Pharmacy Internship Certificate - PowerPoint by rst60617

VIEWS: 143 PAGES: 76

More Info
									Clinical Pharmacy Education-Community
           Pharmacy Internship
                Charles Lee, PhD
      Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
         Palm Beach Atlantic University
              West Palm Beach, FL




                                             1
      Evolution of US Pharmacy Education
   1821 PCP BS program
   1950 USC 1st PharmD program
   1960 UCSF 2nd PharmD program
   1960-2000 BS/PharmD duel track or BS+PharmD
    add-on for most pharmacy schools
   2000 ACPE accredits PharmD program only
   1975 Curriculum begins to increases focus on
    clinical
   Pharmacy practice transforms from product
    orientation to patient orientation
   Dichotomous practice models still exist
                                                   2
           Pharmaceutical Care
   1975 Mikeal et al
    Pharmaceutical Care is the care that a given
    patient requires and receives which assures
    rational drug usage




                                                   3
           Pharmaceutical Care
   1992 Strand et al
    Pharmaceutical Care is that component of
    pharmacy practice which entails the
    direct interaction of the pharmacist with
    the patient for the purpose of caring for
    that patient’s drug-related needs




                                                4
           Pharmaceutical Care
   1993 ASHP
    Pharmaceutical Care is the direct,
    responsible provision of medication
    related care for the purpose of achieving
    definite outcomes that improve a patient’s
    quality of life




                                                 5
             Pharmaceutical Care
   1996 APhA
    Pharmaceutical Care is a patient-centered,
    outcomes-oriented pharmacy practice that
    requires the pharmacist to work in concert
    with patient and the patient’s other healthcare
    providers to promote health, to prevent disease,
    and to assess, monitor, initiate and modify
    medication use to assure that drug therapy
    regimens are safe and effective


                                                       6
   Pharmacist- Formulation Scientist



John Stith Pemberton




                                       7
       Coca Cola Formula
 Invented in 1886
 5 cents/glass
 9 drinks/day
 25 gallon/1st yr
 Sold in 1888 $2,300
 Sold in 1923 $25 mm
 2009 market value=$125 bb



                              8
           Pharmacist Provided MTM
   Comprehensive or targeted Medication Therapy Reviews
   Adherence Reviews-based on number or type of medications
   Targeted Medication Intervention Program
    ◦ High alert or high cost medications
    ◦ Targeted population (geriatrics or pediatrics)
   Disease State Management
    ◦ Interdisciplinary approach to achieve therapeutic goals
    ◦ Diabetes, cholesterol, asthma
   Health and wellness services
    ◦ Immunization
    ◦ Wellness screening
    ◦ Smoking cessation
    ◦ Weight management

                                                                9
Payer Perspective on Return on Investment

 APhA Survey for MTM program from 10
  Respondents (2008)
 ROI ranged from 2:1 to 12:1
  (median=3:1)
 $700,000/yr saving for 200 patients for
  insurer
 4.5 mm/yr for self-insured employer




                                            10
                     ACPE
 1932 ACPE was established for the accreditation of
  pharmacy education
 1975 Expanded its scope of activity to include
  accreditation of continuing pharmacy education.
 1999 developed standards for certificate programs in
  pharmacy.
 2000 Recognized Doctor of Pharmacy as the only
  accredited pharmacy degree program
 2003 Name changed to the Accreditation Council for
  Pharmacy Education in 2003.
 2007 Revised standards, 30 standards, 3 Appendices



                                                         11
    ACPE Mission and Philosophy
 Establish standards and criteria for the
  accreditation of pharmacy education program,
  continuing education program and pharmacist
  certification program
 Promote continuous quality improvement and
  encouraging innovation in pharmacy education
 Consult and assist in the development of
  learning outcomes and assessment of
  professional competencies


                                                 12
    Standards 2007 Areas of Emphasis
   STD 13: Curricular core-knowledge, skills,
    attitude, values
   STD 14: Pharmacy practice experiences
   STD 15: Assessment and evaluation of student
    learning and curricular effectiveness
   STD 19: Progression of students
   STD 24, 25: Faculty and staff-quantitative and
    qualitative factor
   STD 29: Library and educational resources


                                                     13
         Pharmacy Curriculum
 Basic Biomedical Sciences
 Pharmaceutical Sciences
 Social, Behavioral and Administrative
  Sciences
 Clinical Sciences
 Electives
 Pharmacy Practice Experiences




                                          14
          Standards for Pharmacy Practice
                    Experiences
   Standard No. 14: Curricular Core-Pharmacy Practice Experiences
   The school must provide a continuum of required and elective
    pharmacy practice experiences throughout the curriculum to
    support the achievement of professional competencies
   The pharmacy practice experiences must integrate, apply, reinforce,
    and advance the knowledge skills, attitudes and values developed
    through the other components of the curriculum
   The pharmacy practice experience must include direct interaction
    with diverse patient populations in a variety of practice settings and
    involve collaboration with other health care professionals
   Required: IPPE (>=300 hours), APPE (>=1400 hours)
   Electives




                                                                             15
       IPPE Standards Guideline 14.4
   Minimum 300 hours over 3 years (P1-P3)
   Involve actual practice experiences in community
    and institutional settings
   Assume direct patient care responsibilities under
    appropriate supervision
   Early sequencing in the curriculum
   Interface with didactic course work
   Provide introduction to the profession, leading to
    entry into APPE


                                                     16
    IPPE Program- Content Example 1
 Community pharmacy
 Institutional pharmacy
 Community service and medical missions
 Clinical pharmacy
 Community patient-centered care
 Geriatrics




                                           17
IPPE Program- Content Example 2
 First year: service learning experience
 Second year: practice skills experience
 Third year: Patient care experience




                                            18
    IPPE Program- Content Example 3
 Early pharmacy education with community
  teachers
 Mentoring program
 Community practice
 Institutional practice
 Pharmaceutical care clinic




                                            19
IPPE Program- Content Example 4
                  Rite Aid Internship
Year 1:
 Defining the Rite Aid Internship
   ◦ Rite Aid pharmacy computer system (NEXGEN),
     HIPAA, CIA and Rite Aid policies and procedures.
 Pharmacy professionalism
Year 2:
 Inventory management
 Dispensing practices
 Automation
 Third party training



                                                        20
 IPPE Program- Content Example 4
                  Rite Aid Internship
Year 3:
 Pharmacy workflow
 Clinical Services
 Third Year Intern Project
 Mentor 1st or 2nd year Rite Aid Intern
 Business of Pharmacy
Year 4:
 Learning the profit & loss system
 Mentoring a 3rd year Rite Aid Intern
 Fourth Year Special project
 Learning Pharmacy Manager responsibilities

                                               21
    IPPE Program- Content Example 5
              Walgreens Pharmacy
 Prescription Medications
 OTC products
 Herbal products
 Patient counseling guidelines
 Disease state information
 Pharmacy Law and Ethics
 Management of Pharmacy



                                      22
    Commonality and Differences
   Pharmacy program- 6yr vs 2+4
   College setting-medical center affiliated vs
    independent
   Site setting-community vs institutional
   Site availability-region dependent
   Site specialty
   State law dictates time to start internship
   Structured vs episodic learning?
   Partially fulfilled by simulation program?


                                                   23
Course Designation and Contents

 Sch 1 PHAR 530, 532, 538
 Sch 2     IPPE 101, 103, 201, 301, 303
 Sch 3     PHR1242, 2112, 3232
 Community
 Institution
 Patient care




                                           24
               Course Syllabus
   Course description
   Course pre-requisites
   Textbook and other learning materials
   Learning objectives/outcomes
   Measure of outcomes
   Course outline and agenda
   Evaluation
   Course policies and procedures
    ◦ Standards of dress and personal appearance



                                                   25
                  PHAR 530, 532, 558
Objectives/Outcomes
1.    Affirm the role of the pharmacist in the health care team
2.    Provide ethical patient care
3.    Promote the safe use of medications
4.    Perform calculations required to compound, dispense and administer
      medications
5.    Identify the most frequently prescribed drugs by category
6.    Demonstrate effective communications skills
7.    Evaluate information from resources of the health care system and integrate
      it into pharmacy practice
8.    Promote health improvement, wellness and disease prevention
9.    Demonstrate critical thinking skills to facilitate decision making
10.   Examine legal/ethical aspects of patient care
11.   Describe the process of third-party claims adjudication
12.   Incorporate technology/informatics into pharmacy practice
13.   Participate in service learning opportunities
      * PHAR 532, 558 with additional objectives
                                                                                    26
    PHAR 530 Objectives/Outcomes
8. Promote health improvement, wellness and disease
   prevention
   ◦ Read information found in a patient medication
     profile
   ◦ Assess selected therapeutic outcomes, including pulse
     rate and blood pressure
9. Demonstrate critical thinking skills to facilitate decision
   making
   ◦ Discuss OTC pharmacotherapy decisions on product
     selection with preceptor




                                                                 27
         PHAR 530 Course Schedule
DATE                              ACTIVITY
Aug 26     IPPE Orientation, A workbook is provided to the student with a
           list of questions and activities to help guide the site visit
Sep 02     Criminal background check and HIPAA and OSHA training
           Site Visit #1
Sep 09     Foundations lab
Sep 16     Site Visit #2
Sep 23     Service learning opportunity or alternate site visit date
Sep 30     Site Visit #3
Oct 07     Reflection #1 due in LiveText
           “What is professionalism, and why is it important?”
           Site Visit #4
           Midpoint IPPE evaluations should be completed in EMS
Oct 14     Fall Break Day/School holiday
Oct 21     Site Visit #5
Oct 28     IPPE Conference
……         ……
Dec 9      *extended over the semester
                                                                            28
    PHAR 530 Assessment Criteria
 Professionalism and Behavior evaluated by preceptor
   Minimum score 3.0 to pass, but does not count toward grade
 Competency assessment by community practice preceptor (70%)
  and faculty (30%)
   Minimum score 3.0 to pass
   ◦ Orientation/Conference #1                    15%
   ◦ Conference #2                                15%
   ◦ Medical Terminology                          15%
   ◦ LiveText Reflection #1                       10%
   ◦ LiveText Reflection #2                       10%
   ◦ Workbook Questions/Activities                35%
 Total                                           100%
*Preceptor training critical


                                                                29
        PHAR 530 Grading Criteria
   A workbook is provided to the preceptor with a list of
    questions and activities to help guide the site visit
   Assessment of professionalism and performance will be
    completed in the EMS web-based system by the
    Preceptor at the site using a grading rubric that
    describes performance requirements
   Grading Scale
    ◦ Honors            4.75 - 5.00
    ◦ High Pass         4.50 - 4.749
    ◦ Pass              3.0 - 4.49
    ◦ Failure           <3.0


                                                             30
            PHAR 532 Course Schedule
   WK -1: Course Orientation, Campus Conferences
   WK 1: Mon-Fri , 36 hr (4.5 days)
    1. Orientation to department and site
    2. Role of pharmacist in health care team
    3. Interdisciplinary communication
    4. Provide ethical patient care
    5. Distribution order processing
    6. Define and discuss systems management
    7. Purchasing, Inventory Control
    8. Discuss Performance Improvement Initiatives
   WK 1: Fri 1-4 pm Conference, Webex conference if necessary
   WK 2 Mon-Fri, 36hr
    9. Legal: Controlled Substances
    10. Medication Reconciliation
    11-15
   WK 2 Fri 1-4 pm Conference, Webex conference if necessary
*Intense schedule in 2 weeks (80 hr)
                                                                 31
    PHAR 532 Assessment Criteria
 Professionalism and Behavior evaluated by preceptor
   Minimum score 3.0 to pass, but does not count toward grade
 Competency Assessment by institutional practice preceptor (80%)
  and faculty (20%)
   Minimum score 3.0 to pass
   ◦ Conferences Attendance                       20%
   ◦ Calculations Worksheet                       25%
   ◦ Service Learning Reflection                  10%
   ◦ IPPE Hospital Workbook Content Exam          25%
   ◦ LiveText Reflections                         20%
 Total                                           100%
*Preceptor training critical



                                                                    32
            PHAR 538 Course Outline
   WK 1-18
    ◦   7 site visits
    ◦   3 on-campus conferences
    ◦   Workbook/Assignment activities
    ◦   Community service activity at site
    ◦   Health care project at site
    ◦   Journal site visit, Reflection in LiveText




                                                     33
                    PHAR 538 Course Schedule
Week 1: on campus conference
   Orientation
   LiveText, EMS review, Terminology
Week 2: Foundations lab
Week 3: Site Visit 1
    Prior to site visit
   Complete OTC CASE
   Top Rx Drugs
   Drug Information Question
    SITE activities
    1. Ear Care OTC Products Case
    2. Begin planning a health promotion activity, Participate in educational offerings
    designed to benefit the health of the general public
    ◦ Self Care: Diabetes
    ◦ Blood Pressure: Hypertension
    ◦ Cholesterol: Hyperlipidemia
    3. Discuss with Preceptor the patient interview using edited Script and Form created in
    Communications Class.
    4. Ask for a patient to interview or use a relative or family friend.
                                                                                              34
        PHAR 538 Assessment Criteria
   Professionalism Behavior Minimum score 3.0 to pass
   Competency Assessment Minimum score 3.0 to pass
   Participation/Attendance Conference #1
    Develop Conflict Management Script, hand in scenario 20%
   Participation/Attendance Conference #2
    Management, hand in organization chart               10%
   REFLECTIONS                                          20%
   Patient Interview                                    10%
   Service Learning Reflection                          10%
   Management Overview Reflection                       10%
   Workbook Activities Completion                       10%
   Terminology Quizzes                                  10%
   Total                                                100%
*Use LiveText or Blackboard for documentation


                                                                35
  IPPE 101/IPPE 103 Course Outcomes
Same eight (8) performance outcomes
Different settings 101 (community), 103 (institution)
 Outcome 2: Given a patient, caregiver, or health care
  professional, conduct an interview to collect subjective
  information required for professional functions at the
  practice site.
 Activities to achieve outcome
   ◦ Elicit patient-specific information necessary for processing
     prescriptions/medication orders.
   ◦ Ask appropriate questions to clarify subjective
     information.
   ◦ Accurately document subjective information.


                                                                    36
    IPPE 101- Community Practice
Site based activity                    Points
 Community Experience (1 wk, 40 hr)   70
   (Preceptor Evaluation)
 School based activity                30
   ◦ Orientation
   ◦ Web based tutorial
   ◦ Assignment/Project
Total points                           100




                                                37
     IPPE 103- Institutional Practice
Site based activity                      Points
 Institutional Experience (1 wk, 40 hr) 70
   (Preceptor Evaluation)
School based activity                    30
   ◦ Orientation
   ◦ Web based tutorial
   ◦ Assignment/Project
Total points                             100




                                                  38
              Assessment Criteria
   Categorical/Numerical (MC/10, NI/8, SD/0)
   Meets Competency (MC-10 points)
    Sometimes needs assistance to complete criterion elements.
    Needs Improvement (NI-8 points)
    Usually needs assistance to complete criterion elements.
    Significant Deficiency (SD-0 points)
    Always or nearly always needs assistance to complete
    criterion elements
   Grade
    ◦ 90 – 100 A
    ◦ 80 – 89 B
    ◦ 70 – 79 C
    ◦ < 70        F
                                                                 39
Professionalism and Behavior Criteria
 Items
  ◦ Patient and provider communication
  ◦ Appearance, attire
  ◦ Timeliness, commitment
  ◦ Initiative
 Pass/Fail, does not count toward grade
  ◦ Meets Competency
  ◦ Significant Deficiency
  ◦ SD may contribute to failing course

                                           40
        IPPE 201-Patient Care I
 Min 50 hr during the 2nd year
 2-3 students/group
 6 assignments
 Course Outcomes
  ◦ Develop pharmacist-patient relationship
  ◦ Collect pharmaceutical care database
  ◦ Develop problem list
  ◦ Make appropriate health care
    recommendations (under guidance of
    preceptor)
                                              41
             IPPE 201 Assessment
Preceptor evaluation 80% of course grade
Assignment #      Assessment Activity                       Points
  1               Database Collection                       10
  2     Medication History and Personal Medication Record   15
  3               Vital Signs/ ROS/Problem List             15
  4               SOAP note                                 15
  5               15-minute Patient Case Presentation       15
  6               Supervised Interview                      10
Course master evaluation 20% of the course grade
  Workshop Participation:
  Medication history, documentation (e.g., SOAP note)       14
  Course Closure Activities:
  Reflection Paper                                          6
Total Points for the Course                                 100




                                                                     42
         IPPE 301-Patient Care II
 Min 50 hr during the 3rd year
 5 assignments
 Course Outcomes
  ◦ Engage in the process of providing Medication Therapy
    Management (MTM) services
  ◦ Learn to identify and assess medical and medication‐related
    problems.
  ◦ Develop, implement, and follow‐up on recommendations for
    identified problems in collaboration with their preceptor
    and other healthcare providers.
  ◦ Develop communication skills with other members of the
    healthcare team.


                                                                  43
       IPPE 301 Assessment Criteria
Preceptor evaluation 60% of course grade
Assignment #        Assessment Activity                 Points
   1              Supervised Interview                  12
   2    Medication Therapy Review with problem list     16
   3    SOAP Note with Cover Letter
        Medication Action Plan
        Personal medical record (PMR)                   16
   4    F/U SOAP Note & Updated PMR                     16
Course Master evaluation 40% of the course grade
   5    Health Fair Poster Session                      10
        Workshop Activities & Participation             20
        Complete Student Portfolio (midpoint & final)   10
Total Points for the Course                             100



                                                                 44
    IPPE 303 Community Pharmacy Practice
 Min 160 hr in 4 wk during the 3rd yr
 Six (6) terminal performance objectives
 5. Identify five potential elements of medication error
  prevention at the practice site, using ISMP recommendations.
  ◦ Access at least weekly the ISMP FDA Safety Alerts.
  ◦ Describe issues related to dangerous abbreviations, high
     alert medications, and look alike/sound alike medications.
  ◦ Discuss with the preceptor each of the five safety issues
     identified and possible solutions.
  ◦ Post in Blackboard two safety intervention assignments.
  ◦ The interventions can be for an individual or the practice.
     List the issue and the corrective action taken.


                                                                  45
    IPPE 303 Assessment Criteria
   O = Outstanding (10 points): The student is able to perform all of
    the skill’s elements with minimal
    assistance from the preceptor.
   A = Acceptable (8 points): The student is able to perform the skill
    but requires assistance from the preceptor for some of the skill’s
    elements.
   N = Not acceptable (0 points): The student is unable to perform
    the skill without assistance from the preceptor for all or most of
    the skill’s elements.
   Grade (solely assessed by preceptor)
    ◦ 90 – 100% of 60 points         A
    ◦ 80 – 89% of 60 points          B
    ◦ 70 – 79% of 60 points          C
    ◦ < 70% of 60 points             F

                                                                          46
    Professionalism and Behavior Criteria
   ITEM 4: Initiative
   Acceptable/Unacceptable, does not count toward grade
   Acceptable
    The student consistently (greater than 90%):
    (1) Accepts responsibility and demonstrates accountability without
    repeated reminders;
    (2) Demonstrates a sense of duty;
    (3) Demonstrates an earnest desire to learn;
    (4) Demonstrates the willingness and flexibility to contribute to the
    well-being of others;
    (5) Applies knowledge, experience, and skills to the best of his/her
    ability.
   Unacceptable
    Does not meet criteria for acceptable as stated above.

                                                                            47
                PHR 1242
    Community Professional Development I
   Visit 1: Introduction to learning
   Visit 2: Concept of Pharmaceutical care
    ◦ HW #2: Component of Rx
    ◦ Practice skills
    ◦ OTC moment
   Visit 3: Pharmacy workflow
    ◦ HW#3: Rx label
    ◦ Practice skills
    ◦ OTC moment
   Visit 4-13
   Visit 7 Midterm Preceptor Evaluation of student performance
   Visit 14: Final Evaluation and Review


                                                                  48
             PHR 1242
 Community Professional Development I
HW #3
 Self-study assignment
   ◦ Rx label
   ◦ Formulations and substitutions
 Pharmacy skills focus
   ◦ Information on Rx label
   ◦ List 7 drugs in negative formulary
 OTC moment
   ◦ Active ingredients in Robitussin, Delsym
 Journal reflection
   ◦ How efficient is the workflow at your site?
                                                   49
    PHR 1242 Assessment Criteria
   Assessment of workplace performance (preceptor)     15%
   Assessment of professional competency (preceptor)   15%
   Site based assignment                               15%
   ETR journal and IDK cards                           15%
   Quizzes                                             10%
   Attendance/dress code*(count toward grade)          10%
   Case scenarios, class group assignments             20%
   Total                                               100%
   Grading scale
    A>=90
    B=80-89
    C=75-79
    F<75

                                                               50
       Professionalism and Workplace Performance
15 items, categorical




                                                   51
                    PHR 1242
          Community Practice Competencies
15 items, categorical




                                            52
                    PHR 2112
    Institutional Professional Development II
   Visit 1: Syllabus and Course Overview
   Visit 2: Medication order processing
    ◦ Self learning activities
    ◦ Professional insight
    ◦ Reflection and journal entries
   Visit 3: Hospital Pharmacy automation
    ◦ Self learning activities
    ◦ Professional insight
    ◦ Reflection and journal entries
   Visit 4-10
   No midpoint point evaluation
   Final Evaluation and Review (Grading rubrics the same)


                                                             53
    PHR 2112 Site Based Learning Activities
                                Visit #3
   Self-learning activities
    ◦ Describe the basic process of unit dose drug distribution in the
       hospital and how automation is used
    ◦ Are nurses able to access drugs from the automated dispensing
       machine that do not yet appear on the patient’s profile? If so,
       what safeguard are in place?
   Professional insight
    ◦ What do pharmacists consider to be the major sources of stress
       in hospital pharmacy?
    ◦ How do they deal with stress?
   Reflection and journal entries
    ◦ Some pharmacists are concerned that automation may
       jeopardize job security. What kind of skills should you develop
       so that your job will always be secure, regardless of automation?

                                                                           54
                       PHR 2112
         Institutional Practice Competencies
16 items, categorical




                                               55
    PHR 3232 Professional Development III

   Clinical Pharmacy
    ◦ 6 visits, 80 hr
   Geriatrics
    ◦ 1 visit 8 hr
   Class meetings wk1-wk16
    ◦ 32 hr
    ◦ Case presentations
    ◦ others


                                            56
PHR 3232 Assessment Criteria
   Service learning Projects     45%
    ◦ Clinical Pharmacy   25%
    ◦ Geriatric           10%
    ◦ Case Presentation   10%
 Professionalism                 25%
 Peer Case Evaluation            12%
 Electronic Thought Reflection   8%
 CV and cover letter             5%
 APPE Portfolio                  5%
                                        57
Experiential Training Log




                            58
Student Assessment of Preceptor




                                  59
Student Assessment of Preceptors
              (ACPE Appendix C)

 Ability to facilitate learning
 Communication skills
 Quality as a role model
 Effectiveness related to pharmacy
  education




                                      60
Stake Holders in the Partnership
 ACPE
 School
 Student
 Preceptor/site




                               61
              Preceptor’s Perspective
   Assist with daily activities
   Access to college resources
   Professional growth
   Academic appointments /recognition
   Material/financial rewards (e.g. CE, training, travel)
   Personal satisfaction and gratification of being a part of
    pharmacy education
   Shape the future of pharmacy practice
   Develop life long mentoring relationships
   Give back to the profession
   Recruitment tool
   Staff development

                                                                 62
        Elements of Precepting
   Partnership for education
   Role modeling
   Education
   Coaching
   Evaluation of performance
   Professionalism
   Teamwork
   Investment of time & energy
   Individualization of learning activities
   Guidance

                                               63
    Core Value for Preceptors
 Professionalism
 Desire to educate and share knowledge
  with students
 Willingness to mentor
 Time commitment for precepting
 Respect for students
 Willingness to work with a diverse
  student population

                                          64
          Preceptor Responsibilities
 Student orientation
 Throughout the internship/rotation
    ◦   Guide
    ◦   Coordinate
    ◦   Instruct
    ◦   Role model
    ◦   Assess/Evaluate



                                       65
          School Perspectives
 Engage in the real world of pharmacy practice
  (avoid ivory tower syndrome)
 “Experience” cannot be taught in classroom, it
  must be practiced and modeled, need preceptor
  as the education partner
 Marketing students for future employment
 Impart new academic concept onto pharmacy
  practice




                                                   66
        Recruit Practice Facilities
                (ACPE Standard No 28)
   Implement criteria for selection
   Select sites and preceptors with established
    quality criteria
   Execute affiliation agreement between the site
    and the school
   Preceptor training
   Oversight of preceptor/site for quality assurance
   Explore new preceptor/site for turnover and
    replacement


                                                        67
            Preceptors and Sites
 Adequate number of sites
 Diversity of practice facilities
 Preceptors to hold position in school for
  commitment
  ◦ Adjunct faculty practice sites
  ◦ University based experiential sites ( medical
    center)
  ◦ College based faculty sites in affiliated
    institutions


                                                    68
            Preceptors Training
                (ACPE Appendix C)

   Orientation to school’s mission, goal and
    value
   Review of school’s curriculum and teaching
    methodologies
   Review of school’s IPPE objectives
   Review of school’s performance assessment
    and grading system
   Web based tools and resources


                                                 69
       Preceptor’s Package
 Syllabus for the course
 Workbook
 Professionalism Assessment Form
 Competency Assessment Form
 Resource access (library, online)
  information
 System access information (e-mail,
  LiveText, Blackboard etc)

                                       70
Oversight of Pharmacy Practice Experience
                   (ACPE Appendix C)
   The experience director is responsible for oversight
    and quality assurance of the experience program
   Expertise, credibility and commitment of
    preceptor/site
   Number of students per site
   Schools should have systems, such as computerized
    system to manage the pharmacy practice
    experiences
   Preceptor/site evaluation by students



                                                           71
           Student’s Perspective
   Need experience before taking on the real practice
    world
   Expressed willingness/enthusiasm for learning
   Personal accountability and responsibility for actions
   Dependability and reliability
   Effective use of time and resources
   Courteous, respectful and non-judgmental
    communication with preceptors, patients, staff and
    fellow students
   Agent for change in pharmacy practice for the future



                                                             72
Continued Evolution of Pharmacy Practice
   Economic pressure
    ◦ Declining dispensing fee
    ◦ Centralized dispensing operation (e.g., mail order)
    ◦ Fee for service to patients to improve profitability
      (MTM)
   Desire to be integrated as a member of the healthcare
    team
   Put education in good use
   Medication related morbidity and mortality




                                                             73
Continued Evolution of Pharmacy Practice
   Medication related morbidity and mortality
    ◦ 3 -10 % of hospital admissions are medication-related
    ◦ 1.5 mm preventable medication related adverse
      events
    ◦ Cost-177 bb (yr 2000)
    ◦ Pharmacists can play a valuable role in reducing
      patient risk.




                                                              74
Challenges to Patient-Centered Care
 Time consuming third party billing
 Lack of reimbursement model
 Insufficient staffing
 Inability to access patient information
 Lack of private area
 Lack of education program
 www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.
  fcgi?artid=2690893

                                             75
                              References
   Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in
    Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree. http://www.acpe-
    accredit.org/pdf/ACPE
   American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Education and Training.
    http://www.ashp.org/Import/PRACTICEANDPOLICY/PolicyPositionsGuidelin
    esBestPractices/BrowsebyTopic/Education/PolicyPositions.aspx#0315
   VCU School of Pharmacy.
    http://www.pharmacy.vcu.edu/sub/exper/preceptors.aspx
   University of Maryland School of Pharmacy
    http://www2.pharmacy.umaryland.edu/administration/elp/courses.html
   Palm Beach Atlantic University Gregory School of Pharmacy
    http://pharmacy.pba.edu
   An enhanced community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience to improve
    patient care. Am J Pharm Educ. Kassam and Kwong, 2009 73(2): 25.




                                                                             76

								
To top