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					                        Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




Part Four




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                                Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




Language Study

  I.   Word Study

  II. Phrases and Expressions

  III.Word Building

  IV. Grammar



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                                                          Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.          Word Study
Word list:
  1. attachment          8. identify       15. regard
  2. dangle              9. impenetrable   16. roam
  3. dense           10. incline           17. stand
  4. earn            11. nickname          18. sting
  5. extend          12. offer             19. suspect
  6. familiarity     13. private           20. trespass
  7. frail           14. proceed           21. wrench




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                                                  Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study

1. attachment
  n. affection; devotion


Examples:
      As a teenager she formed a strong
      attachment to one of her teachers.
       She has already formed a strong
      attachment to her baby brother.
       feel a strong attachment to one's family


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 I.           Word Study

2. dangle
   v. a. to hang or swing loosely
      b. to offer as an attraction

Examples:

      A pair of binoculars dangled from her neck.

      He sat on the edge of the table dangling his
      legs.
      They might do the job if you dangle a bonus
      in front of them.

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                                              Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




I.        Word Study
                                                 Classify the
3. dense                                         following words
   a. a. closely packed or crowded together      into 3 groups
                                                 according to a, b
      b. difficult to see through                and c.

      c. stupid

  a dense crowd
 a                      dense laurels
                       a

  a dense metal
 a                      a dense fog
                       b

  a dense mist
 b                      dense traffic
                       a

  a man with a dense brain
 c



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                                                                  Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study

 4. earn
      v. a. to receive a certain amount of money                     More examples
             for the work you do
         b. to get something you deserve

Examples:
      Now that you are earning, you should think
      about buying a house.
      He earned a lot of praise from the papers for
      the way he handled the strike.


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                                      Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




I.       Word Study

                                          Translation

earn a well-earned reward    应得的报酬
earned income                劳动收入
earn one's bread             谋生,挣钱
earn one's own living        自食其力




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                                                  Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study

5. extend
   v. If someone extends his hand, he
      stretches out his arm and hand to shake
      hands with someone.

Examples:
      The man extended his hand: "I'm Chuck."
      He refused to take the hand I extended in
      friendship.
      He extended his hand in greeting.


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                                                    Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study
                                                        Word formations
6. familiarity
                                                        a. familiar
  n. a. thorough knowledge (of)
     b. the freedom of behavior only expected           v. familiarize
        in the most friendly relations

Examples:
      His familiarity with the language impressed
      us all.
      They greeted each other with such
      familiarity that we thought they must be
      brother and sister.

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 I.         Word Study
                                                           Synonyms
7. frail
                                                             fragile
   a. a. (someone) not very strong or                         weak
         healthy                                              slight
       b. (something) easily broken or                      delicate
          damaged
Examples:

      She lay in bed looking particularly frail.

      The frail craft rocked as he clambered in.




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 I.         Word Study
8. identify
  v. a. to prove or show the identity of
     b. to discover or recognize


Examples:
      She was asked to identify the criminal.
      The dead man has been identified as Mr.
      James Gould.
      They have now identified the main cause of
      the problem.


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                                               Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




I.        Word Study
                                                   Translation

                                               1. 密林
9. impenetrable
                                               2. 子弹打不穿的
  a. a. impossible to go into or through
     b. extremely difficult or impossible to   3. 漆黑

        understand                             4. 难解之谜
                                               5. 不接受新思想的
  the impenetrable forest
 a                                                顽固头脑

  impenetrable by a bullet
 a

  impenetrable darkness
 a

  an impenetrable mystery
 b

  a mind impenetrable by/to new ideas
 b


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 I.          Word Study
 10. incline
    v. a. to influence or encourage to have a
                                                                       More examples
          particular feeling, belief, etc.
       b. to tend to; be likely to show a
          particular state of quality
       c. to cause to move downwards
Examples:
      Her arguments incline me towards a
      different view of the matter.
      I incline to get tired easily.
      He inclined his head in greeting.

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I.       Word Study

incline a post against the wall    把柱子靠墙斜立着        Translation
incline one's ear to sb.           侧耳倾听某人讲话
be inclined to go by air           想要坐飞机去
His attitude did not incline me    他的态度使我不想帮
to help him.                       助他。
Are you inclined for a walk?       你想散步吗?
incline to traditional way         喜爱传统的做法
incline toward the speaker to      将身子倾向讲话者,
hear more clearly
                                   以便听得更清楚些。
Right incline!
                                   半面向右转走!

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                                                     Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.          Word Study

 11. nickname
                                                        Related words
      n. a name used informally instead of a
         person's own name connected with one's
         character or history
first name       名           Christian name 教名,洗礼名
surname          姓,绰号        last name     姓
family name 姓                maiden name   女子的娘家姓氏

pet name         爱称,昵称 fake name           假名

pseudonym 假名,笔名 pen name                   笔名

stage name 艺名                anonymity     匿名


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    I.       Word Study
12. offer
                                                     Translation

•   He offered me his seat.      他把他的座位让给了 我。
•   offer a few ideas            提几点意见
•   offer the house for £1,000   房屋要价一千镑
•   offer £1,000 for the house   对该房屋出价一千镑
•   accept/decline an offer      接受/不接受提议
•   make an offer (of)           提议;提供,出价
•   on offer                     出卖
•   receive an offer             接受提议


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                                                Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.        Word Study

13. private
                                                    Translation
private life                      私生活
private coach/teacher/tutor 家庭教师,私人教师
private property                  私有财产
private ownership                 私有制
a private secretary               私人秘书
a private car                     私家车
private business                  个人的事,私事
private affairs/concerns          私事,隐秘的事
private information               非正式消息
a private soldier                 士兵,列兵
for sb.'s private ear             只私下里跟某人讲
in private (criticism in private) 秘密地 (背后批评)

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                                                                 Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study

14. proceed
   v. a. to begin or continue in a course of                        More examples

         action or set of actions
      b. to advance; move in a particular
         direction
Examples:
      The work is proceeding according to plan.
      He paused to consult his notes, and then
      proceeded with his questions.
      Passengers for the New York flight should
      now proceed to Gate 13.

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I.        Word Study

                                               Translation
proceed to London              去伦敦
proceed to the next business   着手另一项工作
Please proceed with your       请继续讲下去。
story.
diseases that proceed from     因为不清洁引起的
dirt                           疾病
proceed to the degree
                               得学位
proceed with one's work
                               继续干下去(尤指
                               停顿一段时间后)


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                                                   Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study
15. regard
      v. a. to look at, observe, watch carefully
         b. to consider in the stated way
      n. respectful attention; consideration

Examples:
    She regarded him curiously for a moment.
    I have always regarded him highly.
    You have no regard for my feelings.
    in that regard
    with regard to
    regardless of
    as regards/regarding

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                                                       Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.         Word Study
                                                              Synonyms
16. roam                                                      ramble
      v. to wander without any very clear purpose             stray
                                                              wander

Examples:
      The lovers roamed across the fields in
      complete forgetfulness of the time.
      Crowds    of   youths   roamed   the   streets
      looking for trouble.



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 I.         Word Study

17. stand
      n. a small often outdoor place


Examples:
   a stand of trees/wheat
   an ice-cream stand
   a book stand
   a newspaper stand
   open stands
   a good stand of timber


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 I.        Word Study
                                                          Synonyms
 18. sting (stung, stung)
                                                          prick
   n. & v. to hurt or make something hurt with a          wound
           sudden sharp pain for a short time             pain
Examples:                                                 inflame
   I stared out of the window, tears stinging my
   eyes.                  • bee/wasp/
                            scorpion/nettle.
   He was stung by the    • icy wind/oils/
                            sprays/smoke.
                          • condemnation/
                            harsh words/criticism.


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 I.         Word Study
                                                         Word formation
19. suspect
      v. a. to think that something is probably true      n. suspicion
            or likely, esp. something bad                 a. suspicious
         b. to think that someone is probably guilty
                                                          a. suspectable
         c. to doubt the truth of something
      n. a person who is suspected of guilt, esp. in
         a crime

Examples:
    They suspect him of murder.
       The police have arrested two suspects.


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                                                     Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 I.          Word Study
                                                           Synonyms
20. trespass                                               infringe
      v. to enter privately owned property or land         intrude
          without permission                               transgress
      n. an act or offence of trespassing

Examples:
       She was trespassing on my special place.
       One more trespass I must make on your
       patience. I shall trespass on your
       hospitality.

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I.         Word Study

21. wrench
       v. to twist and pull with force
       n. a. a feeling of sadness caused by leaving
          b. a place or a person that you love

 Examples:
      to wrench a door off its hinges

      He managed to wrench himself free.

      Leaving home was a terrible wrench for him.


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                                                 Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




II.         Phrases and Expressions
List:


  1. as it were           5. not nearly enough
  2. brim over            6. odds and ends
  3. catch one's breath   7. put sb. at ease
  4. keep to oneself      8. set off
                          9. warn against




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II.         Phrases and Expressions
1. as it were                                                              可谓,好像

    used indicating not very accurate
                                                                           Cf. as it is
Examples:
    I'd understood the words, but I didn't, as it
    were, understand the question.

      He is, as it were, a walking dictionary.

      The English, the Scots and the Welsh are all,
      as it were, members of the same family.


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II.         Phrases and Expressions
 as it is                                     事实上



Examples:
    I want to work at home on a Tuesday but
    as it is sometimes it's a Wednesday or a
    Thursday.

      I thought things would get better, but as
      it is they are getting worse.



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                                                   Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




II.         Phrases and Expressions

2. brim over
       to overflow

Examples:
    a glass brimming over with water

      brim over with excitement, happiness, joy,
      etc.

      I noticed Dorabella was brimming over with
      excitement.


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II.         Phrases and Expressions

3. catch one's breath
       to stop breathing for a moment from                         “Breath” phrases
       surprise, fear, shock, etc.
Examples:
      She caught her breath, instinctively
      touching her throat with her hand.
      John caught his breath as Nikko nearly
      dropped the bottle.
      He had stopped to catch his breath.



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II.       Phrases and Expressions

  at a breath              一口气
  be short of breath       上气不接下气
  above one's breath       大声,说出声
  draw a breath            吸一口气
  hold/keep one's breath   屏息
  in a breath              一瞬间,一口气
  out of breath            大喘气,上气不接下气
  take breath              歇一口气


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II.         Phrases and Expressions
                                                     Chinese
4. keep to oneself
                                                     不交际,
      to avoid meeting people socially
                                                     不与人往来

Example:
      Nobody knows much about him; he keeps
      very much to himself.




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                                               Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




II.         Phrases and Expressions
5. not nearly enough
                                                     Translation
   far from enough; not enough
                                                1. 差得很远。

Examples:                                       2. 当时移居来这个地
                                                   区的人很少。
       It's not nearly enough.
       There weren't nearly enough people to
       settle all that land.




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                                             Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




II.         Phrases and Expressions
6. odds and ends
  small articles of various kinds, without
  much value


Examples:
      The old round tin was filled up with
      countless other odds and ends.

      He only heard some odds and ends.




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                                                                   Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




II.         Phrases and Expressions
7. put/set sb. at ease
                                                                     “Ease” phrases
    to make sb. feel relaxed



Examples:
      He had been dreading their meeting but her
      warm welcome soon put him at ease.
      I never feel at ease in his company.




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II.       Phrases and Expressions

      Finish the task at your ease.
      He felt ill at ease in the
      strange surroundings.
      He led a life of ease.
      He passed the test with ease.




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II.         Phrases and Expressions
 8. set off
      to start a journey                                                “Set” phrases




Examples:
      We set off.
      He set off for his remote farmhouse in Texas.
      She set off, full of optimism.




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II.       Phrases and Expressions

      set about         开始,下手,着手
      set in            开始,来到
      set off           出发;使爆炸
      set to            认真着手
      set back          阻碍,使受挫折
      set up            竖起,建立
      set down          放下;制定
      set out           出发,动身


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II.         Phrases and Expressions
9. warn against
      to warn someone not to do something


Examples:
      I had been warned against going off with
      strangers.
      He warned me against going there at night.




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                              Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 III. Word Building
List:


            1. Prefix:bi-
            2. Root: ocular
            3. Suffix:-ify




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                                                            Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




   III. Word Building
                      root

binoculars (6)                   bi-: double, two, twice

prefix       biannual                            每年两次的
             bicameral                           (议会)两院制的
             bicolored                           二色的
             biennial                            每两年一次的
             bifurcated                          分叉的
             bigamy                              重婚
             bilingual                           两种语言的
             bimonthly                           两个月一次的
             bipod                               两脚架
             bipolar                             有两极的
             bisexual                            两性的
             biweekly                            隔周的

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   III. Word Building
                     root

binoculars (6)                  ocul: eye

prefix
                                   眼睛的,视觉的,像眼睛的
    ocular
                                   眼科医生
    oculist
                                   使眼球动的,动眼的
    oculomotor
    binocular                      双眼并用的, (pl.)双筒望远镜
    monocular                      单眼的
    ocular defeat                  视力缺陷
    ocular proof                   目证




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                                                                    Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




 III. Word Building
 Suffix -ify
                                                                        More examples
        v. a. to make or become
           b. to fill with

Examples:
  to purify (= make or become pure)
  to clarify (= make or become clear)
  to terrify (= fill with terror)



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III. Word Building
Suffix -ify                                                      Give
       class                 classify                      corresponding
                                                             verbs of the
       fortification         fortify                         following
                                                                nouns.
       identification        identify
       justice               justify
       purity                purify
       satisfaction          satisfy
       simplicity            simplify
       signification         signify
       glory                 glorify
       quality               qualify


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                                                            Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




IV. Grammar
Apposition

Definition:
A syntactic relation in which an element is
juxtaposed to another element of the same
                                                                 Lucy is in
kind,especially between noun phrases that do
                                                                 apposition to my
not have distinct referents.
                                                                 wife.

Example:
Do you know my wife Lucy?




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IV. Grammar
Apposition
 It was my secret fortress, almost a holy place.




                        The fortress is
                        almost a holy
                        place.




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 IV. Grammar
  Apposition

I'd leave the bright sun and the twitter and
rustle of insects and animals outside and creep
into another world—a vaulted cathedral.




  The world is like a
  cathedral with a
  vaulted ceiling.


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IV. Grammar
  Apposition

  But she sent me home with two large tomes,                             More examples
  one full of beautiful illustrations of birds,
  and one of butterflies and other insects.




One of the large tomes was full
of beautiful illustrations of birds
and the other was full of
butterflies and other insects.




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IV. Grammar
Apposition
                                                     Analyze the
A few years later Michael had another good           grammatical
                                                     function of the
idea, to trade stamps by advertising in stamp
                                                     italic parts.
magazines.
If the baby is truly abandoned or orphaned
—something you can learn only by watching
it from a distance for an hour or more—you
have a decision to make.
We are faced with a big trouble: how to get
the license legally.



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                        Lesson 4 - Wisdom of Bear Wood




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