Developing in Sight by nyut545e2


                       Land i n es

                        Isolati on

 in Sight


     CAMBODIA          Leadership
            WHO WE ARE

                                                                                                                                                   Message From our Country Representative                                                   4
                                                                                                                                                   Village-based Development
                                                                                                                                                            How We Work                                                                       6
                                                                                                                                                            Where We Work                                                                     8
    Church World Service (CWS) was one of the 1st                                                                                                            Why We Work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10
    humanitarian organizations to arrive in Cambodia
    after the fall of the Khmer Rouge, in 1979. Since                                                                                              Mine Clearance                                                                          12
    then, we have been carefully developing and
    implementing made-in-Cambodia solutions                                                                                                        Peace Building                                                                          15
    tailored to the specific needs of the country’s                                                                                                Water and Sanitation
    most vulnerable people, mainly the rural poor.
    Often they are landless, disabled, or single                                                                                                            Saving Lives                                                                    18
    parents, while even those with land can grow
                                                                                                                                                            Testing the Water                                                               21
    only enough rice to feed their families for 5 to 7
    months of the year – if the harvest is good.                                                                                                   Developing Partners

    We constantly adapt and fine-tune our programs                                                                                                          Lending a Hand                                                                  24
    to fit Cambodia’s rapidly changing needs.
                                                                                                                                                            The Border                                                                      26
    The depth of our experience, the swiftness of
    our ability to respond and the diversity of our                                                                                                Emergency Appeal                                                                        29
    partnerships allow us to implement sustainable
    and effective programs that spark community-led                                                                                                Our Focus                                                                               30
    development, very often in remote villages where
    no other international NGO has a presence.

    The expertise acquired by our staff makes us
    uniquely qualified to enhance the technical and                                                                                                          Oddar Meanchey

    institutional capacity of Cambodian NGOs,
                                                                                                                                                                                 Preah Vihear
    community-based organizations and local
                                                                                                                                                     Bantey Meanchey
    government agencies. We have 75 staff working
    at our headquarters in Phnom Penh and in 6                                                                                                                    Siem Reap

    of Cambodia’s poorest provinces: Banteay                                                                                                         Battambang
    Meanchey, Battambang, Kompong Thom, Oddar                                                                                               Pailin
    Meanchey, Preah Vihear and Svay Rieng.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Kompong Thom




                                                                                                                                                                        Phnom Penh

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Svay Rieng
                            Text & Design: CWS Cambodia, Write Away Design & Editing       All photographs were taken with prior
                                                                                           consent. Consent of parents was obtained                                                                                  GULF
                            Photos:       CWS staff                                        prior to photographing children. CWS would                                                                            OF THAILAND
                                          Dhammayietra (cover, 2nd from bottom, page 16)   like to thank the individuals, communities and                       MAG (top cover, pages 13-15), ICSO (page 24)     partners whose stories inspired this report.
                                          Ryan Plummer (page 4), Peter Harris (page 5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Developing in Sight   3

A                                                                                                                            “Some villagers, alarmed by the
        lmost 30 years after our arrival in Cambodia,              “We strive to direct this ‘human                                                                                 Some villagers, alarmed by the sudden appearance
        CWS continues to work in villages where no                                                                                                                                  of tanks and other military hardware, have fled
                                                                  resourcefulness’ to effective and                       sudden appearance of tanks and other                      border areas, while our fieldworkers, and those of our
        other international NGO has a presence.
                                                               sustainable development that elevates                        military hardware, have fled border                     partners, report rising anxiety, suspicion and fear. Our
Very often these villages are extremely isolated, lack          the needs of the absolute poor to the                      areas ... Our work in building peace                     pioneering work in building peace and security is more
the most basic infrastructure and have experienced                      top of the agenda.“                                and security is more vital than ever.“                   vital than ever.
a severe breakdown in community solidarity. Their
remoteness also makes access difficult under the best                                                                                                                               Despite the rising tension, we remain committed to
of circumstances, and during the rainy season it can                                                                                                                                continuing our work in the remotest villages along the
take our fieldworkers several hours to reach a village.                                                                                                                             Thai border. In some cases, we are their primary link
                                                              have used the skills, confidence and experience they        access to health services, water and education; and       to local and provincial agencies, and their only link to
Still, our work is specifically tailored to each village      acquired in Self Help Groups, Rice Banks and Village        providing emergency relief.                               other humanitarian agencies.
and the most vulnerable households; we do not offer           Development Committees to win election to Commune
blanket solutions because there are none. Even villages       Councils. Those who had been isolated in absolute           Secondly, within CWS, we have upgraded our                As our work becomes more urgent, we are facing
in the same commune often experience very different           poverty are now in positions where they can have an         monitoring and evaluation unit, and the results of its    increasing funding pressure. Despite our proven track
problems: one may face drought (Beng) while another           effect on the policies of local governments.                review have pinpointed areas where we can channel         record, integrated rural development does not easily
just a few miles away has to cope with seasonal                                                                           our resources most effectively.                           mesh with the sectoral approach to funding adopted
flooding (Boeng Khvaek).                                      This report is intended to provide a snapshot of the work                                                             by many large donors.
                                                              we are doing. It is difficult to cover everything because   It is also important to note, that Cambodia, and
Intimate knowledge of each village is essential. This is      we take an integrated approach to development, work         especially the villages where we work, faced 2 new        We do not isolate a single problem or issue to focus
why our fieldworkers, as well as those of our partners,       in geographically diverse areas, and are active at all      threats during the past year: the global food crisis;     on, but adopt a holistic approach. We do this because
live part time in the villages where we work, sleeping a      levels of society and with diverse partners. What unites    and a dispute with Thailand that has drawn thousands      it works. The Cambodian NGOs we work with (and in
few nights a week in the homes of residents.                  our programs is their focus on building respectful,         of troops to a border where the consequences of war       some cases fund) are also finding that this integrated
                                                              long-term relationships that improve lives, communities     remain visible and the traumatic memories are still       development model is complicating attempts to attain
This is the first step: building relationships with           and organizations. We are convinced that these              strong.                                                   funding. Still, we are encouraging them to continue
residents and experiencing firsthand the problems they        relationships are the DNA of genuine development.                                                                     implementing this model – because it works so well.
face, as well as – and this is equally vital – seeing their                                                               These threats pose immense and immediate challenges
potential.                                                    Two important developments took place last year. We         to Cambodia’s most vulnerable citizens. Food security     We continue to channel our resources to meet
                                                              expanded Direct Assistance to 18 villages in Preah          is once again a major problem throughout the country      Cambodia’s most urgent needs: alleviating poverty;
This connection with the people we work with ensures          Vihear province, the most isolated area in Cambodia         (the price of rice more than doubled early last year),    providing access to safe water, health services and
that the assistance we provide goes where it is most          and the final bastion of the genocidal Khmer Rouge.         while residents near the Thai border have had to          education; building the capacity of Cambodian NGOs
needed, and that it produces sustainable results. At the      CWS is the 1st international NGO to provide village-        cope with an increased military presence as well as       and ecumenical partners; and creating or enhancing
same time, it ensures that we are seen as partners in         based development in this province. We are starting         increasingly hazardous access to Thailand, where          relationships to solve common problems.
development rather than dispensers of aid.                    from scratch: building and repairing bridges; striving      many of them work on a daily or seasonal basis,
                                                              to lower the unacceptable rate of child and maternal        frequently in exploitive situations without recourse to   We are inspired by our vision of the immense potential
Our goal is to help create the social infrastructure          mortality; confronting domestic violence; improving         assistance.                                               of the people we encounter.
that facilitates community-led development: Village
Development Committees, Health and Peace                                                                                                                                            We do not spend a lot of time or money on public
Volunteers, Self Help Groups, and enhanced links to                                                                                                                                 relations or communications; our focus is the most
Commune Councils, for example. This takes time, skill                                                                                                                               urgent needs of the most vulnerable people. We hope
and a very deep level of commitment.                                                                                                                                                that this report provides you with an accurate overview
                                                                                                                                                                                    of the work we are doing and invite you to contact us
Everywhere we go we continue to encounter the same                                                                                                                                  at any time for more details.
resourcefulness, courage and determination that are
fueling Cambodia’s remarkable recovery from decades                                                                                                                                 Sincerely,
of war and civil conflict.

We strive to direct this “human resourcefulness” to
effective and sustainable development that elevates the
needs of the absolute poor to the top of the agenda.                                                                                                                                Josephine Barbour
                                                                                                                                                                                    Country Representative
This approach has had very inspiring results. For                                                                                                                                   On behalf of CWS Cambodia’s staff
example, members of the most vulnerable households

4   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                Developing in Sight   5

How We Work
        WS was the 1st humanitarian organization to          A map of the village has been drafted and a census             Dengue are endemic to the area, but before CWS implemented
        arrive in Beng village since the fall of the Khmer   undertaken that identifies households in terms of              health training (with the assistance of the Cambodian Red Cross
        Rouge in 1979. Our fieldworkers 1st visited the      wealth: rich (1), middle class (14), poor (31) and very        and Health Center staff) residents did not know how to prevent
village, which is located about 2 hours from Kompong         poor (33). The difference between middle class and             transmission of these diseases, or when it was necessary to get
Thom town in Sraeung Commune, in mid-2007. As                poor is that the former own land and a motorbike.              treatment. They were unaware, for example, that the mosquito that
usual, they began building relationships with residents      The categories are used to ensure that direct aid and          transmits Dengue bites during the day, while the 1 that transmits
by sleeping in their homes 2 or 3 nights a week.             assistance goes to the most vulnerable of the villages’        Malaria bites during the night. Knowing this fact, parents now
                                                             79 households, including one home where a deaf-                ensure that their children sleep under mosquito nets when they nap
One of the first steps was to help create a Village          mute woman who has repeatedly been the victim of               during the day. The number of cases of Dengue and Malaria has
Development Committee. This was done through an              rape is raising 2 children alone.                              plummeted in the village (from over 10 to 2 or 3 a year).
election: 3 men and 3 women were elected. More
than 85 percent of the village’s residents over the age      As is true in most communities, vulnerable families often      A strong link has been formed between the village and the Health
of 18 voted.                                                 live in isolation due, in part, to the stigma associated       Center. Quarterly meetings bring together health center staff, CWS,
                                                             with absolute poverty as well as their own shame and           Village Health Volunteers and Traditional Birth Attendants. Children
After the election, committee members received training      despondency. In Beng village, however, they are now            now receive tetanus vaccinations and have regular checkups.             	Satrea lives with her 2 children in a
on their roles and responsibilities, village planning,       being drawn into the community and their neighbors                                                                                     thatched hut in Choam Boeng village in
peace building, domestic violence, proposal writing,         are helping them. Vulnerable people now have a say             Moreover, mothers are now giving birth under the supervision of         Sraeung Commune. The small plot her
and proper nutrition for mothers and children.               in development plans.                                          nurses or doctors, and the village’s Traditional Birth Attendant, Ms.   home is on belongs to her sister, and
                                                                                                                            Vann Chea, has a new role. Instead of delivering babies under           the rice field she owns is just 10 square
A Sala, community meeting hall, was also built,              The villagers have identified key barriers to development:     unhygienic conditions, she is dispensing the birth-spacing advice she   meters. If the harvest is good, it provides
and it has become a focal point in the village for           illiteracy (122 adults in the village cannot read or write);   gained through CWS-led training. Birth spacing helps reduce child
                                                                                                                                                                                                    just 2 months of rice for her family.
disseminating health information and facilitating            lack of safe drinking water; insufficient food; no capital     and maternal death rates, improve health and reduce poverty.
community discussions on a wide range of issues: from        to start businesses; lack of livestock; lack of irrigation;                                                                            Her husband abandoned her and their
safe drinking water to setting up Self Help Groups.          inadequate roads; and domestic violence. Along with                                                                                    children 3 years ago and she has not seen
                                                             these barriers, which are immense, residents are also                                                                                  him since or received any support from
The committee drafts annual plans with very specific         identifying solutions and taking steps to achieve them.                                                                                him. Satrea suffers from lung disease as
goals, such as requests for wells, fruit tree seedlings,     The most positive impact so far has been on health.                                                                                    well as typhoid. Before she became ill,
more training on domestic violence, and a request            With the nearest Health Centre 8 kilometers away,                                                                                      she used to travel to work on plantations,
to the Commune Council that an irrigation dam be             residents used to rely on prayers and offerings to heal
                                                                                                                                                                                                    leaving her children (a boy 13 and a girl
integrated into the Commune Development Plan.                illness. Mosquito-borne diseases like Malaria and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    7) in the care of her sister. She did this to
                                                                                                                                                                                                    earn money to buy food. Now, she can
                                                                                                                                                                                                    only do odd jobs around the village, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    only on days when she is not too weak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    When CWS fieldworkers arrived in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                    village they provided rice and nutritional
                                                                                                                                                                                                    supplements for her children, as well
                                                                                                                                                                                                    as school supplies so they could attend
                                                                                                                                                                                                    classes. They also encouraged her
                                                                                                                                                                                                    to attend training sessions on home
                                                                                                                              	CWS fieldworkers like Ms. Khem Ratha become members                 gardening, and chicken and pig raising.
                                                                                                                              of the villages they work in, sleeping at residents’ homes a few      She was given seedlings for fruit trees
                                                                                                                              nights a week for four years. This is why we call our model
                                                                                                                                                                                                    (mango and jackfruit) and now has a
                                                                                                                              village-based development.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    garden that supplies vegetables for her
                                                                                                                              We do not draft strategies and development plans for villages         family. Eventually, she will be able to
                                                                                                                              from offices located in provincial capitals or Phnom Penh.            sell fruit, chickens and pigs to generate
                                                                                                                              Instead, our fieldworkers facilitate each village’s effort            income.
                                                                                                                              to identify the hurdles it faces and pinpoint solutions. This
                                                                                                                              builds trust, fosters solidarity, and ensures that residents gain
                                                                                                                              the confidence, knowledge and skills necessary to develop
                                                                                                                              their communities independently. It also allows us to respond
                                                                                                                                                                                                    “I want to be able to afford to
                                                                                                                              immediately to crises, such as floods and fires.                      pay for my son and daughter
                                                                                                                                                                                                    to attend secondary school.”

6   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                    Developing in Sight   7

Where We Work                                                                                                                        Boeng Khvaek village: forced migration
After phasing out of 40 villages in Kompong Thom in 2006, CWS initiated village-based development in 13                  Getting enough food to eat is the priority for most
of the most remote and isolated villages in the province’s Prasat Sambour and Santuk districts in July 2007.             residents here. This food crisis was compounded
Combined, this program reaches 1,365 families (6,973 people, of whom over 40 percent are 14 years of age or              earlier this year when the UN World Food Programme
younger). At the same time, CWS also pioneered village-                                                                  stopped providing free breakfasts at the local primary
based development in 12 villages in the Northwestern                                                                     school.
province of Preah Vihear, which borders Thailand and
Laos. This was increased to 18 villages in 2008. They                                                                    Adults and teens are forced to migrate to Phnom Penh
comprise 2,689 families (11,697 people).                                                                                 or work on cassava plantations at the other end of the
                                                                                                                         province to earn enough money to buy rice. At the
One major obstacle faced in Preah Vihear is the extreme                                                                  plantations they are paid $1.75 a day and are neither
remoteness of the villages. Some are inaccessible during                                                                 given food nor a place to sleep. They also have to
the rainy season. Even during the dry season, field staff                                                                cover the cost of transportation, which is $5 each way.
must travel through the dense forest of Kulen PrumTep                                                                    In Phnom Penh they often face an even higher risk of
National Park by oxcart, then cross a river that is waist                                                                exploitation if they lack a family or social network to
deep, to reach the 6 villages in Yeang Commune.                                                                          rely on. Only 4 people in the village have completed
                                                                                                                         high school. Most of the adults are illiterate.
We are considering placing our field staff permanently
in these villages during the rainy season.                                                                               Those who cannot travel to work are often forced to
                                                                                                                         sell livestock or are driven into debt to moneylenders to
                                                                                                                         buy rice, which more than doubled in price last year.         	The chief of the village’s development committee,
                                                                                                                         Ensuring a stable and affordable supply of rice here is       Ms. Hut Loun, reviews their annual development plan,
                                                                                                                         vital. Not only will this alleviate anxiety, hunger and the   drafted with the assistance of a CWS fieldworker. Because
                                                                                                                         risk of exploitation; it will also help create the security   flooding destroys some residents’ paddy fields, new income-

                          Thmei village: math matters                                                                    that is a necessary condition for families to begin
                                                                                                                         raising themselves out of absolute poverty.
                                                                                                                                                                                       generating activities are needed to create a stable economy
                                                                                                                                                                                       in the village, and reduce the need for residents to leave
                                                                                                                                                                                       in search of work. This poverty-forced migration separates
                                                                                                                                                                                       husbands from wives and parents from children, often for
                                                                             The classes are run in conjunction with     The rice bank established with the assistance of CWS          months at a time.
                                                                                                                         last year is helping cushion its members from economic
                                                                             the Non-formal Education division
                                                                                                                         shock and providing them with an alternative source
                                                                             of the Provincial Department of
                                                                                                                         of obtaining rice that does not drain money from the           Their development plan has 4 categories and 23 goals.
                                                                             Education, which trained their teacher,
                                                                                                                         village. It is a sustainable solution that also fosters a      	Health
                                                                             Mr. Cheam Yoeun, and provides him
                                                                                                                         spirit of sharing in a village where – even more than            - More malaria prevention training
                                                                             with a stipend. His students say he is      a decade after the end of civil conflict – distrust and          - More dengue prevention training
                                                                             very talented and so enthusiastic that      isolation continue to prevent people from working                - Hygience and sanitation promotion
                                                                             he allows them to extend the classes        together to solve shared problems.                               - Latrine construction
                                                                             an extra hour, to 10pm.                                                                                      - More water filters
                                                                                                                                                                                          - Hand-pump wells
                                                                                                                         Like most farmers in the province, those here have             	Food security
                                                                              The women have a very urgent               relatively small plots (less than 1 hectare on average)          - Fish raising training
                                                                              need to learn how to add, subtract,        and grow just 1 crop of rice a year. If the harvest is           - Poultry raising training
                                                                              divide and multiply. They say they         good, it can feed a family for 5-6 months. However,              - Fruit tree planting
                                                                              are constantly worried about being         even this is not guaranteed. The lack of an irrigation           - Request more seedlings*
                                                                              cheated by brokers as well as at the       system means farmers must rely on seasonal rains,                - Vegetable growing training
                                                                              markets where they sell or buy produce                                                                      - Request more vegetable seeds
                                                                                                                         which some years cause flooding that inundates paddy             - Set up a tree nursery
                                                                              and other goods. They also want to         fields and destroys crops.                                     	Education
                                                                              be able to help their children with                                                                         - School materials for vulnerable children
                                                                              their studies. The first primary school    In less than 6 months, the rice bank has grown to                - Non-formal classes
                                                                              opened in the village in 2003, and all     330 kilograms, from the 220 kilograms provided by                - A small library
                                                                              of their children attend it. Some of the   CWS. The 11 households that are its members repay              	Disaster planning & emergency response
	Mrs. Pol Khim’s reason for attending adult literacy       mothers say their children are helping them learn to         1.5 kilograms for every kilogram borrowed. Previously,           - Request that a dam be repaired
                                                                                                                                                                                          - Emergency food supply
classes in Thmei village differs from those of most         read and write, while others say they are helping their      when they borrowed rice from another village they                - Monthly meetings with Self Help Groups
her 25 classmates. “I want to be able to read about         children do the same. Some also study in small groups        would have to repay 2 kilograms for every 1 borrowed,            - Request working capital asssistance from CWS
Buddhism,” she explains – almost in a whisper – during      if they have free time during the day.                       and cover the cost of transportation to and from the             - Monthly meetings with CWS
one of the classes, which are held 6 times a week.                                                                       village. Rice-bank members are seeing the tangible               - VDC capacity building
About 90 percent of the students are women, most of         All agree that they are becoming more confident and          benefits of cooperation and are planning to build a              - Construction of a Sala (see page 6)
whom are mothers, and the 2-hour classes are held in        less embarrassed. People, even their own children,           storage facility for their rice. Two more rice banks have       * The land around CWS’s Kompong Thom office is used to grow
the evening because, for most of them, this is the only     used to call the “stupid” because they could not read        been set up. All put a priority on helping the most               seedlings for distribution to villages.
free time they have.                                        or write.                                                    vulnerable households among their members.

8   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                              Developing in Sight   9

Why We Work                                                                                    	CWS pioneered democratically elected Village Development Committees in each target village of
                                                                                               Preah Vihear, identified and assisted vulnerable households, and selected and trained health and peace
                                                                          Through a
                                                                          partnership with     However, in Preah Vihear there is a special emphasis on maternal and child health. Children born there
                                                                                               are among the most likely to die before they reach the age of 5 in Cambodia, which has the highest child
                                                                          the WFP CWS          mortality rate in the region, and the 25th highest in the world. About 1 in 8 Cambodian children die before
                                                                          is providing         the age of 5. (Source: WHO) The rate is 43 percent higher in rural areas than in towns and cities, and is
                                                                          education            inversely proportional to the level of maternal health education, according to demographic health surveys.
                                                                          on child and
                                                                          maternal health      Intensive intervention by CWS fieldworkers, Village Health Volunteers and local authorities has shown dramatic
                                                                                               results in improving the nutrition and health of infants, pregnant women and lactating mothers. At the start
                                                                          in Preah Vihear      of the project, they identified pregnant women, lactating mothers and infants (less than 2 years of age) in 18
                                                                          province.            villages. In partnership with the World Food Programme, food and nutritional supplements were distributed
                                                                          Cambodia’s           to 565 infants, 234 lactating mothers and 175 pregnant women. Health Volunteers also conducted village
                                                                          unacceptably         training sessions and home visits to educate parents, and monitored infants’ weight gain.
                                                                          high level of        Data from 3 villages selected for a sampling found that no child under 5 was severely malnourished, while
                                                                          child mortality      those classified as “moderately” malnourished prior to the intervention were moving closer to “normal”.
                                                                          is at its worst
                                                                          in rural
                                                                          areas where                                                      Four Years
                                                                          maternal health    Our village-based development model is implemented in 3 phases over 4 years in villages identified by baseline
                                                                          education is       surveys. Phase 1 is devoted to building relationships with residents and lasts 1 year. A Participatory Rural Assessment
                                                                          lacking.           is also conducted. Phase 2 lasts 2 years and focuses on strengthening livelihoods at the household and community
                                                                                             level. Formal monitoring and evaluation is conducted in the 3rd year. During the final year, Phase 3, the structures
                                                                                             set up in the village are strengthened. The program ends with a handing over ceremony within the village.

                                                                                             Twelve villages in Kompong Thom are in the early stage of Phase 2. The 13th village is in Phase 1 because it
                                                                                             was not included in the baseline survey. Following a request from its village chief, CWS included the village in
                                                                                             the project. Six of the 12 villages in Preah Vihear are in Phase 1. Below is a partial list of what CWS and the
      Mutually inspiring relationships based on active values, and technical                 communities have accomplished in Kompong Thom, and a list of what they intend to do next in Preah Vihear.
     expertise fused with local knowledge, have the power to transform lives.
                                                                                               Kompong Thom                                                  Preah Vihear
                                                                                               (July 2007 to November 2008)                                  (July 2008 to June 2010)
                                                                                               	27   Village Health Volunteers and 21 Traditional           	Enhance     relationships with residents and local
                                                                                                 Birth Attendants have been trained in 12 villages             and provincial governments
                                                                                               	 literacy classes in 8 villages have been started           	Help Village Development Committees draft
                                                                                               	 Self-Help Groups and 5 rice banks formed                     comprehensive development plans
                                                                                               	25 Red Cross and 24 Community Peace volunteers              	Install more wells and small-scale irrigations
                                                                                                 have been selected and trained in 12 villages                 systems
                                                                                               	Demonstration farms have been set up in 8 villages,         	Provide school materials to 120 students (60
                                                                                                 palm sugar groups in 5, water-pump groups in 2                percent female)
                                                                                               	39 vulnerable households have been identified for           	Provide training on family assessment and
                                                                                                 direct and intensive assistance                               household planning to an additional 54
                                                                                               	Capacity of CBOs enhanced                                     vulnerable households
                                                                                               	Village development plans are being integrated              	Support 36 additional vulnerable families to
                                                                                                 into annual Commune Council plans                             implement their plans
                                                                                               	Food and nutritional supplements distributed to             	Strengthen leadership and management
                                                                                                 children, pregnant women and lactating mothers                capacity of Village Development Committees,
                                                                                               	Materials supplied for construction of open wells             Village Leaders, Commune Councils
                                                                                                 and latrines, water filters distributed                     	Start 8 literacy classes in 4 communes
                                                                                               	Training on vegetable and livestock raising                 	Work with Health Centers to provide refresher
                                                                                               	Water pumps for dry-season rice growing supplied              courses to 43 Health Volunteers on HIV/Aids,
                                                                                               	Grants and training for vulnerable people to set up           STDs, Dengue and Malaria
                                                                                                 micro businesses                                            	Facilitate the formation and strengthen the
                           CWS fieldworkers Chey Peseth (left) and Chanhak Sokhom wade         	Understanding of peace-building and restorative               capacity of 34 Self-Help Groups
                           through a river to reach Yeang Commune, Preah Vihear.                 justice strengthened                                        	Encourage and support home gardening as
                                                                                               	Swifter response for victims of disaster                      well as integrated farming systems

10   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                     Developing in Sight   11

Life without Landmines
                                                                         ne of the world’s most treacherous mine            Moreover, villagers, most often women and children,
                                                                         belts, K5, runs along Cambodia’s border with       are forced to walk long distances for water if sources
                                                                         Thailand. Thirty years after the mines were laid   nearby are in areas suspected of being mined.
                                                               they continue to kill, maim, and cause blindness and
CWS remains dedicated to the                                   other grave injuries. Of the 590 victims over the past       CWS has been providing funding* for the Mines
belief that no individuals, families                           2 years, 229 were children. (Figures do not include
                                                               the final two months of 2008.) The most vulnerable
                                                                                                                            Advisory Group (MAG) to de-mine and educate
                                                                                                                            the public about the risks of mines and unexploded
or communities should have to live                             households are also the most affected.                       ordinance for more than a decade, most recently
amidst landmines. With support from                            Despite the significant decline in the numbers of
                                                                                                                            in Malai District, Banteay Meanchey, where there
                                                                                                                            are about 35 landmine causalities a year. A former
our donors we will continue working                            landmine victims in national statistics, the provinces       battleground along the Thai border, the district is home
with our partners to ensure that                               where CWS works remain heavily impacted by mines
                                                               and unexploded ordinance. More than half of all
                                                                                                                            to former Khmer Rouge soldiers as well as returnees
                                                                                                                            from refugee camps. CWS’s funding has been used to
Cambodians no longer have to live in                           landmine causalities in Cambodia in 2007 and 2008            support 1 mine clearance team, which includes widows
daily fear of these horrific devices.                          occurred in 4 of the provinces where CWS works:
                                                               27 percent (160) in Battambang; 14 percent (85)
                                                                                                                            of landmine victims as well as landmine survivors.

                                                               in Banteay Meanchey; 9.7 (57) percent in Oddar               Their work is time consuming and costly (funding ran
                                                               Meanchey; and 7.5 percent (44) in sparsely populated         out at the end of June but MAG was able to continue
                                                               Preah Vihear. (Cambodia Mine Victims Information             the work for 3 more months). One reason that the de-
                                                               System, CMVIS)                                               mining process is so slow is that every metal fragment
                                                                                                                            or shrapnel detected beneath the surface must be
                                                               If these causality statistics are further broken down to     treated as a landmine, each of which takes a substantial
                                                               the District and Commune levels, their impact on the         amount of time to excavate.
                                                               areas where CWS works is far greater. For example,
                                                               2 districts where CWS is implementing village-               Our humanitarian mine clearance has focused on
                                                               based development through local partners (Samlout            areas near roads, villages and schools, as well as
                                                               in Battambang and Malai in Banteay Meanchey)                 fields that can be used for farming and areas where
                                                               accounted for more than 10 percent of all casualties         community ponds can be dug. The sites are selected
                                                               over the past 2 years. (CMVIS)                               by communities. The work is far from complete; more
                                                                                                                            funding is necessary. So far, 95,090 square meters of
                                                               Still, as tragic as they are, causality figures are only     land have been cleared. In total, 207 anti-personnel
                                                               one gauge (albeit a horrific one) of the impact of           mines, 15 unexploded ordinances (bombs), 2 anti-tank
                                                               landmines. These deadly devices are also a major             mines and 34,264 metal fragments were removed.
                                                               barrier to development. They trap households and
                                                               entire villages in fear and poverty. For example, fields     Two clearance areas will be returned to communities
                                                               where mines have been laid, or are suspected to have         for farming and social purposes, which will provide a
                                                               been laid, cannot be used for farming.                       step out of poverty.
                                                                                                                            * Funding support from EED, Christian Aid and NCCA has been vital.

                                        From left:
                                        CWS supported
                                        de-miners at work
                                        in Malai District. A
                                        de-miner prodding
                                        to uncover a
                                        Primary school
                                        children celebrate
                                        the clearance of
                                        mines from their
                                        school ground.

12   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                               Developing in Sight       13
          DE-MINING                                                                                                                                                                                     PEACE BUILDING

                                                                                                                      Searching for Justice
     The K5 Mine Belt
                                                                                                                             mong the many questions Cambodian youths
                                                                                                                             asked at the CWS-supported International Peace
                                                                                                                             Conference in Siem Reap in September were:            Word by Word
     The most heavily mined area in Cambodia is also one of the poorest:                                              why are former leaders of a regime responsible for
     along the Thai border. The mines were laid after the Khmer Rouge                                                 the deaths of up to 2 million Cambodians being               For the past year, CWS community and peace program
                                                                                                                                                                                   officer Mr. Nao Sok has been spending several hours a
     retreated to base camps there following the Vietnamese invasion in                                               treated so well while they await trial; and what does        week transcribing a 90-minute documentary about South
     1978. In 1984 and 1985, they and 230,000 civilians were driven                                                   “allegedly” mean? Representatives of what is called          Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. When
     across the border into Thailand. To prevent their return, tens of                                                the Extraordinary Chamber in the Court of Cambodia           he completes this, the English words will be translated
                                                                                                                      (ECCC) attended the weeklong event to explain the            into Khmer, and then dubbed. The film will be shown
     thousands of local residents were forcibly conscripted to help construct                                         complex procedures of this hybrid tribunal, run jointly
     a minefield along the 1,046 kilometer border. This became known                                                                                                               in workshops for police officers, government officials,
                                                                                                                      by the UN and the Royal Government of Cambodia.              commune councils, and journalists, among others.
     infamously as “the K5”, the 5th in a series of defensive plans (Kar                                                                                                           Transcribing dialogue is a laborious task, especially
     Korpier pram).                                                                                                   The 6 ECCC representatives, including a legal                when it is not in your native language. It can take hours to
                                                                                                                      consultant for 1 of the 5 accused, explained the history     transcribe a few minutes of the film. Dozens of speakers
                                                                                 “The people still dealing            and mandate of the tribunal, its 4 stages (investigative,    convey an extreme range of tones – wounded, furious,
     After Vietnamese forces withdrew, Cambodian soldiers laid thousands         with landmines are the most          pre-trial, trial and appellate), how victim complaints       evasive, detached, resolute, and compassionate – in
     more mines to defend towns and villages, military positions, and            vulnerable in Cambodia. They         are “processed”, and how victims can participate.            accents he had never heard before. He got stuck on a
     supply routes. Khmer Rouge and Monarchist opposition forces also            fear for their lives and the lives   Victims have 2 options: they can file a complaint or         single word for weeks: “Kafkaesque.”
     overran parts of North and Western Cambodia, laying even more               of their children. Because the       a civil party action. The former allows them to give
     mines. In the mid-1990s, the newly formed Royal Cambodian Armed                                                  prosecutors additional evidence, while the latter allows     The workshops also use snippets from Cambodian
                                                                                 exact location of landmines is                                                                    director Rithy Panh’s documentary “S21: Inside the
     Forces launched annual dry-season offensives at the remaining Khmer                                              them to seek collective and moral reparations. To file
                                                                                 often unknown, the fear of their     a complaint or civil party application, victims need to      Khmer Rouge Killing Machine.” The acclaimed film
     Rouge strongholds, laying mines each time. By 1999, the Khmer               presence is itself a huge barrier    fill out a “Victim Information Form” and deliver it to the   brings former guards and survivors of the infamous
     Rouge leadership gave up and sought amnesty or were captured.               to development. Even their           Court, the ECCC representatives explained.                   torture center together to discuss, and re-enact, the
                                                                                                                                                                                   atrocities that happened there. “We can’t show the entire
                                                                                 suspected presence is enough                                                                      film because it is too unsettling for many people. They
     There are few reliable records of where the mines were laid. Estimates      to deter development.                Answering the questions from youths, they told them          start shaking and weeping. You have to be very sensitive
     of their number range from 1 million to 4 million.                                                               that the trials must follow “international standards”,       in your approach to victims of trauma. You need to be
                                                                                                                      which mean that a person is innocent until proven            incredibly delicate. The process is very, very slow.”
                                                                                 At MAG our goal is to clear          guilty. They explained that the judges are responsible
                                                                                 land for development so              for deciding who was a “senior leader” and who was
                                                                                 that people in landmine-             “most responsible” for the crimes committed by the
                                                                                 contaminated areas can               Khmer Rouge, and that the ECCC has the power to try
                                                                                 escape the poverty that is a         all suspects who committed serious crimes – such as
                                                                                 direct result of these deadly        genocide, crimes against humanity, , homicide, torture
                                                                                                                      and religious persecution – in Cambodia between
                                                                                 obstacles. For this reason           April 17, 1975 and January 6, 1979.
                                                                                 CWS is an ideal partner: we
                                                                                 share their goal of removing         “As the ECCC proceeds, it is the right time for
                                                                                 obstacles to development so          Cambodians to talk about their history,” explained the
                                                                                 that even the most vulnerable        conference organizer Youth for Peace. “The Khmer
                                                                                 Cambodians can have an               Rouge period has not been much talked about by
                                                                                                                      Cambodian people, and especially by the youth.
                                                                                 opportunity of escaping from         Children of survivors and perpetrators do not receive
                                                                                 poverty and fear.”                   any formal education on the history of the Khmer
                                                                                                                      Rouge period, and largely depend on family narratives
     CWS has been supporting 1 entire MAG demining team in Malai                               James Sutherland       for information. There [has been] little or no movement
     District, Banteay Meanchey.                                                              Program Officer, MAG    for justice after the conflict.”
                                                                                                                      The conference was international with about 350
                                                                                                                      participants, including about 290 Cambodian youths.
“After the conflict between the Khmer Rouge and government                                                            Through discussions with youths from Rwanda, Peru
troops we returned [from Thailand], but when we arrived here                                                          and Guatemala, some learned for the 1st time that
                                                                                                                      genocide, torture and crimes against humanity had not
we found there were landmines. I could not farm the land. How                                                         happened only in Cambodia. The conference included
could we survive with landmines all around us? We just wanted                                                         country presentations, peace art workshops, a panel
a safe life. My children were too young to understand the risk. I                                                     on post-conflict social movements in various countries,
thought we’d have to leave. Then MAG arrived [in March 2008]                                                          discussions on how to preserve and honor memory,
                                                                                                                      and a peace march. One speaker pointed out
and cleared the area. We have a new life.”                                                                            that 70 percent of Cambodia’s population was
                                                                                                                      born after the genocide. “Youth is power,”
                                            Moung Chheang (Back left)
                                                                                                                      she told them. By working together they
                                                                                                                      can put to rest the older generation’s
                                  Mr. Chheang lives in Banteay Ti ll village,                                         attitude that Cambodians are
                            Malai District with his wife, children and mother.                                        inherently cruel, she said.

14    Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                               Developing in Sight   15

                                                                          in Thailand in 1992. The 16-day
                                                                          pilgrimage, which passed through
                                                                          Khmer Rouge controlled areas,
                                                                          was intended to begin restoring the
                                                                          hope and spirit of the Cambodian
                                                                          Dhammayeatra Battambang has
                                                                          a close relationship with CWS that
                                                                          is based on a mutual commitment
                                                                          to peace, the group’s volunteer
                                                                          coordinator Ms. Sek Sorom explains
                                                                          at the Pagoda in Battambang town
                                                                          where the group has a small office.
                                                                          The group has received training and
                                                                          grants from CWS and its members
                                                                          have attended CWS workshops. It
                                                                          works primarily with prisoners and
                                                                          Last year they used a small grant
                                                                          (less than $1,000) to initiate peace                                                                                                   T-shirts and banners say: “Rejecting violence
                                                                          and non-violence classes for                                                                                                           helps families live in dignity and happiness.”
                                                                          primary school students in villages
                                                                          around the town on Sundays. In           	CWS helped Commune Councils in Preah Vihear organize their 1st march against domestic violence. Residents
                                                                          village schools there are few, if any,   of 9 villages participated in the event, which is being integrated into the nationwide White Ribbon Campaign.
                                                                          extracurricular activities, and as a     Empirical data on domestic violence in Cambodia is thin, but alarming.* There is, however, a consensus that the
                                                                          result children face a higher risk       level of domestic violence in Cambodia, as in other post-conflict countries, is intolerably high.
                                                                          of joining gangs or taking drugs,
                                                                          Ms. Sarom explains. At the Sunday        One positive development is that domestic violence is now discussed in public, and at all levels of government.
                                                                          classes they learn about Buddhist        Another is that Cambodian men, as well as women, are taking the lead. CWS Cambodia believes that post-
                                                                          precepts, practice meditation, and       traumatic stress combined with gender inequality is a major cause of domestic violence. Soldiers who return from
                                                                          play games. They also take turns         the battlefield often turn their homes into war zones.
                                                                          cleaning up the school ground and
                                                                          are learning how to plant trees as a     Children who experience or even witness domestic violence become profoundly traumatized; they also face a
                                                                          way of teaching them to respect the      high risk of reenacting violence or becoming victims themselves. Our Peace Building program aims to break this
                                                                          environment and create goodwill in       tragic cycle in 3 ways: public-awareness campaigns; intensive training; and funding and technical support for
                                                                          their communities, she says.             NGOs and small groups that have the expertise (or the potential) to implement effective interventions.
                                                                           The group only has the capacity         * A demographic health study conducted in 2000 estimated that 23 percent of married women are beaten by their husbands, more than 50 percent of
                                                                           to accept 30 students for each          divorced women had been beaten by their husbands, and that uneducated women are most at risk.
                                                                           of the 2-month sessions. So far,
                                                                           120 children have participated.
                                                       Ms. Sarom is pleased that after each session several
Small Change                                           children volunteer to help with the next one. And she
                                                       especially excited by one unexpected result. A 13-year-
                                                       old boy who had been a schoolyard bully is now a
                                                                                                                   Starting point

       small grant from CWS is allowing a volunteer-                                                               Because conflict transformation begins with the most                     Skills: This requires training and practice, both within
                                                       peace and non-violence volunteer.                           difficult conversion – one’s self – CWS staff receive                    CWS and in the community. Specific components
       run organization in Battambang to continue                                                                  from 1 to 4 training opportunities a year. We also think                 include: communication skills; ability to analyze
       spreading the teachings of the Nobel Peace      Dhammayeatra Battambang is planning to expand               deeply about lessons learned and solve problems as                       local capacities for peace; ability to offer third-party
Prize-nominated monk known as the “Gandhi of           from 3 to 10 villages in 2009 and to secondary              they arise by getting to their root causes. This enhances                assistance (in Cambodia this is especially useful for
Cambodia” to primary school children in villages       schools. They are hoping as well to increase the ratio      our problem-solving skills and teamwork.                                 alternative resolutions of land disputes); as well as
around Battambang town.                                of girls in the sessions to about 70 percent.                                                                                        problem-solving and negotiation skills, particularly in
                                                                                                                   We believe that ending violence requires three inter-                    ways that move parties to a needs-based approach.
Dhammayeatra Battambang comprises a small group    “It is important to focus on girls. They face the highest       related tools: ideas, skills, and attitudes.
of volunteers who are very                                                         risk of dropping out of                                                                                  Attitudes: To develop a more peaceful society it is
committed to the teachings                                                         school because their            Ideas: The paradigm shift from war-mongering                             necessary to shift attitudes about gender, nationalism,
and work of the monk          To change the attitudes of parents, they parents want them to                        to peace-building requires a constantly enhanced                         stereotyping, corruption and transparency, collaboration
who was the Patriarch of
Cambodian       Buddhism      followed the footsteps of the monk who work at home,” Ms.
                                                                                   Sarom said. To change
                                                                                                                   understanding of conflict, violence, development,
                                                                                                                   peace, restorative justice, identity and power. These
                                                                                                                                                                                            versus competition, and inclusiveness.
during the Khmer Rouge                     inspired them.                          the attitudes of parents,       concepts can be either barriers or building blocks.                      This approach to building peace allows us to work
period and its aftermath,                                                          they      followed    the       The latter can be achieved by a constantly deepening                     on solid ground; we integrate it into every project
Samdech Preah Maha                                                                 footsteps of the monk           understanding of them.                                                   we implement and every relationship we build. For
Ghosananda. (His Pali monastic name, Maha          who inspired them; they organized a walk of monks                                                                                        example, Village Peace Volunteers are trained in every
Ghosananda, means “Great Joyful Proclaimer.”)      and children through the villages around the town on            This is difficult. It requires repetitive reflection and                 village we work in, the Commune Councils where we
                                                   Children’s Day (June 1st), thanking parents for sending         discussion for individuals to internalize the concepts in                work receive conflict resolution and anti-corruption
He is best known for the Peace Walk (Dhammayeatra) their children to school and handing out Peace Walk             a way that unifies them with other people, and alters                    training, and the Cambodian NGOs we support receive
he led through Cambodia after returning from exile flyers from CWS.                                                the way they interact with and perceive others.                          in-depth instruction on how to ensure transparency.

16   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                               Developing in Sight    17

Safe Water Saves Lives
                                                                                                                                                                 WS’s Water and Sanitation (WatSan) project         for home gardens. This saves them the cost of having
                                                                                                                                                                 covers 19 villages in 2 districts of Svey Rieng.   to buy vegetables and creates the opportunity for them
                                                                                                                                                                 The 3-year project ends this fiscal year and       to generate income by selling their produce.
                                                                                                                                                        will likely be duplicated in another target area of the
                                                                                                                                                        province. The project is run in collaboration with the      One constraint on the project last year was a surge in
                                                                                                                                                        Provincial Department of Rural Development. Three           the price of construction materials. Suppliers reneged
                                                                                                                                                        department staff work directly with CWS. The extensive      on contracts in order to sell materials at higher prices
                                                                                                                                                        training they have received enhances the capacity           to other buyers. As a result, a decision was made to
                                                                                                                                                        of the department to improve water and sanitation           reduce the number of wells and latrines supplied and
                                                                                                                                                        throughout the province.                                    increase the number of water filters, which are far
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cheaper to produce.
                                                                                                                                                        WatSan provides wells, water filters and latrines, as
                                                                                                                                                        well as education on hygiene, infectious diseases and       Education has been key to the project’s success. CWS
                                                                                                                                                        sanitation. It has resulted in a dramatic decline in the    staff conduct intensive training at all social levels:
                                                                                                                                                        incidence of water-borne illnesses, such as diarrhea        from individual households, health clinics, village
                                                                                                                                                        and typhoid, in the target villages. At the same time,      committees and Commune Councils to all primary
                                                                                                                                                        wells are providing vulnerable households with water        and secondary schools in the districts.

         Diarrhea and other diseases related to poor sanitation kill at least 10,000 Cambodians a year.
           (Source: World Bank (WB) Water and Sanitation Program 2008) *
        Children are especially at risk. Every year about 12,600 Cambodian children under the age of 5 die from
          diarrhea-related diseases, which accounts for 21 percent of all deaths in that age group. (Unicef)
         About 10 percent of Cambodian children die before they are a year old. Many of these deaths are
           due to preventable, waterborne diseases or mosquito-driven ailments resulting from poor sanitation
           facilities. (Unicef)
         Rural sanitation coverage in Cambodia is the lowest in the region and the 2nd lowest outside of Africa.
         Only 16 percent of rural Cambodians have access to toilets. (WB)
         Only 2 percent of the residents of Svay Rieng province have access to toilets. (WB)
         Most rural households do not have soap for washing hands. (Unicef)
         99 percent of households in CWS’s target area in Svay Rieng lacked latrines when the project began.
         Only 42 percent of the rural population has access to clean water. (Ministry of Rural Development)
         The Ministry of Rural Development has no funds for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation and is entirely
           dependent on external aid for this. (WB)
         The annual budget for the Svey Rieng Provincial Department of Rural Development (PDRD) is about
           $50,000. (Svey Rieng PDRD)
     *   Variance in estimates of deaths result from differing timeframes of surveys, and divergent samplings and methodologies. WB data published in
         November 2008 is based on a survey conducted in 2005.

18       Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Developing in Sight   19

	When CWS arrived in Chea Theach village almost              	There are 9 hand-pump wells for the 97                     	Mrs. Moeung Phal is no longer reluctant to smile.         	WatSan’s Community Development Facilitators
3 years ago its residents were quite shy about talking        households in Muni Proeksa village, where households         Her teeth are no longer discolored by the water from her    are on a first-name basis with the villagers they work
about their personal hygiene practices, even one-on-          are clustered in groups of 4 or 5 along a mile stretch       well because she now uses a bio-sand filter provided        with; these close relationships are vital to the program’s
one. Now they giggle about them in group discussions.         of a dirt road in Tras Commune. Families share the           by CWS. Before receiving the filter, as well as training    success. Each facilitator lives in the commune where
“I don’t have to walk so far to go to the toilet,” quips      wells at a ratio of 4 or 5 to 1, but those who reside far    on hygiene and sanitation, her children were often sick     he works 5 days a week visiting households and village
Mrs. Sok Pov, a mother of 4. “I don’t have to worry           from one continue to rely on hand-dug wells.                 with diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. The water          committees to offer education, training, assistance
about getting bitten by insects when my pants are down                                                                     from her well contains bacteria and such a high level       and encouragement. They travel along the dirt roads
and I use soap instead of leaves to clean myself.”            Besides being a source of illness, hand-dug wells often      of iron that it causes rust and has left a dark red stain   connecting one village to another by motorbike or
                                                              require frequent maintenance, especially during the          on the inside of the plastic bucket she uses to carry       bicycle, even during the rainy season.
It took10 days to construct the latrine behind her            dry season when they have to be deepened a few more          water from her well to the filter.
thatched hut and she, as well as other members of             meters each year. They also pose a hazard to children,                                                                   “People have a very high regard for CWS because we
the community, helped build it. “Latrines are especially      who are usually responsible for collecting water. Some       Since receiving the filter 2 years ago, her 2 children no   visit every household even when the roads are bad,”
valued by women and girls in our village because they         children in the village have drowned after falling into      longer suffer from fever, diarrhea or abdominal pain.       explains Kon Suman who works in Tras Commune,
provide privacy and allow them to bathe their entire          them. Livestock have also been lost.                         “The filter has changed our lives,” she says.               where only 4 of 13 villages had enough water to
bodies,” she says. Before they had to walk to forests                                                                                                                                  grow rice this year, according to Commune Chief Pov
to go to the toilet, and had to carry buckets of water        Mrs. Poe Hun, a mother of 3, says she is relieved that       But not every household in Ta Suos village, located         Savong.
to wash.                                                      she no longer has to worry about her daughters falling       just a few hundred meters from the Vietnamese border,
                                                              into their well. “It is also a lot easier to keep clean if   has received a water filter. Mrs. Yan Et, across the road   Mey Kaem (right) has been with WatSan since its
Open-air defecation is customary in rural Cambodia            you and your family have access to a well. Before we         from Mrs. Measran, says her children constantly suffer      inception, working in Kokir Commune. “People did not
(and many other countries), but a rapidly rising              didn’t have enough water to wash,” she says.                 from fever and diarrhea. “As soon as one gets better        see the connection between bacteria and illness before
population and deforestation have made it a threat to                                                                      another one gets sick. It’s constant,” she explains.        the program began,” he says. This is why he believes
public health, especially in isolated villages like Chea      She has planted flowers around the one CWS installed                                                                     that ongoing education – as well as training on how to
Theach. The nearest health center is 8 kilometers away        a year ago and has also started a home garden.               Like her neighbor she has a well, but she does not have     use and maintain water filters, hand-pump wells and
and during the rainy season the dirt road turns, for          Occasionally, there are problems with the pumps, but         a filter, and says she cannot always boil drinking water    latrines – is as vital as the “tools” themselves.
long stretches, into ankle-deep mud.                          these are easy to fix as the Well Users Group has had        because this requires collecting firewood for fuel. One
                                                              training on maintaining wells. If there is a problem they    consequence of deforestation is that villagers have to      In the villages where he works families share filters at a
The village now has 8 hand-pump wells, 40 water               can’t fix they can get help from the CWS Community           travel farther to find firewood. In an area of Cambodia     ratio of 5:1. The wells provided to the poorest families
filters and 11 latrines. Village chief Lon Sarat says         Development Facilitator who visits them once a week.         where most people live on less than 50 cents a day,         have reduced the time they spend searching for water,
access to water is still the top need. Households are                                                                      firewood has to be rationed.                                especially during the dry season, and this has freed
spread out so it is difficult to place wells where they can   Besides the wells, residents say the training on home                                                                    time for productive work. The home gardens made
be shared. Seventy-five year old Sum Lay says it takes        gardening has been the most helpful because it saves         Although CWS has distributed water filters to the most      possible by the wells mean that the poorest households
half an hour each day to get water. Like many women           them from having to spend money to buy vegetables.           vulnerable households in the target area, those who         no longer have to buy vegetables. (The poorest 20
and children in the village, she lives with constantly        Because rain was late this year there will be no harvest     are not classified as absolute poor are requesting them     percent of Cambodian households spend over 80 percent of
aching shoulders from this activity.                          in this rice-dependent village.                              too. “Not only poor people get sick.”                       their income on food. Source: NGO Forum, 2008)

  “Latrines are especially valued by                           “It is a lot easier to keep clean if you                       “My children no longer suffer from                        “Explaining that CWS cannot provide
women and girls in our village because                        have access to a well. Before we didn’t                         fever, diarrhea or abdominal pain.                        filters to everyone who needs them is
         they provide privacy.”                                     have enough water to wash.”                                The filter has changed our lives.”                             the hardest part of our job.”

20   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                  Developing in Sight   21

Testing the Water                                                                                                                           Interventions                                           Impacts

                                                                                                                             Thousands of home visits to discuss health           Sharp drop in cases of diarrhea and illnesses
                                                                                                                              and sanitation issues                                 caused by waterborne parasites and bacteria
                                         Experts from the Canada-based Center for Affordable Water and                       406 hand-pump wells for 1,028 households             Links between villages, Health Centers,
                                         Sanitation Technology were brought in for a 3-day workshop last May                 320 latrines for 320 households                       Commune Councils and provincial officials
                                         that focused on testing the quality of household water. This is a critical          1,085 bio-sand filters for 1,085 families             created and/or enhanced
                                         component of WatSan. Water from all WatSan wells is tested for                      5 hand-pump wells and 3 latrines (separate           Communities’ capacity to plan, implement,
                                         arsenic and other contaminants, and must be certified as safe before                 stalls for boys and girls) for 5 schools (1,933       manage and maintain improved water supply
                                         it can be used.                                                                      students)                                             and sanitation facilities strengthened
                                                                                                                             131 bio-sand filters for schools throughout          Increased participation of women and
                                         CWS staff implementing WatSan as well as staff from relevant partners,               districts (6,612 students)                            children in village committees and schools
                                         including the PDRDs of Svay Rieng and Preah Vihear, received cutting-                                                                     User Groups ensure sustainability and foster
                                         edge training on the fundamental link between water quality and public              5 workshops on healthcare, dengue, malaria,           knowledge-sharing and social solidarity
                                         health. Topics covered included: drinking water quality guidelines                   bird flu and nutrition at 5 primary schools          Home gardens provide new income source
                                         and minimum standards; types of contaminants and their indicators;                   (1,247 students) and 5 villages                      Capacity of PDRD and CWS enhanced,
                                         physical, chemical and biological aspects of water testing; selection of            Ongoing training sessions for Village Health          relationship deepened
                                         appropriate testing methodology and equipment; developing a water                    Volunteers, Community Development                    Peace-building and anti-corruption training
                                         testing plan; record keeping, interpreting results and reporting; and                Facilitators, Commune Councils, Health                provided to village committees, commune
                                         options for developing countries like Cambodia.                                      Center staff and village committees                   councils and provincial officials
                                                                                                                             Ongoing health and sanitation training at            Peace component ensures distribution of
     Additionally, CWS’s Monitoring and Evaluation officer received training. As soon as funding becomes                      village level; formation and strengthening of         facilities to most vulnerable households
     available, a high-tech water testing tool will be purchased for enhanced testing during monitoring visits.               user groups and committees                            minimizes conflict in villages

Swift response, dramatic results: a Q&A
What is the impact of the WatSan project?                    these impacts are very visible, and because CWS            The other impediment is behavioral change. It                                 “CWS is far ahead of any
                                                             offers direct service it is very quick and accessible.     is not easy to change people’s habits. It takes                                  other NGO working in
	 There has been a very significant decline in illness      The response is fast and the process simple. CWS is        a long time and careful work. This is where                                  Svay Rieng. It is having the
and at the same time widespread behavioral changes           working at the village, commune, and district levels, as   CWS excels. They know how to explain the
that reduce the risk of disease and illness have occurred    well as at the provincial level.                           link between clean water and good health in
                                                                                                                                                                                                      biggest impact. It inspires
in the target districts. Interviews with residents as well                                                              a way that sparks changes in behavior. The                                                      people.“
as health clinic staff indicate that these improvements      There are very few NGOs in Svay Rieng. Some                close links they form with communities create
are also occurring in households where water filters,        international ones left because of funding constraints,    the trust and partnership that is necessary to                                                Mr. Mey Lun
latrines and wells have not been installed. So, we can       while the Cambodian NGOs lack the capacity and             bring about changes in attitudes and habits,                                                        Director
say that the educational component of the project,           funding to have the impact CWS does. Our capacity          and because they work with the poorest                                              Provincial Department of
the software, is having as significant an impact as the      is improving because we have staff working with CWS        households the results are very dramatic.                                                 Rural Development
hardware. We can also see that the installation of wells     in the field. We are constructing bio-sand filters that    These examples inspire others to make the same
is leading to more home gardens and less reliance on         are inexpensive, sturdy and easy to use. Our history       changes.
vegetables imported from Vietnam.                            with CWS goes back to 1993. Before WatSan we
                                                             were partners in village development. We still see the     What is the next step?
Do you have any hard data on this?                           impact from this, especially with the Self Help Groups.
                                                             It was the provincial governor who requested CWS as        	 After we phase out of the current
	   We lack the capacity to compile comprehensive           a partner in the WatSan project.                           districts, we plan to duplicate
and comparative data on the project’s impact, but we                                                                    WatSan in 3 other districts. We
do conduct field monitoring of households. We also           What are the biggest impediments to                        are aware that residents in the
collect information from health volunteers, clinics and      improving water and sanitation in Svay                     current target area are anxious
referral hospitals. We can say with certainty that there     Rieng?                                                     about the phase out. Due to
is a dramatic decline in diarrhea, typhoid and water-                                                                   funding constraints we can
borne illnesses. We can also say that school attendance      	 We remain dependent on rain because we lack             only provide an example that
records show a decline in absenteeism as a result of         irrigation systems. If you don’t have water how can you    will inspire them to do more.
illness. This is very compelling evidence. The health        keep clean? Drought is a cyclical crisis in some areas     We will continue to monitor
impacts are very easy to see.                                and sometimes the rain arrives too early or too late       and support them, but we have
                                                             for rice growing. Other times it is too heavy during the   to expand the project to districts
How vital is CWS’s presence in Svay Rieng?                   planting season and wipes out crops. So, hunger and        where residents don’t yet see the
                                                             malnutrition are severe problems. How can you worry        link between unsafe water, poor
	 CWS is far ahead of any other NGO working in              about sanitation when you cannot feed your children?       hygiene and illness. Of course, we
Svay Rieng. It is having the biggest impact. It inspires     To solve this we are encouraging farmers to raise          want to do more, but our options
people. Because CWS focuses on the absolute poor             alternative crops and planning irrigation systems.         are extremely limited.

22    Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                      Developing in Sight   23

                                                                                                                         Laying the foundation
                                                                                                                         A few days before the Kampuchea Christian Council (KCC) held its 3rd General Assembly in March, they made
                                                                                                                         an urgent appeal to CWS Cambodia for help organizing an event that would have an immense impact of the
                                                                                                                         council’s future. Previously, they had requested help from partners inside and outside Cambodia, but none had

                                                                                                                                                                                     Our partnership program manager and an operational
                                                                                                                           “The funding we have received [from                       development officer immediately scheduled a meeting
                                                                                                                             the Christian Conference of Asia]                       with the assembly’s organizing committee (and KCC
                                                                                                                           would not have been helpful without                       council members) to ensure that the selection of a
                                                                                                                                                                                     new management team and the formation of a new
                                                                                                                          the foundation CWS helped us build.”                       organizational structure were conducted in a way that
                                                                                                                                                                                     would strengthen the rapidly growing council.

                                                                                                                         Fifty new churches had registered for the 3-day assembly. “CWS played a vital role in organizing and monitoring
                                                                                                                         the assembly and the election [of a new board],” recalls Rev. Som Chanboth
                                                                                                                         (2nd lef), at the council’s office on the outskirts of Phnom Penh. Because the
                                                                                                                         election process was transparent and democratic, conflicts were avoided and
                                                                                                                         a strong foundation was established, he explained.

                                                                                                                         One hurdle the council had faced was a structural flaw that hindered its

                                                            Lending a Hand
                                                                                                                         decision-making process since its inception in 2000. It had been run by an
                                                                                                                         11-member committee: all volunteers from all over Cambodia. Some could
                                                                                                                         not always afford to travel to Phnom Penh for meetings, so decisions were
                                                                                                                         postponed. CWS proposed that an 11-member general committee be elected,
                                                                                                                         and that they in turn select a 5-member working committee.

        hen the only Cambodian NGO providing                disputes and simplify its structure so that it could focus   “CWS helped us establish clear job descriptions and set up a committee with
        support to indigenous people in the country’s       on its mission: providing assistance to disparate ethnic     clearly defined roles and responsibilities,” Rev. Chanboth explained. The
        isolated northeast experienced a breakdown          minority groups whose cultures are misunderstood and         council developed a draft of its 1st strategic plan, which provided its funding
in communications – one that could have impacted            frequently – sometimes unintentionally – denigrated by       donors with a clear understanding of the council’s strategy and commitment.
the organization’s future – its newly appointed director    government agencies and international NGOs working           CWS has also placed one Buddhist staff member at the council’s office to,
asked CWS to lend a hand.                                   in the Northeast.                                            among other things, help identify potential partner NGOs to implement the
                                                                                                                         wide range of social services it plans to offer: from interfaith dialogue to silk
“We had 70 staff from 9 cultures, a complex structure,      A simple change that occurred after the “spin off”           weaving enterprises in impoverished communities.
lots of misunderstanding and internal bickering,”           was the introduction of new accounting standards
Mr. Sao Vansey, executive director of the Indigenous        that required sub offices in villages and the provincial     “The council’s goal is for every member church to be self-sustaining and to
Community Support Organization (ICSO), explained.           central office to provide receipts for all expenditures.     help the poor become self-sufficient,” Rev. Chanboth said. “The funding we have received [from the Christian
ICSO has been formed swiftly in 2006 to manage 3                                                                         Conference of Asia] would not have been helpful without the foundation CWS helped us build.”
separate projects (resource management, advocacy            Indigenous staff (many of whom do not speak Khmer)
and community organizing) in the Northeastern               saw this as a slap in the face: they suspected that the
province of Ratanak Kiri that had previously been run       newly appointed management in Phnom Penh believed
by an international NGO.                                    they were dishonest. The reality was that ICSO was
                                                            implementing transparency guidelines required by its
It was a “spin-off” that had lost its bearings: the
3 projects were combined into 1 and Cambodian
                                                                                                                            Faith in action
management quickly recruited. Funding was not an            Our assessment began with discussions with senior
issue, but operations were. “We really needed help,”        staff in Phnom Penh (including board members),                  CWS Cambodia is an ecumenical Christian organization with a predominantly Buddhist staff. We see this
Mr. Vansey said.                                            then moved to the provincial central office and                 as a strength rather than a division; we are united (along with our Muslim staff) by shared values and are
                                                            finally the sub-offices in villages. This process itself        committed to act on them. We believe that people of all faiths (as well as those who are not religious)
CWS conducted a comprehensive organizational                strengthened communications. “We learned new ways               are called to action by the suffering of others. Social, ethnic, religious and other man-made divisions can
development assessment that pinpointed weaknesses           of communicating,” Mr. Vansey noted.                            become barriers to our common humanity. We strive to overcome them.
and identified solutions.
                                                            “Now, our operations are going smoothly,” he                    We duplicate our ability to unite people of different faiths in various ways. For example, in March 2008
Our expertise in bridging cross-cultural issues, conflict   explained, pointing out that several of the staff members       we – along with other groups – helped organize the 4th Cambodia-Vietnam Dialogue in Sihanoukville and
resolution and our people-centered approach – as            who had quit have returned to ICSO.                             Phnom Penh. This 10-day event brought together 25 Vietnamese and 25 Cambodian youths for a series
well as the fact that this assessment was free (“because                                                                    of workshops that, among other things, allowed them to discuss their histories and reflect on how these
it was free we knew that CWS had no financial interest      CWS also provided ICSO with technical advice on the             histories have affected their perceptions of each other. Participants overcame deeply entrenched stereotypes
that might bias the report,” an ICSO board member           formation of financial and personnel policies, as well          as well as mistrust and anger. Friendships that transcend borders were formed. This is our faith.
noted) – helped the organization overcome its internal      as strategic and budget planning.

24   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                             Developing in Sight   25
                                                                                                                                                                                              DEVELOPING PARTNERS

                                                                                       The Border
                                                                                                                     this village – where unsafe water, malaria and dengue         “Our partners work in very remote villages along the
                                                                                                                     kill people every year – the poster is also failing to do     Thai border. We go there first, and then encourage
                                                                                                                     what it is intended to do: reduce the possibility of bird     them to follow. We sleep in the villages with them,” he
                                                                                                                     flu spreading from poultry to people. Fieldworkers with       explains.
                                                                                                                     CWS partners working there say it has had no impact
                                                                                                                     on changing the behaviors that allow the virus to be          “We train them about community development, show
                                                                                                                     transmitted to people.                                        them how to build relationships, and help them see
                                                                                                                                                                                   the potential as well as the problems,” he continues.
                                                                                                                     Humanitarian assistance that is disconnected from local       The partnerships formed are tailored to the needs of
                                                                                                                     realities is often ineffective, can spark conflicts within    each NGO. What he looks for is commitment because
                                                                                                                     communities, and have tragic results. Cambodians              “knowledge can be acquired.”
                                                                                                                     have experienced this for more than 30 years, and this
                                                                                                                     is nowhere more apparent than in the villages along           “There are no roads to some of these villages. The
                                                                                                                     the Thai border.                                              government can’t get teachers to go to them. People
                                                                                                                                                                                   have no access to water. There are landmines
                                                                                                                     From our office in Battambang, CWS’s 6 staff work             everywhere.”
                                                                                                                     hand-in-hand with 4 deeply committed Cambodian
                                                                                                                     NGOs implementing integrated development in 59                Two more constraints hinder his work: staff turnover at
                                                                                                                     villages where former Khmer Rouge soldiers and those          Cambodian NGOs and sectoral funding. Training on
                                                                                                                     who fled them now live together – but not side by             CWS’s integrated development model can be used as
                                                                                                                     side.                                                         a stepping stone: from poorly paid, highly demanding
                                                                                                                                                                                   work to better-paying and more pretigious positions at
                                                                                                                                                                                   international humanitarian agencies.

                                                                                                                                                                                   To cope with this, Mr. Bun Kun ensures that all staff
                                                                                                                      “There are no roads to some of these                         at CWS partners (including accountants) are trained
                                                                                                                        villages. The government can’t get                         in integrated development so that they can be swiftly
                                                                                                                     teachers to go to them. People have no                        shifted into suddenly vacant positions.
                                                                                                                      access to water. There are landmines                         He is also doing his utmost to help partner NGOs apply
                                                                                                                                   everywhere.”                                    for the sort of funding that allows them to channel their
                                                                                                                                                                                   limited resources, time and energy to needs that they
                                                                                                                                                                                   can see with their own eyes are the most urgent ones.

                                                                                                                     “There has been an extreme breakdown in social
                                                                                                                     solidarity,” explains Mr. Lee Bun Kun, the project
                                                                                                                     manager of the partnership program here. “When
                                                                                                                     we started working in Bavel District, parents who went
                                                                                                                     to Thailand to find work would leave their children
                                                                                                                     unattended, sometimes for months at a time. They
                                                                                                                     wouldn’t ask their neighbor’s to care for them.”

                                                                                                                     Mr. Bun Kun has been with CWS since it arrived in
                                                                                                                     Battambang in 1991 to enhance the capacity of
                                                                                                                     veterinarian services offered by the government, which

     he primary school in Tbaeng Thmei village (Ampil      In communities along the Thai border it is no secret      are vital in an area where lives depend on livestock.
     Commune, Oddar Meanchey province) is like             that the Khmer Rouge used these camps – as well as        After bringing in international experts to train officials,
     many along the Thai border. It has everything         international assistance – to regroup, recruit and re-    CWS then trained the officials on effective ways of
except teachers, books, study materials, toilets and       arm.                                                      passing on their expertise to farmers.
safe water. But here there is a difference: parents are
afraid to send their children to school because the roof   The international aid that has arrived at the school in   After 10 years, when Village Livestock Associations
of 1 of its 3 buildings has collapsed and the flimsy       Tbaeng Thmei village consists of a single, laminated      had been formed in each commune, this program
structures of the other 2 have not been renovated          poster warning about the risk of bird flu. It has been    was phased out. CWS then switched its focus to local
since they were built more than a decade ago, after        placed on the outer wall of 1 of the buildings that is    NGOs.
Vietnamese forces had driven the Khmer Rouge into          too dangerous for children to enter.
Thailand where they mingled with and often exploited                                                                 The phrase “capacity building” does not quite fit Mr.
refugees in the camps they, in some cases, took over.      Besides being blind to the needs of the residents of      Bun Kun’s approach. “Mentoring” is more accurate.

26   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                             Developing in Sight   27
         DEVELOPING PARTNERS                                                                                                                                                                           EMERGENCY APPEAL

                                   Making Connections                                                                       Mr. Seng Seoun and his
                                                                                                                            wife had left their children
                                                                                                                            at home while they went
CWS Cambodia has 3 forms of partnerships with                                                                               to work. The children tried
Cambodian NGOs – local institional development                                                                              to cook food (outside
(non-funding), small grants, and holistic – all of which
                                                                 Villages with Self Help Groups are                         their thatched hut). Sparks
are clearly detailed in protocols developed here. The             developing faster than those that                         set their home afire.
partnerships are monitored and evaluated; corruption            lack them. Commune Councils can                             When Mr. Seng and his
                                                                                                                            wife returned, there was
is not tolerated.                                               see this and they are asking CFEDA                          nothing left but ashes.
Holistic partners receive institutional funding (i.e.
                                                                     to expand to more villages.
                                                                                                                            The    family     received
overhead costs) and funding for implementing village-                                                                       immediate       assistance
led community development, as well as intensive                                                                             from a Self Help Group
training. The offices of the 4 holistic partners working     Before it arrived children did not receive tetanus             set up in the village by
along the Thai border are located in the districts where     vaccinations. There has been a 50 percent decline in           CFEDA. It then alerted
they work, their staff recruited from the villages. They     the number of cases of infectious diseases from 2007           CWS and within 1 week
include the daughter of a former assistant to Khmer          to 2008, according to the Health Centre.                       the family received food,
Rouge leader Pol Pot.                                                                                                       a tent, mosquito nets,
                                                             Kumnit Thmey Organization (KNTO) works in 15                   blankets, mats, and
                                                                                                                            cooking utensils, among
Working in villages whose residents are predominantly        villages spread across 3 districts of 2 provinces: Banteay     other necessities.
former Khmer Rouge poses unique challenges. For              Meanchey and Oddar Meanchey. Since it arrived in
example, in the 9 villages where Khmer Community             Tbaeng Thmei village in mid-2007 it has – among                The family of 6 live in
Development Association (KCDA) works in Samlout              other things – distributed mosquito nets, water filters,       Banteay Ti Muoy village,
District Battambang about 25 percent of the families         cattle, and seeds to the most vulnerable families and          Malai District, Banteay
are female-headed. Many are widows whose husbands            enhanced the link with the Health Centre (staff from the       Meanchey province. The
were killed either by government forces or during the        center now visit the village to provide vaccinations for       village cannot be reached
factional fighting within the Khmer Rouge after it split     children). In February, KNTO began helping residents           by road.
into 2 camps in the late 90s. The district is also heavily   set up 3 Self Help Groups: the Advocacy, Goodwill
mined, crop production is low and absolute poverty           and Success groups.
the norm.
                                                             These groups, which pool money among members,
                                                             are at the core of CWS’s development model. Besides
                                                                                                                            First responders
The forested area is now “protected”, and as a result
residents of villages that had depended on the forests       creating solidarity and capital for investment, they free
for a living no longer have that option.                     families from money lenders (from outside the village)         Our Emergency Response unit is embedded with values and know-how that ensures that aid reaches those who
                                                             who charge a crippling rate of interest.                       need it most, that they get exactly what they need, and that it is distributed in a way that does not cause conflict
The only NGO working in this mountainous region,                                                                            among recipients or diminish their sense of self worth. At the same time, we are working with communities,
where Malaria is endemic, is KCDA. Its field staff           The Cambodian Family Economic Development                      and individual families, and all levels of government to develop community-based disaster management. In
                                                                                                                            Cambodia, this is especially vital in flood or drought-prone areas.
are also concerned that there may be a high rate of          Association (CFEDA) has helped set up 28 Self Help
HIV infection. There have been no sentinel surveys to        Groups in the 17 villages it works in 2 districts of Banteay   For example, in late 2007 flooding destroyed rice paddies in 4 villages of Bavel District, Battambang. By April
determine the extent of HIV/Aids prevalence in the           Meanchey. Combined, they link 300 households, who              2008, 45 families (240 people, 102 of whom were children) in these villages had no food and 9 were without
area, but fieldworkers are alarmed by the number of          have so far accumulated over $3,000 of their own               shelter because their homes had burnt down. Direct aid was made possible by a $1,860 grant from CWS New
cases they have come across. The low literacy rate,          money. Twenty of the groups have completed the                 York, after Village Disaster Volunteers alerted our development partner working in the villages (the Association
lack of HIV/Aids education, and high rate of migrant         6-step process towards self-sufficiency and no longer          for Development and Our Villagers’ Rights), which then requested assistance from CWS Cambodia. Each family
workers add urgency to this potential health crisis.         need to be closely monitored by CFEDA field staff.             received enough food to last 1 month, and the families who lost their homes to fire received temporary shelters,
                                                                                                                            cooking utensils, water filters, blankets, and other basic necessities. This disaster, which could have had long-term
The Association for Development and Our Villagers’           Members can borrow money to buy seeds, livestock and           repercussions, was alleviated for just $7.75 per person.
Rights (ADOVIR) works in 14 villages in Bavel District,      poultry, as well as school materials for their children.
some of which are not even on the map (their names           Villages with Self Help Groups are developing faster           Importantly, CWS’s pioneering Community Based Disaster Risk
                                                                                                                            Management model has caught the government’s eye. The award
have yet to be registered with the government). Besides      than those that lack them. Commune Councils can see            presented (a gold medal) from the vice-director of the National Centre
strengthening each village, ADOVIR is linking them to        this and they are asking CFEDA to expand to more               for Disaster Management (H.E. Nhem Vannda, left) to our Director of
the Commune Council, school system and the 1 Health          villages.                                                      Programming (Mr. Chhouk Chantha) is, of course, encouraging and
Center in the commune (Ampil Pram Daeum).                                                                                   welcome; but what is most significant is that this infrastructure (embedded
                                                                                                                            with humanitarian values) is being developed in tandem with the Royal
                                                                                                                            Government of Cambodia They recognize the effectiveness of this made-
        There have been no sentinel surveys to determine the extent of HIV/Aids                                             in-Cambodia model, as well as the fact that is inexpensive.
      prevalence in the area, but fieldworkers are alarmed by the number of cases                                           However, our Emergency Response unit faces a significant restraint, one
     they have come across. The low literacy rate, lack of HIV/Aids education, and                                          that is heartrending in the field. There are occasions when they lack the
         high rate of migrant workers add urgency to this potential health crisis.                                          supplies, due to funding constraints, to provide emergency assistance
                                                                                                                            to all households affected by natural disaster. Sometimes it is difficult to
                                                                                                                            identify the most vulnerable. How far can the standard be lowered?

28   Developing in Sight                                                                                                                                                                                                  Developing in Sight   29
         OUR FOCUS

                ambodia remains one of the world’s least developed nations, despite the epic strides its people
                have taken. The level of absolute poverty, especially in rural areas, remains intolerable. We will
                not lose sight of this.

       However, we intend to redouble our efforts to ensure that our partners – internationally and here
       (including the Royal Cambodian Government) – do not avert their attention from those who need it
       most. We will do this without increasing our minimal communications budget.*

       During the next 4 years of our 7-year strategic plan we will:

           Enhance food security and health in the villages where we work, and urge the government and
             other humanitarian agencies to make this their utmost priority

           Continue mentoring and learning from Cambodian NGOs, especially those alleviating poverty
             and enhancing peace

           Shift resources for de-mining to Malai District, Banteay Meanchey

           Expand our Village-Based Disaster Management project

           Increase skills in Local Capacity for Peace at district, commune and village levels
           Expand training on Restorative Justice

           Strengthen our Village-Based Development model                                                          CWS Cambodia is deeply grateful for the ongoing moral, financial and technical
           Expand WatSan in Svay Rieng and share our expertise with government agencies and NGOs                      commitment of the many donors who sustain and encourage our work.
             improving access to safe water and sanitation nationwide

           Conduct a country-wide program evaluation

           Develop a more coherent set of documents that explains our planning process and strategies, how                                                                        reduce poverty     protect refugees
             we implement them and what the results are.                                                                                                                           prevent conflicts   empower communities

       * This annual report was researched, written, edited and designed for $2,500.

                                                       Funding (fiscal year)

                                                                                                                                                                    CWS Cambodia
                                                                                                                      Phnom Penh
                                                                                                                      #69Z, Street 450,                          Tel: (+855)23 217 786                                       Email:
                                                                                                                      Sangkat Tuol Tumpun Pir,                        (+855)23 213 438                                       Website:
                                                                                                                      Khan Chamkar Mon                           Fax: (+855)23 216 014

      $500,000                                                                                                        Banteay Meanchey          Battambang              Kompong Thom                             Preah Vihear            Svay Rieng
                                                                                                                      #517 St. 2, Group 20,     #294, Grade 4,          #69 Damrei Choan                         Tuek Kraham village,    Street 208,
                                                                                                                      Souphi village, Kampong   Rumchek Buon village,   Khla St., Stueng Saen                    Tuek Kraham Commune,    Roung Banlae village,
                 $-                                                                                                   Svay Commune,             Rotanak Commune,        District, Kompong                        Choam Khsant District   Svay Rieng District,
                                                                                                                      Serei Saophoan District   Battambang town         Thom town                                Cell Phone:             Svay Rieng town
                           2004                2005               2006                 2007   2008   2009             Tel: (+855)54 958 660     Tel: (+855)53 952 468   Tel: (+855)62 961 262                    (+855)99 720 029        Tel: (+855)44 945 823


30   Developing in Sight
                      CWS Cambodia

        in Sight

Made-in-Cambodia Solutions
         Since 1979

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