molecules or other         INTERVIEWER: Ok do you think that the dead trees
organic molecules become energy and goes        body contains carbon atoms?
away.                                           STUDENT (13:16): Yes
2. Carbon atoms of wood go into soil and will   INTERVIEWER: Where do the carbon atoms go when
be used by other plants.                        the tree is decaying?
3. Energy stored in wood is used up to make     STUDENT: Um into the soil around it
cellular respiration to happen.
1. Cell stop working.                             INTERVIEWER: Okay. So can you tell me what's
2. Energy and/or nutrients go into soil.          happening to the wood of the decaying tree?
3. Energy and/or nutrients evaporates and go      STUDENT: Well, the wood could be possibly be eaten
into air.                                         by termites or something




1. The tree gets old or loses life necessities,   INTERVIEWER: A decaying log? What does it feel?
which causes decaying.                            STUDENTIt feels like sometimes it's wet or smooshy
                                                  and real soft.
                                                  INTERVIEWER: Yeah, whar makes ir so soft and
                                                  smooshy?
                                                  STUDENT: Well, it soesn't have food to keep it
                                                  healthy. It's like you know you have to have calcium to
                                                  keep your vone strong.
Level                   Level Description
                        Association
                                 Macro Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where do
4. Scientific accounts Identify and distinguish among organic
tracing matter and     substances, inorganic substances, and
energy separately      energy forms consistently.
                       Positive
                       1) Recognize organic substances as the
                       major building blocks of fuel that have energy
                       to makes the car run.
                       2) Distinguish organic substances from
                       inorganic substances in terms of energy.
                       3) Distinguish organic substances from
                       energy forms.
                       Negative
                       Do not need to know the names of specific
                       organic substances

Level 3: Incomplete     Identify and distinguish among organic
scientific accounts,    substances, inorganic substances, and
recognizing changes     energy forms inconsistently:
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Recognize that organic substances as one
energy conversions      of the components of fuel
                        2) Recognize solids, liquids, & gases as
                        matter
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize organic substances as
                        the MAJOR building blocks of fuel
                        2) Do not correctly associate organic
                        materials with energy, either (a) confusing
                        material energy sources with energy or (b)
                        identifying essential inorganic inputs to
                        energy transforming processes as energy
                        sources.

Level 2: Elaborated     Identify solids and liquids, but not gases, as
force-dynamic           material kinds:
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Use material kinds to describe enablers
subsystems, but         and results
without conversions     2) Recognize that bodies have different
between actors and      systems with different functions
inanimate matter        3) Identify solids and liquids as material kinds
                        that have weight and properties
                        Negative
                        1) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as qualities of
                        air rather than components of air
Level 1: Simple force- Associate things in terms of three categories:
dynamic accounts,      living things, dead and inanimate things, and
focusing on actors, in-substantial kinds:
abilities, and needs, Negative
as well as on ―natural 1) Treat air as in-substantial kinds.
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Do not recognize air as mixture.
or inanimate           3) Treat living and non-living materials as
materials              fundamentally different kinds (e.g., process of
                       girl and car running are different).
                       4) Answer questions about material kinds with
                       parts of systems

                                            Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it co
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate mass with matter consistently:
accounts tracing        Positive
matter and energy       1) Recognize that the gas/fuel has mass.
separately              2) Recognize that CO2 and H2O released to
                        the air have mass, as well as the O2 used for
                        combustion.




Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate mass with matter inconsistently:
scientific accounts,    Positive
recognizing changes     1) Recognize that tree decay lost their
in matter and energy,   mass,but may be talking of density or volume
but with matter-        as well
energy conversions      2) Recognize that the car gas has mass
                        (liquid), but not the air.
                        3) Recognize that CO2 is liberated comes
                        from the gas, but do not recognize this gas
                        has mass.
                        Negative
                        Do not relate mass of gases to weight
                        gain/loss.


Level 2: Elaborated     A: Associate felt weight with solids and
force-dynamic           liquids, but not gases:
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Associate combustion to changes in gas
subsystems, but         volume or density.
without conversions     2) Recognize air as mixture of gases, or
between actors and      identify O2 and CO2, but do not recognize
inanimate matter        that they have weight.
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize that gases have weight
Level 1: Simple force- A: Associate felt weight with solids and
dynamic accounts,      liquids, but not gases:
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Do no relate gas change to combustion
and on ―natural        2) Do not distinguish measures of the gas
tendencies‖ of dead such as weigh, volume, density, amount, or
on inanimate           size .
materials

                               Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where d
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
accounts tracing        consistently
matter and energy
separately              Positive
                        1) Identify chemical energy in organic
                        substances such as food/glucose (e.g., C-C
                        and C-H bonds)
                        2) Associate energy with different energy
                        indicators (heat, motion and gasoline).
                        3) Consistently distinguish between chemical
                        energy and energy-rich materials

                        Negative
                        Do not need to know the names of organic
                        molecules that contain chemical energy.


Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
scientific accounts,    inconsistently
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers (e.g.,
energy conversions      gasoline) from other enablers but not
                        consistently.
                        2) Associate energy with organic molecules.

                        Negative
                        1) May identify low-energy substances as
                        energy sources.
                        2) May identify all reactants as energy
                        sources.
                        3) Do not distinguish chemical energy from
                        organic substances/molecules (e.g.,
                        gasoline).
Level 2: Elaborated   A: Vital power from enablers
force-dynamic
accounts, tracing     Positive
enablers through      1) Associate vital power with all enablers.
subsystems, but       2) Recognize that actors do not create vital
without conversions   power by e.g., resting
between actors and    3) Recognize that vital power is not
inanimate matter      associated with actors' will/feelings.

                       Negative
                       1) Do not distinguish among the enablers in
                       terms of matter or energy
                       2) Do not identify organic
                       substances/molecules as energy sources.
Level 1: Simple force- A: Natural abilities of actors and enablers
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Identify actors of the event: Actors have
and on "natural        natural ability to grow and move. Actors can
tendencies" of dead resort their natural ability by sleep, rest, etc.
on inanimate           2) Identify enablers of the event: Enablers are
materials              important because actors need them to
                       express their natural abilities.
                       3) When asked about energy, associate
                       energy with psychological factors such as
                       feeling, being healthy etc




                                 Micro Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible chan
Level 4: Scientific   A: Associate chemical identity with molecules
accounts tracing      consistently
matter and energy
separately            Positive:
                      1) Describe that gasoline contains C and H.
                      2) Identify O2 as a reactant and CO2 as a
                      product of combustion.
                      2) Describe that gasoline has high chemical
                      energy due to the C-C and C-H bonds of its
                      constituent substances.

                      Negative:
                      1) Do not identify every organic substance
                      involved in combustion.
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Identify atoms and molecules without
scientific accounts,    recognition of chemical identify
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive:
but with matter-        1) Describe that gasoline contains C.
energy conversions      2) Associate energy with chemical bonds in
                        general and/or (the substances of) gasoline.

                        Negative:
                        1) Do not describe that gasoline contains H.
                        2) Do not identify O2 as a reactant or CO2 as
                        a product of combustion.
                        3) Do not associate chemical energy with C-C
                        and C-H bonds.



Level 2: Elaborated     A: Identify hidden structures and properties of
force-dynamic           material kinds:
accounts, tracing
enablers through        Positive:
subsystems, but         1) Recognize that fuels are made of invisible
without conversions     particles.
between actors and
inanimate matter        Negative:
                        1) Do not recognize functions of atoms and
                        molecules in car running
                        2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as conditions or
                        qualities.


Level 1: Simple force- A: Macro actors and mechansims:
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Netative:
abilities, and needs, 1) Associate natural ability with gasoline for
and on ―natural        car to run.
tendencies‖ of dead
or inanimate
materials
                                                              Indicator
               Tracing
ice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
               Trace matter and energy successfully:          1. Gasoline mostly becomes carbon dioxide.
               Positive                                       2. Oxygen reacts with hydrocarbons and then
               1) Trace matter within and across two          become carbon dioxide and water.
               categories—organic substances and              3. Energy of gasoline is released and
               inorganic substances                           becomes kinetic energy (for car running) and
               2) Trace matter among solids, liquids, and     heat.
               gases
               2) Trace matter separately from energy
               3) Trace energy with degradation
               Negative
               Do not need to trace matter or energy
               quantitatively



               Trace matter and energy unsuccessfully:        1. Gasoline becomes waste substances--
               Positive                                       exhausted gases--after it is used.
               1) Describe macroscopic processes as           2. Oxygen becomes carbon dioxide after it
               changes involving matter and/or energy         goes through the engine.
               2) Describe how matter and/or energy of        3. Carbon dioxide comes out, but cannot
               enablers/actors change                         successfully explain why.
               3) Show commitment to broad sense of
               conservation: matter and energy must come
               from somewhere and go somewhere
               Negative
               1) Use matter-energy conversion




               Material kinds change without reaction         1. Oxygen is required for burning gasoline.
               Positive                                       2. Useful stuff in gasoline is used to move the
               Trace materials through mechanical (car)       car and then the wasted part becomes
               system, e.g., fuel goes in and exhaust comes   exhaust gas.
               out                                            3. Gasoline comes out of the tail pipe and
                                                              becomes gasoline vapor.
               Negative
               Recognize processes as producing material
               products or wastes (exhaust), but not
               through changes of matter and/or energy of
               enablers/actors.
                Trace within not across categories:          1. Gasoline is food for the car.
                Negative                                     2. Does not recognize burning.
                Recognize that enablers (fuel) are essential 3. Does not recognize that oxygen is required.
                for processes but do not trace them through
                systems or processes.




ss/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it contribute to weight gain/loss?
                T: Conserve mass consistently:                  1. Gasoline or its molecules (which have
                Positive                                        weight) and react with oxygen becoming
                1) Trace the matter, from the gas to CO2 and    carbon dioxide and water, explaining why the
                O2.                                             tank becomes empty.
                2) Trace carbon atoms from the gas to the       2. Most of weight loss is attributed to gasoline
                CO2 of the air.                                 becoming carbon dioxide.
                3) Recognize that CO2 and H2O are the
                products which go to the air.

                Negative




                T: Conserve mass inconsistently:                1. Weight loss is attributed to gasoline
                Positive                                        becoming exhausted gases.
                1) May relate combustion to gas cycle (use      2. Weight loss is attributed to energy/calories
                of O2 and release of CO2), but do not           of gasoline being used up.
                explain this as a mass transference.            3. May state that carbon dioxide is released,
                2) Explain gas weight loss as matter/energy     but do not relate it to weight loss.
                conversion
                Negative
                1) Recognize that the tree has materials, but
                do not explain how the mass transfers to the
                air.
                2) Do not recognize gas‘ role in weight loss.



                T: Use processes-matter chain for               1. Gasoline becomes gaseous state gasoline
                reasoning:                                      and weigh less.
                Positive                                        2. Recognize that oxygen is required to burn
                1) Explain changes in gas volume or weight,     gasoline, but do not relate it to weight loss.
                but is not able to explain how                  3. Gasoline is used up to power the car to run.
                3) Explain gas weight loss as evaporation or
                smoke emision

                Negative
                2) Solids and liquids as causes of weight
                gain/loss, but not as the matter that become
                mass gained or lost.
                T: Identify perceptual changes but not weight   1. Do not identify oxygen in air.
                gain/loss.                                      2. Do not identify combustion of gasoline.
                Negative                                        3. Do not identify weight loss of gasoline.
                1) Just describes changes in the amount of      4. When asked to explain weight loss, student
                weight                                          focuses explanation on the result of the action
                                                                of the car.




es Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
                T: Trace energy successfully:                   1. Gaoline (may use gas) has chemical energy
                                                                2. Some of the chemical energy of gasoline is
                Positive                                        transformed, in the presence of oxygen, into
                Trace energy separately from matter and         the motion energy of the car through chemical
                with degradation                                processes to drive running; carbon dioxde and
                                                                water are released.
                Negative                                        3. Some of the chemical energy of gasoline is
                Do not need to make prediction about the        lost as heat into the car's environment
                quantitative relations between the energy
                consumption and carbon emission and/or
                H2O released.




                T: Trace energy unsuccessfully                 1. Needs (e.g., Oxygen, carbon dioxide,
                                                               gasoline, and water) are mixed together to
                Positive                                       generate energy for car running
                1) Trace energy backward and forward but       2. State that gasoline is used to generate
                with misconceptions                            energy through burning (may use combustion
                2) Correctly identify high-energy sources      or chemical processes/reactions), but may
                                                               think that gasoline is energy
                Negative                                       3. State that gasoline is an energy source, but
                1) Trace energy without degradation;           also think that e.g., CO2 and water are energy
                2) Incorrectly relate energy transformation to sources for car running
                chemical reactions.
                3) Use matter-energy conversion for
                reasoning.
                T: Trace the power-result chain                 1. Gasoline and water (may or may not include
                                                                oxygen) makes/causes the car to run.
                Positive                                        2. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide when
                1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital     the car uses it to power running
                power triggers hidden processes                 3. Car needs other useful things such as
                2) Trace vital power backward: actors need      someone to power running
                to gain certain type of power or essence from
                enablers.

                Negative
                Do not trace power forward. When being
                asked to explain where power/energy goes,
                give answers based on guessing.

                T: Trace cause-result chain                     1. Gaoline makes the car run faster
                                                                2. Air helps the car to breathe; Car eats e.g.,
                Negative                                        gasoline to run---may use human analogy
                1) Describe two causes of result:               3. Water hydrates the car to be clean/ to run
                Cause 1: Actors grow and move and that is
                how the natural world works.
                Cause 2: Enablers can help the actors to
                keep in good conditions such as being
                healthy, energetic, and happy and that is
                how the natural world works.
                2) Explain downhill events: Actors that lose
                their powers or abilities cannot resist the
                natural tendencies of things to decay or go
                "downhill."
                3) When being asked about energy, do not
                use energy to explain how and why things
                happen.
tice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible changes behind the macro phenomena?
                T: Explain chemical reactions in terms of       1. Gasoline reacts with oxygen and becomes
                atom re-arrangement                             carbon dioxide and water.
                                                                2. Carbon atoms from gasoline go to carbon
                Positive:                                       dioxide.
                1) Successfully trace carbon atoms from         3. Gasoline has C-C and C-H bonds that
                gasoline to CO2.                                contain high chemical energy.
                2) Explain combustion in terms of atom re-      4. Chemical energy becomes kinetic energy
                arrangement (or breaking and forming of         and heat.
                chemical bonds).
                3) Explain energy transformation
                successfully (by distinguishing energy from
                matter and with energy degradation):
                chemical energy in gasoline transforms into
                kinetic energy and heat.

                Negative:
                1) Do not use stoichiometry to determine the
                quantity of the reactants and products.
T: Changes involving cells, atoms,           1. Organic molecules or carbon atoms is the
molecules, and energy forms:                 energy that powers burning.
                                             2. Energy is produced by combustion.
Positive:                                    3. Gasoline is organic substance, so it
1) Explain burning in terms of changes       contains energy.
involving atoms, molecules, and/or energy    4. Gasoline has chemical bonds, so it has
forms                                        energy.
2) Matter/energy conservation at atomic-     5. Gasoline becomes carbon dioxide, but
molecular scales.                            cannot explain the chemical reaction of
                                             combustion.
Negative:                                    6. Carbon dioxide is released, but cannot trace
1) Do not successfully trace carbon atoms or carbon atom back to organic substances in
chemical energy. (e.g., carbon atoms move gasoline.
from fuel to carbon dioxide.)                7. Oxygen is required to burn gasolline, and
                                             oxygen becomes carbon dioxide.


T: Hidden processes or mechanisms:             1. Gasoline is energy that powers car running.
                                               2. Nutrients or certain chemicals in gasoline
Positive:                                      powers car running.
1) Explain running in terms of the power-      3. Identify burning.
result chain:Explain burning as that certain   4. Oxygen is required to burn gasoline, but do
chemicals being consumed to power              not know why.
burning.

Negative:
1) Do not trace enablers to cellular scales.




T: Force-dynamic accounts about changes        1. Gasoline is like food for the car.
                                               2. Do not recognize that car running needs air
Negative:                                      or oxygen.
1) Do not identify burning and explain car
running in terms of macroscopic force-
dynamic reasoning.
               Example


ome from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: ...And obviously for most of us
               that have gasoline-powered cars we have to fill
               that tank up periodically. What is happening -
               why do we need to do that? What happened to
               the gas we put in there last time?
               STUDENT: So you have chemical energy
               stored in the gasoline that is combusted - a
               small amount of it is combusted in a similar way
               as the candle.
               INTERVIEWER: Yes.
               STUDENT: And that explosive combustion is
               harnessed at least in part by the -By the piston.
               And a lot of it is going to go to just waste, like
               heat.

               INTERVIEWER: So you talk about (inaudible at
               0:30:45.0) and all when the car stops, the
               gasoline becomes carbon dioxide, right? And
               the gasoline has the energy. So where does the
               energy initially in the gasoline go?
               STUDENT: It runs through the engine and then
               is converted to carbon dioxide.




               INTERVIEWER: Does gasoline change to
               make the car run? Does it change in any way?
               STUDENT: It changes from the liquid gasoline
               that you pump in, into a gas form that is
               evaporated, I am not positive how, but it is
               evaporated and then fire is burned off of that
               evaporated form of the gasoline.
               INTERVIEWER: Gas runs car. Do you know
               how gas runs the car?
               KMG: Yeah, because when you put it in the oil
               tank and you start up your car and if you didn‘t
               have no gas, the car wouldn‘t be able to start




to weight gain/loss?
               INTERVIEWER: Ok um so when the family
               arrives at Chicago the gas tank is almost
               empty. Where did the gasoline go?
               STUDENT: It turned into CO2 and expelled
               through the exhaust
               INTERVIEWER: Ok um so does the event of
               the car running change the air?
               STUDENT: Yeah there is more CO2
               INTERVIEWER: Ok do you think gasoline
               contains carbon atoms?
               STUDENT: Yes
               INTERVIEWER: And where do the carbon
               atoms go when the gasoline is used by the car?
               STUDENT: Into CO2

               INTERVIEWER: Ok after the car runs for a
               while the front part of the car will become very
               hot. Why is that?
               STUDENT: Because the combustion is
               producing heat
               INTERVIEWER: Ok and where is the heat
               coming from?
               STUDENT: The burning of the gasoline




               INTERVIEWER: Okay. Now when you say it, is
               it the same gas just in smaller form or what? Is
               it other things? [0:18:04.9]
               STUDENT: It‘s smoke. It‘s like watery-ish kind
               of. Sometimes - I like stood behind it once when
               my dad was stopping the car and it‘s really
               smoky like gray and dirty.
               STUDENT: No. But it goes up and it just kind
               of disappears into the air.
               INTERVIEWER: How do you think it helps the
               car to run?
               STUDENT: It like absorbs into something in the
               car, it takes and then it disappears into the air
               so it can just keep running. But then when it
               disappears, like when your thing says you‘re
               low on fuel, then the stuff has gone into the air.
               And then you‘ll know you need to get more, so it
               can keep running.
come from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: How does the car use the
               energy of gasoline?
               STUDENT: The car is using it as kinetic energy,
               which the heat energy that the fire of the
               gasoline gives off is converted to the kinetic
               energy of the spinning wheels by the process of
               the pistons being expanded. And thus when
               they expand, they pull a lever of sorts that spins
               the driveshaft, which is then connected to the
               wheels.




               I: The car uses energy to run...where does tht
               energy come from?
               STUDENT: Some of it‘s from the energy from
               the gasoline. And, the other part of it is from the
               oxygen.
              INTERVIEWER: Tell more about gasoline, how
              doe it help the car to run?
              STUDENT: The gasoline I think carries
              something in it to make the car move, it‘s kind
              of like water to us and like when you start it the
              gas kind of just goes through the car and I think
              that‘s why




              INTERVIWER: You just mentioned that the car
              needs energy and gas to help it to run, how do
              they do that?
              STUDENT: Energy helps us keep moving and
              gas helps the car keep running so they have the
              same meaning just different ways of doing it.




hind the macro phenomena?
              INTERVIEWER: Ok do you think gasoline
              contains carbon atoms?
              STUDENT: Yes
              INTERVIEWER: And where do the carbon
              atoms go when the gasoline is used by the car?
              STUDENT: Into CO2
INTERVIEWER: [...] So how, why the car need
oxygen to run?
Student: I think it helps break the bonds.
INTERVIEWER: Uh-hmm.
Student: From the oxygen, helps breaks bonds
and the carbon is given off.




INTERVIEWER: Tell more about gasoline, how
doe it help the car to run?
STUDENT: The gasoline I think carries
something in it to make the car move, it‘s kind
of like water to us and like when you start it the
gas kind of just goes through the car and I think
that‘s why




INTERVIEWER: How is it using it [gasoline] for
energy?
STUDENT: It‘s using it for energy because it
needs that to run. And then because how we
need sleep or food to run, it needs gas...
Level                   Level Description
                        Association
                                            Macro Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Wh
4. Scientific accounts Identify and distinguish among organic
tracing matter and     substances, inorganic substances, and energy
energy separately      forms consistently.

                        Positive
                        1) Recognize organic substances as the major
                        building blocks of foods, fuels, and body
                        structure; e.g., wood or wax as fuel for the
                        flame
                        2) Distinguish organic substances from
                        inorganic substances in terms of energy.
                        3) Distinguish organic substances from energy
                        forms.

                        Negative
                        Do not need to know the names of specific
                        organic substances




Level 3: Incomplete     Identify and distinguish among organic
scientific accounts,    substances, inorganic substances, and energy
recognizing changes     forms inconsistently:
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Recognize that organic substances (wood,
energy conversions      wax) as one of the components of fuels
                        2) Recognize solids, liquids, & gases as matter
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize organic substances as the
                        MAJOR building blocks of fuels
                        2) Do not correctly associate organic materials
                        with energy, either (a) confusing material
                        energy sources (glucose, ATP) with energy or
                        (b) identifying essential inorganic inputs to
                        energy transforming processes (water, soil
                        minerals) as energy sources.
Level 2: Elaborated   Identify solids and liquids, but not gases, as
force-dynamic         material kinds:
accounts, tracing     Positive
enablers through      1) Use material kinds to describe enablers and
subsystems, but       results
without conversions   2) Recognize that bodies have different
between actors and    systems with different functions
inanimate matter      3) Identify solids and liquids as material kinds
                      that have weight and properties
                      Negative
                      1) Do not recognize that living things and dead
                      living things are made of the same materials.
                      2) Treat gases (O2 and CO2) as qualities of air
                      rather than components of air


Level 1: Simple force- Associate things in terms of three categories:
dynamic accounts,      living things, dead and inanimate things, and in-
focusing on actors, substantial kinds:
abilities, and needs, Negative
as well as on ―natural 1) Treat air as in-substantial kinds—a type of
tendencies‖ of dead condition to help the flame breathe.
or inanimate           2) Do not recognize air as mixture.
materials              3) Treat living and non-living materials as
                       fundamentally different kinds.
                       4) Answer questions about material kinds with
                       parts of systems (leaves, wood, muscles)




                                                     Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Do
Level 4: Scientific   A: Associate mass with matter consistently:
accounts tracing      Positive
matter and energy     1) Recognize that the tree lost materials which
separately            have mass.
                      2) Recognize that CO2 and O2 of the air have
                      mass
Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate mass with matter inconsistently:
scientific accounts,    Positive
recognizing changes     1) Recognize that tree decay lost weight,but still
in matter and energy,   is not clear the distinction between changes in
but with matter-        weight, density and volume. Focus on changes
energy conversions      of the candle/match and not the relationship
                        with the air.
                        2) Recognize that the candle/match have mass,
                        but not the air.
                        3) Recognize that CO2 is a product of
                        combustion and O2 is needed, but only are
                        recognized as part of the air.

                        Negative
                        Do not relate mass of gases to weight gain/loss.




Level 2: Elaborated     A: Associate felt weight with solids and liquids,
force-dynamic           but not gases:
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Associate combustion with changes in tree
subsystems, but         weight, size or shape.
without conversions     2) Recognize air as mixture of gases or identify
between actors and      O2 or CO2, but do not recognize that they have
inanimate matter        weight.
                        3) Distinguish weight from size.
                        Negative
                        1) Do not recognize that gases have weight


Level 1: Simple force- A: Associate felt weight with solids and liquids,
dynamic accounts,      but not gases:
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Even though recognize changes in the
and on ―natural        candle, do not relate to combustion
tendencies‖ of dead 2) Relates combustion only with a change of
on inanimate           size or shape, do not relates to weight loss.
materials
                                         Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? W
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
accounts tracing        consistently
matter and energy
separately              Positive
                        1) Identify chemical energy in organic
                        substances (e.g., C-C and C-H bonds)
                        2) Associate energy with different energy
                        indicators (e.g., heat, light, motion, wood, and
                        candle/wax).
                        3) Consistently distinguish between chemical
                        energy and energy-rich materials

                        Negative
                        Do not need to know the names of organic
                        molecules that contain chemical energy.




Level 3: Incomplete     A: Associate energy with energy indicators
scientific accounts,    inconsistently
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive
but with matter-        1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers from
energy conversions      other enablers but not consistently.
                        2) Associate energy with organic
                        substances/molecules (e.g., wood and wax).

                        Negative
                        1) May identify low-energy substances as
                        energy sources.
                        2) May identify all reactants as energy sources.
                        3) Do not distinguish chemical energy from
                        organic substances (e.g., wood and wax).



Level 2: Elaborated     A: Vital power from enablers
force-dynamic
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Associate vital power with all enablers (e.g.
subsystems, but         wood/wax, O2).
without conversions     2) Recognize that actors (e.g., flame) do not
between actors and      create vital power but obtain it from enablers.
inanimate matter        3) Recognize that vital power is not associated
                        with actors' will/feelings.

                        Negative
                        1) Do not distinguish among the enablers in
                        terms of matter or energy
                        2) Do not identify organic substances/molecules
                        as energy sources.
Level 1: Simple force- A: Natural abilities of actors and enablers
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative
abilities, and needs, 1) Identify actors of the event: Actors have
and on "natural        natural ability to grow and move. Actors can
tendencies" of dead resort their natural ability by sleep, rest, etc.
on inanimate           2) Identify enablers of the event: Enablers are
materials              important because actors need them to express
                       their natural abilities.
                       3) When asked about energy, associate energy
                       with psychological factors such as feeling, being
                       healthy etc




                                            Micro Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisib
Level 4: Scientific     A: Associate chemical identity with molecules
accounts tracing        consistently
matter and energy
separately              Positive:
                        1) Recognize that fuels contain carbon and
                        identify O2 as a reactant and CO2 as a product.
                        2) Recognize that substances that constitute
                        fuels have high chemical energy due to their C-
                        C and C-H bonds.

                        Negative:
                        1) Do not need to know the names of specific
                        organic substances that compose fuels.




Level 3: Incomplete     A: Identify atoms and molecules without
scientific accounts,    recognition of chemical identity.
recognizing changes
in matter and energy,   Positive:
but with matter-        1) Recognize that oxygen and carbon dioxide
energy conversions      are involved in the process as distinctive
                        entities.
                        2) Associate energy with chemical bonds in
                        general.

                        Negative:
                        1) May recognize that fuels contain carbon but
                        associate it with energy.
                        2) Do not associate chemical energy with C-C
                        and C-H bonds.
Level 2: Elaborated   A: Identify hidden structures and properties of
force-dynamic         material kinds.
accounts, tracing
enablers through      Positive:
subsystems, but       1) Identify hidden structure or components of
without conversions   fuels (e.g., nutrients, minerals, chemicals, etc.).
between actors and    2) May mention oxygen and carbon dioxide.
inanimate matter
                      Negative:
                      1) Do not recognize functions of atoms and
                      molecules in processes.
                      2) Associate oxygen and carbon dioxide with
                      qualities of air (e.g., good air, bad air).

Level 1: Simple force- A: Macro actors and enablers.
dynamic accounts,
focusing on actors, Negative:
abilities, and needs, 1) Do not explain abilities or functions of the
and on ―natural        actor(=flame) in terms of functions of its
tendencies‖ of dead subsystems.
or inanimate           2) Describe macro funcitons of enablers, but do
materials              not analyze them in terms of parts or material
                       kinds that constitute the enablers (e.g., match
                       supports the flame.).
                                                             Indicator
               Tracing
Practice: What things are involved? How do things change? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
               Trace matter and energy successfully:         1. Wood or its molecules mostly becomes
               Positive                                      carbon dioxide.
               1) Trace matter within and across two         2. Oxygen reacts with cellulose or glucose
               categories—organic substances and inorganic   and then they become carbon dioxide and
               substances                                    water.
               2) Trace matter among solids, liquids, and    3. Energy of glucose/cellulose is released
               gases                                         and become light energy and heat.
               2) Trace matter separately from energy
               3) Trace energy with degradation
               Negative
               Do not need to trace matter or energy
               quantitatively




               Trace matter and energy unsuccessfully:       1. Wood becomes waste substances--dust
               Positive                                      after it is used.
               1) Describe macroscopic processes as          2. Wood becomes smoke.
               changes involving matter and/or energy        3. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide when
               2) Describe how matter and/or energy of       it goes through the flame.
               enablers/actors change                        4. State that carbon dioxide is given out, but
               3) Show commitment to broad sense of          has no idea how it is related to weight loss.
               conservation: matter and energy must come
               from somewhere and go somewhere
               Negative
               1) Use matter-energy conversion
               2) Identify energy sources, but not energy
               transformation or degradation
              Material kinds change without reaction             1. Useful stuff in wood is used up to power
              Positive                                           burning, and then wood becomes dust.
              1) Trace materials through some body systems       2. Oxygen powers flame.
              2) Recognize food chains as important              3. Carbon dioxide is given off, but I don't
              sequences meeting needs of actors                  know why.
              Negative
              1) Do not associate growth with changes of the
              matter/energy of enablers.
              2) Recognize processes as producing material
              products or wastes, but not through changes of
              matter and/or energy of enablers/actors.




              Trace within not across categories:                1. Match supports the flame.
              Negative                                           2. Air helps the flame to breathe.
              1) Recognize that enablers (air, wood, etc.) are   3. Materials that are burning (oxygen, wood)
              essential for processes but do not trace them      disappear once burned
              through systems or processes.
              2) Understand the relation between two
              categories—living things and dead living things
              or inanimate things as the following: living
              things die, but dead or inanimate things cannot
              change into the living things‘ body.




Mass/Gases/Amount Practice: Does it have weight/mass? Does it contribute to weight gain/loss?
              T: Conserve mass consistently:                     1. Organic molecules such as cellulose or
              Positive                                           glucose react with oxygen and they become
              1) Relates the match/wax mass loss to the          carbon dioxide and water.
              increase of the CO2 mass of the air and            2. Most of weight loss is because wood
              reduction of O2 mass                               becomes carbon dioxide.
              2) Trace carbon atoms from the match to the        3. Carbon atoms of the wod/wax are in the
              CO2 of the air.                                    Co2, after the combustion
              3) Recognize that CO2 and H2O are the
              products which go to the air.
              Negative
                T: Conserve mass inconsistently:                  1. Weight loss is because some wood
                Positive                                          becomes smoke.
                1) May relate combustion of the wax&match to      2. Weight loss is because energy/calories is
                gas cycle, but do not explain this as a mass      burned up.
                transference.                                     3. May state that carbon dioxide is released,
                2) Explain combustion as matter/energy            but do not relate that to weight loss.
                conversion
                3) May say that the air has changed, but do not
                recognize that this implied changes in air mass

                Negative
                1) Recognize that the was/match has
                materials, but do not explain how its mass
                transfers to the air.
                2) Do not recognize gas‘ role in weight loss.




                T: Use processes-matter chain for reasoning:      1. Wood becomes dust and dust weigh less.
                Positive                                          2. After oxygen is used, it somehow
                1) Recognize that the match/wax losses mass,      becomes a type of waste gas--carbon
                but is not clear to explain the internal          dioxide. Do not relate that to weight loss.
                mechanism by which it occurs.                     3. Wood becomes smaller and therefore it
                2) Relates weight loss with changes in size,      weighs less.
                volume or evaporation of the match/wax
                Negative
                2) Solids and liquids as causes of weight
                gain/loss, but not as the matter that become
                mass gained or lost.


                T: Identify perceptual changes but not weight     1. Do not identify oxygen in air.
                gain/loss.                                        2. Air provides a good condition for burning.
                Negative                                          3. Do not identify weight loss.
                1) May describe changes in size or volume.        4. When being asked to explain weight loss,
                                                                  the student explains that as the result of the
                                                                  action of flame.


Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
T: Trace energy successfully:                   1. Wood/match or wax have chemical
                                                energy in their bonds
Positive                                        2. Some of the chemical energy of wood/wax
Trace energy separately from matter and with    is transformed, in the presence of oxygen,
degradation                                     into the light energy of the flame through
                                                chemical processes; carbon dioxde and
Negative                                        water are released.
Do not need to make prediction about the        3. Some of the chemical energy of wood/wax
quantitative relations between the energy       is lost as heat into the environment
consumption and carbon emission and/or H2O
released




T: Trace energy unsuccessfully                 1. Needs (e.g., Oxygen, carbon dioxide,
                                               gasoline, and water) are mixed together to
Positive                                       generate energy for the flame to keep
1) Trace energy backward and forward but with burning
misconceptions                                 2. State that wood/wax is used to generate
2) Correctly identify high-energy sources      energy through burning (may use
                                               combustion or chemical
Negative                                       processes/reactions), but may think that
1) Trace energy without degradation;           wood/wax are energy
2) Incorrectly relate energy transformation to 3. State that wood/wax is an energy source,
chemical reactions.                            but also think that e.g., CO2 and water are
3) Use matter-energy conversion for            energy sources for flame burning
reasoning.




T: Trace the power-result chain                 1. wood/wax (may or may not include
                                                oxygen) makes/causes the flame to burn
Positive                                        2. Oxygen changes into carbon dioxide when
1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital     the flame uses it to power burning
power triggers hidden processes                 3. Flame needs other useful things such as
2) Trace vital power backward: actors need to   someone to strike the match to power
gain certain type of power or essence from      burning
enablers.

Negative
Do not trace power forward. When being
asked to explain where power/energy goes,
give answers based on guessing.
               T: Trace cause-result chain                     1. Wood/wax makes the flame to burn
                                                               2. Air helps the flame to breathe; Flame e.g.,
               Negative                                        eats wood/wax in order to burn---may use
               1) Describe two causes of result:               human analogy
               Cause 1: Actors grow and move and that is
               how the natural world works.
               Cause 2: Enablers can help the actors to keep
               in good conditions such as being healthy,
               energetic, and happy and that is how the
               natural world works.
               2) Explain downhill events: Actors that lose
               their powers or abilities cannot resist the
               natural tendencies of things to decay or go
               "downhill."
               3) When being asked about energy, do not use
               energy to explain how and why things happen.

Practice: What are the smaller/invisible parts? Are there invisible changes behind the macro phenomena?
               T: Explain combustion in terms of atom re-       1. Fuels react with oxygen and become
               arrangement                                      carbon dioxide and water.
                                                                2. Carbon atoms in fuels go to carbon
               Positive:                                        dioxide.
               1) Successfully trace carbon from the fuel to    3. Substances of fuels have C-C and C-H
               CO2.                                             bonds, which contain high chemical energy.
               2) Explain flame burning in terms of atom re-    4. Chemical energy becomes light energy
               arrangement among the reactants (substances and heat.
               of the fuel and oxygen).
               3) Successfully (i.e., by separating energy from
               matter and with energy degradation) explain
               energy transformation: chemical energy
               transforms into light energy and heat.

               Negative:
               1) Do not need to use stoichiometric ratio to
               make prediction about the mass of
               reactant/product.

               T: Changes involving cells, atoms, molecules, 1. A substance or carbon is the energy that
               and energy forms:                             powers burning/turns into energy.
                                                             2. Energy (or light energy and heat) is
               Positive:                                     produced somehow by combustion.
               1) Explain flame burning in terms of changes 3. Wood is organic substance, so it contains
               involving atoms, molecules, and/or energy     energy.
               forms                                         4. Wood has chemical bonds, so it has
                                                             energy.
               Negative:                                     5. Wood molecules become gases, but
               1) Do not successfully trace carbon atom in   cannot name both carbon dioxide and water.
               flame burning from the wood or candle to CO2. 6. Carbon dioxide is released, but cannot
               2) Do not explain flame burning in terms of   trace carbon atom back to wood.
               atom re-arrangement.
               3) Do not successfully explain energy
               transformation: describe energy-matter
               conversion or do not describe energy
               degradation
T: Use hidden processes or mechanisms to         1. Wood is energy that powers flame
explain flame burning.                           burning.
                                                 2. Nutrients in fuels power flame burning.
Positive:                                        3. Oxygen is required for burning, but cannot
1) Explain burning as that certain chemicals     explain why.
being consumed to power flame burning.


Negative:
1) May mention gases, but cannot explain their
role in burning.



T: Force-dynamic accounts about changes.         1. Match supports flame.
                                                 2. Flame needs to breathe in air.
Negative:                                        3. Flame needs air, but do not know air's role
1) Do not describe any hidden processes that     in burning.
involve changes of materials or energy.          4. Flame grows.
2) Describe the actor‘s role in changes: The
actor (e.g., flame) uses enablers (e.g., wood)
to reach its goal (e.g., burning).
               Example


hey come from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: Okay, very good. Let's move onto the third
               one. Speaking of fire, let's talk about fire, the burning match.
               Okay, what does the flame need in order to keep burning?
               RESPONDENT: It needs oxygen.
               INTERVIEWER: Oxygen.
               RESPONDENT: And matter to burn.
               INTERVIEWER: Matter to burn?
               RESPONDENT: Yeah.
               INTERVIEWER: What is that matter do you think?
               RESPONDENT: In the match?
               INTERVIEWER: Yeah, in this match.
               RESPONDENT: It would be the wood.
               ...
               INTERVIEWER: Do you think the match will lose weight?
               RESPONDENT: Yes.
               INTERVIEWER: So where does the matter go?
               RESPONDENT: It goes into the CO2.
               INTERVIEWER: Okay. And CO2 goes?
               RESPONDENT: Into the atmosphere.
               ...
               INTERVIEWER: Wow, great. So where does the energy go now
               when it's burning?
               RESPONDENT: Well it, the fire lets off light which is a form of
               energy.
               INTERVIEWER: Okay.
               RESPONDENT: And then it lets off heat too, which is a form of
               energy.


               INTERVIEWER: Does the flame need anything else to keep
               burning?
               STUDENT: Some kind of burnable material
               INTERVIEWER: Ok um what happens to oxygen inside the
               flame?
               STUDENT: Its converted into CO2
               INTERVIEWER: Ok and where does the carbon come from that
               joins with the oxygen?
               STUDENT: The material that the flame is burning
               INTERVIEWER: Ok um so is there any other way that the
               material is helping the flame to burn?
               STUDENT: Not that I can think of
               INTERVIEWER: Ok so what happens to the burnable material
               when it‘s inside the flame?
               STUDENT: Um it turns into ash
                 INTERVIEWER: So what happens to the oxygen inside of the
                 fire?
                 STUDENT: Well it like - - I think it burns the oxygen, which
                 keeps the flame going some and the flame will [inaudible] keeps
                 it lit. But the oxygen keeps it going.




                 INTERVIEWER: Okay. Well let's talk about oxygen first, since
                 you mentioned that first. How does oxygen help the flame to
                 burn?
                 STUDENT: Well, I don't really know about it, but in a flame that
                 oxygen - - fire needs oxygen to help it breathe.
                 INTERVIEWER: Okay. Does the oxygen change into anything?
                 STUDENT: It doesn't change, but I think it like - - like wood.
                 When you burn it, it usually turns black and then it turns into
                 ashes. But air, it just burns. Well, I burnt a hair one time, a really
                 long hair like this.
                 INTERVIEWER: Wow. That's a long hair.
                 STUDENT: I burned it. It went really fast. There was nothing left.
                 It was like, I guess like disappeared.
                 INTERVIEWER: Um hum.
                 STUDENT: And there was nothing left. That's what happened to
                 the oxygen. There's nothing left. It just goes in there, burns, and
                 INTERVIEWER: Okay. It doesn't change into anything. It's just
                 gone.
                 STUDENT: Yeah.




ribute to weight gain/loss?
                 INTERVIEWER: Ok do you think that the candle will lose
                 weight?
                 STUDENT: Yes
                 INTERVIEWER: And where does that weight go?STUDENT:
                 Um into CO2 and the melted wax
                 INTERVIEWER: Ok does the event of the flame burning change
                 the air?
                 STUDENT: Yes
                 INTERVIEWER: And how does that happen?STUDENT: It puts
                 there is less oxygen in the air around it and more CO2
               INTERVIEWER: Okay. What change will happen to the wood
               when the flame is burning?
               STUDENT: It will get carbon on it.
               INTERVIEWER: Get carbon on it?
               STUDENT: Yeah from the fire.
               INTERVIEWER: Okay.
               STUDENT: And the carbon is black so.
               INTERVIEWER: Uh-hmm. So what happens to the wood
               eventually?
               STUDENT: It will go into the air.
               INTERVIEWER: Uh-hmm. As?
               STUDENT: Carbon dioxide.
               INTERVIEWER: Do you think the match in the picture will lose
               weight after it burns?
               STUDENT: Yes, because -
               INTERVIEWER: Because?
               STUDENT: - it's going into the fire as oxygen -
               INTERVIEWER: Okay.
               STUDENT: - and going back out into the air and it goes half
               mass I think, no it don't.
               INTERVIEWER: Mass, you mean mass? Okay.
               STUDENT: Mass.

               INTERVIEWER:
               So the flame is using the materials from the wood to burn.
               What's happening
               inside? Well, I guess what happens to the wood inside the
               flame?
               STUDENT: It turns to ash, I don't know.
               INTERVIEWER:
               So is the wood used up if it turns into ash?STUDENT:
               No because the ash is used as nutrients for fertilizer.




               INTERVIEWER: And that the wick inside is burning down. Do
               you think that the candle is losing weight?
               STUDENT: Well, actually I don't think it is because I've never
               seen a candle long enough to [inaudible] lose a lot.




they come from? Where do they go?
INTERVIEWER: ..., what does a flame need in order to keep
burning?
STUDENT: Flame needs a source of fuel, which has the higher
energy bonds like carbon and hydrogen and it also needs
oxygen in order to help break that apart.
OR
INTERVIEWER: What is in wood that makes it burn?
STUDENT: Wood has chemical energy and that‘s what makes it
burn. You have to have stored up energy to make it burn.
INTERVIEWER: So, talk about chemical energy of the wood.
So, when wood is burning, where does that chemical energy to
go?
STUDENT: It‘s what‘s being burned.
INTERVIEWER: So, do you think the chemical energy still exists
or somewhere or changing to some other types of energy, or just
burn up?
STUDENT: It changes into heat and light energy.


INTERVIEWER: ...how about oxygen, how does a flame use it?
STUDENT: It has high energy bonds and it‘s flammable.




INTERVIWER: Why does it (flame) need oxygen?
STUDENT: Yeah. The oxygen provides it - breath - I don‘t know.
It burns the oxygen and the fuel. I‘m not sure how that works.
               INTERVIWER: ...like wax and match, how are they used to
               burn?
               STUDENT: It‘s getting tinier – smaller. And then, yeah, it helps.
               It starts a fire and it‘s still like going down until the candle is
               gone.




es behind the macro phenomena?
               INTERVIEWER : ...What does the flame need in order to keep
               burning?
               STUDENT: Oxygen
               ...
               INTERVIEWER : Ok is the oxygen used up or does it convert
               into something else?
               STUDENT: Well its like converted into CO2
               ...
               INTERVIEWER : ...where is it getting the CO2 from to release?
               STUDENT: The carbon in the wood
               INTERVIEWER : Ok in the wood then you said we kinda went
               over it before the oxygen from the air. Uh do you think that the
               wood contains carbon atoms?
               STUDENT: Yes




               INTERVIEWER: What happens to air first of all? What happens
               to air when it is used to keep the flame burning? It gets used up
               or does it change into something else? Is it still air?
               STUDENT: It's transformed into heat and light energy.
               =====
               INTERVIEWER: The carbon does?
               STUDENT: Yeah. When it's burned it produces heat and light
               energy.
INTERVIEWER: So what happens to the oxygen inside of the
fire?
STUDENT: Well it like - - I think it burns the oxygen, which
keeps the flame going some and the flame will [inaudible] keeps
it lit. But the oxygen keeps it going.




INTERVIEWER: Okay. What happened to all that wood, the
wick? What happens to that inside of the flame to, inside the
flame, yes?
STUDENT: It would burn because the flame burns itself so it
would just go down and keep burning where like the candle it
would have to keep burning and getting the candle liquidity.
   Level                                        Level Description
                             Association                     Tracing
                                  Energy/Causes Practice: What are the things that cause the changes? Whe
Level 4:         A: Associate energy with energy           T: Trace energy successfully:
Scientific       indicators consistently
accounts                                                   Positive
tracing matter   Positive                                  Trace energy separately from matter and
and energy       1) Identify chemical energy in organic    with degradation
separately       substances (e.g., C-C and C-H bonds)
                 2) Associate energy with different        Negative
                 energy indicators (heat, electricity,     Do not need to make prediction about the
                 light, coal, and fuel).                   quantitative relations between the energy
                 3) Consistently distinguish between       consumption and carbon emission.
                 chemical energy and energy-rich
                 materials

                 Negative
                 Do not need to know the names of
                 organic molecules that contain
                 chemical energy.



Level 3:         A: Associate energy with energy           T: Trace energy unsuccessfully
Incomplete       indicators inconsistently
scientific                                                 Positive
accounts,        Positive                                  1) Trace energy backward and forward but
recognizing      1) Begin to distinguish energy enablers   with misconceptions
changes in       from other enablers but not               2) Correctly identify high-energy sources
matter and       consistently.
energy, but      2) Associate energy with organic        Negative
with matter-     molecules.                              1) Trace energy without degradation;
energy                                                   2) Incorrectly relate energy transformation to
conversions      Negative                                chemical reactions.
                 1) May identify low-energy substances 3) Use matter-energy conversion for
                 as energy sources.                      reasoning.
                 2) May identify all reactants as energy
                 sources.
                 3) Do not distinguish chemical energy
                 from organic substances (e.g., coal,
                 gasoline).
Level 2:         A: Vital power from enablers               T: Trace the power-result chain
Elaborated
force-dynamic    Positive                                   Positive
accounts,        1) Associate vital power with all          1) Describe vital power as the cause: Vital
tracing          enablers.                                  power triggers hidden processes
enablers         2) Recognize that actors do not create     2) Trace vital power backward: actors need
through          vital power by sleeping, rest, etc.        to gain certain type of power or essence
subsystems,      3) Recognize that vital power is not       from enablers.
but without      associated with actors' feelings.
conversions                                                 Negative
between          Negative                                   Do not trace power forward. When being
actors and       1) Do not distinguish among the            asked to explain where power/energy goes,
inanimate        enablers in terms of matter or energy      give answers based on guessing.
matter           2) Do not identify organic
                 substances/molecules as energy
                 sources.

Level 1:         A: Natural abilities of actors and         T: Trace cause-result chain
Simple force-    enablers
dynamic                                                     Negative
accounts,        Negative                                   1) Describe two causes of result:
focusing on      1) Identify actors of the event: Actors    Cause 1: Actors grow and move and that is
actors,          have natural ability to grow and move.     how the natural world works.
abilities, and   Actors can restore their natural ability   Cause 2: Enablers can help the actors to
needs, and on    by sleep, rest, etc.                       keep in good conditions such as being
"natural         2) Identify enablers of the event:         healthy, energetic, and happy and that is
tendencies" of   Enablers are important because actors      how the natural world works.
dead on          need them to express their natural         2) Explain downhill events: Actors that lose
inanimate        abilities.                                 their powers or abilities cannot resist the
materials        3) When asked about energy,                natural tendencies of things to decay or go
                 associate energy with psychological        "downhill."
                 factors such as feeling, being healthy     3) When being asked about energy, do not
                 etc                                        use energy to explain how and why things
                                                            happen.
                                Indicator

the things that cause the changes? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
               1. Organic substances (e.g., coal, natural
               gas) have chemical energy
               2. Some of the chemical energy of those
               substances is transformed, in the presence
               of oxygen, into electrical and then into light
               energy of the lamp (thus lighting) through
               chemical processes; carbon dioxde and
               water are released.
               3. Some of the chemical energy of those
               substances is lost as heat into the
               environment

               NOTE: Although some responses may
               include other energy transformations e.g.
               niuclear into light & heat, it is not a
               requirement




               1. Needs (e.g., Oxygen, carbon dioxide,
               coal/other organic substances, and water)
               are mixed together to generate energy for
               lamp lighting
               2. State that coal is used to generate
               energy through burning (may use
               combustion or chemical
               processes/reactions), but may think that
               coal/other oganic substances are energy
               3. State that coal/organic substances are
               energy sources, but also think that e.g.,
               CO2 and water are energy sources for lamp
               lighting
1. State that needs (may or may not include
oxygen) have power to causes the lamp to
light
2. When asked about how oxygen is
involved, state that it powers the process of
lamp lighting with little focus on how it
changes
3. Lamp needs other useful things such as
someone to cause needs to power lamp
lighting




1. Needs naturally make the lamp to light
2. People make the lamp to light
3. Without needs, lamp will die
                                                  Example

? Where do they come from? Where do they go?
               INTERVIEWER: So the lamp won‘t light if it‘s not plugged in right? Do you
               know why?
               STUDENT: Yes because if it‘s not plugged in, then it can‘t get electricity
               from the power plant that‘s sending it, which the power plant gets it from a
               coal factory that burns coal. ... Electrical energy.
               INTERVIEWER: ... So before that energy was released, where was it, the
               heat energy?
               STUDENT: It was in the coal.
               INTERVIEWER: And where was it before it was in the coal?
               STUDENT: It was in some sort of living creature...Food.
               INTERVIEWER: And where do you think the food got its energy?
               STUDENT: Most food—if it‘s meat, then it gets it from some other type of
               animal and that animal could either get it from another animal or from
               grass...And the grass most of the energy from the sun.




               INTERVIEWER: ... why does that (lamp) need to be plugged in and why do
               most appliances need to be plugged in?
               STUDENT: Because there‘s a circuit and when the circuit is closed, ...if its
               not open, its not plugged in, it wont be able to work, ...
               INTERVIEWER: Yes to a circuit, but what keeps going through the circuit?
               STUDENT: Energy or electricity.
               INTERVIEWER: Where does it come from, the electricity?
               STUDENT: I think heat and then the close circuit help it go through the
               circuit.
               INTERVIEWER: If you follow it back any further, where do those lines go to,
               where does it…
               STUDENT: It goes to an electricity plant, ..., I can‘t really explain it, it‘s just
               an electricity plant.
               INTERVIEWER: How come they use coal, why is coal so useful for
               generating electricity that way?
               STUDENT: I think maybe because coal is a resource for us and it can burn
               easily but lets off CO2 which is kind of bad for a planet but it helps power
               something‘s to be able to run electricity so it‘s like an energy source of that
INTERVIEWER: ... And the desk lamp turning on here. So, obviously if that
is going to work it needs to be plugged in. Why? What is the connection
there.
STUDENT: If it did not plug in it would not have any light, meaning energy.
The if you need to plug it in to the electricity gives energy to the lamp.
INTERVIEWER: Okay. And so is electricity a kind of energy or is it related
to energy?
STUDENT: Well it is related because like, like my DS, anything that I have
to plug in with the batteries (inaudible 0:13:38.7) gives it energy or power.




NO EXAMPLE
Level
                       Association (Classification)
                          Large Practice: How are changes/events similar or different? Tracing: How are c
Level 4: Scientific    A: Classify events in terms of the three
accounts tracing       classes of carbon-transforming processes.
matter and energy      Positive
separately             Group events in terms of organic carbon
                       generation, transformation, and oxidation.
                       Negative
                       Do not need to calculate carbon pool.




Level 3: Incomplete    A: Classify events using changes of matter
scientific accounts,   and energy.
recognizing changes    Positive
in matter and          1) Classify events in terms of gaining/losing
energy, but with       nutrition or energy.
matter-energy          2) Classify events in terms of gas cycle
conversions            without recognizing carbon transformation
                       between organic and inorganic forms
                       Negative
                       1) Do not distinguish tree growth and human
                       growth.
                       2) Do not recognize similarities among events
                       about oxidation process.
Level 2: Elaborated     A: Classify events in terms of hidden
force-dynamic           processes:
accounts, tracing       Positive
enablers through        1) Classify events in terms of visible
subsystems, but         phenomena such as life cycle, growth,
without conversions     burning, etc.
between actors and      Negative
inanimate matter        Do not classify events in terms of matter or
                        energy.




Level 1: Simple         A: Classify events in terms of observable
force-dynamic           phenomena:
accounts, focusing      Negative
on actors, abilities,   1) Classify processes according to actors and
and needs, and on       actions rather than changes/processes (e.g.,
―natural tendencies‖    tree growth and tree decaying are similar,
of dead on              because they are both about tree).
inanimate materials     2) Compare how events are alike or different
                        based on macroscopic observations.
               Tracing (Connections)                Indicator
How are changes/events similar or different? Tracing: How are changes/events connected?
               T: Carbon cycling and energy flow.               Grouping Task
                Positive                                        Successfully group events in terms of
               Recognize carbon cycling and/or energy flow      carbon dioxide production and/or
               across processes.                                uptake
               Negative                                         Successfully group in terms of
               Do not need to make prediction about the         energy (heat, light, motion and
               quantitative relations between the energy        potentially chemical) transformation
               consumption and carbon emission.                 from one form to another

                                                                Ecosphere
                                                                Recognize sunlight as crucial energy
                                                                source (from outside the system) for
                                                                the ecosphere
                                                                If asked, can identify heat as energy
                                                                lost from the system
                                                                Describe carbon as cycling in the
                                                                system through photosynthesis,
                                                                eating/digestion, respiration
                                                                May also discuss O2 from algae as
                                                                important to shrimp

               T: Cycles of nutrition, gas, and energy:         Grouping Task
               Positive                                         Unsuccessfully group events in terms
               1) Recognize that food chains/cycles represent   of carbon dioxide production and/or
               both matter and energy.                          uptake (i.e. say that an oxidative
               2) Identify energy cycle along food chain        processes actually needs CO2 as a
               without degradation                              reactant rather than a product)
               3) Describes gases on large scale as moving      Unsuccessfully group in terms of
               between producers and consumers.                 energy transformations, often
               Negative                                         confusing matter and energy in their
               1) Do not trace matter and energy separately     descriptions
               2) Do not trace carbon with recognition of
               carbon transforming between organic and in-      Ecosphere
               organic forms.                                   Beginning to recognize energy
                                                                transformation but with errors (e.g.
                                                                sunlight enters sphere and "fuels"
                                                                growth for certain organisms which
                                                                promotes growth of others) -- key is
                                                                that energy is discussed in vague
                                                                ways
T: Cause-effect sequences of events:            Grouping Task
Positive 1) Describe food chains in terms of    Energy transformations are not
feeding relationships.                          discussed, but groups can be made
 2) Describe life cycles: tree grows and then   based on the enablers that provide
gets old and decays.                            energy to each process
Negative                                        May not conserve matter and energy,
Do not identify large-scale nutrition cycle.    often saying that either can
Do not identify large-scale gas cycle.          "disappear" or be "used up"
Do not identify large-scale energy cycle.
                                                Ecosphere
                                                Still prefer to discuss in terms of a
                                                food chain, but have some definitive
                                                role for bacteria.
                                                Still uncertain about energy entering
                                                the organisms/chain, and not
                                                attributing it to light from outside the
                                                sphere
T: Events not connected by tracing materials,   Grouping Task
energy, or cause-effect sequences.              Group processes in terms of
Negative                                        common or different enablers or
Do not connect events in terms of matter,       focus on actors involved
energy, or feeding relationships.
                                                Ecosphere
                                                Only able to discuss in terms of very
                                                simplified interactions, and may not
                                                know where to put bacteria
               Example

anges/events connected?
               INTERVIEWER: So what‘s being
               turned into heat and motion?
               STUDENT: The girl running and the
               car running. The girl is creating heat
               when she runs cause it changing the
               C-C and the C-H bonds. When the
               car is running it‘s using combustion ...
               it‘s kind of the same principle that
               burns and creates heat.




               INTERVIEWER: So do you think the
               tree [algae] has everything it needs to
               survive?
               STUDENT: As long as the tree
               [algae] stays alive and it has sunlight,
               it will take the carbon dioxide out from
               up here and turn it into oxygen.
INTERVIEWER: How does
everything stay alive without any
connection to the outside world?
STUDENT: And then bacteria grows
from the algae and the shrimp eat
bacteria...If one other is still surviving,
it is like a food web and if, well not a
food web but nesting places. It is sort
of like a web. But, if one dies then the
whole cycle will die.




INTERVIEWER: What about energy?
Do they need any energy in order to
run, to photosynthesize?
STUDENT: It to grow from they get
that from air, water, and I guess food
also. But, the only thing I do not think
anything. I do not think they eat
anything.

				
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