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Thursday 2008-09-25

VIEWS: 171 PAGES: 89

  • pg 1
									Book of Abstracts

                                        Hosted by
Swedish Association of Registered Physiotherapists

Thursday 2008-09-25 ............................................................................... 3
  Poster Sessions .........................................................................................................................................3
     Continuing Professional Development 1 ........................................................................................3
     Continuing Professional Development 2 ........................................................................................5
     Continuing Professional Development 3 ........................................................................................8
     Developing core skills in physiotherapy 1 .....................................................................................13
     Developing core skills in physiotherapy 2 .....................................................................................16
     Developing students´ learning.........................................................................................................19
     Developing practice methods..........................................................................................................23
  Symposium – Continuing Professional Development .....................................................................25
  Platform Presentations..........................................................................................................................26
     Continuing Professional Development 1 ......................................................................................26
     Continuing Professional Development 2 ......................................................................................28
     Continuing Professional Development 3 ......................................................................................29
     Continuing Professional Development 4 ......................................................................................31
     Developing clinical teaching and supervision ...............................................................................33
     Developing assessment of clinical competence............................................................................35
     Developing practice based learning 1.............................................................................................37
     Developing practice based learning 2.............................................................................................39
Friday September 26.............................................................................. 41
  Poster Session.........................................................................................................................................41
     Bridging theory and practice 2 ........................................................................................................45
     Distance learning - internet based courses ....................................................................................47
     Distance learning web based tools..................................................................................................50
     Curriculum cultural perspectives.....................................................................................................53
     Curriculum design .............................................................................................................................56
     Curriculum Evaluation .....................................................................................................................59
     Curriculum - A European context..................................................................................................61
  Platform Presentations..........................................................................................................................64
     Bridging theory and practice 1 ........................................................................................................64
     Bridging theory and practice 2 ........................................................................................................65
     Frameworks for developing clinical competence 1......................................................................66
     Frameworks for developing clinical competence 2......................................................................68
     Frameworks for developing clinical competence 3......................................................................70
     Developing advanced clinical competence 1.................................................................................71
     Developing advanced clinical competence 2.................................................................................73
     Developing advanced clinical competence 3.................................................................................74
  Symposium – A rough guide to UK master’s physiotherapy education. Let’s Go Europe!.......76
  Symposium – Promoting, Delivering and Implementing Evidence Based Physiotherapy.........77
  Platform Presentations..........................................................................................................................78
     Distance learning 1............................................................................................................................78
     Modes of learning..............................................................................................................................79
     Professional development................................................................................................................81
     Curriculum design 1..........................................................................................................................82
     Curriculum design 2..........................................................................................................................84
     Curriculum design 3..........................................................................................................................86
     Curriculum design 4..........................................................................................................................87
  Work shop- Inquiry Based Learning...................................................................................................89

Thursday 2008-09-25
Poster Sessions
Continuing Professional Development 1
Room 354

Does work-based learning contribute to changes in clinical practice?

Gill Donovan, Lead Physiotherapist, Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucestershire Royal
Hospital, Great Western Road,
Gloucester, GL1 3NN, UK, gill.donovan@glos.nhs.uk, +448454 228398

Purpose: A gap in knowledge regarding the management of patients with acute spinal injury was identified by a
group of nurses, physiotherapists, radiographers and occupational therapists in late 2005. This training need had
arisen after there had been a particularly large number of patients admitted to 2 District General Hospitals with
an acute spinal injury. A work-based learning module was chosen to facilitate learning. Relevance: Traditional
methods of post-graduate physiotherapy education have often required staff to travel away from their work base
to attend courses and access to accredited courses has been limited. The use of an accredited work-based
learning module is a modern initiative which enables service led education and training to be delivered locally
and quickly in the light of the rapid pace of change. Description: In collaboration with a local university, a
hospital training programme was developed under the umbrella of a multidisciplinary Evidencing Work Based
Learning module. Eleven registered healthcare professionals started the module in May 2006. The module
incorporated 4 study days and 4 action learning sets comprising of a mixture of formal teaching and group
learning. Formal teaching was provided by local clinical experts and the lead nurse from a specialist centre.
Evaluation: The work performed by the group demonstrated profound multiprofessional learning and led to
significant changes in local practice in line with specialist spinal units. These changes included earlier referral to
occupational therapy, improved positioning of patients for rehabilitation and additional manual handling training
for the imaging department to ensure optimum positioning for accurate imaging. Conclusions: Work-based
learning provides an opportunity to provide flexible teaching and learning designed to facilitate change.
Implications: The environment of the NHS is one of constant change and service development needs to take
place at a faster pace than ever before. Work-based learning is a flexible way to support the learning that takes
place at and through work and facilitate service development at the same time. There is also the added benefit to
the individuals of gaining academic credit. Keywords: Multidisciplinary, work-based learning. Funding
acknowledgements: Funding for the module was provided by the Trust’s Nursing Lead for Education. Ethics
approval: Ethics approval not required.

Life-long learning as Work-place learning
Jonna Jensen, M Edu, Specialized in Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Physiotherapy,
Lecturer at VIA Univercity College, School of Physiotherapy, Aarhus

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate and discuss work-related learning for physiotherapist in public
hospital. Relevance: The study does not relate to physiotherapy education, but concern about the clinical
working physiotherapist Participants: 4 participants, physiotherapist from a major hospital, representing
difference speciality and who had been educated for more than two years Methods: Hermeneutical and
phenomenon study. Empirical investigation by means of a focus group interview, semistructured, based on
theories of situated , relected and society learning. Analysis: Meaning-categorize by theories Results
Physiotherapist learn from both situated and reflected learning. They learn from Employed with more experience
than themselves and learn different skills from different professions. They seek more learning, but treatment of
patients has preference, which means that there is not enough time for learning Conclusions: Work-place
learning is a posibility, and physiotherapist learn skills which they haven't learn in education. Time for learning
at work is not optimal Implications: I have not been investigating on introduction to work for new educated
physiotherapist. Thereby it is difficult to say something about how it influence on the physiotherapy education.
Keywords: Work-place learning, skills, patient. Funding acknowledgements: Bispebjerg Hospital and Danske
Fysioterapeuter for supporting me economically at my Master degree. Ethics approval: The participants were

informated by letter and verbal. They and the hospital are anonymized.

Student’s expectations before entering an inter-professional programme on
advanced level
Boström C 1), RPT, PhD, Nilsson-Wikmar L 1), RPT, PhD, Josephsson S 2), OT reg, Ass prof, Kaila P
3), RN, PhD 1) Div of Physiotherapy, 2) Div of Occupational therapy, 3) Div of Nursing, Dept of Neurobiology,
Care sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

Purpose: The purpose was to describe student’s expectations before beginning a new inter-professional master
programme in clinical medical science. The study is a part of a larger evaluation of the programme, where the
student’s experiences concerning professional development will be evaluated. Relevance: As physiotherapists
often work inter-professionally the results from this study is relevant for the physiotherapist’s professional
development. Participants: Fifty-two students were included in the study. Biomedical technicians, dental
hygienists, dietitians, midwife, nurses, nutritionists, occupational therapists, orthopaedic engineers,
physiotherapists and social workers were among the ones that were accepted to the programme. Methods:
Students answered, in writing, an open question concerning their expectations. Analysis: The analyse of the
expectations was done by a qualitative content analysis. Two of the authors independently searched for themes
and a discussion between all authors led to a consensus. Results: The following preliminary expectation themes
were found: Knowledge in scientific theory and method, and scientific attitude; Knowledge in relation to the
profession and to other areas; Skills in scientific method and pedagogic communication; Competence for
doctoral studies, for research at work and scientific, evidence-based, developing work; Inter-professional
understanding, development and collaboration in teams; Social contacts and contacts for co-operation; Support,
motivation and engagement from others; Personal development; and Get an academic degree on advanced level.
Conclusions: The results indicates that the students applied to the master programme mainly to increase their
knowledge, skills and attitudes, to get competence for doctoral studies, for research and to develop themselves
professionally, inter-professionally and personally. The students thought that an inter-professional programme
could support part of these expectations. Implications: The findings will be related to the student’s experiences
of their professional development during the inter-professional master programme and can add information to
physiotherapist’s professional development through inter-professional education. Keywords: Expectations,
professional development, inter-professional education Funding acknowledgements: No funding Ethics
approval: No ethical application. The students answered an open question as a part of a task before entering the

The motivation of Estonian physiotherapy students to continue studies in master level
Priit Eelmäe PT, MSc, University of Tartu, Estonia

Purpose: To find out how many physiotherapists are interested in continuing their studies in master level after
graduating bachelor studies and how successful they are in their studies. What is the ratio of academic and
nonacademic applicants? Relevance: For the development of physiotherapy as an autonomous and independent
health care profession it is essential to increase the number of physiotherapists who possess scientific degree.
Estonia was the first European country where 3+2 model was adopted. Bologna-based changes in higher
education were implemented in Estonia in 2002. Now the outcomes of these changes can be analyzed.
Participants: In the present study participated 36 physiotherapy master students from the University of Tartu
who studied in 2005-2007 on state-funded student places. Methods: All data were collected from the University
of Tartu Study Information Database. Each semester attestation documents were collected and reviewed.
Analysis: Standard statistical methods were used to analyze collected data. Results: Basic physiotherapy
education is offered by one academic and one nonacademic higher education institution. In 2005-2007 73
applications were handed in for 36 state-funded student places in physiotherapy master programme. 78% of
successful applicants had previously graduated from university and 22% from nonuniversity institution. At
present the dropout is 6%. In 2005-2007 80 physiotherapists graduated physiotherapy bachelor programme at the
university and 65% of them wished to continue their studies in master level. In same time 42 physiotherapists
graduated physiotherapy programme at the nonuniversity institution and 48% of them wished to continue their
studies in master level. Conclusions: Physiotherapists are motivated to continue their studies in master level,
however they want to combine learning and working in specialty. Bachelor graduates from university were more
motivated to continue their studies in master level as compared to nonuniversity graduates. Implications: To
achieve higher standards in professional practice it is important to attract bachelor graduates to continue their

studies in master level. For that it is essential to increase the number of state-funded student places.
Physiotherapy master programme has to be organized flexibly, accepting students’ wish to simultaneously
learning and working. Keywords: Physiotherapy education, master studies, professional development Funding
acknowledgements: The present study was funded by the grant No. 1.0101-0369 “Improvement of the higher
education quality in the University of Tartu in Medicina field”. Ethics approval: The approval of Ethics Review
Committee on Human Research was not required for this study.

Nordic Forum for Ethics in Physiotherapy
Jeanette Praestegaard, PT, MSc, Stud. PhD, lecturer, The Association of Physiotherapists in Denmark.

Purpose: To establish a shared Nordic network of reference in order to compile a strategy for how to make the
ethical dimension in physiotherapy visible for the individual physiotherapist and as well for the collective
profession. Relevance: As a part of the actual progression of the profession in the Nordic countries it is needed
to focus on physiotherapists’ ethical competences. Research and complaints from patients and colleagues
document an increased demand for physiotherapists’ ethical competence to identify, act and solve ethical issues
and dilemmas, which occur in practice, education, projects and research in all fields of physiotherapy.
Description: Nordic Forum for Ethics in Physiotherapy consists of five ordinary members, one from each
country. Each Nordic Association of Physiotherapy selects the national member from the national Committee of
Ethics. The member must have specific competence within professional ethics. Evaluation: The Nordic Forum
meets twice a year where specific themes of debate and projects are formulated. Each debate or project will be
evaluated by the national Committee of Ethics and by the national Executive Committee. Conclusions: Nordic
Forum for Ethics in Physiotherapy was founded at its first general meeting in September 2007. The Nordic
Forum constitutes a network for mutual exchange of experiences and mutual inspiration in how to reflect and
discuss ethical issues in practice, education, projects and research. Implications Each national Committee of
Ethics has committed to ensure an ongoing debate of ethical issues and initiate publications of various ethical
issues in physiotherapy to both students and members of the national Associations of Physiotherapy.
Keywords: Physiotherapy, Ethics, Nordic Forum for Ethics in Physiotherapy Funding acknowledgements: The
five Nordic Associations of Physiotherapy have supported the Nordic Forum for Ethics in Physiotherapy. Ethics
approval: Not needed.

Continuing Professional Development 2
Room 361

Implementation of outcome measures

Maribo, T; The Association of Danish Physiotherapists, Copenhagen, Denmark

Purpose: The Association of Danish Physiotherapists acknowledges the importance of documentation in
physiotherapy. The purpose of this project is to encourage more PT's to implement standardized outcome
measures for documentation of daily practice. The project aims to accomplish this by collecting, producing, and
presenting relevant information about outcome measures on a designated website. Relevance: Use of
standardized outcome measures is of great importance to the implementation of evidence-based practice in
physiotherapy. There is great demand for scientific knowledge of the evidence of specific interventions with
specific diagnoses. Standardized outcome measures are also relatively simple to use in daily PT practice,
enabling PT's to document the effects of their treatments. Description: Selected outcome measures are evaluated
closely. Other published, standardized outcome measures with relevance to physiotherapy are described or listed
without closer evaluation. Selected outcome measures: Purpose, target group, ICF-level, reliability and validity
of each measure is presented on the basis of systematic reviewing of the literature. Each presentation outlines
relevance for PT practice and an overall status of reliability and validity. Other outcome measures: General
information on other outcome measures can be published on the same website. A relevant abstract from a key
journal, the purpose of the measure as well as links is included. This is to promote the availability of
standardized outcome measures for PT's. Evaluation: Presentations of 96 standardized outcome measures are
now available at the website www.maaleredskaber.dk, 13 of these outcome measures have been closely
evaluated on basis of systematic review of literature; remaining outcome measures are presented in a descriptive
form. The project has also resulted in a large show of interest on the part of many PT's. Most contacts concern

documentation of daily practice, but also students and researching PT's contact the project to discuss use of
outcome measures. Conclusions: This project publicizes outcome measures with relevance to PT. some are
evaluated closely with decription of clinical value. Implications: In Denmark documentation of physiotherapy
has just begun. Documentation refers to documentation of daily clinical practice as well as research, in both
cases standardized outcome measures are a necessity. Use of outcome measures is important in documentation of
daily clinical practice as well as in recearch. Keywords: Outcome measures, Website Funding
acknowledgements: Association of Danish Physiotherapists. Ethics approval: Not required

Negotiated Work Based Learning (NWBL):bespoke training in X-ray interpretation for
Extended Scope Practitioners in Physiotherapy (ESPiP)
J Walton School of Health Sciences University of Liverpool, D Brown F Cowell J Gibson S Frostick Royal
Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool UK

Purpose: UK Healthcare provision has encountered changes to improve efficiency. Resultant shifts in
professional boundaries require ESPiP to adopt roles previously the domain of a doctor. Education for ESPiP has
been didactic in nature, focused on academic achievement,not accreditation of competence. This does not meet
the needs of ESPiP whose personal development requires a more bespoke approach. NWBL is a new pedagogy
in physiotherapy education used here to create a bespoke learning environment for X-ray image interpretation.
Additional skills for life long learning were also acquired. Relevance: NWBL is a way of creating university
accredited learning centered in the workplace,not the University. ESPiP can identify specific/clinical/work
related skills which are used as the foundation to develop and execute a bespoke module by negotiation between
the student/University/employer. Description: 10 ESPiP registered for a 20credit Masters level NWBL module
to develop competence in the interpretation of X-rays of: shoulder/wrist/hand/knee. Student support utilised a
triangulated approach:student/academic tutor/convenor. Specific student needs were defined using a bespoke
module specification(BMS) written by the student, with academic support. A common template requiring
identification of module aims/outcomes/learning&teaching strategies/syllabus/resources/assessment was used. 2
examples will be presented in this poster: X-ray interpretation of the shoulder & wrist. Evaluation: All students
were successful in achieving the new clinical skills. Module evaluation identified the need for the student to
develop additional skills in critical appraisal, awareness of self-limitations and the need to seek help from the
orthopaedic lead, commensurate with governance & patient safety. This was integrated into the BMS. All
students identified the role of the convenor to be demanding and pivotal to their success. Conclusions: NWBL
was successful in providing bespoke accreditation of advanced clinical skills for ESPiP in the work place.Further
work is underway to assess the impact of this new pedagogy on the work role of the ESPiP. Implications:
NWBL provides an exciting/unique opportunity for ESPiP.It can be taken as a stand-alone module for personal
development or as part of a bespoke higher degree programme. Keywords: Work based learning Funding
acknowledgements: NorthWest Strategic Health Authority Ethics approval: None required

Physiotherapy education between pretension and reality

Silvia Mériaux-Kratochvila

Purpose: The aim of the dissertation was to explore physiotherapy education in Austria. In the context of the
vocational field and its job requirements the paper includes a description of the former and partly present
(academy) and actual (polytechnic) physiotherapy education in Austria. Relevance: The study was one basis for
further developement and innovation of physiotherapy education in the changing-process from post-secondary to
higher education system in 2006. Participants: 113 graduates from 14 of 16 Austrian physiotherapy schools
who finished their physiotherapy studies in the years 2002-2005 took part at the inquiry. Selected were all
graduates who had been member of the professional organisation physio austria, and who had a e-mail-adress.
Methods: A online questionnaire with 35 closed and 3 open asked questions was carried out among graduates of
16 Austrian physiotherapy schools to analyse their qualifications at the end of the education process and at the
start of their professional career. Analysis: The mainly quantitativ data analysis completed with qualitative
analysis of the open asked questions has been done with the programm SPSS 12.0 for windows with mainly
descriptiv-statistical evaluations. To evaluate coherences correlations were taken out using T-Test for dependant
sampls. Results: The results show well developed competencies in many fields but also a lack in advanced
communication skills when dealing with patients in difficult situations. Starting their professional career the
physiotherapists questioned report few difficulties and great job satisfaction. Nevertheless a great number of
comments from the physiotherapists investigated show the need to improve the education programme in order to

focus stronger on the vocational field and on efficient teaching performance. Conclusions: Concerning
education the inquiry pointed out high importance of well developed professional performance, orientation of the
professional forming on the vocational field, and a teacher´s behavior as coach guiding problem solving
processes and less as instructor. Implications. Evaluation and change especially enrichment of the education
program as well as the development of new teaching strategies seem necessary. Keywords: Physiotherapy
education, Austria, requirements of professional field, developement of competences, requirements for
Physiotherapy education Funding acknowledgements: The work was a master thesis and has not been funded.
Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required.

IQ Phys and CPTE - distance learning by text

Prof. Dr. Christoff Zalpour University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, Germany c.zalpour@fh-osnabrueck.de
Christina Groll (BSc physioth.) University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, Germany c.groll@fh-osnabrueck.de

Purpose: Physiotherapy education is not finished by completing one´s degree, but rather it is a life-long process.
Learning may take place in a variety of ways and is not limited to attendance at formal courses. Therefore the
aim of the project IQ Phys is to develop a concept of managing continuing education without presence.
Relevance: It ist relevant to point out a new way of being on the state of the art to improve the quality of patient
treatment. Description: In the context of IQ Phys are special articels published, called CPTE-articles
(continuing physiotherapy education) in two different physiotherapy journals. Physiotherapists can read these
texts and answer ten question to show that they expand or refresh their knowledge. The texts deal with basic
knowledge like physiology, anatomy and other theoretical themes, which result in upgrading the competences of
physiotherapists. Both authors and articels have to fulfill certain quality criteria to be suitable for IQ Phys.
These criteria are proved by an assessment, who are developed specific for CPTE-articels. Evaluation: At that
time there are seven CPTE-articels published and the data of more than 250 participants are evaluated. A two-
question survey showed the high acceptance of this new kind of learning an the project. Conclusions: IQ Phys
and CPTE is a good opportunity of distance learning for theoretic themes and it is a meaningful supplement to
the traditional way of continuing education. But it could not be used instead of presence courses to learn new
techniques. Implications: Physiotherapists got one autonoumes and decentral opportunity of life-long-learning
by the project IQ Phys and CPTE-articles. Keywords: Distance learning, continuing education, life long learning
Funding acknowledgements: The project was funded by AGIP – consortium of innovative projects of the
Ministry of Science and Cultur of lower saxony. It is a cooperation project from the University of Apllied
Sciences Osnabrück, the federal association of autonoumes physiotherapists – IFK e.V. and the Georg Thieme
publisher. Ethics approval: There was no reason for an ethic approval because is was not a clinical trial.

Developmen of master´s level programmes at national sports academy “V. Levski” in
Assoc. Prof. Leyla Kraydjikova, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Svetlana Yancheva, MD, PhD

Purpose: The aim of this study is to share the experience of National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria from full
time Master’s Program in Physiotherapy (60 ECTS). Relevance: The concept of this program (60 ECTS) is to
motivate students to combine clinical practice and applied research and to encourage students and teachers for
increasingly self-directed learning. Description: The program includes general theoretical subjects (14 ECTS),
majoring in one of 6 areas – PT in Internal Medicine, PT in Neurology and Psychiatry, PT in Pediatric, PT in
Geriatrics, Muscles Skeletal Physiotherapy and PT in Orthopedics and Traumatology (16 ECTS), elective
subjects (15 ECTS) and 15 ECTS research work and preparing of Diploma thesis. In some of specializations and
elective subjects we offer Problem-Based Learning (PBL). Evaluation: For majority of students PBL is more
interesting and they prefer to elect specialization and subjects with PBL. Conclusions: The future work will be
to develop the Master’s Program in Physiotherapy and in 2008 to receive recognition from National Agency of
Accreditation. Implications: The traditional PT education in Bulgaria provides limited options to encourage
acquisition of competencies. We have to use more problem based and self-directed learning for creation of
successful educational Program in Physiotherapy. Keywords: Master’s level, self-directed learning Funding
acknowledgements: Elected specializations and subjects during the education and the statistics data of
questionnaire for students in Master’s level Program Ethics approval: Department of International Relations
and Eurointegration in NSA.

Continuing Professional Development 3
Room 359

New Trends and Challenges of Lifelong Learning Process in Physiotherapy
Education in Czech Republic

Dagmar Pavlu, Charles University Dept. of Physiotherapy FTVS, Prague, Czech Republic

Purpose: Lifelong learning is today one of the most discussed topics in education system for PT. Study of
physiotherapy enjoys a relatively long tradition in the Czech Republic. Owing to the scientific and technical
progress it has however experienced a number of changes that have been substantially reflected in the associated
legislation as well. The presentation points out experiences gained in connection with the newly introduced
process of lifelong learning and especially accreditation process of physiotherapy as a field of study.
Relevance: Changes in lifelong learning system generally have placed grater demands on educational
institutions to produce higher quality in physiotherapy education. Universities and other educational institutions
have to provide innovative learning opportunities in accordance with new legislation. Description:
Physiotherapy - in conformity with the provisions of Act No. 96/2004 coll. - prepares paramedical personnel -
PTs. To be recognised at a college or university, PT curriculum must undergo a complex accreditation process.
In preparation and control of curricula great emphasis is placed on specification of fundamental
physiotherapeutic competencies as specified i.a. in legal regulations and the relevant decrees of the Ministry of
Health. The necessity of integration in the curriculum of an adequate level of hands-on training, of special
importance for physiotherapy, is separately examined in the accreditation process, and so is the existence in the
college or university concerned of adequate physiotherapeutic premises, aids and instruments within the meaning
used in competence-based Physiotherapy. For lifelong education, which shall be compulsory for all health care
workers stipulates decree No. 423/2004 coll. the credit system, as well as the forms of LLL. Evaluation: The
newly in 2004 implicated lifelong learning system for physiotherapists in the CZ is currently in process and
gained experience will be discussed in the presentation. Conclusions: All PT in the CZ ought to comform to the
rules of currently valid legistation, which i.a. determine detailed rules for lifelong learning process in. This
system should be one way how to reach the highest quality in the physiotherapists training. Implications: An
effective and transparent lifelong learning process as well as accreditation and certification system are of crucial
importance for highest quality of physiotherapy services. Keywords: Lifelong Learning Process - Accreditation
process - Physiotherapy Education – Legislation Funding acknowledgements:0 Ethics approval: 0

What are the perceptions of Athenian physiotherapists of their development as
autonomous practitioners?

Konstantina Chanou, Physiotherapist, MSc
Jullie Sellars, Physiotherapist, MSc PGCertHE MCSP

Purpose: To explore the experience of a group of Athenian physiotherapists and their perceptions of their
development as autonomous practitioners Relevance: Professional autonomy is considered one of the main
priorities of a profession and engaging in continuing professional development (CPD) to develop the necessary
knowledge and skills is recognized as an essential component of being an autonomous practitioner. The current
literature reveals some information on the engagement of Greek physiotherapists in CPD and their autonomy
related to their role. Participants: Ten physiotherapists, 5 male, 5 female, were selected from 5 geographical
regions of Athens, the capital of Greece. Participants were aged from 27 to 58 years and were owners of a
private physiotherapy institute. Their post-qualification experience ranged from 3 to 32 years of practice while
experience gained at their institute varied from 1 to 28 years. Methods: Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews
were used as a method of exploring physiotherapists' experiences, within a qualitative paradigm. Analysis:
Data analysis occurred in parallel with data collection and included transcription of the interviews and
identification of key themes, using a combination of Giorgi's and Wertz's methods. Results: 4 main themes
were identified; engagement in CPD, scope of practice, limitations to autonomy and strategies adopted.
Conclusions: Physiotherapists identified both external and internal threats to their professional autonomy. There
appeared to be little incentive to develop as practitioners, since limited postgraduate opportunities available
exist. Participants had adopted strategies in order to achieve best quality of practice. However, uncoordinated
actions do not promote progress, therefore, support is needed by the relevant professional bodies. Implications:
If professional autonomy is to progress in Greece, it is essential that CPD activity is recognized and encouraged

through professional policies Keywords: Physiotherapy, autonomy, CPD Funding acknowledgements: Special
thanks to the Greek State Scholarship Foundation (IKY) for funding the first author's postgraduate studies.
Ethics approval: Coventry University Ethics Committee

An investigation into the career pathways and professional development
opportunities of consultant physiotherapists in the UK

Sarah Fellows, CSP London, UK

Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop an understanding of the career pathways of consultant
therapists investigating their post-qualifying learning activities for progression to consultant therapist posts; and
to assess whether their learning and development has developed ‘expert’ practitioners Relevance: The research
aims to elucidate the educational processes that enable individuals to acquire and implement skills and
knowledge required to progress to consultant therapist level. Participants: To draw from a broad range of
backgrounds 34 possible respondents were invited to self-select for the research, using an online consultant
therapist membership forum, and 13 respondents came forward. To attempt to get some level of comparability
eleven were interviewed Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken using semi-structured interviews eliciting
individuals’ perceptions and meanings from their career pathways and professional development experiences.
Analysis: Codes were allocated to the data which were grouped under three broad themes. More refined themes
emerged from the codes following subsequent review. The frequency of comments relating to codes was noted
identifying corroborating or divergent opinions Results: Respondents’ clear career goal is to maintain clinical
focus whilst not actively planning their career pathways in most cases. They recognised the value of Masters
level programmes but also valued non-academic clinical courses despite some concerns about the underpinning
evidence base. There was some contention whether doctoral level study was necessary for future consultant
therapists. Clinical peers and progressive managers had significant impact on development opportunities and
roles. Conclusions. Those aspiring to consultant therapist posts must undertake focused career planning and
professional development activities to ensure appropriate expertise is acquired across the breadth of role
elements. They must be strategic about positioning themselves in departments with proactive senior clinicians
and managers Implications: Competence and career frameworks articulating high-level skills and knowledge
required by consultant therapists must be developed rather than accepting reductionist ones. This should help
physiotherapists to use them to progress into consultant therapist posts Keywords: career pathway, consultant
therapist, expertise Funding acknowledgements: The research was part funded by the CSP as part of a Masters
degree programme Ethics approval: The research aims and questions were approved by the internal scrutiny
group lead within the CSP

Searching for partnership – Promoting collaboration between physiotherapy
education and working life

Salla Sipari LicSc, Tuija Ruismäki MSc, Elisa Mäkinen PhD, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied
Sciences, Helsinki, Finland

Purpose: The problem of integrating theory and practice has traditionally been approached as a problem of
transfer at higher-level education. This approach do not give tools enough for developing the collaboration
between education and work because they concentrate either on individual learning in the school context or
situated learning at the workplaces. Physiotherapy education needed to find an innovative way to solve this
problem. Relevance: Rapid chances in working life, expanding expertise and collaborative network emerges
need to find a new type of approach to physiotherapy education. Educator’s expertise has been expanding to
include research work using pragmatism as their philosophical bases. To confront these challenges, there is a
need to improve collaboration between education and work. Description: Developmental work research and
activity theory were used as a framework to enhance a concept of development between education and work.
University of Helsinki and Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia organized a Change Laboratory. Two trained leaders
committed fifteen physiotherapy teachers including management to took part in multi phase process: 1) defining
an actual-empirical situation of education 2) analysis of reflection from work places 3) historical analysis of
education 4) defining zone of proximal development 5) empirical case studies in collaboration with work life.
All phases included intermediate tasks, leader’s conclusions and e learning. Phases took 10 sessions lasting two
hours each. Evaluation: Self-reflection, group reflection and discussion were used during the whole process.
Information from work life were collected by interviews. Conclusions: The participants produced significant

results. In a multiorganizational and multivoiced developmental process created a new conceptual framework to
understanding the common object of the activity, developmental transfer and expansive learning. Three
experimental, empirical case studies were related to boundary-crossing places: 1) learning workshops at hospital,
2) horizontal expertise and dialogue in planning students learning at work and related tasks, 3) innovative
product for disabled children. Shared conception offered potential to collaborative developing process.
Implications: New paradigm of collaboration was integrated in the practice during the whole process moving
from traditional implication to developmental transfer. Keywords: Activity theory, physiotherapy education,
expansive learning

Life long learning in physiotherapy: The portfolio

Aguilar Rodríguez, Marta. University School of Physiotherapy, Valencia. Spain.
Sahuquillo Matas, Piedad. Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences. University of Valencia. Spain.
Alzate Yepes, Teresa. School of Dietetics and Nutrition. University of Antioquía. Colombia.
Igual Camacho, Celedonia. University School of Physiotherapy, Valencia. Spain
Estevez Fuertes, Nicolás. University School of Physiotherapy, Valencia. Spain
Cebriá Iranzo, Mª Angeles. University School of Physiotherapy, Valencia. Spain

Purpose: To use the portfolio as a tool to develop new learning and assess strategies that put at stake
metacognitive skills and complex processes, more in line with new job and personal skills of the physiotherapists
within the European area of higher education. Relevance: The use of portfolio develops significant learning,
metacognitive strategies and empowerment in the physiotherapy student, and also integrates theory with
practice; fundamentals on how to learn throughout life. Description: During the 2006-2007 academic year, 55
students from the second grade to the Diploma in Physiotherapy, have used the portfolio to plan and manage
their learning in the core subject of Respiratory Physiotherapy, 6 ECTS .It was assessed by the teacher at the end
of each of the four teaching units. In addition, there are organized dynamic working from the group-class.
Evaluation: We have revised periodically the work done by the students. Similarly, students have maintained a
personal interview with the teacher, so he was able to guide their learning process and resolve the doubts.
Conclusions: The use of portfolio has shown that the involvement of the subject who learns, as well as the
guidelines that guide the process, improves learning and makes them feel protagonist. Under the watchful eye of
the teacher who guides him/her, is the subject apprentice who constructs knowledge and relates it with what
he/she knows, with his/her life. Similarly, work in this way with students has enabled them to understand the
meaning of the art on the entire curriculum and its relationship to the discipline of physiotherapy as a whole.
Implications: Of course, all this means greater effort on the part of the teacher and student but that certainly
reverses in the development of cognitive, attitudinal, procedural skills and values physiotherapy students.
Keywords: Portfolio, Metacognition, education, physiotherapy, assessment Funding acknowledgements: This
work has not been funded Ethics approval: This work has been subjected to peer review receiving input from
fellow extensive experience, expert groups on educational issues.

Learning in a clinical context
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Learning physiotherapy in clinical placement.

Unni Vågstøl, PT, MSc*, Anne Kari Skøien, PT, MSc*
* Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore students’ reflections about supervisors and supervision in
clinical practice, and their considerations on how this may influence their learning. Relevance Clinical
placement is a core element in bachelor program in physiotherapy. Several studies have discussed professional
practice as a learning arena. Few have focused on the students’ perspective on their own learning processes.
Participants: Five interns and five 3rd year students who had finished their last placement were recruited to the
project. A general invitation was presented to all 3rd year students; the first five who volunteered were included.
The interns were recruited from a random list of local candidates; the first five who gave a positive response to a
phone call were included. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was chosen: Analysis:
The interviews were analysed within a framework of thematic analysis. The thematic analysis leads to different

descriptive categories. However, a stronger analysis will move beyond a simple description to examine how the
categories are interconnected. The practical process of analysing was carried out with inspiration from Giorgi
and Kvale. Results: Five main areas were found to be of particular importance; 1) “Closeness and attention
from my supervisor”, 2) “A supervisor that gives me specific feedback and challenges me”, 3) “A supervisor that
leads me further and confirms me”, 4)”A competent and enthusiastic supervisor” and 5)”Supervision that fits my
learning styles”. Conclusions: How supervisors manage to give specific feedback, challenge and confirm the
students’ strengths is of great importance to students’ learning. Supervisors’ enthusiasm about physiotherapy and
confidence in their own work seem to motivate the students’ learning. Implications: To develop knowledge
about students’ perspective on learning in clinical placement is important in order to improve the bachelor
program in physiotherapy. Keywords: Clinical placement, students’ perspective, supervision Funding
acknowledgements: The work was made possible by allocation of resources from Bergen University College.
Ethics approval: All the informants participated freely in the study and all signed an informed consent.

Quality and patientsafety - an active part of clinical physiotherapy education.
Monia Lennartsson, RPT Kristina Areskoug Josefsson, RPT, Msc, Research & Development Coordinator in
Physiotherapy Samrehab, Väranmo Sjukhus, 33185 värnamo Sweden Ph: 0046-370-697850
monia.lennartsson@lj.se kristina.areskoug.josefsson@lj.se

Purpose: To use the National Board of Health and Welfare management system for quality and patient safety as
a base for clinical physiotherapy education in order to improve the quality of the clinical physiotherapy
education. Relevance: The national board of health and welfare introduced a management system for quality and
patient safety in 2005, which now should be used in physiotherapy practice. To enable the physiotherapy
students to be an active member of the physiotherapy team at the clinic the students should be given opportunity
to work according to the guidelines in the management system for quality and patient safety. The project is a
good way to teach the student to focus on patient safety and quality in the physiotherapy profession, by giving
the student the possibility to experience the effectiveness of the management system for quality and patient
safety already during their clinical education. Description: To fulfil the aim of the project, the management
system for quality and patient safety was used in the planning and carrying out of the clinical physiotherapy
education at our clinic. Evaluation: The project is being tested during 2008 and will be evaluated in June 2008
and in December 2008, by the participating students and physiotherapists. The students regular evaluation will
be compared with results from former years. The physiotherapists will evaluate the new model at a
physiotherapy group meeting. Conclusions: In the working process with the project the involved
physiotherapists have experienced at greater understanding for the management system for quality and patient
safety as well as for the students need of knowledge in this area. Further conclusions might be drawn after the
project is completed. Implications: The project increases the focus on patient safety and quality as important
components of the physiotherapist’s profession. Keywords: Quality, Patient safety, Management system
Funding acknowledgements: The project has been performed as a part of a advanced education course in
student guidance at the University of Jönköping in co-operation with the county of Jönköping. Ethics approval:
The project does not require ethics approval.

The Preferrence for Part-time versus Full-time early clinical affiliations among Clinical
Instructors working in Geriatrics.
Carina Edling, PT, Mhs, GCS

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the preference of part-time versus full-time clinical affiliations
among clinical instructors. The purpose was also to find out if clinical sites would change how they accept
students for clinical experiences with a change from part-time to full-time affiliations Relevance: The Morton
College Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) program was considering a change in the way the early clinical
affiliations were scheduled. Literature has demonstrated better continuity and student outcomes with full-time
clinical affiliations. The set-up at Morton College has been two part-time (2 days per week for 12 weeks)
affiliations with the proposed change to one full-time (5 days per week for 5 weeks). Participants: Surveys were
sent to 30 clinical affiliation sites that had placed Morton College PTA students for clinical affiliations within the
last year. Methods: The surveys included statements about preferences, current participation in the early clinical
affiliations and anticipated participation if a change would happen. The clinical instructors were also encouraged
to comment on the statements. Instructions on how to fill out the surveys were included.
Analysis: The number of surveys returned were calculated in percentage and so were the numbers of clinical

affiliation sites that wanted to keep or change the current part-time clinical affiliation(quantitative). The
comments were gathered and selected if they fitted into a theme (qualitative). Results: A total of 17 surveys
were returned (57% return rate). The result showed that four (23.5%) of the clinical affiliation sites wanted to
keep the part-time affiliations and 13 (76.5%) sites preferred a change to full-time affiliations. The results also
showed that more sites would accept student placements with the proposed change. There were comments for
both preferences. Common themes (in more than 3 surveys) was found in the comments against the part-time
clinical affilations were: "the students just observe" "there's no continuity". There were no common themes for
the part-time affilations. Conclusions: The survey-study demonstrated that it would be beneficial for the
program to make the change to a full-time clinical affiliation. This related to the literature. Implications: The
benefits of a full-time clinical affiliation included increased continuity for the clinical instructors, patients and
students, and an increase in the number of clinical affiliation sites accepting students. Keywords: Clinical
affilation, physical therapy. Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded. Ethics approval: NA

Mentorship through Action Learning: utilising formal and informal learning in the
practice arena.
D. E. Prescott, Lecturer, The University of Liverpool, United Kingdom

Purpose: In the modern health service there is a requirement for healthcare practitioners to support practice
based learning and the development of junior colleagues. Megginson et al(1997) describe the process of
mentorship as one person helping another to make significant changes in knowledge, work or thought. Many
senior practitioners feel ill equipped to facilitate the development of others and have sought guidance with regard
to appropriate mentorship preparation. An appropriate training programme is required to equip mentors to
undertake performance reviews and facilitate learning in the practice arena. Relevance: Over the last decade
United Kingdom (UK) Health and Social Care Policy has had a renewed focus in the delivery of services
through the promotion of Clinical Governance (DOH,1997). An essential feature of this is the continuing
professional development (CPD) of staff to attain their maximal potential. Any CPD needs to acknowledge and
incorporate both the formal and informal learning that occurs within the workplace(Eraut,2004). Description: In
2007 the Strategic Health Authority commissioned The University of Liverpool to develop a multidisciplinary
masters level module in Mentorship to commence in May, 2008. The emphasis to be placed upon the
development of the skills necessary to optimise the potential of the mentee. A multidisciplinary stakeholder
group was established and a decision made to utilise a model which included both the formal and informal
aspects of the practice environment, this to be in the form of Action Learning(Mc Gill & Beatty, 2001). The
Action Learning Set will discuss issues that have evolved during the mentorship process, reflect upon them and
plan future action. Initially the groups will be facilitated by academic staff but this will be reduced as the groups
become more proficient. All of this will be underpinned by the relevant literature, models and frameworks.
Evaluation: This will consist of two elements, a formal questionnaire and a focus group in order to establish that
this method of learning is appropriate for mentorship preparation. Conclusions: No firm conclusions can be
established until Summer 2008. Implications: The move from more traditional teaching strategies to one in
which the indivdual is encouraged to be a self directed and active learner is important. This needs to be
considered when developing future modules. Keywords: Action Learning, Mentorship Funding
acknowledgements: NHS North West, Strategic Health Authority Ethics approval: None required

Reaching learning outcomes in different fields of physiotherapy but in the same
clinical context
Nilsson-Wikmar L RPT, PhD, University Lecturer 1), Wohlin Wottrich A RPT, Med Lic, University Lecturer 1)
Pettersson L RPT, Clinical Supervisor 2), Bild U RPT, Clinical Supervisor 2)
1) Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet,
Sweden 2) Rehabilitation Centre Nacka, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe students and supervisors experiences after a clinical
education of two or three semesters at the same site. The clinical site was a rehabilitation center with out-patients
both in primary healthcare and specialized rehabilitation, corresponding outpatient treatment at hospital.
Relevance: The relevance was to get a deeper knowledge of the meaning of contextual factors in learning.
Participants: Three students and two main clinical supervisors participated voluntary. Methods: After the two
or three semesters they answered open ended questions about strengths and weaknesses, concerning the two or

three semesters, in writing. Analysis: The written documents were analysed with a content analysis method.
Results: The following strengths were identified by the students: No feelings of stress regarding choice of a
clinic, familiarity with the administrative routines like writing journals and knowing and getting assistance from
the whole staff, making use of peer learning, feelings of safety in the group. The following weakness was
reported by the students: They put higher demands on themselves earlier than usual. The following main
strengths were identified by the clinical supervisors: Having the opportunity to follow a development during a
longer time, from novice to closing up to the professional role as independently working physiotherapist.
Reaching the learning outcomes without the stressful situation to do that during one of the clinical rotations was
mentioned and also the familiarity with the administrative routines. No weaknesses were mentioned by the
supervisors. Conclusions: Both the supervisors and the students feel that the time was spent on professional
development and not on administrative routines. Implications: Longer clinical placement at the same site is of
importance and should be proven in more studies. Before finding further results it should be considered that
students have the opportunity to learn and work with their professional development in the same student group
during longer periods in fewer clinical sites. Keywords: Rehabilitation, clinical education, peer learning
Funding acknowledgements: Pedagogical funds from the Board of higher education at Karolinska Institutet
Ethics approval: Involvement in the project was voluntary both for the students and supervisors.

Developing core skills in physiotherapy 1
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The Integration of Physiotherapy Core Clinical skills at Undergraduate Level at the
University of Limerick.

David Sainsbury, Kieran O'Sullivan, Ann Taylor, Amanda.Connell, Susan Coote, Norelee Kennedy, Amanda
Clifford, Marie O'Donnell, Anne O'Connor, Karen McCreech

Purpose: To demonstrate how core physiotherapy skills are embedded throughout the undergraduate
physiotherapy curriculum at the University of Limerick (UL) to reflect current physiotherapy clinical practice
and how the clinical program and academic program are intimately linked to facilitate the development of
competent, flexible practitioners. Relevance:
Physiotherapy practitioners are often required to manage patients with complex presentations requiring an
understanding of more than one core clinical area. Transferable core clinical skills and flexible critical evaluation
of practice should be nurtured in the academic and clinical components of the program to develop practitioners
who are life long learners. Description: Physiotherapy students UL are strongly encouraged to adopt a critical,
evidence based approach to their clinical practice throughout the four year program. Students gain skills in
managing patients with multifactorial problems across a variety of clinical placement settings rather than on core
placement settings. Through Reflective Practice modules students are encouraged to relate clinical experiences
to taught material and importantly understand the role of research in the clinical decision making process.
Continuous, critical and analytical review of practice is encouraged. Likewise, the Theory and Context and
Impairment and Disability modules build on the previous years study through a case based approach where more
complex patients with a range of clinical needs are discussed to support the student in integrating knowledge
from all practice areas. Evaluation: The ability of the Physiotherapy undergraduate programme at UL to
integrate physiotherapy core clinical skills at undergraduate level was assessed by matching core clinical skills to
elements of the academic and clinical components of the program Conclusions: The acquisition of transferable
clinical skills and critical reflective skills by students on the UL program is achieved by an integrated academic
and clinical curriculum from the outset of the course. Implications: This model of program design where the
learning of clinical skills and knowledge is reflective of what is encountered in clinical practice and where
critical reflection of clinical practice is encouraged is important because of the increasingly complex nature and
accountability of modern clinical practice. Keywords: Physiotherapy Education Clinical Education Funding
acknowledgements: none Ethics approval: n/a

Qualitative Movement Analysis as a Base in P T Education

Anna Kimming & Sofia Backgård RPT MSc Lecturer
anna.kimming@vxu.se sofia.backgard@vxu.se

Purpose: Observational movement analysis according to Helga Hirschfeld is a technique for visual observation
and consequently a qualitative estimation of a person’s rising and moving pattern. Clinical experience has shown
that parts of the movement apparatus, for example an asymmetrically moving pelvis, can cause an inadequate
movement impact of the foot against the ground. The purpose of this study was to compare observational
subjective (qualitative) and computer-supported objective (quantitative) motion analysis to investigate if the
force application of the foot against the ground corresponded with the SIPS movement during three frequently
used pelvic tests. Relevance: An understanding of motor control, the control and organisation of processes
underlying motor behaviour, implies an understanding of what is controlled and how that process is organized.
This knowledge and information from this study combined with comprehensive clinical practice and clinical
reasoning makes us wonder about the importance of qualitative movement analysis in the basic education for
physiotherapists. Can the students be given a new perspective of motor control and a general picture of human
movement if the education proceeds from a perspective of qualitative movement analysis and from there utilize
anatomical and physiological knowledge? Participants: A voluntary 28 years old female patient. 3 hip op.
without painrelief Methods: Experimental single case study. The ground forces were registered by two force
plates type AMTI Analysis: The registration was done on three occasions, twice subjectively and twice
objectively at each occasion. After the first registration, an intervention was made, upon which the second
registration followed immediately. The third registration was made after 11 months of treatment and training
Results: Regarding force application during stance subjective and objective registrations correlated.
Conclusions: The correlation between examination and the ground force application that was verified in this
study shows one possibility to compare qualitative and quantitative findings. It indicates that this method can be
of value for further studies. Implications: This study indicates that there are connections between the way we
stand on our feet and the way the pelvic is moved. With today’s knowledge about motor control we might reach
a more effective education in motor behaviour by going from practical tries to theoretical learning. Keywords:
movement analysis, motor behaviour, education Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded Ethics approval: Not

Clinical Educators’ Attitudes Towards the Teaching of Spinal Manipulation to
Undergraduate Physiotherapy Students.
Karen McCreesh, David Sainsbury, Kieran O'Sullivan

Purpose: To analyze the attitudes of physiotherapy clinical educators towards the teaching of spinal
manipulation (SM) at undergraduate level and it's use by undergraduate physiotherapy students on supervised
clinical placement Relevance: In recent years, significant evidence supporting the efficacy of SM has emerged.
There is debate, however, as to whether SM should be taught at undergraduate level and whether undergraduate
students have adequate clinical reasoning and handling skills to use these techniques safely and effectively on
clinical placement. Participants: 27 University of Limerick(UL) physiotherapy clinical educators Methods:
Electronic survey was sent to all UL physiotherapy clinical educators. Analysis: Returned questionnaires were
analyzed using descriptive statistics. Responses to open questions were analyzed to explore common themes
Results: A response rate of 33% was achieved. 92.6% of respondents were trained in the safe use of SM. 90% of
respondents agree or strongly agree that SM is within the scope of practice of chartered physiotherapists. 84% of
respondents feel undergraduate physiotherapists should be trained in the use of SM for the lumbar spine, 88.9%
for the thoracic spine but only 34.6% feel they should be trained in the use of SM for the cervical spine. Only
one quarter of respondents agree or strongly agree that undergraduate physiotherapy students should use SM on
clinical placement and of those 94.1% felt it appropriate for students to use them for the thoracic spine, 82.4%
for the lumbar spine and 23.5% for the cervical spine. Common themes derived from content analysis of open
ended questions are that undergraduate handling and clinical reasoning need to develop further before using SM
on clinical placement and supervising clinicians themselves should have expertise and experience in the use of
SM in order to supervise these students. Conclusions: Whilst most clinicians feel it appropriate to teach
undergraduate physiotherapy students lumbar and thoracic SM, the majority feel it is not appropriate for them to
use these techniques on clinical placements. The attitudes of clinical educators regarding the use of SM on
clinical placement by undergraduate students needs to be further explored and put into context with students
attitudes. Implications: There needs to be an open, collaborative approach between Physiotherapy Schools and
clinical educators regarding the use of SM on clinical placement by undergraduate students.
Keywords: spinal manipulation, physiotherapy, clinical education Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics

approval: Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Limerick Research Ethics
Committee (ULREC No; 07/57)

Beliefs to the physiotherapy students about psychosocial aspects of patient care

Antonia Gómez-Conesa

Purpose: To explore the individual beliefs to the physiotherapist students about psychosocial aspects of care
held in professional activity, and evaluate the measurement properties of an instrument developed to measure
these beliefs. Relevance: The attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapist can potentially influence the outcome of
treatment. Many physiotherapist experience difficulties in carrying out the appropriate psychosocial part of their
diagnosis and treatment Participants: two hundred and eighty nine second year undergraduate physiotherapy
students (31.4% male and 68.6% women; mean age of 21.4 years and SD: 3. 925), completed the scale to
measure psychosocial aspects. Informed consent was requested from physiotherapy students Methods: From
2001 to 2006, the students of physiotherapy degree were evaluated at the end of their second year through a set
scale method of 32 questions about psychosocial aspects (Asworth et al. 1984) with a role of the evaluating
physiotherapist, the beliefs about the patient’s expectations or the likely reactions of the physiotherapist towards
its patient. Each item was followed by a five-point, using Likert response scale, ranging from disagree (1) to
agree (5). This decision represents most (1 ) or least (5) psychosocial approach. Analysis: Data analysis was
performed using SPSS 15.0. Results: Two sentences, “Patients with psychosocial concerns tend to become
dependent on me” and “Patient will become more dependent on me if I open up psychosocial concerns”, there is
a mean punctuation superior to 3, with less positive attitudes. Eight items punctuate below 2, and “Mind and
brain influence physical disease and body perception”, was the item with the lowest mean punctuation (1.36) and
more psychosocial orientation. An alpha coefficient of 0.831 was obtained. Four factors (with 11,7, 9 and 5
items) were identified during principal component analysis and utilized in a confirmatory factor analysis with
Varimax rotation system. Conclusions: Physiotherapy students’ had attitudes from indifferent to disagree prior
to the sentences. Lower scores on the scale represent a more psychosocial approach to patient care, however
indicating a good position to the development of a psychosocial approach. Psychometric characteristics of the
scale are adequate. Implications: These findings have implications for physiotherapist educators, teachers, and
practicing physiotherapists. Keywords: Clinical education, Physiotherapy, Psychosocial Funding
acknowledgements: It does not proceed Ethics approval: This study was supervised by the University of
Murcia, it was also approved by the local human research committee.

Facilitating Completion of Students Scholarly Writing Projects
Theresa J. Kraemer, PhD, PT, ATC, Education & Research Consultant, Mesa, AZ, USA

Purpose: This program will discuss a method for tutoring physiotherapy (PT) students through the process of
scholarly writing as well as the challenges associated with teaching technical writing in a clinical-based
profession. Relevance:As physiotherapy education transitions from a primarily clinical-based education to an
academic-clinical based focus, more emphasis on scholarly writing will be placed on faculty and students.
Instruction in technical writing is seldom included as part of the professional education but is a necessary skill
for successful scientific writing. Description: This presentation will discuss incentives and barriers in
physiotherapy education to developing technical writing skills which serve as a foundation for professional
writing. A review of the literature and a semi-qualitative ethnographic approach in the form of discussions and
emails with research faculty, entry-level DPT students, and TDPT students resulted in analysis of the learning
and technical skills acquired and the challenges associated with facilitating scholarly writing in DPT and TDPT
students. Evaluation: Students reported frustration about the lack of academic preparation related to the process
of scholarly writing and anger that technical writing skills were not a standard part of the educational curriculum.
Once technical writing skills were provided and students were tutored through the process of scholarly writing,
they reported: 1) improved confidence with their technical writing abilities; 2) enhanced awareness of the
benefits of tutoring; 3) greater familiarity with the various aspects of technical writing; and 4) increased respect
and appreciation for the process of scholarly writing. Conclusions: Providing technical writing tutoring
opportunities, appropriate writing resources, and educator writing expertise, students reported feeling better
prepared to write at a scholarly level and generate scholarly products. Future studies should focus on ways to
incorporate technical writing into existing PT curriculum and to foster and promote the production of scholarly
work by students and subsequently in the post-professional career. Implications: Scholarly writing projects
allow students to foster critical thinking and problem solving abilities and advance their knowledge and technical

writing skills. They serve as an essential outcome component to augment the professional development and new
learning that occurs in didactic coursework of the professional physiotherapist. Keywords: scholarly writing,
technical writing, writing projects Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: NA

Development and Implementation of a Modified Objective Structured Clinical
Examination in Neuromuscular Physical Therapy
Sharon Gorman, PT, MS, GCS, Assistant Professor, Samuel Merritt College, Dept of Physical Therapy,
Oakland, CA, USA Linnette Clark, PT, MS, Assistant Professor, Samuel Merritt College, Dept of Physical
Therapy, Oakland, CA, USA Rolando Lazaro, PT, MS, GCS, Assistant Professor, Samuel Merritt College, Dept
of Physical Therapy, Oakland, CA, USA

Purpose: There is a need to design evaluative experiences that can objectively assess clinical performance in
didactic settings. Adequate skills preparation allows students to be “practice-ready” to perform in clinical
settings. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), commonly used by health professions, effectively
assess clinical performance of students.. Relevance: Very little literature exists about using OSCEs to assess
clinical skills with primarily neuromuscular populations. This project investigated the ability to assess clinical
performance in neuromuscular physical therapy using OSCEs. Description: Examination stations were
developed, validated for content by experts, field tested on recent graduates, analyzed for reliability, and pilot
tested. A nine station OSCE tested performance of examination and intervention procedures, interaction with
patients, interpretation of observations, and analysis of clinical situations. Four stations involved interaction with
a standardized patient, while five stations used written or video clinical scenarios. Evaluation: Sixty-six third
year doctor of physical therapy students in their last didactic semester before a 6 month final clinical rotation
participated in the pilot testing over a one year period. Conclusions: Results indicate the test stations were valid
and reliable. Significant correlations were identified among patient interaction stations (r=.553 to .884); lower
correlations were noted on the clinical scenario stations (r=-.263 to .142). OSCE scores were highly correlated to
the final grade in the course and overall GPA. The student’s perception of their ability in performing
examinations, interventions or interpreting results did not change before and immediately after the OSCE, and a
review of written comments allude to a higher than normal level of anxiety prior to taking the OSCE.
Implications: OSCEs can be successfully used in physical therapy programs to assess knowledge and skills
related to the management of patients with neuromuscular dysfunction. More studies investigating the
relationship between OSCE performance and clinical performance need to be done. Keywords: OSCE,
neurologic, physical therapy Funding acknowledgements: Samuel Merritt College Curricular Innovation

Developing core skills in physiotherapy 2
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Educational implications for home physiotherapy in Primary Health Care
Berta Paz Lourido.Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy
University of the Balearic Islands.Spain.

Purpose: The main aim of this study was to identify the perceptions of Primary Health Care professionals about
home physiotherapy Relevance: Home physiotherapy is included in the Primary Health Care system.
Theoretical aspects are considered in the curriculum for physiotherapy but this service is not yet provided in
Majorca. A future implementation could have implications related to education. Participants: 54 participants
were involved: physiotherapists, nurses, GPs, social workers, pediatricians and professionals from social services
administration. Methods: A qualitative method was used, with the critical social paradigm as theoretical
perspective. Data was obtained from individual and small group interviews. Analysis: Discourse analysis was
used for data analysis. Results: The interdisciplinary approach was revealed as a main theme regarding home
physiotherapy. The role of physiotherapists in home visits was explained not just as a direct intervention with the
person but also assesing caregivers, families and especially other health and social care professionals. The
physiotherapeutic intervention was explained as “good for all”, but many of participants declared difficulties to
concretize the physiotherapeutic practices. The lack of knowledge about physiotherapy was mainly declared in
relation to the own specific professional education and the historical perspective based on independent practices
at health centers. This fact was also apparent in interviews with physiotherapists considering that their work is

not enough known by other professionals. It was considered relevant by the participants to establish educational
processes that can bring more clearance about theirs and the others practices in order to work more
cooperatively, but also in implement the learning process in practice at home. Conclusions: The findings suggest
that educational factors have a great importance for professionals when working in home settings. Educational
gaps detected by them can make difficult to develop an interdisciplinary approach focussed on patient's needs in
the home, a particular context with implications to practice. Implications: It seems relevant not just to include
in the curricula of different health and social service professionals information about other disciplines but also
implement interdisciplinary clinical education placement that allows the learning process in practice. Keywords:
Health professional education, Interdisciplinary health team, Primary health care Funding acknowledgements:
Health Department of the University of the Balearic Islands Ethics approval: Ethical issues in qualitative
research were taken into consideration. Ethical approval was considered not necessary by ethical committee of
the university.

Identification of relevant criteria in education setting in order to implement the ICF in
Physiotherapy context

Pereira, C.; Escola Superior de Saúde Dr. Lopes Dias, Portugal.

Purpose: Identify relevant criteria in the planning of an educational action that could promote recording the
dimensions of functionality by physiotherapists, according to the ICF Relevance: The ICF is is a valuable tool
for describing and comparing human function dimensions by different health professionals including
physiotherapists in different contexts. Essentially it aims to provide a unified standard language and a conceptual
reference for describing health and the states related. Being aware that the good practice and results
demonstration in Physiotherapy depends on communication models used by physiotherapists with the other
professionals and patients, a standardized training in CIF language will ease the communication between
physiotherapists and the remaining parties Participants: A heterogeneous convenience sample composed of 77
professionals from different health and education areas. The criterion used for being part in this study was the
knowledge of educational strategies developed by WOH member countries for the ICF setting. Methods:
Transversal descriptive qualitative methodology – a closed questionnaire of single answer was especially made.
Analysis: A descriptive statistic analysis was undertaken to analyze the collected information. Results: the
criteria relevant for training planning that were mostly pointed out by the sample (over 50%) were: training
models; training purposes; teaching methodology; training subjects and practical usage. It is observed that the
items of each criterion that the sample considers that should be thought of when planning a training activity, with
over 50% referral are: in class training; exercise training; facilitate change; increase quality; teamwork; ICT
usage; multiprofessional groups; institutional strategy; objectives definition; action plan; organization.
Conclusions: The criteria relevant to design a training that promotes the implementation of the ICF as a
multidisciplinary communication tool, are centered in a contextualized educational model, also should facilitate
the paradigm change and increase the quality of care; always include and promote teamwork and the use of ICT
as a educational methodology; multiprofessional groups should be the recipients of training, the practical
application of training should focus on the objectives definition , action plan and organization. Implications:
Promote and Standardize communication between Physiotherapists and the other health Professional and
Patients. Keywords: Physiotherapy, Education, ICF. Funding acknowledgements: Work was unfunded. Ethics
approval: Ethics approval was not required

Evidence-based practice in physiotherapy clinical education
Nina Rydland Olsen, MSc(1), Bente Frisk, MSc, Coordinator of research and development(2) ,Torunn Urnes
Meyer, student coordinator(2), Bård Bogen, MSc, Coordinator of research and development(3), Mildrid
Haugland, MSc, Head of department(4), Hildegunn Lygren, Associate professor(1,2,4)

(1) Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Bergen University College, Norway
(2) Department of physiotherapy, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway
(3) Department of physiotherapy, Haraldsplass Deaconal Hospital, Norway
(4) Bachelor of physiotherapy, Bergen University College

Purpose: To explore experiences, beliefs and attitudes related to use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in
clinical education; students’, clinical instructors’ (CI) and visiting teachers’ perspectives. Relevance: It is
essential for us to ensure optimal learning opportunities in clinical education, including enabling students to

work evidence-based. At the Department of Physiotherapy we started to teach the concept of EBP in 2004.
However, EBP knowledge and skills gained in academic settings are not necessarily adequately reinforced
during clinical education. Consequently, we need better insight into how EBP is used in today’s clinical
education, including barriers and motivational factors to practicing evidence-based. Participants: We will invite
3rd year physiotherapy students, CIs and visiting teachers with recent experience from clinical placement periods
in hospital settings to participate. Methods: We will use focus groups to record the participants’ experiences,
beliefs and attitudes of using EBP in clinical education. We will conduct minimum four interviews; two with
students, one with CIs and one with visiting teachers. Each group will consist of 6-8 participants and two
facilitators. Our interview guide will be based on our programme for clinical education, theories about learning
and current research about teaching and learning EBP. Analysis: We will use text analysis/ qualitative discourse
analysis when analysing the transcribed interview-data, within an iterative research process. Results:
Preliminary results will be presented at the conference in September. Conclusions: We need to ensure that
clinical education supports evidence-based decision making. Implications: The results may provide useful
insight into how to improve integration of EBP into clinical education. Keywords: Clinical education, problem-
based learning, evidence-based practice Funding acknowledgements: This project is funded with a grant from
the Bergen University College development fund. Ethics approval: This project was considered by the Regional
Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (REK) not to need review.

Status of physiotherapist in treatment team in the opinion of physiotherapy students
from variously oriented Polish university-level schools
J Gotlib MA D, Bialoszewski MD PhD, J Sierdzinski PhD, Med. Univ. Warsaw, K Barczyk PhD Univ. of
Phys. Educ.,Wroclaw A Bauer MA Coll.of Phys. Wroclaw, A Cabak PhD Univ. of Phys. Educ. Warsaw, J
Grzegorczyk PhD Univ. of Rzeszow, M Plaszewski PhD Coll. of Adm., Bielsko-B. Prof. W Kulak PhD Med.
Univ. Bialystok, P Majcher MD PhD Med. Univ. Lublin; Pulawy Coll. O Nowotny-Czupryna PhD Sil. Med.
Univ.Katowice, K Prokopowicz Olsztyn Coll.

Purpose: To analyse the opinions of students regarding the status of physiotherapists in treatment teams with
special regard to the physiotherapist-nurse-physician relations Relevance: University curricula of the medical
professions in Poland do not include the issue of development of relations between different medical professions
and mutual perception is based on stereotypes that are not discussed during the studies and are consequently
reinforced Participants: 1145 first-year students of physiotherapy from 4 medical universities - MS, 2
universities of physical education - PhysS and 5 other university-level schools – OthS Methods: An anonymous
questionnaire comprising 21 questions Analysis: Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significance
at p< 0.05 Results: 28.51% of M students believed that physiotherapists are undervalued among medical
professions. Phys students listed it in second place (19.40%), after low pay in public health care, and OthS
students listed it after low pay and inadequate equipment 50% of the students believed that the professional
status of physiotherapists was lower than that of physicians. Statistically significant differences were found
between the opinions of M and OthS students, the former pointing to a lower professional status of
physiotherapists compared to physicians more frequently (p<0.007). 60% participants believed that the
professional status of physiotherapists was higher than that of nurses, with M students stating this significantly
(p<0.04) more frequently. 90% of the participants said that physiotherapists should work with physicians on
equal terms. Conclusions: The prevalent opinion in the study group was that physiotherapy is an undervalued
profession. The orientation of university did not influence the perception of the desired form of relations
between physiotherapists and physicians. Implications: University curricula should be supplemented with topics
regarding the development of future relations between the two professions Keywords: students perception of
physiotherapist profession type of university Funding acknowledgements: This study didn`t receive any
funding Ethics approval: The study didn`t require IRB approval

Development of self-directedness during the Pt – education
Eeva Harjulehto
Lic.Sc., M.Sc., PT
Head of Master’s Degree Programme
South Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Faculty of Health Care and Social Services

Purpose: One purpose of this study was to investigate how self-directed the PT-students evaluate themselves to

be. The main purpose was to investigate how the self-directed change during the educations. Relevance: The
study helps PT-teachers and instructors to understand and know the students. It is easier to develop new
pedagogy strategies and methods when the cognizance of students is high. It is also needed to know what really
the students think that happens to them during the education. Participants: The research population consists of
students of physiotherapy who attended South Karelia University of Applied Sciences during 1996–2003. 176
students filled in a questionnaire measuring readiness for self-directedness. 47 students filled the questionnaire
before and after the education. Methods: The students’ readiness for self-directed learning was measured with
the help of the SDLR scale developed by Lucy Guglielmino in 1977. 47 students filled in the questionnaire early
in their education and after their education Analysis: The material was analyzed using SPSS software. Factor of
the readiness for self-directed learning were carried out. The results of the analyses were used paired samples
test to compare the variances in readiness for self-directedness before and after education. Results: Based on the
responses to the questions on the SDLR questionnaire, five elements crucial to self-directed learning readiness
could be singled out: receptiveness and creativity, positive attitude towards learning, study skills, orientation to
succeed, and self-regulation skills. All this five elements also advanced during the education but above all study
skills and orientation to succeed. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is possible to formulate
recommendations for further action at PT education. Implications: We ought to pay attention to following
propositions in PT education: • Teaching and studying methods in education ought to support the decision-
making and self-directedness of the students. • The education atmosphere ought to be creative and supportive.
• All tutors and teachers ought to encourage students to take response from their education. Keywords: self-
directedness, physiotherapy students Funding acknowledgements: South Karelia University of Applied
Sciences, Lappeenranta, Finland Ethics approval: Both the students and the head of the school allowed the
using of the testmaterials.

The reflective specialist: moving in a new direction. Reflection on new educational
program at the level of professional master's degree.
R van Dolder MSc, D Vroegindeweij MSc, H Wittink PhD
Contact: Rob van Dolder; e-mail: rob.vandolder@hu.nl; Head Centre of Movement Studies, University of
Applied Sciences Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Purpose: In 2005 the first education program at the level of a professional master in the Netherlands was
developed at the University of Applied Sciences in Utrecht. A totally new concept was introduced for five
different specialisations in Physiotherapy. The purpose of this lecture is to inform you about our concept and to
share the impressions and experiences from students and lecturers with this concept. Relevance: Changes in the
health care environment and advances in health care science, including physiotherapy, made it necessary to
change the education of specialised physiotherapists. The modern specialised physiotherapist need competencies
to perform professional innovations in their working settings and convince PT-colleagues to adopt new
treatments or to use specific new diagnostic tools. Description: Professional Master of Physiotherapy students
learn to become competent in 4 professional roles: specialist, professional leader, innovator and advisor. The
basic principle is that the 3 more generic roles are all based on and found there justification in the role of
specialist. In the first year of the curriculum the students write a case report in a problem oriented learning
context. In the second year the master students perform a project (with 6 students) in which they are educated to
develop and implement a Best-Practice Design (BPD) based on a clinical question of a PT (client) anywhere in
the Netherlands, who needs a solution for a real life problem. An individual Innovation project in the practice of
the student is the core business in the third year. Evaluation: The integration of the 4 diffferent roles is a tough
but ostentatious issue for students, lecturers and clinicians. Traditionally the attraction and focus of the most
education programs and courses in specialised physiotherapy is based on a ‘hands on’ curriculum. In the spring
of 2008 a structured reflection of the past three years is planned with semi-structured interviews with students,
lecturers and clinicians. Conclusions: The conclusions will be presented on the congress as a result of the
aforementioned interviews Implications: The results could have an impact on our future education program for
professional masters. Keywords: curriculum development, specialised physiotherapists

Developing students´ learning

Room 351

Evaluation of the Educational Activities in a Greek Higher Educational Physiotherapy
Sakellari V. PT PhD*, Kapreli E. PT PhD*, Kortianou E. PT MSc*, Strimpakos N. PT PhD*, Poulis I. PT
MSc*, Trigkas P. PT MSc*, Gioftsos G. PT PhD* Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Caring
Professions, Technological Educational Institute (T.E.I) of Lamia, Greece.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the teaching capability of the teaching staff in a Greek Higher
Educational Physiotherapy Department according the students’ opinion. A number of factors such as the
educational material, management of the educational process, the clearness of the aims of the taught subject, the
use of the available resources, etc, were considered. Relevance: Student satisfaction surveys can be of great
value in providing feedback required to progressively improve the learning environment. Participants:
Approximately 2500 questionnaires were completed by physiotherapy students. Methods: An anonymous,
standardised questionnaire was distributed to the physiotherapy students. Using closed questions (numerical
scale from 0 to 5) the questionnaire required the students to consider all teachers and their lessons (theoretical
and practical) that they had taken during the previous year. Analysis: The SPSS program was employed for
analysing the data. Descriptive statistics, t-test and correlations coefficients were used in order to find any
significant difference and correlations between variables. Results: Students believe that teachers possess their
teaching subject but its way of transmission is not always satisfactory. Teachers are generally reliable in their
obligations yet they do not correspond sufficiently in the expectations of students for promotion of research.
Teachers providing theoretical sessions were generally considered more effective than staff responsible for
clinical sessions. Conclusions: The evaluation of the teaching staff in higher education institution is found to be
feasible and the results indicate that there are considerable differences in a number of educational aspects.
Implications: Teacher’s life long education on issues of their scientific field and pedagogic, the possession of a
Master Degree, the use of alternative methods of evaluation and the establishment of suitable conditions of
promotion of research will extend the possibilities of further improving the educational process. Keywords:
Physiotherapy education, quality assurance, assessment Funding acknowledgements:
Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required. A standardised questionnaire provided by the HELLENIC

How to increase Efficiency of Clinical Practice in Physiotherapy (PT) Education and
Rainer Simader, Herbert Schachner, Academy for Physiotherapy, General Hospital Wels, Austria.

Purpose: Future changes within the educational system in Austria will include a reduction of clinical practice
within the PT training program by approximately 25%. In order to maintain the high standard of our PT training
program, the Academy for Physiotherapy in Wels carried out a project to identify and to implement potential
improvements within the practical part of the PT training. Relevance: Clinical practice is an important part of
the PT training. Therefore, any improvements in this field affect quality of the graduates’ professional skills.
Description: 34 clinical educators (CE) and 48 PT students were interviewed in the context of workshops to
highlight potential improvements within the practical training. All suggestions and ideas were categorised and
ranked according to their relevance. As a result of this survey we could identify three main areas of potential
improvements within the practical training, being mission, educational skills and communication skills.
In a second step, we developed and facilitated specific training courses for the CEs in those three identified
areas. Evaluation: The project was evaluated informally by a verbal feedback from the CEs taking part in the
training courses. The CEs described the project as beneficial to their own professional skills and suggested more
training courses. Furthermore, we recognise an improved quality of the written appraisals from those CEs who
were involved in this project. We suggest that our project supports the CEs to fulfil their specific role and
mission. Conclusions: In Austria there is no formal training to prepare CEs for their specific role. To improve
the efficiency and the quality of clinical practice within the PT training it is important to train up those who teach
and supervise the students during their practical placement. Implications: In the future those institutions in
charge of the education and training of PT students should secure and improve quality standards by providing
training courses for CEs, especially regarding mission, educational and communication skills. Keywords:
Clinical educators, efficiency. Funding acknowledgements: This subject was unfunded.

Ethics approval: There was no need for ethics approval

The reflection spiral: One method to promote clinical reasoning in physiotherapy
Laekeman M.-A., Schüller V., School of Physiotherapy from St.Josef- und St.Elisabeth-Hospital gGmbH –
Clinics of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany

Purpose: In their daily practice therapists frequently experience frustrations about the number of non-respondent
clients e.g. with unspecific low back pain. The purpose of the “Reflection Spiral” is to qualify them in reflecting
their practice individually or as team-counselling in relation to current therapy management principles.
Relevance: This approach enables students as well as clinicians to identify discrepancies between “what they
actually do” and ”utilizing current best practise evidence”. Collegial expertise and pedagogic techniques help to
develop a competent team, to optimise physiotherapy services and to stimulate continuous professional learning.
Description: The program implement current educational principles in clinical practice. It contents four stages
using different pedagogic methods. Each step can be applied independently from / or in combination with each
other to revise some patient cases or difficulties. The first step serves as a critical self reflection using a
“mirroring sheet” to review the problem. A next step – called “silent written colloquy” - leads to a consultation
of colleagues in form of a written request. In a third stage the “Peer Group Supervision” method is used in order
to create solutions. Finally the installation of a “portfolio” assures the results of the previously achieved
cognitions. Evaluation: The method was presented to 42 physiotherapists in Germany in different tutorials. The
participants perceived the program as feasible in their clinical practice and anticipated improvements in
consistency and effectiveness of their patient management. They estimated a constructive communication in the
team and some of them expected that it could even prevent burn-out symptoms of clinicians because it provides
them with new ideas and stimuli. Conclusions: The “Reflection Spiral” seems to be a useful tool for the
implementation of elements of clinical reasoning for physiotherapists. More in-depth study of the model’s
influences to critically reflect on its practical value should be done: Implications: Although it needs some extra
time capacities, application of the model might help clinicians to identify elements that influences their practice
and hereby may provide an opportunity to evaluate themselves on a systematic basis. Physical therapy education
programs can incorporate this method to assist students in their clinical decision making. Keywords:
Competency based - clinical decision making – critical thinking Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics
approval: was not required

Self-Reflection an Important Skill in Life Long Learning?
Eva Nordmark & Christina Gummesson

Purpose: To study the use of self-reflection during an online course. Relevance: Skills like reflective thinking,
independent time management and selecting adequate study aids are essential parts for the rehabilitation
professions. To enhance this process it should be important to continuously include structured self-reflection in
the graduate programs. The use of self-reflection has the potential to add an important dimension to the learning
and evaluation process for students and teachers. Participants: Thirty-two students participated, during their 4th
semester in a 5 week online course in scientific methods, at the Physiotherapy undergraduate program, Faculty
of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden. The participants included 27 women and 5 men, mean age 26 yrs, (range
20-43 yrs). Methods: Data were collected from eight occasions containing assignments with reflective
reasoning and practical skills e.g. literature search, scientific report including calculating descriptive statistics,
ethical assignment writing a patient information consent, and designing a qualitative study. A mandatory part of
each assignment was to document their reflection on their own and peers learning. Written information about the
self-reflection was administered in the initial course newsletters. For the final formal evaluation the students
graded the meaningfulness of writing self-reflections. Analysis: Analysis design: Thematic, manifest and
summative content analysis. The data were initially categorized into three themes; effort related activities, goal
orientation, and cognitive activities. In the next step the initial categories were reread and categorized into
subgroups, effort related activities; time management, motivation, attitude, concentration, goal orientation;
anxiety, selecting main ideas, test strategies, cognitive activities; information processing, study aids, self testing.
Results: The preliminary results show awareness and reflections mainly on effort related activities and cognitive
activities but also on goal oriented strategies. Conclusions: The use of self-reflection can add an important
dimension to the learning process for the students as well as the teachers. Implications: Potentially this
awareness during the study time can improve skills of reflective thinking needed for evidence based practice and

life long learning. Keywords: self-reflection, life long learning Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics
approval:Acceptance for analyzing the student reports for this study was obtained after the data collection to
avoid bias.

A way of combining Problem Based Learning and Evidence Based Knowledge
Grete Stokkenes, Ass. Professor,
University College of Bergen, Norway.
mailto:grete.stokkenes@hib.no tlf.+4755585684

Purpose: The intension has been to make the situations and the seminars used in Problem Based Learning as
inspiring and meaningful as possible for the students and the teachers. Relevance: For many years Problem
Based Learning has been used as a teaching method for students in physiotherapy at the University Collage of
Bergen, Norway. During the last five years the focus is put on Evidence Based Practice. This project describes a
way of combining PBL and EBP. Description: In their third year of study students in physiotherapy have four
situations focusing on paper patients who had problems related to orthopaedics, neurology, internal medicine or
women health. The students worked in groups with these practical situations and were asked to find evidence
based knowledge, knowledge from physiotherapists in the clinic and knowledge from the patients associations.
In the seminars they presented to their fellow students and their teachers relevant research articles and clinical
guidelines, and how they would practically examine and treat these patients. In the end the audience gave them
feedback on the articles and on the way they had chosen to treat the patient. Evaluation: The programme was
evaluated by the students and the teachers. The students claimed that they learned a lot by this way of working.
It was often difficult for them to find relevant research articles, but once they have learned the process, they used
less time on the searching prosedyre. It was also inspiring for them to get in touch with physiotherapists in the
clinic. The teachers thought that the students worked more concentrated and that they were more skilled when
they later on had to find research literature to their bachelor theses. Theory: We have used a model in EVP that
emphases as equally important research, clinical knowledge and the experiences the patient. Conclusions: The
conclusion of the evaluation is very positive. The students realise that they have to learn to find relevant research
articles in their future work. The teachers are inspired by the work of the students and think they also have
improved their way of writing their bachelor themes. Implications: We will continue to use this method of
combining PBL and EVP in situations and seminares. Keywords: Students, PBL, EBP Funding
acknowledgements: This study is done within the official programme of The Department of Physiotherapy at
the University of Bergen, Norway

Evaluation of portfolioes of learning in fundamental and general physical therapy in
academic course 2007/2008
Raquel Chillón Martínez,
Teacher. Jesus Rebollo Roldán, Professor.
Carmen Suárez Serrano, Teacher.
University of Seville. Spain

Purpose: To study the efficiency of portfolioes of learning in Fundamental and General Physical therapy.
Relevance: To analyze with scientific rigor an educational tool that foments the autonomous learning the record
of realized works following the PBL, it allows the continuous assessment of the teacher Participants: 100
students of the first course of Physical therapy registered in the subject Fundamental and General Physical
therapy. Methods: Implementation of Portfolioes of Learning by means of an experimental, analytical,
longitudinal, market design realized from September, 2007 on June, 2008. Evaluation of Portfolioes across a
survey with 15 variables or dimensions fulfilled on May 29, 2008. Analysis: Statistical package SPSS
14.Results: The results will derive in bar graphs and boxes and moustaches showing all the dimensions defined
in the survey: degree of satisfaction, perception of usefulness, level of facilitation of the study, level of
organization of the information, degree of hierarchial structuring document, format, royal manifestation of the
learning of the student. Prevee, given the previous experiences in other qualifications, which portfolioes it is a
tool of very useful organization, which foments the autonomous and responsible learning, which a major time
forces the student to dedicate to the organization of the information, which helps progressively to the preparation
of theoretical prooves and which there is certain degree of resistance on the part of the student body and it
facilitates the evaluation of the teacher. Conclusions: All the pupils and teachers of the subject take part in the
experience of integration of portfolioes. Originally, certain resistances take produced on the part of the students.

Confusion. As it advances the course increases the degree of satisfaction, specially after the first ruled
evaluation. Implications: Portfolioes it is a tool that facilitates the transverse fundamental learning in Physical
therapy, specially in this subject where the contents are approached, between others, on knowledge and scientific
method, investigation in general and Physical therapy based on the evidence. Keywords: Portfolio, Physical
therapy, Education. Funding acknowledgements: This work is being financed by the Department of Physical
therapy of the University of Seville. Ethics approval: It does not need ethical approval.

Developing practice methods
Room 456

An Innovative Instructional Method in Pediatrics: Use of Classroom Tools to Teach
Clinical Decision-Making Skills
Lisa Kenyon, PT, MHS, PCS Assistant Professor Arkansas State University Jonesboro, Arkansas USA

Purpose: Within the study of pediatrics, student physical therapists must learn to consider the potential impact
of factors such as the child’s age, developmental level, environmental supports, and environmental constraints in
order to appropriately execute elements of the patient management model within pediatric physical therapist
practice. This platform presentation will introduce an innovative instructional method that utilizes classroom
tools within a case-based curricular model to guide students through the process of making clinical decisions
while planning and executing elements of patient management within pediatric physical therapist practice.
Relevance: Bridging the void between theory and practice is often challenging for physical therapy educators.
Teaching physical therapist students entry-level clinical decision-making skills in pediatrics requires that
students have an understanding of issues such as the impact of development and developmental expectations on
clinical decision-making skills in pediatric physical therapy. Such instruction is also often complicated by the
fact that many students are not comfortable working with children and are thus already uneasy about the clinical
decision-making process as related to children. The classroom tools to be presented in this platform presentation
have been found to help students overcome this uneasiness and learn to apply clinical decision-making skills to
practical situations in pediatric practice. Description: The author has developed classroom tools that allow
students to practice clinical decision-making skills in pediatric physical therapist practice. Evaluation: The
author has utilized these classroom tools to teach clinical decision-making skills in pediatric physical therapy to
entry-level students in three different physical therapy education programs. Student response to these tools has
been positive (especially by those students who feel uneasy or unsure about working with children).
Conclusions: The classroom tools to be presented in this platform presentation have been found to help students
overcome this uneasiness and learn to apply clinical decision-making skills to practical situations in pediatric
practice. Implications: The classroom tools to be presented in this presentation will assist other instructors in
teaching students clinical decision-making skills in pediatric physical therapy. Keywords: Pediatric Physical
Therapy Curricular tools Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: Not required

Cutting the first turf - Development of a physiotherapy assessment measure for
children in special school
Anne-Marie Wium PT, M.Sc. paediatric specialist Childrens Education & Special Education Center,
Tæbyvej 9 2610 Rödovre DK. riewium@gmail.com - anne-marie.wium@rk.dk

Purpose: In special education PTs meet children with developmental and learning disabilities and significant
motor difficulties.PTs need tools for assessing development.Purpose of this study was to compile a valid and
reliable measure for motor assessment of school children with developmental and learning disabilities.
Relevance: Developing clinical tools and methods plays an important role in life long learning and developing
the profession.To see the movement potentials and difficulties of each child PT needs valid and reliable
assessment.Current tools are inadequate as M-ABC, MAP, PEDI, GMFM target other populations. Description:
125 motor assessments were analyzed and 6 PTs interviewed in-depth on clinical reasoning and theoretical
assumptions.77 assessments were cross-analyzed for more in-depth motor data.From results and critical
appraisal of previous methods PT team compiled a measure for specific setting.The measure is clinically
evaluated regularly.Reliability and validity are being investigated in collaboration with PT bachelor students.
Evaluation: Measure has 29 items 6 categories:Balance,Coordination,Muscle Strength/Tone,Motor
Planning,Spatial Senses,Combined Tasks.Performance scores on 5 levels show each childs motor

profile.Interpretation combines qualitative and quantitative elements.Time needed is 2-3 sessions total 1•
hour.Minimal equipment required.Illustrated manual explains procedures and scoring in detail.
Interraterreliability study of PT ratings on 18 children was low, k from 0,33-1.After revision of lowest k items
interraterreliability needs new test.Validity study results(peer evaluation)expected January 2008. Conclusions:
Creating a measure for PT assessment of school children with developmental an.Certainly continued endeavor is
needed to create more objective assessment tools.This new measure albeit unfinished can be useful stepping
stone.Further progress wil require extended practical trial, evaluation in clinical settings and clinical research.
Implications: New research area needs more clinical and educational attention and research.Collaboration
between clinical practice and higher education institutions is essential. Keywords: Assessment tool, professional
development, practice and HEI collaboration. Funding acknowledgements: Britta Holle Foundation.Education
dept.Copenhagen County. Ethics approval: Not required

Motor control theory and clinical practice in chronic neck patients
Trond Wiesener, PT cand. can. Gyrd Thrane, PT cand. can.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and develop one therapist’s use of a functional motor control
theory. This paper focuses on how our theories of motor control have changed during this project. Relevance:
Integration of theory and clinical practice in continuous education for physiotherapists. Participants: The
subjects are one therapist (TW), one co-researcher (GT) and five patients with chronic neck pain. The patients
were recruited from general medical practitioners and from the outpatient rehabilitation clinic of the hospital.
Methods: In an Action Research Design, each patient received six to ten treatments. Three to five of the
treatments were video taped. The therapist and the co-researcher reviewed the videotapes and recorded the
discussions. The recordings, the videos and the PT records from the treatment are the data material of this study.
Analysis: Case history was constructed using edited video-clips, PT records and the transcribed texts from the
discussions. The patient’s motor control problems and the therapists use and non-use of the motor control theory
were analyzed. Results: All patients had posture and movement pattern that were thought to interfere with
improvement of motor control in the neck. In addition to known patterns in the neck, scapular region and spine;
hip dysfunction, poor pelvic alignment and movement dysfunction of the lower extremities were identified. The
therapist was not assessing these joints in standard treatment prior to this project. This understanding has led the
therapist to change practice. Conclusions: All patients had other constraints to motor control than dysfunction
of the neck. Treatment of these seemed possible. The effect on the neck motor control and the specificity to the
neck population is though uncertain. The design of the study only permits generation of hypotheses regarding the
theory of functional motor control. Experimental studies of the mechanisms and clinical trials of the effect are
needed to confirm the theories and establish the effect of the treatment. Implications: By exploring the use of
theory in clinical practice, a new understanding and personal theory may evolve. The experiences from this kind
of projects may have implications on theory and the preconceptions for experimental research and clinical trials.
Keywords: Motor control, posture, chronic neck pain Funding acknowledgements: Funded by the University
College of Tromsø. Ethics approval: Approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health research
Ethics, and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services.

Interrater Reliability of passive movement analysis by physiotherapy students
Pälmke, M.; Zalpour, C.

Purpose: To show how reliable physiotherapy students can analyze pain, resistance, limit of motion and the
limiting factor in passive movements before and after a standardization training. Relevance: Movement analysis
is an important part in manual therapy (Maitland-Concept) education. The Maitland style movement diagram is
used to document results of movement analysis. It is important that physiotherapy student can reliably analyze
movemebt because the results are the basis for planning a treatment. Participants: 28 physiotherapy students of
the second and third year of a German vocational school program took part in the study. Three voluntary healthy
subjects were analyzed. Methods: The study took part over a four week period. In the first week the students
were introduced in the theory of the analysis and the standardized techniques. Afterwards the first data collection
took place. In the following two weeks there was a 90 minutes training every week. During the training the
standardization was trained with different methods. In the fourth week the second data collection took place. The
movements which had to be analyzed were shoulder flexion, cervical rotation and straight leg raise. Analysis:
The data was analysed with SPSS 15.0 and OpenOffice.org Calc 2.0. The percentaged accordance while
comparing each pair of rater and the changes in variance were analyzed. Results: The variance was significantly

lower in two factors. In seven factors altogether the percentaged accordance was larger at the second
measurement. The reliability was fair to good in six of twelve analyzed factors. There was a good reliability in
analyzing the limiting factor. The percentaged accordance was better for pain than it was for resistance.
Summarized, the most significant changes in accordance were achieved for the analysis of straight leg raise.
Conclusions: Physiotherapy students can reliably analyze the limiting factor of a movement. The ability to
analyze movement has became better through the training. Movement analysis should be a part of physiotherapy
education. By doing this analysis, students have to reflect what they are doing and have the chance to train their
skills from the beginning. Implications: Movement analysis as an important part of physiotherapy and manual
therapy should be learned in detail during education. This study has shown that, even without experience,
reliability can become better with a special training. Keywords: interrater reliability – movement analysis –
physiotherapy students Funding acknowledgements: This pilot study was not funded. Ethics approval: Ethics
approval was not necessary because this study was no clinical study.

Physiotherapie in Neurology- Quo vadis?
An analysis of neurological classes of Austrian Academies of Physiotherapy
Mayrhofer Gabriele, MSC, PT MSC in Neurorehabilitation Academy of Physiotherapy, Steyr, Austria

Purpose: To investigate wether the contents of neurological education as well as acquired knowledge were
sufficent for performing physiotherapeutical work in neurological patients. Moreover to evaluate the practical
convenience of educational/didactional methods. Relevance: To find out an up- to- date picture of the status quo
of neurological classes offered at Austrian Academies for Physiotherapie against the backdrop of the future
development of education in the realm of European universities and academies. Participants: 70 participants at
least e-mails were sent by the author of the study to the physiotherapeutical heads of hospitals and neurological
centers all over Austria for getting the personal e-mail address of graduates of the diploma-age-group 2004-2006
Methods: For data collection an Austrian internet data base (especially for school-evaluations)called
"schoolpark"( www.schoolpark.at) was elected,the participants had to complete a questionnaire Analysis: The
analysis had been realized with the assistance of "schoolpark", a stastistic all-in -one program, and the help of
WINDOWS EXCEL Results: For some neurologic disease patterns(for example SHT)the implementation of the
physiotherapeutical process involves trouble,notwithstanding the fact that according to the graduates these
disease patterns have been extensivly treated in theoretical class. Furthermore the analysis showed that practice-
related methods of teaching like video analysis or patient demonstrations by teachers are most relevant for the
implementation of studiede content into practice. Conclusions: In future training facilities, for Austria we are
talking about Universities of Applied Sciences, practice transfer needs to be deemed of utmost importance.
Implications: In the future the prospect should be on a better scientific education almost of the teachers in
Physiotherapy, practical courses with highest quality and students and teachers exchanges all over Europe.
Keywords: Study - analyse – attend Funding acknowledgements: MTDGesetz(BGBl.Nr.460/1992) WCPT -
European Benchmark Statement Physio Austria Ethics approval: For this kind of study ethics approval were not
required. In Austria there is existing an ethics system.

Symposium – Continuing Professional Development

Nina Holten, Denmark

Marie Donaghy, Professor, School of Health Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK
Philip van der Wees, Manager Strategy & Development, Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF)
Natalie Beswetherick, General Manager, Trauma & Orthopaedic Services, Cheltenham General Hospital, UK

Aims: To explore the importance of systematic Continuous Professional Development (CPD) for
physiotherapists and life long learning, emphasizing that CPD is part of everyday professional activity. To
explore the implications for Higher Educational Institutions, Member Organizations and work places.

• To explore the connection between formal and informal CPD.

•    To analyze how different participants can collaborate on physiotherapists’ CPD.
•    To consider how competence and qualifications in formal and informal CPD may be measured in a
     European context
Structure: During the first part of this 60 minute session different ways of organizing and preparing for CPD
among physiotherapists will be presented. Education institutions, work places and member organizations
represent three different approaches to CPD. Development of cooperation is essential and should be stimulated.
Higher Education Institutions for physiotherapy arrange formal post-graduate training. Marie Donaghy
represents higher education institutions (HEI) and her topic will be: Meeting the continuing professional
development needs of the learner and the service provider in Higher Education: Self determination and policy
drivers. She will provide an insight into the desire of physiotherapists to follow their own interests in learning
and the desire of health care providers and professional bodies to conform to the vision of the workforce that is
promoted through health and social policies, political agenda's and media influence. As technological, social and
political developments drive change in health care service delivery, physiotherapists are required to engage in
innovative and changing roles. To meet these changing service needs Physiotherapists will require to develop an
ever expanding therapeutic armamentarium of transferrable skills and competencies in order to deliver more
optimal health and social care. Physiotherapy professional and regulatory bodies expectations are that
physiotherapists will continue to develop their knowledge, skills, attitudes and attributes across their careers.
This provides extrinsic motivation for physiotherapists to continue their learn and is likely to be linked to staff
appraisal and financial reward. However, Physiotherapists as autonomous professionals may have their own
vision of their career pathway. Their priorities for professional development may or may not be congruent with
that of the service. Understanding the possible tensions between extrinsic motivators and intrinsic motivators in
regard to facilitating learning are important for managers and HEI providers. To facilitate debate around these
issues the presentation will explore self determination theory as a motivational driver for physiotherapists
continuing their professional learning. Natalie Beswetherick will give a presentation on how CPD is brought to
development in a work place, how the staff is supported to undertake and register CPD activities that comply with Health
Professions Council`s registration requirements in UK. Member Organizations have a variety of strategies to support
systematic CPD among physiotherapists. Philip van der Wees will give a presentation about CPD in the Netherlands and the
member Organisation, KNGF. The session will include time for questions and panel discussion.

Platform Presentations
Continuing Professional Development 1

Presentation of “System for Continuous Professional Development for
physiotherapists in Norway”
Eline Rygh, project manager, Norwegian Physiotherapist Association (NPA), Oslo, Norway.
E-mail: er@fysio.no, Malene Haneborg, Head of education department, Norwegian Physiotherapist Association,
(NPA), Oslo, Norway. E-mail: mh@fysio.no

Purpose: The Norwegian Physiotherapist Association, NPA, pursues stimulation of physiotherapists` purpose-
oriented and systematic Continuous Professional Development by developing a web-based system. Relevance:
Structured life-long learning is an important aspect of physiotherapists’ development and the quality,
accountability and efficiency in physiotherapy service. NPA support this by developing a web-based Continuous
Professional Development (CPD)-system. This is a follow up of the recommendation from ER-WCPT Education
Policy to develop programmes for CPD. Description: The overall objective is to inspire and facilitate
physiotherapists to plan and implement their own CPD. Each physiotherapist is responsible for managing his or
her own CPD. A web site is designed as a tool for managing this responsibility. The web site has to main scopes
1. Information about competence and CPD, introduction of different learning activities and the importance of the
planning process and goals. 2. Possibility for physiotherapists to be credited all their CPD activities
The web-programme lets the members log in and then upload information on all relevant learning activities and
register their activities. The programme will translate relevant training into credit points. This gives NPA an
opportunity to recommend an amount of CPD for the members, and make a register of physiotherapists with
updated competence. Evaluation: The NPA’s CPD programme is developed and tested in pilots. The tool works
well, but the participation was lower than expected. The future challenge for NPA will therefor be wether
voluntary registration is sufficient for motivation. A compulsory system is under consideration. Conclusions:

This program will be an important way to encourage Norwegian physiotherapists’ Continuous Professional
Development. There is a challenge for NPA to find the best way to use the system to motivate physiotherapists
to work with CPD. Implications: The NPA’s CPD programme intends to work as a tool to stimulate
physiotherapists to life long learning. Keywords: CPD, motivation, registration Funding acknowledgements:
The Norwegian Fund for Post-Graduate Training in Physiotherapy Ethics approval: No ethical approval

A New Framework for Clinical Specialisation in Australia
Ms Cathy Nall, Physiotherapy Department, Austin Health ;School of Physiotherapy, University of Melbourne,
A/Prof Gillian Webb, School of Physiotherapy, University of Melbourne, Australia

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes developed by the Australian Physiotherapy
Association (APA)to establish a revised framework for specialisation for members of the physiotherapy
profession. Relevance: This paper describes the structure which has been developed for the physiotherapy
profession in Australia to recognise and promote specialist practice in the continuum of continuing professional
development. Coursework Masters Degrees and Clinical Doctorate programs offered by Australian universities
are the major building blocks for the specialisation pathway. Description: In response to a low take up of
specialisation over some 20 years, at the end of 2006 a revised framework for physiotherapists to undertake
clinical specialisation and apply to become a Fellow of the Australian College of Physiotherapy was approved by
the APA. This presentation will describe the different pathways a clinician may choose to enable them to achieve
specialisation and the clinical assessment processes which are used. The minimum time in which this can be
achieved is five years post entry-level graduation. This specialisation program enables physiotherapists to
become specialists in Cardiorespiratory, Musculoskeletal, Neurological, Paediatric and Sports Physiotherapy.
Occupational Health, Continence and Woman’s Health and Aged Care Physiotherapy will be added in the near
future. The first 35 physiotherapists to complete the revised program were awarded Fellowships in October
2007. Evaluation: Feedback on the process has been gained from the first participants. Evaluation will occur on
an ongoing basis. Conclusions: The new framework has generated great interest among physiotherapists in
Australia and overseas and has increased uptake of specialisation by some 300% Implications: This framework
has the potential to significantly improve the viability of postgraduate clinical programs and to boost workforce
retention by providing an exciting and challenging career path. Keywords: Specialisation Clinical Physiotherapy
Funding acknowledgements: Australian Physiotherapy Association Ethics approval: Not required

Survey about Continuing Professional Development of German physiotherapists
 Prof. Dr. Christoff Zalpour, University of Apllied Sciences Osnabrück, Germany,
c.zalpour@fh-osnabrueck.de Christina Groll (BSc physioth.), University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück,
Germany, c.groll@fh-osnabrueck.de

Purpose: The first thought of students after passing their examination is about continuing education. German
physiotherapists spent al lot of time and money for education courses yet, nevertheless a new requirement of
continuing education for autonoumes physiotherapists was implemented. The aim of the study was to show the
financial backround of the sector of continuing ecuation courses. Furthermore we wanted to analyse the
motivation and learning behaviour of German physiotherapists. Relevance: It is necessary to know the learning
behaviour in order to create continuing education courses especially for physiotherapists and to adapt the courses
to their needs. Participants: All members of the federal association of autonoumes physiotherapists – IFK e.V.
and the participants of the continung education courses of the IFK received a questionaire. Methods: The data
were collected with a questionaire the participants filled in. Analysis: Frequency-based data and correlations
were analysed. The used statistical values depended on the different kind of data. The statistical analysis was
done with SPSS. Results: 1162 physiotherapists filled in the questionaire. About the half of the participants
spent more than 600 € for continung education. Nearly all of them attended the courses during their freetime.
The most reasons for motivation were intrinsic like better abilities in patient treatment. Extrinsic motivation
factors like an increasing income or the order of the employer were less important. Most of the participants
attended courses about practical techniques especially manual therapy and alternative methods, although they
feel their most deficits in research, english language, physiology and other more theoretical subjects.
Conclusions: The data confirmed the hypothesis that German physiotherapists spent a lot of money and time in
continuing education courses. Furthermore the study indicate that there might be other opportunities of

continuing education and life-long learning than courses. Implications: The results of this study were the basic
of the project IQ Phys. Furthermore this research shows, that most physiotherapists still fullfill the criteria of the
new requirement. Keywords: Continuing education, learning behaviour Funding acknowledgements:
The study was part of the project IQ Phys, which was fundes by AGIP – consortium of innovative projects of the
Ministry of Science and Cultur of lower Saxony Ethics approval: There was no reason for an ethic approval
because is was not a clinical trial.

Continuing Professional Development 2
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Continuing professional development journeys: exploring the choices
physiotherapists make throughout their careers.
Helena Claire Johnson Principal Lecturer in Physiotherapy York St John University York Y031 7EX

Purpose: To explore the reasons physiotherapists give for why they engage in certain continuing professional
development activities throughout their careers. Relevance: The UK Health Act (DoH, 2001) and Health
Professions Council (Health Professions Council, 2003) require physiotherapists to show evidence of having
undertaken CPD. To date, there is little research that identifies the types of CPD activities which
physiotherapists engage in and the choices they make at different stages in their career. Participants: A
purposive sample of physiotherapists employed within one Strategic Health Authority in the United Kingdom.
140 participants completed the postal questionnaire, with follow up interviews with a stratified sample of 21
participants, representative of clinical specialties and employment grades of the main sample. Methods:
Design: A multi-method 2 phase exploratory design. Phase 1: used a postal survey; independent variables: years
as a physiotherapist, clinical speciality, years in speciality, employment grade, years in grade, academic
qualifications, and gender. Phase 2: used audio taped in-depth, face to face interviews. Analysis: Survey data
were analysed using SPSS, to establish trends within the population and differences of sub-groups within the
population. Principal Component Analysis was used as a data reduction technique from 2 separate 5-point Likert
response format questions. Data from the interview transcripts is analysed using Nvivo 7. Results: Phase 1: 140
completed questionnaires were returned. Participants had worked for mean of 12.4 years; 59% as senior
clinicians, 29% as junior clinicians, 12% as mangers; working at that grade for a mean of 4.9 years. They had
worked in their present speciality for a mean of 7.8 years. 32 different CPD activities were identified. Principal
Component Analysis, revealed 3 components as motivating factors for engaging in CPD activities, and 4
components that can act as barriers. Internal consistency using Cronbach’s Alpha was acceptable to good (.653
to .891). Conclusions: The results indicate that the participants’ decisions to engage in CPD are influenced more
strongly by altruistic values, than by the prospect of extrinsic rewards. Implications: An increased
understanding of the differences in CPD requirements of physiotherapists at different stages in their careers, and
practising in different clinical specialities, should ensure that they are appropriately supported. Keywords:
activities; reasons; barriers Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded Ethics approval: Ethical approval given by
County Durham & Darlington LREC, Reference no:04/Q1002/34

Negotiated Work Based Learning (NWBL). The new pedagogy for extended scope
practitioners in physiotherapy(ESPiP).
Julie Walton, Denise Prescott School of Health Sciences University of Liverpool Liverpool UK

Purpose: Healthcare delivery in the UK has undergone radical change resulting in shifts in professional
boundaries with ESPiP taking on roles formerly performed by medics. The new education requirements
presented a massive pedagogic challenge as the ESPiP requirements were very person specific. Their needs
could not be met by the traditional, post-registration approach. A solution was sought which would provide a
bespoke learning environment, focused in the workplace, accredited by the University. NWBL provides a unique
opportunity to create a bespoke learning package for an individual commensurate with personal development
requirements. The primary aim was to develop a 20 credit module at Masters level,which would provide an
operational framework to negotiate and execute a bespoke module specification (BMS)to achieve competence in
new, advanced clinical knowledge and skills. The secondary aim was to foster the skills required for life long
learning. Relevance: NWBL is not used in pre-registration physiotherapy education (UK) and it has been used

soley here for the development of qualified, senior physiotherapists. Description: NWBL was used to negotiate,
produce and execute a BMS. A triangulated support network - student, academic mentor and a clinical convenor
was used. The BMS defined individual aims,learning outcomes, learning/teaching,resources & references.
Assessment comprised a portfolio including the BMS,evidence of achievement of advanced knowledge and
skills and a critical reflection of the NWBL process. Examples of NWBL for ESPiP include interpretation of X-
rays,the operating protocol for tertiary trauma survey and expediting patients with suspected metastatic back
pain. Evaluation: Evaluation was by on-line submission and was unanimously positive due to the bespoke, job
related nature of the provision. The convenor was pivotal and the ease of the student journey was dependent
upon their activity. Conclusions: NWBL has been successful in ensuring that ESPiP are fit for role.
Implications: This has provided a unique opportunity for ESPiP allowing accreditation of a single module or
several modules which contribute to a Masters degree focused in their specific work area. Keywords:
Negotiated Work Based Learning(NWBL). Extended Scope Practitioners in Physiotherapy(ESPiP). Funding
acknowledgements: North West Strategic Health Authority. Ethics approval: None required.

Gendered career preferences, work satisfaction and unpaid household work among
recently graduated health care personnel.
Birgit Enberg, MSc, PT Hans Stenlund, PhD Gunnevi Sundelin, Professor Ann Öhman, PhD

Purpose: The aim was to study how recently graduated perceive work in health care, their future career
preferences and how they combine paid work and unpaid household work. Relevance: Students in health care
education have been taugh to engage in knowledge development and to take their own dissections. Are these
things a natural part of their current work? Are they satisfied with their work and what do they wish for the
future? Gender equality should be emphasised in health care education. Participants: Three stratified random
sample from the 1999 Swedish university graduates was drawn. The samples included nurses, occupational
therapists and physiotherapists and the stratification was performed by sex. The response rate was 81% and the
respondents represent 3338 graduates. Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on working conditions,
career preferences, work satisfaction and unpaid household work was administrated in spring 2002.
Analysis: When estimating proportions and means, sampling weights were used. Statistical analysis (chi-square
tests and logistic regression analysis) were performed using SPSS for Windows Version 10.0 and Stata Version
8.2. Results: There was a high satisfaction of work in general, but a great dissatisfaction with work organisation
and management. This dissatisfaction was associated with the opportunity to pursue knowledge development as
well as the opportunity to work independently. Among the women, the dissatisfaction with work organisation
was associated with age group and type of employment. The women in the study did more of the household
work then did the men. Career preferences and working conditions differed between the professions and between
men and women in the same profession. Conclusions: The dissatisfaction with work organisation and
management implies possible problems to attract and keep health care personnel in the future. It also
demonstrates a continuing gender division of labour in work and a need of joint analyses of paid and unpaid
work. Implications: Health care organisations should take better care of the knowledge that the recently
graduated possess and health care educators should continue to pay attention to the changing needs in health care
and society. Knowledge about gender processes and a struggle for gender equality is of highest importance both
in education and at work. Keywords: Recently graduated, gender, job satisfaction Funding acknowledgements:
The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research. Ethics approval: The Ethical Committee at the
Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, approved the study

Continuing Professional Development 3
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The physiotherapist as a counsellor - a process of professional development
Ekenberg, L., physiotherapist, PH.D.Zingmark, K.,Research Manager, DMSc.

Purpose: To clarify and conceptualize the occupational role and situation of physiotherapists providing
counselling to persons with functional impairments. Relevance: The Swedish Act concerning Support and
Service (LSS) sets out rights for persons with considerable and permanent functional impairments to get
qualified counselling and other personal support. The concept "counselling and other personal support" has been
criticised of being difficult to define and realize in practice. Especially the expert support provided by

physiotherapists has been questioned referring to the fact that measures by physiotherapists principally deal with
treatment, not with counselling and support without treatment. The need for highlighting and enlarge the
knowledge basis of physiotherapy seems therefore to be obvious. Participants: Six physiotherapists working
with support and service for persons with certain functional impairments participated in the study. Methods:
Three focus groups interviews were carried out. Each interview lasted for two hours. Questions were asked about
the participators views of their occupational role and situation. Analysis: The interviews were recorded,
transcribed verbatim and analyzed by a method for qualitative content analysis. Results: In the first interview the
physiotherapists reflected on their perceived loss of "being a treater" and "using one's hands". In the second and
third interviews the physiotherapists emphasized their bodily competence as a prerequisite of being able to
understand and interpret the consequences of what it is like to live with major functional impairments. One of the
most important tasks was to play down the focus on treatment and to permit the individuals to express in what
way they want to live their lives and thereby meet their demands from the physiotherapeutic point of view i.e.
concrete individual support by making conscious of the persons functional resources, facilitate the opportunities
for the persons to increase their community participation in healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: The study describes
a process of professional development in which the participants made clear to themselves their identities as
physiotherapists providing counselling and personal support in accordance with LSS. Implications: Systematic
reflections of daily practice can play an important role in a life long learning perspective of developing the
occupational role and situation of physiotherapists. Keywords: Occupational role, physiotherapy, counselling
Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded Ethics approval: Not required

Promoting learning and professional development of Afghan physiotherapists using
Action Research
Jenny Wickford, MSc RPT. Abdul Malik Halim, Sr Physiotherapy Officer PT. Rehabilitation of Afghans with
Disabilities, Swedish Committee for Afghanistan. Kabul, Afghanistan. John Hultberg, Ass. Prof PhD, Susanne
Rosberg, Ass. Prof PhD RPT. Göteborg University. Göteborg, Sweden.

Purpose: To develop the physiotherapy within the Rehabilitation of Afghans with Disabilities (RAD)
programme. Relevance: To meet the rehabilitation needs and challenges in Afghanistan, the strengthening of
physiotherapy is essential. Participants: 80 Afghan physiotherapists (PT) working with RAD, which comprise
one third of Afghanistan's PTs. Methods: The Action Research (AR) project was conducted as field work.
Interventions were planned, implemented and evaluated within an AR framework by a physiotherapy core group.
Data was generated through participant observations documented through field notes. Analysis: Qualitative
procedures stemming from grounded theory. Results: The PTs showed an enthusiasm towards new
developments in physiotherapy, although little individual responsibility was taken in learning. Memorisation and
imitation were central to their learning. They showed difficulties in applying the theory in different clinical
situations and in using new practical techniques. New things learned tended to be put into old frameworks of
thinking and acting.Conclusions: Positive changes have been made but more training, supervision and capacity
building are needed. Adequate clinical supervision is a key issue to consider in future interventions.
Implications: It is vital to further deepen the understanding of the Afghan physiotherapy context in order to
promote their development. Interventions should reflect evidence based practice while being relevant and suited
to the Afghan context. They should also stimulate clinical reasoning skills and emphasise practical work.
Clinical supervision of the PTs is crucial to tie trainings to the clinical reality. Keywords: Physiotherapy,
Afghanistan, education. Funding acknowledgements: The study was enabled by the Swedish Committee for
Afghanistan. Ethics approval: Not required.

Facilitating Scholarly Writing in Clinicians
Theresa Kraemer, PhD, PT, ATC, Education & Research Consultant, Mesa, AZ, USA

This program will discuss tutoring & mentoring clinicians through the process of scholarly writing & outline the
advantages, challenges, & pitfalls associated with preparing clinicians for peer reviewed publication activities.
Relevance: Clinicians are a primary source for subject recruitment & data collection in clinical research, but
often lack the technical writing skills necessary for peer reviewed publication. Lack of formal education &
mentored experience to formulate, construct, & write an appropriate & clinically relevant manuscript for
publication is a result of the clinically-focused professional education process which must be corrected in post-

professional education activities. Description: This presentation will discuss a method of mentoring the
technical skills & knowledge necessary for writing in peer-reviewed publications. A review of the literature & a
semi-qualitative ethnographic approach in the form of discussions & emails with faculty, clinicians, &
transitional DPT students contributed to an analysis of the advantages & challenges associated with facilitating
scholarly writing in clinicians. Evaluation: Although initially there is fear & resistance to the concept of
scholarly writing, once tutored through the process, confidence & enthusiasm at repeating the process has been
expressed. Clinicians reported: 1) confidence in conducting & documenting the patient care components of
writing a case; 2) adeptness at handling challenges encountered with data collection; 3) familiarity with available
resources; & 4) comfort with the various aspects of technical writing & the publication process. Through
tutoring, clinicians became aware of their abilities, professional development, role in advancing the existing
body of evidence, & benefits of collaborative publication efforts. Conclusions: Providing the appropriate
resources, opportunities, & faculty writing experts, clinicians appear more willing & able to contribute case-
based scholarly products to the literature. Future studies should focus on ways to bridge the clinical realm with
the academic arena in an attempt to foster & promote the production of scholarly work by clinicians.
Implications:By presenting opportunities such as tutoring clinicians in the process of scholarly writing,
educators & clinicians will be able to bridge the academic-clinical gap, foster the production of scholarly
writing, develop additional technical skills, & expand their professional repertoire thereby enhancing their
professional development. Keywords: clinicians, scholarly writing, professional development Funding
acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: NA

Evaluation of an assessment to check the quality of texts in basic and continuing PT
Christina Groll (BSc physioth.), Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, Osnabrück, Germany, c.groll@fh-
osnabrueck.de; Prof. Dr. Christoff Zalpour, University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, Germany,

Purpose: Both basic and continuing pt education are using texts as medium of teaching and it is important to
prove the quality of these with an adequate assessment. However, not all of the texts are qualified for learning
and that is the reason for developing and evaluating a checklist as an assessment to filter out suitable texts.
Relevance: This survey should show that the outcome of the checklist is identic with the evaluation by readers
of the texts to ensure that the assessment can be used for selecting learning texts. Participants: The readers of
six CPTE-articles, who are judged with the checklist and printed in two German physiotherapy journals. The
readers are informed about the using of there data for the study. Methods: Special texts, written for continuing
physiotherapy education are evaluated by six physiotherapists with the checklist. Two of them are editors, one
professor, one scientific assistant and two autonoumes physiotherapists, who are also working for a federal
association. Althoug more than 150 readers appraisel was enquired by a methodical-didactical questionaire. The
evaluation of the experts and the readers are compared. Analysis: The statistical analysis was done with SPSS.
Results: More than 150 readers and six experts evaluated five articles. The data shows a high agreement of the
evaluations.The appraisel of the experts were similar to those of the readers. Conclusions: The checklist is an
adequate assessment to select texts for learning. Implications: Using a assessment to select suitable texts for
learning and/or teaching is important to assure quality in education. Keywords: pt education, texts for learning,
quality Funding acknowledgements: The project was funded by AGIP – consortium of innovative projects of
the Ministry of Science and Cultur of lower saxony. It is a cooperation project from the University of Apllied
Sciences Osnabrück, the federal association of autonoumes physiotherapists – IFK e.V. and the Georg Thieme
publisher. Ethics approval: There was no reason for an ethic approval because is was not a clinical trial.

Continuing Professional Development 4
Room 357

Development of a Common Platform for Physiotherapists for migration in the
European Union
Sigrún Knútsdóttir, Antonio Lopes, Elizabeth Carrington, Grahame Pope, Hans de Boer, Natalie Beswetherick,
Nina Holten.

Purpose: The Executive Committee of the ER-WCPT established a Common Platform Task Force in 2005 to

investigate the feasibility of the establishment of a Common Platform at European level based on the Directive
for the Recognition of Professional Qualifications adopted in September 2005. Relevance: The concept on
common platforms aims at facilitating the free movement of professionals by simplifying the case by case
assessment of individual applications by the competent authorities and providing increased legal security to the
migrant concerning the outcome of his/her application. A Common Platform could be a useful tool to compare
and identify substantial differences between the duration and contents of the training in the EU Member States.
Description: Meetings were held with representatives from the EU Commission where the concept of Common
Platforms was explained and discussed. A Workshop on a Common Platform was held for representatives of the
Member Organisations of the ER-WCPT and Competent Authorities of the EU Member States. Information was
collected on regulation and legislation of the profession and level of qualifications that is required/provided in
the EU Member States. The possibility of developing a tool to measure and compare the scope of
activities/competencies of physiotherapists in each country was explored. The information of the situation of the
physiotherapy profession in Europe was mapped and analysed. Evaluation: The results have been evaluated by
the Task Force and the Executive Committee of the ER-WCPT showing that further work on exploring the
content of training and scope of practice is needed. Conclusions: There are differences in the content of training
and scope of practice that may be due to different health systems. The project would be presented at the General
Meeting of the ER-WCPT where further work on an inventory of the situation of the physiotherapy profession in
Europe would be recommended. Implications: An accurate inventory of the the situation of the profession as
regards regulation, legislation, level of qualifications, contents of training, competencies and scope of practice of
physiotherapists in Europe could be an important tool for the the physiohtearpy associations in Europe. This
information could be used both at European and national level to raise the profile of the profession and facilitate
migration of physiotherapist between Member States. Keywords: Migration, European union, physiotherapy
Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: Not required

The professionalisation of physiotherapists - the example of the historical
development of the vocation in Austria
Alice Maria STRASSNITZKY, M. Ed., Dr. phil., FH Campus Vienna - University of Applied Sciences and
Academy for Physiotherapy Vienna – Location: AKH, Austria

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to find out whether the vocation of a physiotherapist in Austria meets
the definition of this profession. Relevance: For a considerable time, the topic of professionalisation has been
discussed not only for the profession of a physician but also for other medical professions. This is an important
issue, because the term professionalisation is linked to the maintenance of the respective occupational field as
well as to a better occupational outlook. Participants: Four oral-history-interview partners (retired directors of
institutions of education, training and advanced vocational training in physiotherapy) Methods: Combination of
document analysis, literature research and oral history interviews (triangulation) Analysis: On basis of the
findings it was examined to what extent the vocation of a physiotherapist in Austria can be identified as an
independent profession. Likewise, the professionalisation of the physiotherapists was analysed. To identify the
profession’s and the physiotherapists´ level of professionalisation a synopsis spectrum with three category levels
(macro, meso and micro) was established (quantitative analysis).Results: The results show an increasing
tendency of physiotherapeutic professionalisation for the vocation in general as well as for vocational holders for
all three category levels. However, the assessed understanding of physiotherapeutic education is a natural-
scientific one and not a humanistic-holistic one, as it has been required since 1986 by agreements of the “WHO
Charta Ottawa”. Conclusions: An essential prerequisite to reach a holistic professional acting competence
towards a “humanistic-holistic” professionalisation of physiotherapy and physiotherapists is that all authority
levels (technical, methodological, personal and social) should be enabled to take their equal place in the
education, training and advanced vocational training. Implications: The implication of this research for the
physiotherapeutic education, training and advanced vocational training can be found in a larger and deepened
knowledge of topics in professionalisation and in opening actors’ understanding of a holistic professional
physiotherapeutic acting. This helps to develop vocation models that comply with the WHO standards (1986).
Keywords: Profession, Professionalisation, Physiotherapy, Austria

Communication sciences as a complement of the teaching methodology.

Presenter: Daniel J. Catalán Matamoros, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Co-authors: Patricia
Rocamora Pérez, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Teresa Fuentes Hervías, PT, Bsc. University
of Almería. Almería, Spain. Miguel Muñoz-Cruzado y Barba, PT, PhD. University of Malaga. Malaga, Spain.
Pedro Calle Fuentes, Msc. University of Malaga. Malaga, Spain.

Purpose: In the everyday life of Physiotherapy Education, the communication process or dissemination of
information is needed to increase the knowledge among the students. Two different processes may be developed
in the classroom –communication and information. Relevance: The knowledge of the advantages of these
processes creates a more appropiate use of these tools. Attending to the lecturers´ skills, it is a need to be able to
maintain among the students effective communication channels. Description: The attributes of effective
communication have been identified through research that spans over a quarter of a century. They include a wide
range of attributes like repetition, reliability, timeliness, consistency, understandability, evidence-based, etc. It
must also need the use of channels that are appropiate to the audience and purpose at the time. The media may be
used proactively to deliver content to an audience or passively to make content available for the audience to
access when needed. These aspects take an important part in the presentation. Evaluation: When the use of
effective communication process is introduced as a complement of the teaching method, the success of the
learning process might be higher according to current research. Conclusions: The knowledge and use of
effective communication in the class may create a more effective learning process through a better use of
Communication Sciences. Implications: Improving communication skills may develop a better use of the
information/communication by the lecturer and a benefit for students. Keywords: Communication, information,
quality assurance. Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded. Ethics approval: Not required.

Bringing out developing knowledge about psycho physical physiotherapy –
Article publications
Raija Jaakkola, PIRAMK University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland
Marja-Leena Lähteenmäki, PIRAMK University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland

Purpose: We present the processes in bringing out professional article publications. Relevance: Psycho physical
physiotherapy can be seen as an approach in physiotherapy. In Finland we have about twenty years history in
clinical practice and in PIRAMK about ten to fifteen years history in organising post graduate education related
to this topic. The described writing process got inspiration from the shortage of professional finish literature on
the area. Description: During their one year lasting postgraduate studies physiotherapists prepare a short thesis.
The aim is to develop student’s own professional work. As supervising teachers we decided already in the
beginning of the education together with the students to formulate the final papers as articles. The phases in the
process were, selecting the theme, finding and becoming acquainted to former knowledge and research, defining
the exact theme, writing a working plan, realizing the practical part of the plan, structuring the article and finally
writing the process in an article format. The process included many seminars and individual supervision with
teachers and pear opponents. The aim has now been reached with last two student groups and the article
collections have been published by PIRAMK. Evaluation: The publications have been welcomed. Several
physiotherapists have contacted and expressed their gratitude for the collections and their usefulness in clinical
work. Conclusions: Physiotherapists need publications also in their own language but especially as practical
examples to support and develop their work. These two article collections give physiotherapists in many
different working areas a lot to reflect on. They help physiotherapists and physiotherapy students to understand
the psycho physical approach in physiotherapy. Many articles give practical recommendations or models to be
applied. As supervising teachers and editors for the publications we recommend a similar way to run thesis work
during education. It activates the physiotherapists to make their thoughts and ideas explicit and it gives practical
tools for other physiotherapists. Implications: The theses students prepare during their education are important
pieces of professional knowledge. Article collections are one way of offering this knowledge into wider use.
Keywords: physiotherapy, psycho physical, thesis Funding acknowledgements: The article collection was
edited as part of supervising teachers work without any extra recourses. Ethics approval: When student’s thesis
required ethical issues they were supervised to act along PIRAMK’s ethical regulations.

Developing clinical teaching and supervision
Room 356

Peer learning in clinical education for physiotherapy students in Umea.
Monika Sandström,Senior Lecturer, Physiotherapy Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation
Umea University SE-901 87 Umea

Purpose: To gain knowledge about learning strategies when two students learn together and also to facilitate
tutoring in clinical education. Relevance:The study is highly relevant to motivate clinical educators and students
to use Peer learning in clinical education. Description:Peer learning is a way of learning together with an equal,
a companion or a fellow worker. It should be a two-way reciprocal learning activity, mutually beneficial for
both. Peer learning in clinical education imply that there are at least two students at the same time at the same
placement. The Physiotherapy programme has introduced Peer learning to clinical educators at several
workshops and to students going to clinical placements. It has been up to clinical educators and students to
implement Peer learning in practice. Evaluation:This program has been evaluated through follow up discussions
with students and clinical educators after each placement and through written reports from the students. They
have reported that peer learning facilitates learning by having a companion to share experiences with, to reflect
and to discuss with. They treasure possibilities to do things together like rehearsing, practicing, examining
patients, clinical reasoning and planning treatments. At the same time they emphasize the importance of having
there own patients. They can act more independently and take more responsibility in relation to the clinical
educator. The clinical educators appreciated that the students were less dependent and more productive. They felt
that they could develop there tutoring strategies and they tended to use their own colleagues more for support.
Disadvantages were that they needed more time for planning and introducing the students and also for
documentation. An experienced problem was when one student needed considerable more tutoring than the
other. Several clinical educators now prefer two students instead of one.Conclusions:Peer learning seems
beneficial for both students learning, clinical educators developing their tutoring and for the amount of available
placements at the Physiotherapy program. Implications:The implications highlights the importance of reflective
learning using own experiences and seeking new knowledge in collaborations with an equal. Deep learning is
most important in physiotherapy undergraduate studies.Keywords:Peer learning, learning in practice, deep
learning Funding acknowledgements:The work was unfunded. Ethics approval:Not required

Experiences from implementing a model for peer learning in clinical education.
Signe Lind RPT, MSc, Cathrin Martin RPT, PhD Contact details: Signe Lind, Department of Neuroscience,
Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala

Purpose:A growing body of research suggests that various forms of peer or collaborative learning develop and
enhance physiotherapy students’ learning in clinical education. It prepares for professional practice through
fostering strategies for life long learning. A peer learning project was launched together with clinical educators,
students and lecturers in order to develop a model for implementing a new educational model in a Swedish
clinical education context. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and discuss experiences from this
project model including different strategies and ways of working with peer learning as well as implifications for
promoting future sustainability and improvements in developing peer learning. Relevance:To develop
sustainable methods to enhance learning in the clinical setting.Description:Forty-seven students and 27 clinical
educators participated and were voluntarily assigned to the project. A project group formulated the organisation
of the project and goals for and means to evaluate the project in collaboration with the participating clinical
educators themselves in order to manifest the project as a joint venture. Students and clinical educators were
informed about peer learning and about the project both orally and with a written material. In focus were
concepts like learning, reflection, collaboration, clinical reasoning and feedback. In most cases the ratio was two
students to one clinical educator. The project involved students from semester one to semester five. Evaluation:
Diaries, questionnaires and focus-groups-interviews were the methods used to monitor and evaluate project
goals. Students thought it was important to have a peer to discuss with and most of the clinical educators thought
it helped the students to improve problem solving in the clinical setting. Conclusions:Students and clinical
educators considered the model a useful tool for clinical education and expressed a need to have more
knowledge in feedback and how to apply it in the clinical situation.Implications:Preliminary results imply that
the peer-learning model developed from below could be used as one way of enhancing a sustainable learning
model in the clinical setting.Keywords:Peer learning, clinical educationFunding acknowledgements:
Funding was provided by the Committee of the Physiotherapy Programme, Uppsala University.
Learning and supervision in clinical practice – an approach for skilled and specialized
physiotherapists acting as mentors for clinical staff

Jette Christensen M.Sc. Developing Physiotherapist. Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose:In highly specialized hospital units, the skilled and specialized physiotherapist often supervise and
teach less skilled colleagues and newly graduated physiotherapist, while treating patients. This mentor
physiotherapist also participates in developing and improving local clinical practice. It is a challenging task, both
to be teacher and colleague at the same time and the mentor physiotherapist is rarely trained for this dual role.
We developed a training programme in order to support the mentor physiotherapists in supervision and bedside
teaching of their colleagues and to provide them with tools and skills to succeed in their dual role of supervisor
and colleague.At the congress we want - to present the background and development of the programme for
mentor physiotherapists at our hospital.- to give examples of the focus areas in the course, and the themes/topics
the PT´s were working with during the programme. - to present the future perspective for the programme.
Relevance: Postgraduate and life long learning for PT´s are both practical and academic. The presentation will
focus on the practical part in clinical practice. Description: The programme is divided into four modules with
focus on both theoretical themes on learning and communication, as well as practical exercises. In between
modules the PT had homework and made videos for feedback. Finally there were coaching groups to secure the
implementation of the newly learned skills and techniques. Evaluation: First three modules have been evaluated
with all participants being very satisfied. The final module will cover implementation techniques and coaching.
By September, the full programme has been completed and our results may be presented at the Conference.
Conclusions: With our programme the mentor physiotherapists acquire tools and can manage the dual situation
of being both colleague and supervisor. As a result the supervision will be more focused on the individual level
to each PT. Implications: Practice protocols and portfolies can be used in the curriculum for both the supervised
and the mentor physiotherapists to document continuous professional development and life long learning.
Keywords: Supervision, clinical practice, life long learning. Funding acknowledgements: This work has been
developed and funded by Hvidovre Hospital Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required, but prior
acceptance was obtained from each physiotherapist before videotaping was done.

The Physiotherapist as the Solution Oriented Coach.
Marianne Ruth Kristensen, Skodsborg Fysioterapiskole, Skodsborg Strandvej 133,DK-2942 Skodsborg.ph: +45
4556 0713,e-mail: mk@sfs.dk - The complete thesis is found on www.roos.dk/mk/

Purpose:Problem solving is the current dominant practice-paradigm within Danish physiotherapy. In contrast to
the dominant problem-solving model the purpose of the thesis is to introduce the solution-building interview in
physiotherapy teaching and practice. The method is developed by Steve de Shazer et al. and is used in
psychotherapy and Expressive Arts Coaching. The coaching method works actively within the patients own
frame of reference. With the solution-focused approach, the patients resources and lines of action are clarified in
consultation with the therapist, with a view to a more systemic and lasting solution.Relevance:The author
examine whether the solution-building interview is applicable in physiotherapy. She poses the following
question: “Which influence does the application of the solution-building interview have on the interaction
between the physiotherapy student and the patient?”Description:In order to answer the above question the
author chose the case study as the overall research strategy. The basis of the investigation is two courses of study
each of 18 hours duration, during which 4th and 6th semester students received theoretical and practical
education in the solution-building interview. Two qualitative questionnaires, four semi-structured individual in-
depth interviews and one group interview were undertaken to clarify which influence the application of the
method has on the interaction between the physiotherapy student and the patient. The data is analyzed and
interpreted using Giorgis Systematic Text Condensation.Evaluation:The investigation shows that the students to
a greater extent experience the importance of the dialogue’s meaning for the practice of physiotherapy. They
experience a general expansion of their space to manoeuvre in relation to the patient and experience more
satisfaction at work. Lastly but not least important, the student’s experiences that the patient actively
participates, reflects and become greater possibilities for self-regulationConclusions:Overall this study
concludes that the interaction between the physical therapist and the patient improves when the physiotherapy
student receives theoretical and practical teaching in the solution-building interview. Implications: Introduction
of the solution-building interview in physiotherapy education can be the beginning of the paradigm shift in the
performance of physiotherapy.Keywords:Coaching, Solutions, Interview.Funding acknowledgements:The
work was unfunded.Ethics approval:Ethics approval was not required

Developing assessment of clinical competence
Room 353

Self-Assessment of Clinical Performance Improved by Modified Objective Structured
Clinical Examination Testing
Sharon L. Gorman, PT, MS Linnette Clark, PT, MS, Assistant Professor, Samuel Merritt College, Department of
Physical Therapy, Oakland, California, USA Rolando T. Lazaro, PT, DPT, MS, GCS, Assistant Professor,
Samuel Merritt College, Department of Physical Therapy, Oakland, California, USA, GCS, Assistant Professor,
Samuel Merritt College, Department of Physical Therapy, Oakland, California, USA

Purpose: Accreditation guidelines require faculty to determine the readiness of students to engage in clinical
education, including performance and safety assessments. The didactic curriculum must include opportunities to
evaluate clinical performance. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) and standardized patients
used in assessment of health professions’ students mimic the clinical setting and are reliable and valid forms of
student assessment .Relevance: The Clinical Challenge, a modified OSCE occurring in local orthopedic clinics
and supervised by community clinicians, was created as a terminal practical examination after the first year’s
orthopedic content in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program. Description: Clinician evaluation forms and
grading rubrics were created, along with general guidelines for identification and consent of patients to be
evaluated by the students. Scheduling of students and instructions to community clinicians evaluating students
during the modified OSCE were supervised by faculty. Evaluation: Surveys regarding preparedness, anxiety,
and skills performance were completed by thirty-four students at three time points: before the modified OSCE,
after the modified OSCE, and after a full-time, 8 week clinical affiliation. Surveys showed students developed
more realistic, clinically-based frames of references regarding patient care and explored self-efficacy for
performing patient examinations prior to an 8 week clinical affiliation. This effect was most notable in the pre-
and post- Clinical Challenge timeframes. Conclusions: Placement of a modified OSCE at the end of a primary
unit of content can be successfully implemented in a physical therapy program. Feasibility and resources to
implement a modified OSCE can be maximized through use of local clinicians .Implications: Modified OSCEs
may lead to improvement of student self-assessment of skills and attitudes prior to a full-time clinical affiliation.
Keywords: OSCE, performance assessment, physical therapy Funding acknowledgements: none Ethics
approval: Missing data

Assessment of Practice-Based Components of Physiotherapy Undergraduate
Education: Is there an issue with Gender?
John A. Hammond Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, St George's, University of London and Kingston
University, UK

Purpose: To explore any gender based differences in the practice-based assessment of physiotherapy students.
Relevance: Physiotherapy continues to be a female-dominated profession, despite a growing proportion of men
(25-30% worldwide). Within physiotherapy education there are various methods of assessing student
performance in practice-based components, however more recently there has been a growing use of reflective
components. It is not known whether this shift in assessment process has a particular gender bias favouring
some students and thus it is important to evaluate this. Description: Preliminary retrospective analysis of the
practice based components of assessment in one institution in the UK are reported on. Particularly the results of
two cohorts of students are examined and the clinical and portfolio assessment criteria critically analysed to
assess for gender differences.Evaluation: From this focal analysis, female students tended to outperform male
students on the majority of modular assessments. In particular female students received an average 3.1% to
4.1% higher marks on practice based assessment marks. It may be hypothesised that this may be due to a
number of gender related factors such as; mismatch of student expectations of placement experience, a
preference for assessment methods and marking criteria that are traditionally viewed as more feminine, and
assessor expectations that are gender biased, and these will be critically discussed.Conclusions:The findings of
this preliminary enquiry suggest there may be some gender inequalities in the socialisation of students into the
profession and in particular on practice-based assessment components.Implications: With a changing
physiotherapy (student) population, further research is warranted to explore gender issues and to consider if they
are more widely experienced. Furthermore, physiotherapy educators and clinicians are encouraged to consider
issues of gender to ensure a Keywords: gender, practice-based assessment, reflection Funding
acknowledgements: N/A Ethics approval: Applied to the Faculty Ethics Committee in the university and
ethical approval not required for this retrospective evaluation in teaching.

Influence of training in spinal manipulation on undergraduate physiotherapy student
knowledge and perceptions
Karen McCreesh Kieran O Sullivan, Susan Coote, , David Sainsbury
Affiliation: Dept of Physiotherapy, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Purpose: To analyse the knowledge and perceptions of undergraduate physiotherapy students regarding high-
velocity thrust spinal manipulation (SM) before and after instruction in SM Relevance: In recent years
increasing evidence supporting the efficacy of SM has been published. However the appropriateness of SM as a
manual therapy intervention is still debated among physiotherapists, with international variations regarding
whether it is taught at undergraduate level. This was an evaluation of attitudes of the first group of undergraduate
physiotherapists to have been instructed in SM at our University. Participants: 21 physiotherapy students at the
University of Limerick. Methods: Students were asked to fill in a questionnaire before and after a 4-week
training programme in SM of the thoracic and lumbar regions. In addition, focus groups involving 12 of the
students were conducted after the training. Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to report questionnaire
findings. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to examine differences between pre-education and post-
education scores. Focus groups were transcribed and analysed for common themes. Results: All students
believed SM is within the scope of practice of physiotherapists. Student confidence in their ability to palpate
spinal motion improved significantly (p<0.05) for thoracic and lumbar, but not cervical, regions after training in
SM. After training, students were significantly more likely to believe instruction in the use of SM of lumbar and
thoracic (but not cervical) regions was safe and appropriate for undergraduate students, and that it is an
evidence-based treatment choice. Despite this, only half of students believed it appropriate for them to use SM
on clinical placement. Themes identified in the focus groups included reduced anxiety about safety of SM and
increased confidence in its effectiveness. Conclusions: Training in SM results in significantly increased
confidence in lumbar palpation skills among physiotherapy students, and positively influences student beliefs
regarding the safety and effectiveness of SM. However, there remains some hesitation among physiotherapy
students regarding the use of SM on clinical placement. Implications: Barriers to the implementation of SM in
clinical placements need to be identified, including consultation with physiotherapy clinical educators.
Keywords: spinal manipulation, physiotherapy education Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics
approval: Ethical approval obtained from the University of Limerick Research Ethics Committee(ULREC No

Developing practice based learning 1
Room 351

Conceptions and myths related to Physiotherapy students’ interaction with Muslim
Marit Fougner, Assistant professor Tone Horntvedt, Associated Professor

Purpose: At the Faculty of Health, Oslo University College (OUC) there is a growing recognition of the need
for cultural competency training. The Mensendieck Physiotherapy Programme has work experiences for students
at multicultural resource centres within urban district health services. The physiotherapy students’ contribution is
physical activities groups for Muslim women combined with lessons in health related subjects. It is of great
importance to get knowledge about how students deal with diversity in practice. Relevance: Research indicated
the lack of knowledge and capabilities among students who are expected to function in a multicultural society.
Participants: 20 female physiotherapist students and 55 persons from four resource centres for multicultural
users have been included in this project. Methods: A qualitative approach has been used in order to explore
students’ strategies when dealing with cultural diversity in practice. Data was collected from informal
conversations with 18 physiotherapy students, their reflection notes and semi structural interviews with three
pairs of students (total 6 students). Analysis: The data were analysed in the light of theory about diversity
emphasizing the following concepts: differences, sameness, belonging and becoming. Results: The students’
way of dealing with diversity is reflected in two particular ways. One is characterized by avoiding negotiations
with the women by interacting primary on their premises. Conclusions: The results reflect difficulties in uniting
the need of diversity and the need of integration. Our material indicates that the students have difficulties in
handling these two aspects. They appear for the students to be incompatible and a filled with conflict.
Implications: The physiotherapy curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care
profession in a multicultural society. Keywords: Multicultural competency, diversity, stereotypes. Funding

acknowledgements: The work was unfunded Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required

Students three ways to learn to be Physiotherapy experts
Arja Piirainen, PhD, Lecturer in PT, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Eila Toiviainen, Lecturer, Laurea
University of Applied Sciences, Espoo, Finland

Purpose: Our purpose is clear up what kind of learning facilities and instruction do the students need during
their expertisestudies in university of applied sciences. Relevance: According the new ideas of the careers the
expertise is cumulative, transformative and boundless. At he same time it is also in personal nets, which develop
in sharing situations. Physiotherapy expertises education in Europe follow the generic competences, which are
also defined in Laurea’s competence-based core curriculum.Participants: The participants are all 97 students’ of
social and healthcare sector who had started their studies in Laurea 2005 Methods: Qualitative narrative
research. The data were gathered by using essay writing in online learning from all 97 students’. The essays were
written from the subject “I as a learner”. Analysis: The data were analysed by narrative construction according
to Polkinghorne, Riessmann and Labov. Results: The result of the study was three narratives of conceptions of
learning: generators, conservers and loafers around. Conclusions: If we compare those results to the demands of
EU generic competencies, so generators have possibilities to manage in work life. Those students who were
conservers or are loafing around have to change their conceptions of learning during the Physiotherapy
education. Implications: The demands for Physiotherapy expertise education are not only to let students learn
wide and deep understanding of the subjects, but also to change and develop their way of learning. Keywords:
Life long learning, expertise, narrative Funding acknowledgements: Laurea University of Appl Sc.Ethics
approval: Laurea,s ethic committee and students.

Learning physiotherapy in a professional context
Anne Kari Skøien, PT, MSc* , Unni Vågstøl, PT, MSc*, Arild Raaheim, PhD***Bergen University College,
Bergen, Norway**University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Presenting author: aks@hib.no Phone: +4755585660
Møllendalsveien 6, 5009 Bergen, Norway

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore how students conceive the importance of the community of
practice for their learning. A situated perspective on learning implies to look at learning as a process of social
integration and interaction. To students in clinical placement, the process of learning is thus connected to
participation and engagement in situations in the community of practice. Relevance: Clinical placement is a core
element in physiotherapy education. Several studies have discussed professional practice as a learning arena. We
have not, however, found any studies which describe physiotherapy students’ interaction in the professional
community of practice and the impact this may have on their learning. Participants: Five interns and five 3rd
year students who had finished their last placement were recruited to the project. A general invitation was
presented to all 3rd year students; the first five who volunteered were included. The interns were recruited from a
random list of local candidates; the first five who gave a positive response to a phone call were included.
Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was chosen Analysis: The interviews were
analysed within a phenomenographic framework. Phenomenography intends to describe, analyse and understand
experience. The practical process of analysing was carried out with inspiration from Giorgi and Kvale. Results:
Four main areas were found to be of particular importance; 1) to feel welcome and included, 2) having enough
time and space, 3) the importance of a fellow student and 4) the patient as my teacher. Conclusions: In
environments where students feel welcome and included they are allowed to test their ability to gain and develop
experience, and become active participants of the professional community. As such, the students also will
contribute to the development of the community of practice. Implications: Physiotherapy education should
emphasize interaction and cooperation as fundamental to learning in practice, not simply as a positive element in
the learning context. Keywords: Students’ learning, clinical placement, community of practice Funding
acknowledgements: The work was made possible by allocation of resources from Bergen University College,
Department of Physiotherapy. Ethics approval: All the informants participated freely in the study and all signed
an informed consent.

The motivational benefits of an Erasmus intensive program for first year students

Joost van Wijchen, PT, MT, Paul Beenen MSc, PT HAN-university AHS, The Netherlands,
Joost.vanwijchen@han.nl. In participation with the partner institutions:University of Tartu, Estonia; Helsinki
polytechica Stadia, Helsinki Finland; CVSU Odense, Odense Denmark; ESA Lisboa, Lisbon Portugal; NSA “
Vasil Levski”, Sofia Bulgaria

Purpose: The aim is to evaluate the lasting benefits for the learning process of the students participating in an
intensive program for first year students physiotherapy. Relevance: The intensive program is perceived as a
supplemental course for the existing curricula of physiotherapy education on a bachelor level. Description: The
formal aims of the intensive course were to; exchange experiences regarding physiotherapy education,
harmonisation of knowledge and skills and enhance integration of theory and practice within and between the
participating institutions. Besides these aims, in the teachers evaluation there turned out to be a common
perception that the intensive program had a lasting and distinct influence on the motivation of the students and
their peers. This effect would strengthen the added value of intensive programs and would give direction how to
facilitate this process even more. The method used was an action approach. A questionnaire was used, and after
that an online invitational conference to validate the outcome. Evaluation: The propositions we had after the
teacher evaluation turned out to be valid. For participating students there is a lasting motivation for their studies
in general and strong focus on internationalization. Their peer students benefit from the experience and
motivation given by the participated students and were motivated for extracurricular activities. Conclusions:
The strong effect of an intensive program on the students motivation should be more explicit and actively
supported during the program and after the program. In the evaluation students gave a lot of methods to facilitate
this process in a further way. Implications: Physiotherapy education is encouraged to be more involved in
intensive programs. Keywords: Student motivation, Intensive programs Funding acknowledgements: The
project was funded by the EU –Erasmus program and the Tartu University, Estonia. Ethics approval: Not

Developing practice based learning 2
Room 456

How do physiotherapy students learn in clinical placement?
Unni Vågstøl, PT, MSc*, Anne Kari Skøien, PT, MSc*, Arild Raaheim, PhD*** Bergen University College,
Bergen, Norway
** Bergen University, Bergen, Norway

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the student perspective on how they learn in clinical
placement. The question of research was; “What do physiotherapy students define as important to their learning
in clinical placement?” Relevance: Clinical placement is a core element in the bachelor program in
physiotherapy. Clinical placement takes place in a variety of clinical settings and the aim is that the student
should actively take part in the working community and thus develop their competence. Participants: Five
interns and five 3rd year students who had finished their last placement were recruited to the project. A general
invitation was presented to all 3rd year students; the first five who volunteered were included. The interns were
recruited from a random list of local candidates; the first five who gave a positive response to a phone call were
included. Methods: The data were collected by qualitative semi structured research interviews based on a
thematized interview guide. The themes were: • Description of a learning situation. What, why and how did you
learn? • The importance of supervisor/supervision. • Student activity. • The importance of fellow students. • The
importance of organizing, structure and working environment. Analysis: The interviews were analysed within a
phenomenographic framework. Phenomenography intends to describe, analyse and understand experience. The
practical process of analysing was carried out with inspiration from Giorgi and Kvale. Results: Three main areas
were found to be of particular importance; 1) “I learn when I am active”, 2) “I learn when the supervision both
challenges and supports me”, and 3) “I learn when I experience mastering of different practical situations”.
Conclusions: Essential for the students’ learning in clinical placement is that the interaction between the student,
the supervisor and the learning task is working. Implications: Physiotherapy education should emphasize the
importance of students being active participants in all learning situations. The students should be challenged and
supported towards mastering in professional as well as personal matters. Keywords: Clinical placement,
students’ perspective, mastering. Funding acknowledgements: The work was made possible by allocation of
resources from Bergen University College. Ethics approval: All the informants participated freely in the study
and all signed an informed consent.

Academic and professional development in Germany-The Students´ Perception
Astrid Schaemann,PhD Director; Institute of Physiotherapy Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Winterthur, Switzerland

Purpose: Germany has a coexistence of polytech schools and universities (of applied Sciences) offering
physiotherapy programs although there is no governmental decision for an all over academic program for the
health professions. The existing programs differ extremely from each other -this causes different attitudes
towards the academic development. Relevance: The purpose of this qualitative study was to find out how
students from different universities and academic programs and different professional experiences as
physiotherapists perceive this new situation within their profession. Participants: Included in this study were
33 physiotherapy students (novices and experienced) from five different universities in Germany and two experts
from the german physiotherapy profession. Methods: Expert semistructured interviews were chosen for
achieving the upmost insight into the profession and the results of the teaching programs. The correctness of the
data was guaranteed by the involvement of a peer group of researchers. Socio demographic data of the
students/experts were collected in a quantitative way before. Analysis: A software program for qualitative
research in social sciences was used. Following the suggested way of type building by Liebold and Trinczek
(2002) the aim was to find different types of attitudes. Results: The main differentiation in types of answers
could be made in between the novices and the experienced physiotherapists. Whereas the novices focussed on
the academic process and the life as a student itself the experienced mentioned as main topics identity and next
career steps. Another result is the way the students judged their academic programs. Although novices and
experienced were convinced of the new contents they were critical concerning the way of teaching and the way
the contents were adapted to the physiotherapy profession. Only a few students were convinced that an all over
academic program should be introduced. Furthermore the problem of the theory-practice gap showed up.
Conclusions: The coexistence of academic and polytech education seems to insecure the students and the whole
profession. There is an uncertainty because of the lack of definition of the new “BSc´s” role within the
professional field. Implications: All responsible educators and political responsibles fight for an all over
academic program to minimize the fact of a two class physiotherapy society and discuss the learning
outcomes.Keywords: Students perception,Theory-practice gap, Identity Funding acknowledgements: none
Ethics approval: not necessary

Reflective writing and portfolio as tools in professional development – experiences of
physiotherapy students
Eva Johannesson

Purpose: The purpose was to support students in developing their professional role as a physiotherapist by using
reflective writing and portfolio. Relevance: Reflective writing and portfolio are tools studied to engender
reflection for, in and on action. Reflection is considered to be a fundamental prerequisite for personal and
professional development and for life long learning. Description: This presentation will focus on students'
experiences of using reflective writing and portfolio during their physiotherapy education. The background is a
project carried out during 2005 - 2006. The main objective was to support first year students' transition into
higher education in a student-centered, problem-based professional education. First year students from the
physiotherapy-, nursing- and medical biology programmes were involved in the project. In order to support
students in this process, they used tools as learning plans, logs and reflective journals to engender reflection.
Different ways to work with dialogue and feedback was used, both between peers and between students and
teachers. Evaluation: The physiotherapy student evaluation from the first year project showed an initial
opposition to reflective writing and portfolio. Many of the students in their first semester did not value this effort
as meaningful. However an increased awareness of their future profession was seen. In the second semester more
students were positive to write down their reflections in relation to clinical practice. As the students have
continued in using different ways to engender reflection, a follow up is planned in the second part of their final
semester, spring 2008, for the first students, who were involved in the portfolio project during 2005 - 2006. The
purpose is to study if reflective writing is a relevant tool in the students’ professional development. Results from
this evaluation will be presented at the congress. Conclusions: The conclusion from the first year evaluation was
that the students became more motivated to use reflective writing as they continued the education. The final
evaluation will show if the students' motivation has increased. Implications: The implication might be an
increased awareness about understanding and attitudes in relation to the physiotherapy professional role.
Keywords: Reflective writing for professional development, portfolio as a tool for life long learning,
physiotherapy education Funding acknowledgements: This evaluation study is based on a project "Supporting

transition into higher education using portfolio" funded by The Council for Renewal of Higher Education.
Ethics approval: Ethics approval is not required.

Inter-professional clinical exercise to exchange posture/ergonomic and oral health
advice between physiotherapy, occupational therapy (OT) and dental
Dinah Sweet MSc DipTP MCSP FHEA, Christine Locke MEd DipCOT, (School Of Health Care Studies,
Cardiff University), John Sweet FSEDA MSc BDS FHEA (School of Dentistry, Cardiff University)

Purpose: To develop an innovative approach to inter-professional collaboration in learning and teaching, which
gives 3 different groups of students (physiotherapy, OT and dental) the opportunity to work together and learn
from each other. A secondary objective was to improve the dental students’ awareness of their working posture.
Relevance: To enhance the participating students’ communication skills and improve quality of care, by
encouraging the students into sharing information with their colleagues. Description: 5 Physiotherapy students,
3 OT students and 4 Dental students, volunteered for a three part clinical encounter. They engaged in the roles of
clinicians and patients to underpin previous learning and experience a ‘safe’ clinical situation. The
interprofessional exchanges were video recorded - operator and patient positions photographed. Feedback was
provided to the students at focus group briefing and debriefing sessions which were audio recorded. The
ergonomic effects of the encounter and the approach to the patient were observed and discussed during the
interactions. Evaluation: The focus group recordings were transcribed and analysed using an interpretive
qualitative approach. There was evidence of positive interaction and mutual appreciation within student groups.
The students reported that they could learn more easily from their peers. Specifically, dental students gained
valuable insight into their working posture. Physiotherapy and OT students experienced ergonomic challenges in
real working situations. Conclusions: Recommendations will be made to incorporate more advice on
ergonomics and good working postures within the dental undergraduate curriculum at Cardiff University. This
inter-professional activity was an effective educational tool for health promotion and communication and future
exchanges will be encouraged. Implications: With reference to undergraduate education, the students involved
in this clinical exercise were enthusiastic about their collaborative learning experience with other health students.
Ideas for final year physiotherapy projects have been formulated using/adapting some of the photographic data
and postural information collected during the study. Keywords: Inter-professional, practice, learning. Funding
acknowledgements: The IICLT committee, Cardiff University. Ethics approval: October 2006 from SOHCS
ethics committee, Cardiff University.

Friday September 26
Poster Session
Bridging theory and practice 1

Room 354

Bridging theory and practice – a concept for the further development of clinical
reasoning matters in the bachelor studies of physiotherapy.
Löchelt Ansgar, BSc PT cand; (aloechelt@gmx.de), Zalpour Christoff, Prof. Dr. med; (c.zalpour@fh-
osnabrueck.de) University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück (UASO)

Purpose: Academic Physiotherapy (PT) is new in Germany. Despite good practical skills of german PT the
scientific approach and particularly the emphazise on the „reflective practitioner“ is challenging PT educators on
academic and non-academic level. In Osnabrueck (one of the first universities starting academic PT programs in
Germany) we were searching for new possibilities in improving the theory to practice transfer in PT within a
clinical setting involving experienced practitioners and students. Relevance: The literature emphasizes that
clinical reasoning processes have not been transferred strongly enough into clinical practice and have been
taught with a theoretic emphasis only (Ajjawi, Higgs 2007). The academic PT needs well developed clinical
reasoning competences and the ability to reflect. These are relevant characteristics of expertise and are of great
importance for the training. Correspondingly the conveyance of clinical reasoning abilities together with the
theory to practice transfer is crucial for the physiotherapy training. Description: The paper presented deals with
a conceptional approach for bridging the theory to practice gap in physiotherapy. For orientation purposes a
broad literature research was carried out. Furthermore, literature published by the university and the authors own
experiences led to the collection of information about the clinical reasoning courses. With the collected
information including the ideas of clinical experts a further developed concept for clinical reasoning courses was
created. Evaluation: The concept has not been evaluated to date but will be put to use in the physiotherapy
studies in near future. Conclusions: The result of this study proves that the clinical reasoning courses of the
UASO lack an application-orientated and practical emphasis. There is a great need of putting clinical reasoning
competences into practice. In order for this to take place the theoretic and practical/clinical contents have to be
bridged. It is insufficient teaching both sides independent of each other. Implications: The study points out
clearly that there is a necessity of affiliating a physiotherapy practice to the UASO. By using methodic-didactical
means it is possible teaching the students clinical reasoning processes in the course of treating patients.
Keywords: Clinical reasoning training in theory and practice. Funding acknowledgements: The study was
powered by the university itself. Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required.

Assoc. Prof. SvetlaYantcheva, MD, PhD, Assoc. Prof. Leyla Kraydjikova, PhD, National Sports Academy
“V.Levski”, Sofia, Bulgaria

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prepare a modern Bridge Program (based on 12 years experience)
between 3 years of non-university and 4 years of university PT education (Bachelor level), accomplished at
National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. Relevance: to ensure a possibility of higher educational level for
PT’s with non-university education and perspective of learning in Master’s and Doctoral Programs.
Description: The importance of adequate integration of theory and practice in Physiotherapy Education.
Development of new ways and methods for learning in collaboration between the life experience and the high
education. Synchronized participation of students, clinical professionals and teachers to facilitate the formal-
informal knowledge integration in practice and the rational professional development. Evaluation: The relation
- an evidence-based practice and innovations of the new health services development. The professional
realization of PT’s with higher educational level (Master’s and PhD). Conclusions: The future work will be to
develop the integration of theoretical and practical knowledge and metacognitive skills to foster professional
growth in physiotherapy. Implications: The bridge programs give a good possibility for live long learning and
developing the professional competences. Keywords: bridge program, educational level Funding
acknowledgements: The statistics data of Medical establishments of PT’s Professional realization.
Ethics approval: Department of International Relations and Eurointegration in NSA

IKU Stadia Project based learning; Development of Spatial and Functional Solutions
that Support the Independent Living of the Elderly
Ahola S M.Sc, Leminen T M.Sc, Mäkinen E PhD, Kruus-Niemelä M M.Sc, Talvenheimo-Pesu A M.Sc, Helsinki

Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland

Purpose: This innovative project based learning program 2006-2008 aims to develop rehabilitative, wellbeing
environments elderly-centered way. The IKU Stadia project is implemented as a case study in two service
centres. The focus is active participation and co-operation between elderly and their relatives, professionals,
researchers, students and teachers. Relevance: The project challenges physiotherapy students to learn in
authentic placement context in elderly-centered perspective while developing their clinical reasoning skills.
Learning in multiprofessional team promotes the understanding how the physical, social and cultural
environment can support the functional capacity of elderly with memory problems. Description: Partners have
been the City of Helsinki, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences and Helsinki University of
Technology. The project has consisted of two phases: To collect knowledge of functional capasity in user
oriented way and to yield information about the factors concerning functional environment in residential care
home. The methods have been e.g. interviewing elderly and relatives, observing the physical and cultural
environment. Students in physiotherapy, occupational therapy, podiatry, orthotics and prosthetics, social
services, optometry, geronomy and nursing were involved in this project. Evaluation: The project has been
evaluated by the Program of Ministry of Education. The partners are evaluating the project constantly and the
main focus has been “broken the boundaries” between education, research and health care facilities.
Conclusions: Several proceedings, publications and 25 final thesis by the students will be published.
Multifunctional network facilitates process to integrate physiotherapy students in early stage to participate with
professionals. Implications: The project provide an opportunity that facilitate active co-operation between
professionals, education and research where the needs of elderly are in focus. The model developed can be
utilized not only in physiotherapy education but also in other education fields. Keywords: Elderly-centered,
Participation, Project based learning, Funding acknowledgements: The Fund of The Innovative City Program,
Helsinki City, Ministry of Education, Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Helsinki. Ethics approval:
The ethical committee of Helsinki Social Services approved the project. All participants gave their consent.

Research collaboration between education and practice – physiotherapy student
Bård Bogen, MSc. Coordinator of research and development(1) Nina Rydland-Olsen, MSc(3)
Bente Frisk, MSc, Coordinator of research and development(2) Torunn Urnes Meyer, student coordinator(2)
Mildrid Haugland, MSc, Head of department(4) Tor Frithjof Wigers Larsen, Head of department(1)
Hildegunn Lygren, Associate professor(2,3,4) (1) Department of physiotherapy, Haraldsplass Deaconal Hospital,
Norway (2) Department of physiotherapy, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway (3) Centre for Evidence
Based Practice, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Bergen University College, Norway (4) Bachelor of
physiotherapy, Bergen University College

Purpose: The aim of this pilot project is to develop research collaboration between the physiotherapy bachelor
education at Bergen University College and clinical practice, by involving third-year students in clinical research
projects. Relevance: It has been recommended that there is an emphasis on research already at bachelor level.
Through collaboration between the Department of Physiotherapy at Bergen University College and the
Physiotherapy Department at a local university hospital, it has been possible to involve students in small clinical
trials. Consequently, students gain insight in the processes of research. Description: Third-year bachelor
physiotherapy students were invited to participate in research projects managed by a local university hospital.
The students recruited and tested healthy and hospitalised persons for strength and function in knees and
shoulders. The aim was to establish reliability and validity of selected measurement instruments that are used in
the hospitals’ clinical practice. Evaluation: The project will be evaluated in the spring of 2008, with the aim of
exploring how the students experienced working in research projects within a clinical context, and their learning
profit in relation to research methods. Interviews and open-ended questionnaires will be used. Preliminary
reports from the students say that the collaboration with the clinical practice field is motivating and educational.
Conclusions: Involving students in clinical trials is feasible. The hospital involved gets research results that are
applicable in clinical practice and students learn about research. Implications: Involving students in research
work has potential benefits for both students and clinical practice. Keywords: Research, student involvement
Funding acknowledgements: This project was funded with a grant from the Bergen University College
development fund. Ethics approval: Projects involving patients was presented to the regional committee for
research ethics, and was approved 25.10.07 (ref. 2007/13903-ANØL).

Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
Vibeke Bechtold1, Physiotherapy educator, MSc; vibe@ucl.dk and Janne Skov1, Physiotherapy educator, MEd;
jask@ucl.dk; 1University College Lillebælt (former CVSU Funen), Department of Physiotherapy, Odense,

Purpose: The project is inspired by the Danish Ministry of Education’s catalogue of criteria, relating to the
professional bachelor programmes. The objective of the evaluation project is the development and
implementation of an evaluation practice for CVSU-Funen which: • Contributes to continuous development of
the education programmes, where evaluation is used as a basis for constructive dialogue between students,
lectures and management aiming at developing education programmes. • Contributes to increase the
transparency of programmes in relation to CVSU-Funen´s partners. • Contributes to an accreditation of CVSU
Funen´s Professional Bachelor degree. Relevance: Quality insurence and development in clinical practice and
creation of coherence between theory and practice in the physiotherapy education. Description: The project is
organized across professions as well as sectors. In the physiotherapy education it is put into practice through
cooperating working groups with representatives from the theoretical education and the clinical practice. CVSU
Funen has developed an evaluation strategy and evaluation practice for evaluation in clinical practice. The
following evaluation methods and tools for evaluation in clinical teaching have been developed: • Students
evaluation of clinical teaching • Self-evaluation of lecturers/mentors • Self-evaluation of the educational
environment. Evaluation: The individual practice departments collect, analyse and evaluate the qualitative and
quantitative data and prepare a conclusion and a plan of action. Conclusions: All the practice departments use
the evaluation tools. The following topics are parts of this year results: • information to students has to be
improved • projects of development in the departments should include the students • the students development in
competence must be in agreement with there specific teaching goals • further development in the use of guidance
and supervision • changing of the physical framework in relation to planning clinical teaching Result can be seen
on the homepage: www.ucl.dk Implications: Starting from the concrete plans of action clinical practice can be
developed and adjusted in co-operation with the physiotherapy education institution optimizing and quality
insuring the education in a profession perspective. Several of these results have been implemented. Keywords:
Evaluation, clinical practice, quality insurance Funding acknowledgements: University College Lillebælt
Ethics approval: none

Neck, upper back and low back pain prevalences with the associated factors among
adult population living in the central Malatya
Filiz ÇILEDAG,1, Leyla KARAOGLU,2 1, PhD student,Inonu University, Medical Faculty, Public Health
Department, Malatya, Turkey 2, Assoc. Prof.,MD, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, Public Health
Department, Malatya, Turkey

Purpose: To determine the lifetime and point prevalences of neck, upper back and low back pain of the adults
living in the central Malatya with the influencing factors. Relevance: Raising consciousness among students and
educators about the importance and burden of the neck, upper back and low back pain, about the risk factors and
the needs to control the problem Participants: Six hundred adults aged 18-69living in the central Malatya.
Stratified probability-proportional-to size sampling methodology was used for selecting the study population.
Methods: A structered questionnaire was used to determine the pain frequencies. Nordic questionnaire was
taken as the reference questionnaire to define the neck, upper and low back pain. This research is a cross-
sectional interview (face to face) survey. The data were collected between the first of June and the first of
September. Analysis: Data analysis was done by using SPSS 9.0 program. Chi-square test was used to determine
any association between pain prevalences and socio-demographic, health and behavior related characteristics
were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the main associated factors and odds ratio. A
p value of< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. %95 confidence intervals of odds ratio were presented.
Results: Of the participants, 53.2% were men,46.8 %were women, and the mean age was 38.5&#61617;0.5
years. The lifetime neck, upper back and low back prevalences were 79.3%, 59.5% and 86.3%, respectively. The
point prevalences of neck, upper back and low back were, 12.0%, 3.0% and 18.3%, in order. Gender, age,
anxiety, perceived health status were detrmined to be the main predictors of life time pain prevalences. For point
pain prevalences, the main predictors were depression, education level, anxiety and body mass index
Conclusions: Both lifetime and point pain prevalences showed that muscolosceletal disorders symptoms were
commen in the central Malatya. In-service training of health personnel on the subject, and to develop methods of
assessment, notification and prevention was recommended. Implications: The importance of neck, upper and
low back pain, the risk factors and control methods should be teach during physiotherapy education. Keywords:

Neck pain, upper back pain, low back pain, prevalence Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval:
Not stated

Bridging theory and practice 2
Room 361

Learning to be an evidence based practitioner; development of skills in the
undergraduate curriculum
Amanda Connell, Karen McCreesh, Susan Coote, Norelee Kennedy, Ann Taylor, Kieran O’Sullivan, Amanda
Clifford, Anne O’Connor, David Sainsbury, Marie O’Donnell

Purpose: To produce physiotherapy graduates who are evidence based practitioners with the skills and
knowledge to adopt this method of updating and progressing their clinical and academic thinking. Relevance:
Evidence based practice (EBP)is a professional requirement. It is a well documented process of identifying
clinical questions, seeking and appraising relevant information and combining it with clinical expertise and
patient preference to achieve the best possible healthcare. All healthcare practitioners require some knowledge of
all aspects of this process (Sackett et al 1996,Guyatt et al 2000). Undergraduate education and peer opinion
remain are consistently reported as the primary sources of information in clinical decision making (Carr et al
1994, Turner et al 1999, Turner 2001, Davis et al 2003, Jette et al 2003, Palfreyman et al 2003) Description:
The design of the physiotherapy programme at the University of Limerick incorporates a strategy for introducing
students to each aspect of the evidence based practice cycle in a staged approach. Students acquire core skills
such as critical appraisal, database searching, identifying clinical questions, and evaluation in the early years of
the programme. In the third and fourth years, students are facilitated via case studies, reflective practice
seminars, workshops on psychosocial aspects of healthcare and independent research to combine the individual
stages of EBP to address the realities of clinical practice. Evaluation: Formal student assessment indicates a
high level of ability in evidence based practice both clinically and academically. Feedback from recent graduates
indicates their awareness of the staged development of their EBP skills and its applicability to high quality
patient care Conclusions: Structuring the principles and component skills of EBP into the undergraduate
physiotherapy programme enables students to adopt this process as the primary way of informing and updating
their knowledge Implications: Explicitly teaching EBP skills at undergraduate level facilitates the adoption of
this method of clinical and academic working Keywords: Evidence based practice; undergraduate curriculum;
clinical practice Funding acknowledgements: none Ethics approval: none required

From student in physiotherapy to a competent physiotherapist
A three-year study
Grete Stokkenes, Ass. Professor, University College of Bergen, Norway. mailto:grete.stokkenes@hib.no

Purpose: To get more information about how the students collaborate with their patients and use their
theoretical knowledge and skills in the clinical situation. Relevance: Information about how students learn and
develop their clinical judgements in the practical treatment situation,is relevant to all physiotherapy educators.
Participants: The informants were six students who volunteered to the project after having received written
information about the study. They started in their second year of study and continued to be informants in their
third and forth year. Methods: This is a qualitative study using depth interviews. Each student was interviewed
in their second-, third- and forth year about how they collaborated with their patients and actively involved them
in developing the goal and the plan of treatment. Analysis: Each interview consisted of three cases which were
analysed according to the three levels of S. Kvale: A text level, a common sense level and a theoretical level.
Results: In their second year the students show a competent judgement when they meet patients who give them
clear and positive feedback. In the third year the students collaborate with patients who give them less positive
feedback, but it is still difficult for them to make competent judgements when the patients have reduced
cognitive capacity. In the forth year the students collaborate actively with the patients by accepting disagreement
and negotiations about the goal and plan of treatment in order to reach to an agreement. They also collaborate
with close relatives in the treatment planning, especially when children are concerned. Conclusions: The
students’ clinical judgements have developed during their learning process. They understand more complex
clinical situations and collaborate with patients who give them less positive feedback during the treatment

process. In the forth year the students have developed more respect for the patients and their relatives and accept
discussions due to different perspectives, and they encourage the patients to be active in solving their health
problems.Implications: In order to enable the students to collaborate competently with the patients in the clinic,
they must learn to open up for the patient´s point of view. Keywords: Students, learning, clinical practice.
Funding acknowledgements: The Departments of Research and Development and of Physiotherapy at the
University College of Bergen have given me time and possibility to accomplish this project. Ethics approval:
Missing data

Promotion of WCPT Quality Ethical Principle in an Undergraduate Physiotherapy
Dr. Norelee Kennedy, Amanda Connell, Dr. Ann Taylor, Dr. Susan Coote, Kieran O’Sullivan, Karen McCreesh,
Anne O’Connor, Amanda Clifford, David Sainsbury, Marie O’Donnell. Department of Physiotherapy,
University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Purpose: A new undergraduate physiotherapy programme was developed in Limerick in 2002. One of the
programme’s aims is to produce evidence based physiotherapy graduates who are life-long learners.
Relevance: The programme promotes the quality ethical principle of the WCPT, in relation to good practice in
undertaking research, understanding of professional and research ethics and evaluating practice to ensure high
quality of clinical care. The integration of these principles into the undergraduate programme is important in
developing analytical and critical practitioners who have the skills and knowledge to be life-long learners.
Description: A variety of teaching and assessment methods are used in the third and fourth years to encourage
the development of critical appraisal skills and the integration of principles of research and ethics (including
professional ethics) into practice. This is achieved through the integration of skills and knowledge across all
modules such as Reflective Practice, Research Methods, Psychosocial and Theory and Context. The learning
approach in the final years allows for the development of higher level skills of thinking, reasoning and reflecting
on practice through self-directed learning, active participation in undertaking research to attain both qualitative
and quantitative skills, reflection and peer facilitated discussion. Evaluation: Evaluation through formal
assessment and formal student feedback shows how the integration of knowledge across modules and into
clinical placements has been achieved. A considerable dissemination record from the first two years of final
year research projects is also being established with twenty-two conference presentations at a national and
international level in addition to three peer reviewed papers and twenty four published abstracts.
Conclusions: The integration of research and professional ethics, evaluation of practice and critical appraisal
skills across modules in third and fourth year in an undergraduate physiotherapy programme helps develop
higher level thinking and reasoning skills. Implications: This approach is producing graduates who are
producing publishable research as well as providing them with the skills necessary to be research active and
reflective, evidence based practitioners in the future. Keywords: physiotherapy, undergraduate education, ethical
principles Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: Ethical approval not required

Can education assure good practices?: an ethical approach for life long learning
Berta Paz Lourido. Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy. University of the Balearic Islands. Spain.

Purpose: Analyse the Life Long Learning process for physiotherapists from an ethical perspective
Relevance: During the development of the subject “Ethics in health care” the students of physiotherapy are
required to analize ethical dilemmas including the factors, contexts and situations that facilitate those conflicts.
This essay is founded on student’s reflections about the purpose of education and its relation to practices.
Participants: 32 students of physiotherapy. Methods: A qualitative method was used. The data was collected
using their texts for class activities and discussion groups. Analysis: Text and discourse analysis. Results:
One main theme related to ethical dilemmas in clinical placements was the postgraduate education. In general,
for the students, physiotherapists that don’t do continuing education are not taking into account their professional
responsibility to do the best practices with patients and their families, in relation with the principle of
beneficence. They consider this behaviour unethical while in the other way, those actualized or specialized
physiotherapists are considered by the students to have a better position to attend patient’s needs. However, that
position doesn’t assure that the best practices will take place. Even when personal factors were quoted in the
appearance of ethical dilemmas, the interviewed students consider that many health care placements don’t allow
the application in practice of physiotherapist's competences, causing frustration in the professionals what can
facilitate the appearance of ethical dilemmas. Finally, some students pointed out the consideration of continuing

education as a tool for professionals to get a better status or better salary, independently from clinical practices.
Conclusions: Life long learning in health professionals is considered to be a part of their professional duty with
people's needs. But the transference of these competences to the context and the development of good practices
may depend on other aspects both personal and environmental. Implications: The findings suggest that
education in physiotherapy, using a Life Long Learning perspective should include strategies to facilitate critical
reflections about the unethical uses of education and assess the health system to make learning transferable into
clinical practice. Keywords: Health care ethics, education, professional Funding acknowledgements:
No funding Ethics approval: Ethical issues in qualitative research were considered. Ethical approval was not

Journal club as an instrument to ensure evidence based practice
Christina Groll (BSc physioth.), University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, Germany,
c.groll@fh-osnabrueck.de; Prof. Dr. Christoff Zalpour, University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, Germany,

Purpose: In Germany the students have passed their examination to become a physiotherapist at a school before
they start studying physiotherapy at the university. Therefore they still work practical and at the university they
learn particularly EBP, basics of research and science. But very often they have problems to implicate this new
knowledge into their clinical practice. Relevance: We used the Journal Club as an instrument for teaching how
to implicate EBP in clinical practice. The students could close the gap between the theoretical knowledge about
research and the use of it in clinical practice. Description: The students learned the different study designs and
they searched a study, who deals with a problem or a question they had in clinical practice actually. During the
lessons the students presented their study to the group and gave a critical view on the methodological approach.
Afterwards the group discussed the study under two topics. First abut the study design and the methods. The
second topic deals with the relevant to clinical practice and a possible answer to the question from beginning.
Evaluation: The students should judge the Journal Club and give their appraisel if they profit from this kind of
lecture. Furthermore they were asked about the use of it in clinical practice. Conclusions: The students gave a
very positive feedback and the Journal Club seems to close the gap. They got a lot of input and experience in
research and using it in clinical practice. Implications: Distribution of academic knowledge into physiotherapy
practice. Keywords: Journal Club, EBP, research Funding acknowledgements: There was no funding
acknowledgement. It was part of the bachelor study at the University of Applied Sciences. Ethics approval:
There was no reason for an ethic approval because is was not a clinical trial.

Distance learning - internet based courses
Room 359

Blended Learning as a method to enhance health promotion in music students
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, RPT, PhD (presenting author); Department of Community Medicine and
Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Sweden, Kris Chesky, PhD, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA

Purpose: The aim of this project was to create a health promotion for music students for identifying good health
and risks potential in making music and playing. The aim was also to enhance learning by using Blended
Learning. Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common work-related health problems among professional
musicians and music students. It is important to bring up these perspectives in discussions with young musicians
before they contract medical problems. Relevance: The physical therapist took part of the planning, the
preparation and the evaluation of the course and wrote the educational course material on musculoskeletal
health. Physical therapists can contribute to valuable competence including extensive knowledge of
musculoskeletal disorders, pain, stress, ergonomics and occupational health. Description: The health promotion
was developed interdisciplinary by a musician/music educator and a physical therapist. The core content
consisted of four parts: hearing health, musculoskeletal health, vocal and mental health. The course was held
during 15 weeks, three hours/week. It used Blended learning teaching meaning that parts of the course was
computer-based and parts used traditional face-to-face teaching as practical session on health habits. It gave
opportunities for reflection and discussions between students on risk behavior and health attitudes, believes and
values. Evaluation: The course has so far enrolled 562 under-graduated students. Of the students 30% were
women and 70% were men. The mean age was 20 years. Fourty percent of the musicians were music majors.The
course will be evaluated with questionnaires on attitudes to occupational health risks, health habits and

musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions: An interactive internet-based Blended teaching model can be integrated
in university educations as a future model for better access to expert knowledge. The teaching model can be a
possibility for small music schools to integrate the knowledge if they do not have the occupational health
expertise.Implications: The physical therapist has a natural role in prevention and treatment of muscular
problems. Similar research and educational initiatives in other parts of performing arts medicine is encouraged.
Keywords: Blended learning, Occupational health, Performing arts medicine, Prevention Funding
acknowledgements: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Muskelfond Norr, University of
North Texas Ethics approval: The study was approved by University of North Texas

Abakus - A digital healthcare system for physio education/practice
Eric Stutterheim MSc PT eric.stutterheim@hu.nl Hogeschool Utrecht

Purpose: Patient-empowerment by re-designing processes of information in health. Personalised, dynamic,
informative with respect to health status- and needs, patient-held. Therapy outcomes as an integral part of
professional accountability. IT to produce personal healthcare files and thus activating patient participation and
providing reliable/valid information, f.i. an easy access to validated outcome measures. All of these without
administrative burden of the professional Relevance: Students get competencies that help to promote a patient’s
healthy lifestyle and self-management. Furthermore, students are familiarized with patient centred goal-
attainment scaling, use of outcomes measures, and monitoring functional health status. Novice-professionals
learn to be accountable for their interventions, a demand induced by patients, financiers and professional
institutions Description: A software program was developed involving both physiotherapists and physiotherapy-
scientists by way of discussions in focus groups and evaluations. By doing so the functional design was planned
in detail and subsequently improved by ‘lessons-learned’ from practical use of the program by colleagues
Evaluation: Evaluations by input from educational activities in the physiotherapy field, Faculties of Health Care
in the Netherlands/Germany and the feedback feature in the program. Keywords: functionality (does the program
do what it is intended to do?), usability (quality of the interface), maintenance (does the program satisfies the
changing context of health care?), security (does the program provide full entrance for those who are
authorized?), support (does the program serve a direct and immediate contact with the users?) Conclusions:
Abakus provides the professional needs to monitor and evaluate physical therapy outcomes. After one year of
regular use, the program proves to be stable and helpful for professionals as well as students and staff although
more systematic evaluation of its quality is warranted Implications: Abakus provides means to monitor patient
care by physiotherapists and will soon be ready to be implemented in the profession. As a consequence the
concept of clinimetrics ought to be implemented on the beforehand via education of practising colleagues,
educational staff and bachelor-/masterstudents Keywords: Patientempowerment Monitoring patient’s health
status Outcome measurement Funding acknowledgements: The program is realized by AbaKus B.V., thus
implementing a range of innovative initiatives of the Department of Physiotherapy-Research, Academy of
Health Sciences Utrecht Ethics approval: Not required

Movement Science – an inquiry and internet based course for life long learning
Eva Nordmark and Christina Gummesson RPT, PhD, senior lecturers, Lund University, Department of Health
Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund Sweden

Purpose: A new course was developed as a part of a multidisciplinary Master programme, to enhance lifelong
learning and internationalisation. Relevance: The course aims at prepare and continue professional development
of skills for lifelong learning in health care practice and research. Description: The project involves
development of a pedagogical approach in an internet based environment. The approach supports the bridging
between theory and clinical practice. The focus is on self-directed active learning, developing skills for critical
appraisal, evidence based practice and research preparation. Peer- and team-learning as well as self-reflections
are important. Evaluation: The course is ongoing and results will be presented. Conclusions: From the
development, the conclusions that can be drawn so far are promising. The design supports individual
development, where both depth and width in the participants’ area of subject and learning process are in focus.
Conclusions from the evaluation will be presented. Implications: This approach has the potential to bridge the
gap between theory and practice also in a life long learning perspective, as well as promote international
exchange. Keywords: Inquiry based learning, Master course development, self directed learning. Funding
acknowledgements: The work was supported by the University Board of Rehabilitation Education and funded
by Lund University. Ethics approval: No ethical approval was required for this type of presentation.

ADA-Madrid project: Adapting official postgraduate degees in Rey Juan Carlos
University (Spain)”
Sagrario Pérez de la Cruz, PT, Bsc. Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid. University of Almería, Spain.
Co-authors: Daniel J. Catalán Matamoros, PT, PhD. Universidad de Almería. Spain.
Patricia Rocamora Pérez, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Spain. Teresa Fuentes Hervías, PT, Bsc. University of
Almería. Spain. Remedios López Liria, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Spain.Manuel Fernández Sánchez, PT,
PhD. University of Almería. Spain.

Purpose: Distance and open classroom in the community of Madrid (ADA-MADRID) is an initiative of the
universities of Madrid to improve the employment of the information and communication technologies in their
educational activities through a distance setting; and to create a learning environment that will help the
development of the university degree for the coming students who live far away, improving their training
quality. Relevance: Thanks of this distance learning system developed, we could offer help to postgraduate
learning through university degrees. Description: The students that are registered in any of the official masters
offered by public universities (i.e. the official master in neurological pathology: performances in physiotherapy
and occupational therapy in Rey Juan Carlos University) have the possibility of acquiring knowledge and
necessary skills that are taken in the different subjects. Also they can have access to subjects that are not offer in
their own institution, improving in this way to have courses from other different universities through learning
collaborating agreements.In turn, the development and the evaluation will be developed by means of the delivery
of the portfolio, featured works and bibliography searches relating to the different topics, without the need of
assitance and without decreasing the quality of the education, but stimulating experimentation, reflection and
research capacity. Evaluation: At the end of every academic course, a questionnaire about subjects has been
made on methodology, quality and need of improvements. Conclusions: This project that involves to all the
educational community of Madrid (six universities) has been thought to improve the post-graduate education.
We needed changes in methodology, constant updates in the new tecnologies and how apply them in health
sciences, and to be adapted to the social request and needs of new professional profiles. Implications:
This program is being used in order to improve the postgraduate education for physiotherapists through master
and doctoral programs. Keywords: ADA-MADRID project, distance learning, postgraduate degree.
Funding acknowledgements: Government of Madrid Community. Ethics approval: Not required.

Factors Affecting Tutor Engagement in an Online Inter-professional e-Facilitator’s
Simon Igo, Coventry University, Department of Physiotherapy,UK.

Purpose: This report aims to explore and produce an analysis of the interrelated cultural, organisational and
pedagogical factors that influence health care tutor engagement in an online distance learning course. The inter-
professional nature of the course enables health professionals such as physiotherapists, occupational therapists to
acquire key skills to facilitate a group of undergraduate health care students in an online environment.
Relevance: Coventry University’s inter-professional education strategy includes an inter-professional learning
pathway delivered using online learning environments. Teaching students in such a pathway requires a set of
skilled online tutors to ensure a pedagogically sound experience. A distance education course was developed
which enabled participants to acquire skills and techniques to facilitate a group of health care students.
Participants: A group of 110 health care academic tutors took the course. Using a method of opportunistic non-
probability sampling, 16 participants were recruited. Methods: The course represented an emerging culture and
social network where individuals were immersed in an online learning environment. Understanding complex
social and cultural interactions that take place within learning communities can be explored within the
methodology of ethnography; this study used a focussed virtual ethnographic approach to identify factors that
affected online engagement on the course. Three data collection methods were used: retrospective participant
observation of archived discussions; unstructured email conversations; and data from online course evaluation.
Analysis: A process of thematic analysis was used to analyse the data .Results: Two themes emerged
categorised as organisational and pedagogical. Organisational factors affecting engagement included competing
time and work pressures relating to organisational climate. Pedagogical factors included the nature of the course
design and perceived conflicts with learning styles and online learning. Conclusions: It is essential to understand
the organisational climate in which online distance learning courses are delivered; the climate and culture in
which participants work may preclude active engagement. It is also important to recognise that learning styles

affect online engagement. Implications: Carefully crafted course activities and awareness of the organisational
climate in which online courses are delivered are vital to ensure active engagement in inter-professional distance
online courses Keywords: online distance learning Funding acknowledgements: NoneEthics approval:
Coventry University Research Ethics Committee.

Distance learning web based tools
Room 357

Web-based Evidence Based Practice-Education connecting Physiotherapists and
Arjan van der Salm (PhD), Annet Olde-Wolsink (MSc), Monica Buijinck (Ing) Saxion Universities of Applied
Sciences School of Health; department Physiotherapy Enschede, the Netherlands

Purpose: The scientific information in the field of physiotherapy increases daily and it is almost impossible for
physiotherapists to read all the relevant studies. Nevertheless, students should be learned how to get this
information and determine the value of the studies. A win-win situation is created when students research the
questions of physiotherapists and the answers are returned to the physiotherapists. Relevance: The web-based
education is used to teach students how to use Evidence Based Practice. Secondly, students are sure that the
outcome of their research will be used in clinically settings. Description: For this newly developed education a
website is constructed. This website allows physiotherapists to ask questions in the field of evidence based
therapy. The questions are directed to a group of students. This group of students includes several levels
(Dreyfus-level 1, 2 and 3), each level having its own task. Before students participate in the project, they get the
necessary knowledge, meaning that for each Dreyfus-level specific information is provided. During the process a
scientific teacher supervises the students group, but the students are forced to evaluate the work of each other
(intervision). A scientific teacher controls the final answer and finally an editor adds the question and answer to a
database. This database is available for participating physiotherapists and students. The aim is to provide an
answer within 2 weeks after a question is send by the physiotherapist. Evaluation: Colleagues and students have
evaluated the program. The first pilot starts February 2008. Thereafter the program will be evaluated more
thoroughly. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the website seems suitable for the education of Evidence
Based Practice in students and might very well narrow the gap between physiotherapists and students. In
addition, the quality of the scientific education and the use of evidence in physiotherapy will be improved.
Implications: Web based education may be beneficial to connect physiotherapists and students, and will
improve the evidence based practice in students and physiotherapists. Keywords: web based-education, bridging
practice and education Funding acknowledgements: RAAK-project, Trinnovation: Knowledge Circulation in
Care and Technology 2005-1-1. Ethics approval: No ethics approval was necessary in this project.

Learning platform and distance learning in continuing education for physiotherapists
in Norway.
Aslaug Skuladottir, consulting physiotherapist and Micheline Viktil, course organizer. Norwegian
Physiotherapist Association (NPA), Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: The primary objective of using an internet based learning platform as a supplement to all continuing
education courses is to improve communication between course organizers, teachers and students and to
establish an archive system containing all relevant course information: practical and professional. A secondary
objective is to develop programs for distance learning. Relevance: The learning platform (Fronter) is a very
useful supplement to continuing education as it allows participants to collect course information such as
programs and relevant literature prior to course start. It gives them opportunity to prepare better. The learning
platform is a good tool for the organizers to ensure quality of information and communication. Description:
NPA organises an average of 50 courses annually. The courses are mostly clinical courses. About 1200
physiotherapists attend each year and 100 teachers are involved. To organise this, the learning platform is an
important tool. From being a resource centre for collecting and publishing course information, the learning
platform has developed to include delivering and correcting assignments. It allows participants to take tests and
to take part in discussion forums. It is being used to developing and offering distance learning programs, first of
all for private practitioners. Evaluation: The use of the platform has become a necessity. It saves the organizers
time and economical resources as course information is no longer sent by mail. Furthermore, the platform

provides the possibility of organising part of the courses as distance learning. There by giving more time for
practising when meeting at the course. The course participants rely on the platform for all course information
and have proven to be dependent of it. Conclusions: Using the learning platform requires much follow-up from
the organizers. In return it eases communication between organizers, students and teachers. It provides an
excellent system for structuring course information. The participants have access to the platform to months
before and after a course, extending therefore their involvement in a course. Future work includes more
extended use of the platform; more variety of courses and new functions as sms and videos. Implications:
Continuing professional development, networking and distance learning programs. Keywords: Continuing
education, distance learning, communication. Funding acknowledgements: The Norwegian Fund for Post-
Graduate Training in Physiotherapy. Ethics approval: Not required

Distance Learning Instructional Methods in Physiotherapy Education
Suzanne Robben Brown, MPH,PT. Touro University - Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this Special Interest Report is to share effective and relevant options in course design,
content presentation, and assessment techniques in distance learning education for physiotherapists. Relevance:
Distance education offers great opportunities to meeting the needs of the current and future physiotherapists.
Educators must acknowledge and use best practice techniques that facilitate student learning using technology.
Description: This presentation will share instructional methodologies that have been implemented in a variety of
physiotherapy courses offered on-line. Implementation of best practices for distance learning to a physiotherapist
population will be described as well as specific techniques to present higher level critical thinking in clinically
relevant ways. Instructional design and methodologies for physiotherapists must be targeted to the needs of a
working adult student as well as for delivery education that meets the needs of professional, employer, and
governmental groups. Evaluation: The information presented is based on a review of the research in distance
education and recommendations from students in response to implementation of various techniques in
physiotherapy education programs. Conclusions: Distance learning educational programs for physiotherapists
are more effective when presented using educational strategies and methods using the unique characteristics of
the media. Implications: Physiotherapy education must implement distance learning techniques to meet the
needs of current practitioners as well as the future manpower needs of our communities. Keywords: Distance
learning, course design, instructional methods Funding acknowledgements: No outside funding was required or
received for this work. Ethics approval: No ethics approval was necessary for this work.

Use of multi-media material as a tool for learning Physiotherapy in the field of Cardiac
Mª dels Àngels Cebrià i Iranzo. Universitat de València, València /Spain. Trinidad Sentandreu Mañó.
Universitat de València, València / Spain Gemma Victoria Espí López. Universitat de València, València /
Spain Mª Consolación García Lucerga. Universitat de València, València /Spain Enrique Ricardo Mora
Amérigo. Universitat de València, València / Spain Celedonia Igual Camacho. Universitat de València,
València / Spain Marta Aguilar Rodríguez. Universitat de València, València / Spain

Purpose: That students are equipped with material which completes and consolidates training teached in class,
especially the one referred to practical content of Physiotherapy in Cardiac Circulation •To motivate students to
pursue the subject’s development. •To promote an assessment system based on tasks carried out at regular
intervals, in contrast to the final exam. •To give comprehensible support to students in order to reproduce and
carry out a variety of physiotherapy techniques through the use of videos. Relevance: The student´s independent
work is guided. Description: Use of a CD-ROM / DVD which shall include videos containing explanations and
further activities in order to deepen in subject, bibliographic sources and documentation, etc. Evaluation:
The proyect will be put to use from february to june 2008. We intend to assess the advantages of the material
used starting from: 1) The number of students following the suggested method as to the material offered.
2) Qualifications reached by the students who have followed the suggested method. 3) Obtained results from the
survey passed on to students. Conclusions: We expect students to become perfect in practice skills, as well as to
deepen in subject through extending activities suggested to the material. We expect the material being
disseminated out of University. Implications: To reinforce attending classes by e-learning. Keywords:
Physiotherapy in Cardiac Circulation (PCC), e-learning, ECTS. Funding acknowledgements: This proyect is
financed and supported by the European Convergence Office and the Physiotherapy University-School which

belongs to the University of València. Ethics approval: We do not have an ethics committee.

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by Physiotherapists
and Physiotherapy students in Portugal.
LOPES, A. A. PT (Escola Superior de Saúde do Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal, aalopes@essa.pt)

Purpose: This study aims to determine the use of the ICT by Physiotherapist and Physiotherapy students.
Relevance: The European Benchmark Statement(ER-WCPT) refers that, Physiotherapist should have skills in
the area of ICT, so that he/she is able to search for the required evidence to validate his/her practice, as well as
managing the data and records stemming from his/her clinical practice. Therefore those skills should be
developed during their basic training and used to support and deliver Lifelong Learning. Participants:
A sample of Physiotherapy students (n=982) and Physiotherapists (n=261) from a population of membersof the
Portuguese Association of Physiotherapists (APF). Methods: We use a validated questionnaire subdivided into 6
dimensions (sample characterization, equipment characterization, usage characterization, attitudes and
knowledge, barriers and necessities). Analysis: The procedures used were essentially descriptive statistics.
Results: When inquired 99% of the students reported using computer in academic activities of which 42.6% as a
weekly usage between 0 and 3 hours and 36.7% between 3 and 5 hours and 57.4% referred the importance of
using ICT in the school context. The Physiotherapists use more frequently the computer at home (80%),
followed by the workplace for 16%, when inquired 68% reported using computer on the workplace, of which
52% also have access to the internet. Regarding the main obstacles in using ICT, 51% of students and 18,7% of
the Physiotherapists refer the lack of specific knowledge in this area and 18,5% refer to the lack of time to use
them. As for the training needs felt by the Physiotherapists, 19% refers having lack of training in using clinical
assessment software and 17,5% refer lack of training in using exercise software for producing patient
information and handouts. Conclusions: Through the analysis of the results of this study it is demonstrated that
although the good accessibility to the ICT by students and professionals in their institutional and home
environment the use is yet scarce because of lack of time and specific knowledge to use it. Implications:
There seems to be the need to create institutional programs and projects that promote the usage of ICT by
investing in the training of students and Physiotherapists, and promoting the usage of ICT in the workplace.
Keywords: Education, Professional, ICT, Survey. Funding acknowledgements: This work was unfunded.
Ethics approval: Not required.

Physiotherapy Education 2.0: Using collaborative web based tools in education and
clinical practice
LOPES, A. A. PT (Escola Superior de Saúde do Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal, aalopes@essa.pt)

Purpose: In the recent years we have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of Web-based tools. These Web 2.0
applications, particularly wikis, blogs and podcasts, have been increasingly adopted by many online health-
related professional and educational services. Because of their ease of use and rapidity of dissemination, they
offer the opportunity for powerful information sharing and ease of collaboration that can be taken anywhere,
providing the potential for "anytime, anywhere" learning experiences (mobile learning). Relevance:
Students are now more mobile than ever, and often find themselves located some distance from a parent
institution on professional practice placement. The uses of such technologies to encourage learners' deeper
engagement with learning materials, and the affordance of shared working spaces to improve collaboration
between learners are desirable outcomes. It is generally held by many educators that students of all ages learn
best when immersed within a culturally and socially rich environment in which scaffolding of learning can be
achieved. Description: In the context of the Physiotherapy course in the Escola Superior de Saúde do Alcoitão
we have used in the last 3 years a set of web based tools to promote collaborative teaching/learning in the
academic and clinical setting. We are using wikis to create online books and manuals with the participation of
students, blogs to comunicate with our peers and students, open source groupware to support clinical teaching
and podcasts to help record and disseminate the history of Portuguese Physiotherapy. Evaluation: The
participation and adherence of academic staff, students and clinical educators as been very high. Conclusions:
The latest generation of collaborative Web-based tools, namely wikis, blogs and podcasts, offer many unique
and powerful information sharing and collaboration features. Careful thinking and research are still needed in
order to find the best ways to leverage these emerging tools to promote the teaching and learning. Implications:

When learners and peers are committed to achieving the same goals, they tend to regulate each other's
performances in positive outcome that can be facilitated through the use of shared, digital learning environments.
The combination of wikis, blogs and podcasting technologies, then, has the potential to both liberate and tie
learners together creating dynamic learning communities. Keywords: Physiotherapy, Education, Web 2.0, Open
Source Funding acknowledgements: This work was unfunded. Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not

Curriculum cultural perspectives
Room 356

Development of a multidiciplinary training resource for children´s trachestomy care at
The Royal Liverpool Children’s NHS Trust
Paul Ritson MCSP, Clinical Specialist Physiotherapist, Royal Liverpool Children’s NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK
Alison Flynn RSCN, Clinical Nurse Specialist (ENT), Royal Liverpool Children’s NHS Trust, Liverpool, UK

Purpose: At the Royal Liverpool Children’s NHS Trust, there was no minimum standard for the care of children
with a tracheostomy. Conflicting practises occurred within the Trust and Community, and only two wards within
the Trust accepted patients with a tracheostomy. A multidisciplinary group was established to develop a training
resource to improve this situation. Relevance: The project realised the importance of multidisciplinary education
and working. The membership comprised physiotherapists, ENT nurse specialist, nurses, hospice staff, speech
therapists and resuscitation officers. This resource would be used by professionals and carers to unify practice
within the North West of the UK. Description: We first developed evidence based competencies in all aspects of
tracheostomy care. A competency based training package for professionals and a separate package for carers was
devised. This was supported by multidisciplinary training days and mentored practice. Following audit, the
project extended to develop an audio visual teaching tool. This supported the educational needs of professionals
and carers in all settings. It was important to establish that the practicalities of caring for these children differed
between settings. To achieve this, the DVD included material to support the care of these children wherever
they were. Evaluation: The project was audited. Results show that the number of wards caring for tracheostomy
patients increased from two to seven. It was also evident that care of these children became seamless between
settings. Conclusions: This training approach has been very successful. We have increased the competence and
confidence of all staff/carers looking after tracheostomies. The training tool will be developed as practices
evolve. It is important to maintain a multiprofessional approach to training, development and evaluation.
Implications: Physiotherapists should be seen as an integral part of the tracheostomy team. Their knowledge
and skills were used extensively in the development of this education programme. This multiprofessional
approach should be utilised in undergraduate education. This type of training package could be used within
physiotherapy and other undergraduate programmes to show the benefits of collaboration. Keywords:
Multiprofessional; Training; Tracheostomy Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: Not required

Interprofessional education – experiences of student-training wards
Eva Johannesson

Purpose: The main purpose is to enable students to collaborate, to practise their professional roles and to
understand the competences of other professions. Relevance: The overall winner of inter-professional education
is the patient. Health problems of today are often more complex. This demands knowledge from different
perspectives and professions. Description:Learning together to be able to work together is one of the goals of all
study programmes at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University. The faculty has been using problem-
based learning, PBL, and integration between the programmes as main characteristics since 1986. In 1996 the
faculty and the university hospital implemented a student-training ward at the orthopaedic clinic. Students from
medicine, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy programmes are responsible for the ward and take
care of the patients during two-week placements under supervision. Twelve years of experience shows that inter-
professional education, IPE, at a training ward makes a valuable contribution to health care education of today.
New student- training wards have been implemented in another orthopaedic clinic and in elderly care.
Programme integration in community based care is in a planning phase. Inter-professional learning is a process
over time with several integrated moments to gain the skills required to work together inter-professionally in
practice. Evaluation: The students' experiences from the student training wards will be evaluated at the

physiotherapy programme during spring 2008. Results from this evaluation will be presented at the congress as
well as results from earlier evaluations. Conclusions: Programme-integration courses early in the curricula and
student training wards in combination with PBL, based on student centred learning in small groups, is an
encouraging example of how to implement undergraduate IPE and to gain inter-professional competence among
the health science students. Implications: The main implication is that the students develop professional and
inter-professional competences in working together in teams. Keywords: Interprofessional competence,
professional development, physiotherapy education Funding acknowledgements: This evaluation study is
unfunded. Ethics approval: Ethics approval is not required.

Facilitation of Cultural Competence Content Through International Service
Judith Canfield-Henry, Ed.D., P.T. Vice President International Society of Educators in Physiotherapy
United States jphenry@earthlink.net

Purpose: The number of persons with disabilities in the world is increasing due to population growth, increased
longevity, and medical advancements. The World Health Organization estimates that of the 650 million persons
with disabilities, 80% live in developing countries. The physiotherapy profession is uniquely positioned to assist
in mitigating the effects of disability, and advocating for equal rights and social inclusiion. Concurrently, most
developed countries are experiencing growing ethnic and cultural diversity. These world-wide events oblige
physiotherapy educational programs to increase the emphasis on cultural competency in their curricula.
Relevance: One mechanism by which physiotherapy curricula can increase cultural competence content is for
faculty to develop international education opportunities through which students can experience provision of care
to a patient population culturally/ethnically different than their own. Such experiences not only prepare
culturally competent graduates, but also allow faculty members to increase their own engegement in global
health. Description: A search of physiotherapy literature reveals an increasing interest in service-learning, with
increasing numbers of investigators examining international service-learning, most notably Pechak's seminal
work "Structures and Processes in International Service-Learning: A Conceptual Model", her 2007 dissertation.
However, few discussions were identified regarding how one prepares personally for international physiotherapy
experience. Evaluation: Thorough examination of one's motivation and objectives, thoughtful selection of site
and organization, and timely preparation for health and safety, faculty members can develop optimal
international physiotherapy experiences for their students and themselves. Conclusions: Unmet expectations,
unfulfilled goals, and unpleasant experiences can be minimized by thorough preparation and planning of an
international physiotherapy experience. Implications: By increasing their own engagement with global health,
faculty members can increase the cultural competence content in their curricula and develop optimal
international physiotherapy experiences for their students. Keywords: Preparation, international, service
Funding acknowledgements: This work is not funded. Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required.

Physiotherapy in Palliative Care in bachelor degree program
Rainer Simader, Academy for physiotherapy (APT). Hospital Wels. Austria

Purpose: Palliative care (PC) is a fast developing field in Europe. In this content interdisciplinarity becomes
more and more important. Evidence shows physiotherapy (PT) can play a significant part in symptom–control
and therefore can help terminally ill patients. Today’s PT focuses on health issues of patients of all ages – except
the dying. To become a discipline offering life-long support to its patients PT will have to focus on end-of-life
care as well. Relevance: In 2003 an Autrian diploma thesis identified that over 60% of 3rd to 6th semester PT
students (n=97) have experienced one of their patients dying and 70% had contact with patients who were in a
critical condition during their field placements. Only 17% of the students had none of the above experiences.
Following these findings the APT Wels in cooperation with a PC working group carried out a survey of all
German speaking education facilities about the integration of PC in the bachelor degree programs. 43% (n=73)
teach students about dying but only 4 facilities had separate lessons for PC. End-of-life care is mostly integrated
in subjects such as PT and law, psychology, geriatrics or e.g. lymphology taught by physicians, psychologists,
lawyers or –rarer– by physiotherapists. Description: Based on the results it was our intention to create a new
subject “PT in PC”, including end-of-life-care, communication and PT skills. These new 20 lessons are part of
the 3rd semester schedule. End-of-life-care and communication skills are taught in smaller groups to ensure an
individual approach of each student to this sensitive field. The other lessons improve the specific PT skills and
techniques. The students are required to write their aims and apprehensions before starting the course.

Evaluation: The subject has been evaluated with questionnaires filled in by students and feedback by clinical
educators. The responses were exclusively positive. Among others, important aspects were the relevance for the
field placement, the first opportunity to get in touch with this topic, the subjective security to deal with critical
situations and the opportunity to discuss own fears. Conclusions: A professional PT with dying and incurable
sick patients requires a specialized social and PT skill training. Implications: According to the development of
PC and the evidence based literature students should know that their field is an important contribution to
improve the end-of-life quality of patients. In regard to the nature of this matter more lessons should be spent.
Keywords: Palliative Care, Physiotherapy, education Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded Ethics
approval: no

An inter-professional master degree in rehabilitation for physiotherapists – a new
possibility for life long learning
Leena Noronen, Senior lecturer Helsinki University of Applied Sciences. Helsinki. Finland.
Camilla Wikström-Grotell, Head of Deparment. Arcada University of Applied Sciences. Helsinki. Finland.

Purpose: The curricular reform as part of the Modernization Agenda for higher education in the European
Union highlights the need to harmonize and renew the curricula for physiotherapy education. The purpose of this
presentation is to describe the development of a meta curriculum for a new inter-professional master program in
rehabilitation between four universities of applied sciences in Helsinki region. Relevance: The changes in the
society with relation to the age structure, health profile and production of services has lead to a need to enhance
the level of competence in rehabilitation as a cross border cooperation within physiotherapy, social and health
care. The master programme follows the concept of life long learning and is based on the bachelor degree and at
least three years of work experience. Description: The challenge was to develop a meta curriculum which
presupposes pedagogical new thinking and integration of pedagogical strategies, learning processes and research
activities. The curriculum follows an integrative pedagogical approach, which enhances knowledge and
competence development related to actual and future needs of working life. Formal education must provide
students with generic and subject-specific competencies, which enables them to develop further in their career.
Evaluation: The evaluation of the developed curriculum has been carried out by experts representing different
professions and policymakers. Several seminars has been arranged where the curriculum has been assessed. A
nation wide network has been established and regular meetings has been organised to assure the quality of the
master degree. Conclusions: There is a common agreement of the importance of the master programme. To
develop best rehabilitation practices by inter-professional networking is both a challenge and an opportunity. The
new programme enables the integration of research and development activities in working life. Multiple actors
bring an essential heterogeneity of skills and expertise to the problem solving process. Implications: The
developed programme opens new possibilities for life long learning and a new path to a master degree for
physiotherapists. The programme is accepted by the ministry of education Keywords: Continuous professional
development Master Degree in Rehabilitation Funding acknowledgements: Helsinki University of Applied
Sciences Arcada University of Applied Sciences Ethics approval: Ethics approval not required

International students experience of engaging in postgraduate physiotherapy
education in the UK
Julie Sellars MSc MCSP PgCertHE Jacob Saranga MSc MMACP MCSP Professor Karen Harrison MSc MCSP
BEd(Hons) Physiotherapy Department Coventry University UK

Purpose: To explore the learning experience of international and european students on the physiotherapy
Masters programmes at Coventry University to better understand the academic and cultural challenges faced by
students as life long learners. Relevance: The Bologna agreement aims to promote better student mobility
across European countries, this and the fact that Europe is becoming increasingly popular with students from
outside the EU means that higher educational institutions (HEIs), as learning communities, need to embrace an
international agenda to respond to an increasing demand from overseas students for postgraduate education.
Coventry University has a range of well established physiotherapy Masters programmes and over the past few
years has recruited an increasing number of overseas students. The department is dedicated to providing teaching
and learning tailored to students individual and professional needs and to develop strategies in response to
student experiences. Participants: A purposive sample of 6 Masters students, 3 male and 3 female, were
recruited. The participants consisted of European and International students. Methods: A focus group was
carried out to gain an in-depth understanding of student experiences. Analysis: Analysis involved identifying

categories and key themes that emerged from the transcripts. Results: Five main themes were identified;
motivations for learning, expectations, the learning experience, personal and academic challenges and ideas for
future development. Conclusions: Students identified personal and professional motivations for undertaking a
Masters degree and wanting to make a difference in their own country was a major consideration. Students were
positive about their learning experience but their experience of Masters level study had not met all expectations.
Personal, cultural and academic challenges had impacted on their learning. From challenges identified and
suggestions made strategies were introduced to support the teaching and learning of future overseas students.
Further evaluation will identify if learning has been enhanced. Implications: The importance of ensuring
teaching and learning that is relevant to students individual and professional needs is well recognised. With
increasing numbers of overseas students it is imperative that we learn from their experiences to inform the
educational provision for future students. Keywords: International Masters Learning Funding
acknowledgements: Unfunded Ethics approval: Gained from the Coventry University Research and Ethics

Curriculum design
Room 353

Physiotherapy education in Austria at universities of applied sciences - a decision
base for a methodical-didactic turning point
Doris Augesky-Stocker M.Ed., FH Campus Vienna, Austria

Purpose: Since 2006 the physiotherapy education in Austria is also be offered in form of a degree course at
universities of applied sciences. This change is serious, because there is a move to the academic education
system with changing basic conditions and the intention of consistent professional qualification. One of the
changing conditions is the teaching programme with contact hours and phases of independent studies. This study
examines the criteria according to which course content is assigned for independent study and how such study
can be structured, taking into account all the conditions and circumstances which are relevant for all targeted
training forms. Relevance: For physiotherapy educators it is important to get an answer to the following
questions. Is it possible to reach the same or a higher intention of professional qualification and competence
development, if contact hours are significantly reduced in the teaching programme and if parts of them are taken
out in independent study? Which course content is assigned for self-study and how can such study be structured?
Description: Two methods were used. The hermeneutic part with an examination of the didactic planning at the
curricular level. The empirical part was a transversal study. 31 instructors at the three Viennese physiotherapy
academies were surveyed about their view of the situation, using the questionnaire method. This survey took
place in the summer of 2007, just before the new physiotherapy education in Vienna started. Evaluation:
The hermeneutic evaluation confirmed the assumption that a basis for decision-making and structuring can be
derived from the framework concept planned at the curricular level. On the other hand, the evaluation of the
survey made clear the presumed uncertainty felt by instructors with regard to the difficulty of assigning course
content for self-study and to an even greater degree with how this should be structured. Conclusions: The
uncertainty of the instructors results of missing experience in the range of course contents for self-study and a
lack of methodical competence in this field. A paradigmatic shift from "teaching knowledge" to "teaching the
way to acquire knowledge" has not yet taken place. Implications: The implication of this study is laying in the
development of competence in the physiotherapy education based on independent studies, where the instructors
show the way to acquire knowledge and competence. Keywords: Competence development, Decision base,
Self-study Funding acknowledgements: The study was unfunded. Ethics approval: Ethics approval wasn´t

Future Planning: engaging with the competence agenda to inform a physiotherapy
degree programme in the UK
Pauline Buttling Subject Group Leader Faculty of Health and Wellbeing Ruth Allarton Head of Programme Area
Faculty of Health and Wellbeing Sheffield Hallam University Sheffield Hallam University Mairead O'Siochru
Professional Adviser CSP London Julia O'Sullivan Head of Research and Development Unit CSP London

Purpose: The physiotherapy course at SHU is undergoing revalidation providing an opportunity to review
existing education. This redesign considers the governmental driven competences agenda in health care

provision that are impacting on physiotherapy education. Relevance: The job profile for future graduates may
change as more of the current workforce is redesigned using a competences mapping process to fill posts
available to new graduates. Physiotherapy education needs to produce a higher calibre of graduates more able to
manage this situation. Description: The project's aim is to refigure the course to conforms to National
Occupational Standards (NOS) and competences produced by Skills for Health (SfH) an employer-led
organisation. Focus groups discussions groups interviews with students and external bodies such as employers
are contributing to the production of the new course. Evaluation: This is still an ongoing process.Final
evaluation will be done when the course has been revalidated and implemented in 2009. Conclusions:
Initial conclusions refer to the difficulty in managing change in a professionally dedicated staff. External
governmental influences have been a major element in the process and seen as inappropriate in fashioning future
professionals. The new course is being designed to satisfy the SfH agenda producing graduates able work
effectively in a variety of health care situations in the UK and abroad. Implications: The emergence of SfH as a
governmental body and their competences-based agenda has impacted on physiotherapy education. SfH expect
that education providers will use NOS when developing programmes to inform the curriculum. SfH competences
identify certain skills abilities needed to complete a task. This approach is simplistic not recognising the
complexity of practice. True competence is more than the sum of the competent application of a set of skills
which is the European approach. However, UK universities have to engage with the SfH competences agenda. If
taken to the ultimate conclusion, the implication is the fracturing of the professions, as discreet heathcare areas
are developed that require certain competences that may come from a variety of staff. Keywords: Competences
Innovation Change Funding acknowledgements: Supported by SHU CSP Ethics approval: Not required

Implementation of the all over academic physiotherapy programs in Switzerland
Astrid Schaemann, PhD Director, Institute of Physiotherapy Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Winterthur, Switzerland

Purpose: As one of the last countries in Europe Switzerland has reached a milestone in the professional
development by implementing the academic level of education in the health professions since 2006. The
Institute of Physiotherapy at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences is the biggest academic institution in
Switzerland now offering a 3 year (plus 10 months) Bachelors degree. 120 physiotherapy students start every
year after having passed a very detailed selection process. Relevance: Following the Bologna declaration all
involved professionals took the chance to create a completely new, competence based curriculum with a focus on
an inter-/transprofessional approach. Description: A combination of different didactic methods/approaches were
chosen- including the range from lectures for all 120 students (or 240 interdisciplinary) to the problem based
settings with 8 students as well as separate skills training weeks. The mix of different approaches should
guarantee the upmost outcome in the students´ learning efforts. Also the education in the clinical setting was
rethought and a new system of supervising was introduced. After having defined the outcome for the Bachelor
program the need for the Master program became clear- and as a logical result the MSc Program was developed
in 2007 and handed in to the National Authorities. The Institute does not only offer the academic education
program but runs as well its own Research Unit and a Unit for academic continuing professional development.
This combination might help and strengthen the effort of implementing an evidence based lecturing and closing
the gap in between theory and practice. Evaluation: The modules of the first year as well as the first clinical
practise period will be evaluated and can be presented by September 08 by using EVA EXAM and qualitative
interviews with students and practical educators. Conclusions: First conclusions can be drawn after the
evaluation - a major focus will be set on the potential of the interprofessional approach. Implications:
The modules of the first year as well as the first clinical practise period will be evaluated and presented by
September 08 by using EVA EXAM and qualitative interviews with students and practical educators.
Keywords: New academic program in Switzerland, research, life long learning. Funding acknowledgements:
none Purpose: Ethics approval: not necessary

Health Communication as a core subject in the postgraduate education for
Mª Teresa Fuentes Hervias, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain.

Co-authors: Remedios Lopez Liria, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Manuel Fernández Sánchez,
PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Sagrario Pérez de la Cruz, PT, PhD. University of Almería.
Almería, Spain. Daniel J. Catalan Matamoros, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Patricia
Rocamora Pérez, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain.

Purpose: In a previous study (Fuentes et al, 2004) we found that there is a need of skills in social sciences in the
graduate degrees for physiotherapists in Spain. Health communication was the subject that reported the most
need for update by physiotherapists. Relevance: Health communication is an essential tool in the practice of all
health care professionals. The present study shows the need of health communication topics with the inclusion of
new methodologies in the European area. To integrate this aspect will enable the student to achieve one of the
attitude competences: "to develop an effective communication interaction with the patients". Description:
"Health communication" contents should include areas like: interpersonal communication, mass media
communication, health education, health campaigns and risk communication. Evaluation: The evaluation to
assure wether the student has achieved the contents could be done in different ways: role playing to show the
interaction between a patient and the physiotherapist, to performed a health campaign using different mass media
in a primary care setting, etc. Conclusions: Health communication is a needed content that should be taken into
acount in post-graduate programs for physiotherapists due to the low level of achievement of this competence
during the current graduate level. Implications: Health communication is the media that is needed by the
physiotherapist in order to increase his/her social skills and quality assurance. Keywords: Health
Communication, physiotherapy, mass media. Funding acknowledgements: Non funded. Ethics approval:
Not required.

Reasons for studying physiotherapy and familiarity with career possibilities upon
graduation among students at variously oriented Polish university-level schools
J Gotlib MA D Bialoszewski MD PhD J Sierdzinski PhD Med. Univ. Warsaw K Barczyk PhD Univ. of Phys.
Educ. Wroclaw A Bauer MA Coll. of Phys. Wroclaw A Cabak PhD Univ. of Phys. Educ. Warsaw J
Grzegorczyk PhD Univ. of Rzeszow M Plaszewski PhD Coll. of Adm. Bielsko-B Prof. W Kulak PhD
Med. Univ. Bialystok P Majcher MD PhD Med. Univ. Lublin; Pulawy Coll. O Nowotny-Czupryna PhD
Silesian Med. Univ. Katowice K Prokopowicz Olsztyn Coll.

Purpose: An analysis of reasons for studying and familiarity with career possibilities upon graduation among
students at variously oriented Polish university-level schools Relevance: Undergraduate programmes in
physiotherapy in Poland take 3 years and are offered by medical universities MS, universities of physical
education PhysS and other university-level schools OthS Participants: 1145 first-year students from 4 MS, 2
PhysS and 5 OthS Methods: An anonymous questionnaire comprising 21 questions Analysis: Non-parametric
Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significance at p< 0.05 Results: 75% of the students study physiotherapy out
of an interest in this field with more than 65% having chosen future studies before completing secondary
education. 60% relied on advice from parents. OthS did so significantly more often than MS (p< 0.05) and
PhysS (p< 0.008). 70% of the students didn`t know all career opportunities awaiting physiotherapy graduates
and that they would like to become familiar with them during studies. MS and PhysS declared significantly more
frequently that they were not familiar with employment opportunities for physiotherapy graduates than OthS (p<
0.0001). MS stated significantly more frequently (p< 0.03) than OthS that career opportunities in physiotherapy
are comparable with those in other professions in Poland. OthS declared significantly more frequently (p< 0.02)
than MS students that physiotherapists can find work more easily in other EU countries. Conclusions:
The participants didn`t choose their field of study at random, but based their choice on stereotypes rather than
objective information. OthS students significantly more frequently stated that physiotherapists can find work
more easily in other EU countries than in Poland. Implications: A need to develop a professional information
service on study opportunities in physiotherapy in Poland that would necessarily include objective information
regarding employment opportunities for physiotherapists in other countries. Keywords: motivating factors
students type of university Funding acknowledgements: This study didn`t receive any funding Ethics
approval: The study didn`t require IRB approval

Educational process of physico-therapist students for professional values
Emoke Kiss Tóth Márta Peja

Purpose: The authors study the process of career-socialisation of the physico-therapist students in the mirror of

the value-evoluation tendencies Relevance: Besides the professional knowledge we regard important to educate
the students for the values during their college education. Participants: The survey was completed between the
physico-therapist and district nurse students as a control at the Colleges of Health Care Studies in Eastern
Hungary. Methods: We used the Super and Rokeach’s standard value-questionnaires and a career-socialization
questionnaire. Analysis: The data of own research was worked out with statistical analysis. Results:
According to the results of the survey there was a considerable difference between the value-content of the
career view and the individual value structure: considering the value-content of idealized career the value of the
readiness to help decreased significantly by the end of the training z=2,86 &#61680; p=0,0048; the value of the
material resources appreciated significantly z=3,63 &#61680; p=0,0004. The preference of the values as social
relations, self-assertion and variety is in accordance with the working conditions – i.e.: working with associates,
with more free time schedule – of physico-therapist, which may forecast the successfulness of career
identification processes. Conclusions: In order to dissolve the dissonance of the value-content of career and
individual scale of values it can be necessary to introduce a value-explanation team-work into the curriculum of
the students of Health Care Studies. Implications: It is necessary to include value clarification group seminars
into the curriculum of the students of health colleges. Keywords: career-socialisation, higher training/education,
values, career-identification Purpose: Funding acknowledgements: Rector of the University of Miskolc and the
Dean of the Faculty of Health Care Studies Ethics approval: Missing data

Curriculum Evaluation
Room 353

Establishing Evaluative Tools & Criteria for Scholarly Capstone Projects
Theresa Kraemer, PhD, PT, Education & Research Consultant, Mesa, AZ, USA

Purpose: This program will present evaluative criteria & tools to determine if the scholarly capstone project: 1)
provides evidence of creativity, synthesis, integration, & application of knowledge & skills; 2) demonstrates
clinical expertise, advanced practice competency, & clinical decision making; & 3) exhibits graduate level
technical writing skills. Relevance: The evaluation & determination of scholarly work in capstone projects is
essential since capstone projects are a popular means by which students can meet a research requirement. Hence,
research faculty & PT educators need to possess the technical skills, evaluative criteria, & evaluative tools to
adequately evaluate the level of scholarly work produced by students. Description: A review of the literature &
a semi-qualitative ethnographic approach in the form of discussions & emails with faculty & DPT students
contributed to an analysis of common evaluative tools & criteria associated with facilitating scholarly writing in
DPT students completing capstone projects. Evaluation: Although faculty members expressed familiarity with
& a general understanding of assessment categories to grade a student’s work on a written project, there is less
consistency on the application of specific evaluative criteria to differentiate grading levels. Faculty members
reported: 1) a lack of examining the capstone project for evidence of synthesis & integration, but did evaluate
student’s work for application of knowledge & skills; 2) not evaluating student’s work for clinical expertise,
advanced practice competency, or clinical decision making; & 3) evaluating student’s technical writing skills at
an undergraduate level as opposed to the intended graduate level. Conclusions: Faculty members identified as
technical & scholarly writing experts should critically evaluate student’s capstone projects for evidence of
synthesis & integration of theoretical knowledge, advanced clinical competency, complex clinical decision
making, & technical writing at a graduate level. Use of rubrics to differentiate grading levels should be
encouraged. Future research should focus on determining the extent of faculty preparedness regarding utilization
of available evaluation tools & criteria needed to produce scholarly capstone projects by DPT students.
Implications: By establishing valid & reliable evaluative tools & criteria to be used with scholarly capstone
projects, faculty will introduce & tutor students in the process of accurately evaluating scholarly writing.
Keywords: capstone projects, evaluative criteria, evaluation tools Funding acknowledgements: None
Ethics approval: NA

Using situational test method for assessing the psychological aptitude of applicants
for PT education.
Müller-Gartner Maria, Dr.,Salchinger Beate, MMSc, FH Joanneum/Physiotherapy Eggenberger Allee 13
A-8020 Graz maria.mueller-gartner@fh-joanneum.at

Purpose: For psychological student selection most degree programmes use structured interviews. The problem
with this method is that the applicant´s reports of their own abilities (f.e. social competence) are often not
realistic. Therefore we decided to evaluate the aptitude using a situational test method. Relevance:
Physiotherapist’s work is highly related to people and therefore he or she has to be endowed with psychological
abilities. Structured interviews can help rating f.e. motivation. But some abilities, such as social skills or mental
capacity require a professional developed and guided “situational test” which makes them directly
OBSERVABLE. Description: Groups of six applicants are getting tested together. While performing two tasks
they are observed by a Clinical Psychologist (cP) and the Head of the PT Degree Programme (HOD). Both
observers independently complete forms using 5-point rating scales. The first task (group setting) is to discuss a
controversial topic. In this task, General Appearance, Social Competence (f.e. “takes actively part in the
discussion”), Mental Capacity (f.e. “keeps adequately relaxed”), Elocution and Overall Impression are rated for
each applicant. The second task (individual setting) consists of the presentation of a previously prepared poster
and a short interview. In this task General Commitment/Dedication (f.e. “voluntary activities”), Motivation for
PT Education and Occupation, Realistic Ideas, Social Competence (f.e. “speaks loud and clearly”, “responds to
questions”), Mental Capacity and Overall Impression are assessed. To generate a ranking list, the differently
weighted ratings get summarized. Evaluation: Due to the use of clearly defined criteria and the rating scale
system we suppose the method to be extensively objective. This is supported by the facts that 1. the independent
ratings of both the cP and the HOD show significant positive correlations and 2. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
shows the summary score data set to be similar to the normal distribution. Further examinations are currently in
progress. Conclusions: The professional developed situational test has proved to be a useful and appropriate
method for assessing the psychological aptitude of PT education applicants. Implications: We therefore
recommend to use a professional developed situational test method – in whole or in part designed as a group
setting – for student selection processes. Keywords: student selection Funding acknowledgements: none
Ethics approval: not needed

An Exploratory Evaluation of the Foundation Programme for Allied Health
Mullan, J, Konsta, A , Channon, B and Springett, G

Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain how well the Foundation Programme for Allied Health Professions
prepares students for their undergraduate degree studies. Relevance: A University of West of England validated
Foundation Programme for Allied Health Professions has been running since 2003. This course is delivered at
the City of Bristol College (further education college). Sucessful completion of the programme leads to
automatic progression onto a chosen undergraduate programme available at the School of Allied Health
Professions at UWE. The course is aimed at supporting the widening participation agenda and involves
collaboration between the university and the further education provider. The coure runs for 1 year at level 0. It is
taught primarily at the further college with regular visits to the university. Staff from both insitutions input into
the teaching, although all modules are administered via the university exam boards. Description: Evaluation of
the students perception of how well the Foundation Programme prepared them for their undergraduate
programme has been carried out via a focus group on the first two cohorts to pass through this programme.
Transcripts were analysed by thematic analysis. In addition academic tracking is occuring to assess how these
student progress both academically and whilst on practice placement. Evaluation: The first cohort identified
some issues mainly around transition into the university, and different teaching styles and expections between
the two insitutions. Other areas of discussion in both cohorts included the need for uniprofessional subject
teaching, increased case study related learning, and for the Physiotherapy students, more systems related biology
at foundation level. Conclusions: The Foundation Programme is evolving to meet the needs of the students. It is
being sucessful at facilitating students with non traditional qualifications to become graduates in their chosen
profession. Implications: This Foundation Programme now includes students who will progress onto the
B.Sc(Hons) nursing programmes at UWE, so ongoing evaluation will be necessary to ensure optimal course
design and delivery to meet their needs along side the AHP students. This evaluation was carried out by a
researcher (Mullan) who was not directly involved with the Foundation Programme so as to minimise any bias.
Keywords: Foundation Programme, Evaluation , Student experience and progression, Widening participation
Funding acknowledgements: Supported as part of scholarly activity through my post as Senior lecturer in
Physiotherpay. Ethics approval: Received from the University Of West of England Ethics Committee.

Embedding the International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy (IFSP)

Competencies and Standards within Sports Physiotherapy Masters education
Sonya Moore
School for Health & Department of Sports Development, University of Bath, UK

Purpose: To embed the IFSP Competencies and Standards within Sports Physiotherapy Masters education,
rendering graduates eligible for the IFSP Sports Physiotherapist title. Relevance: The IFSP Competencies and
Standards describe specific abilities expected of sports physiotherapists. They are explicitly defined at Master’s
level. The IFSP Audit Tool Kit (ATK) was developed to assess practice against the competencies and standards,
enabling specialist practitioners to be awarded the IFSP Sports Physiotherapist title. Encompassing professional
requirements within education programmes is central to developing Master’s level practice. Description:
A new MSc in Sports Physiotherapy was designed with the IFSP Competencies and Standards at the forefront.
Professional physiotherapy and academic framework requirements were considered alongside the needs of the
local sports industry. These were integrated within a three-phase education programme, designed to blend
developing academic skills with the ‘real life’ practice environment. Evaluation: Meeting professional and
education requirements encountered both shared ideals and tensions. The IFSP suggests developing learning
modules based on each IFSP Competency area. Pedagogically, we preferred to integrate numerous competency
areas within modules. The IFSP Competencies and Standards and Audit Tools were mapped within learning
outcomes and assessment. However to comply with University Quality Assurance (QA) guidelines the IFSP
standards needed amalgamation and the IFSP ATK in its entirety could not be accommodated. The University
has engaged the IFSP and professional associations in ongoing programme evaluation. Conclusions: The IFSP
Competencies and Standards and IFSP Audit Tools were embedded within the programme. Broader consultation
of opinion and policy was necessary to achieve local and international context. The IFSP ATK and academic QA
guidelines could not be converged. Without a functioning audit process, award of the IFSP Sports
Physiotherapist title is not viable. Implications: Consultation between professional associations and higher
education institutes is integral to developing Masters level practice standards and designing academic
programmes to meet practice needs. Collaboration between the IFSP and higher education institutes is
recommended in establishing an achievable pathway of learning and assessment towards the IFSP Sports
Physiotherapist title. Keywords: Sport; blended-learning; professional Funding acknowledgements: No
external funding Ethics approval: Not required

Curriculum - A European context
Room 456

Bologna process: Innovations and challenges in the physiotherapy degree in The
University of Almería (Spain).
Catalán Matamoros Daniel J., PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Co-authors:
Patricia Rocamora Pérez, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Teresa Fuentes Hervías, PT, Bsc.
University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Remedios López Liria, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain.
Manuel Fernández Sánchez, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Sagrario Pérez de la Cruz, PT,
Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain.

Purpose: The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education
area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible
throughout Europe. All universities in Spain are therefore adapting the university system. The objective is to
show the experiences of the Degree of Physiotherapy in the University of Almeria. Relevance: This study shows
the current status and the different methodological strategies that the physiotherapy education is experiencing
due to the Bologna process. Description: The innovations, challenges and strategies in order to reach them are
briefly showed according to both the students and university lecturers: 1. Students: Online support in all the
courses, seminars, specific academical activities, practice in real sport events, improving an active role, using the
portfolio, English physiotherapy courses. 2. University lecturers: learning methods training, developing learning
research, attending to Conferences about related frameworks, use of portfolio, developing the course guidelines
within the ECTS scope developing virtual support, English language courses to improve bilingual teaching
skills. Evaluation: There are two different agencies that develope Degrees' evaluations in Spain, the national
and the regional ones. On the other hand, the University of Almería has its own evaluation system. According to
the own university evaluations, the Degree of Physiotherapy is developing a success Bologna process.

Conclusions: The development of the Bologna process in our Physiotherapy Degree has been a challenge that
has encouraged to both, students and univ. lecturers. The degree seems to be working in a success way to be
adapted to Bologna according to the evaluation guidelines. Improving teaching quality is our aim for the future.
Implications: Our experience aims to increase the quality in the physiotherapy education and fulfil all those
standars defined by the Bologna accords. Keywords: Bologna process, quality assurance, physiotherapy
education. Funding acknowledgements: The regional authority for higher education has funded this project.
Ethics approval: Not required.

Development of the physiotherapy transversal competences in the European Credit
Transfer System.
Manuel Fernández Sánchez, PT, PhD. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Co-authors: Sagrario Pérez de la
Cruz, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Daniel J. Catalán Matamoros, PT, PhD. University of
Almería. Almería, Spain. Co-authors: Patricia Rocamora Pérez, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain.
Teresa Fuentes Hervías, PT, Bsc. University of Almería. Almería, Spain. Remedios López Liria, PT, PhD.
University of Almería. Almería, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this pilot study is to develop, according to the Bologna Process, the most important
transversal competences included on the Physiotherapy White Book, such as team work and problems resolution
workshops. Relevance: This study aims to know the current adaptation of the teaching staff and students to the
new required methodology for the implementation of certain transversal competences. Description: Both
innovative methods are being developed by the 75% of the teaching staff and they are being implemented on the
50% of the students in the courses part of the study in order to establish the success rate at the end of the
academic year. Teamwork workshops will take place as part of the academic supervised activities, such as round
tables and learning based on problems resolution techniques. Five sessions will take place, once per two months.
Evaluation: The evaluation will take place at the end of the academic year - by the end of September 2008-, and
it will be based on the student’s achievement records obtained on those courses that have been part of the study,
in order to draw up the results statistics. Conclusions: The European Convergence Process implies students and
teaching staff to play a more important role in the implementation of a pro-active methodology to encourage the
student’s self-learning. Implications: This experience aims to find out the level of success in implementing the
new methodology in order to its future implementation in all the courses. Keywords: Bologna process,
physiotherapy, transversal competences. Funding acknowledgements: Unfunded. Ethics approval: Not

Survey among graduates of the bachelor degree program of physiotherapy and
occupational therapy at the University of Applied Science Osnabrück
Julia Krunk, BSc PT cand., (juliakrunk@web.de) Christoff Zalpour, Prof. Dr. (c.zalpour@fh-osnabrueck.de)
University of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck Germany

Purpose: Based on the Bologna declaration from 1999 bachelor degree programs for physiotherapy have been
offered in Germany since 2001. The academization of the physiotherapy in Germany can be considered as a
novelty, as the traditional physiotherapy education is non-academic and based on vocational schools, which is in
contrast to other countries. A strong proliferation of academic physiotherapy programs in Germany can be
perceived recently, which results in increasing numbers of graduates since the introduction in 2001. However,
implications for the professional practice and the employability of graduates have not been analyzed yet. In the
scope of this question a survey among graduates of the bachelor degree program of physiotherapy and
occupational therapy at the University of Applied Science Osnabrück (UASO) was conducted in order to gain
insights in respect to these implications. Relevance: This report provides insights into the vocational situation of
graduates based on a survey of graduates of the bachelor degree program of physiotherapy and occupational
therapy at the UASO. By the means of this report, a more distinctive understanding for the fields of action of a
bachelor is provided and the need for a further academization of the education is pointed out. The survey covers
amongst others the following topics: -Employability -Changes within therapeutical approaches -International
working opportunities- Opportunities to participate in research projects Participants: The survey was conducted
in form of a census. All 186 respondents are graduates of the bachelor degree program of physiotherapy and
occupational therapy at the UASO from 2003-2007. Methods: The research is based on both literature research
(scientific databases, libraries and internet) and a survey among graduates with a questionnaire that was
structured along the following main topics: A)Vocational situation before the bachelor studies B)Motives and

expectations in respect to the bachelor studies C)Vocational situation after the completion of the bachelor studies
Analysis: The conducted survey realized a rate of return of 52.1%. The quantitative data was analyzed by means
of the statistic program SPSS, whereas charts were created by MS Excel. Results: The major results of the
survey can be illustrated on the basis of changes in therapeutical approaches of the graduates. The majority of the
respondents state that the academic bachelor studies have affected the quality of work positively:
-88.0% of the respondents quote that they improved their personal capabilities and competencies due to the
studies Purpose: -51.1% of the respondents quote that they improved their performance in the job
-65.5% of the respondents state that they can communicate their standpoint to occupational groups, patients and
family members more clearly Furthermore 80.5% of the respondents state that they work more on an evidence-
based practice and 75.5% quote that they reflect the processes of the therapies more critically. 66.7% of the
respondents hold an interdisciplinary mindset and work dear. In addition, 51.2% state that they consider
prevention and workplace health promotion as more important based on the studies. Even though a bachelor
degree does not primarily qualify for participating in research projects, 18.0% of the respondents have already
worked on research projects. Only a minority of 6.4% of the respondents had the opportunity to work abroad.
52.1% of the respondents state that the bachelor studies had no impact on their situation on the job market.
However, 33.3% perceive better or slightly better chances on the job market. Only a small proportion faces a
worse situation on the job market. Conclusions: The results of the survey support the demands of the
professional associations for a further academization of physiotherapy in Germany. However, the bachelor
degree in Germany has to improve its standpoint and acceptance, in particular among practicing
physiotherapists. By means of this thesis a first step into this direction was made. However, going forward
additional efforts to improve the acceptance and the ‘picture’ of a bachelor degree in physiotherapy are
necessary. Implications: A further academization of physiotherapy in Germany is essential to improve
Germany’s education standards in the international context and to ensure a state of the art health care of patients
Keywords: academization, Bologna, Physiotherapy Funding acknowledgements: powerded by the university
itself Ethics approval: By this time, it don´t exist an ethic system for Physiotherapy in Germany.

Dynamic Educational System
Patrícia Almeida

Purpose: Reflect on the educational process contemplating the variability and constraints factors of countries
Relevance: Report an experience in a changing process looking to the several factors that can influence this
process Description: The understanding of Dynamic Systems Theory has been an issue of great interest for the
undererstanding of diverse systems.This in order to explain complexity,non linear behaviours and
variability.Considering education with help of these concepts could help us to understand the difficulty in the
educational changes according to the Bologna Process. The variety in educational systems in the different
countries can complicate the tuning process. This is especially true, for countries with a classic educational
system, like Portugal. The PT Department of ESSA–Portugal is in a curricular change process since the last three
years.During the first phase we have been analysing our own curriculum, national demands and national profile
to identify our points of improvement. At the same time we have also been searching for other resources
throughout Europe to provide us with more reference.During this process we faced several instabilities which
could be considered as a fluctuation phase of dynamical systems in a changing process facing imposed
constraints. This would be the phase in which it is possible to achieve a pattern change. The main factors that
influenced this fluctuation phase were the confrontation of a classic system of education with the systems
centred on the student and competences; the cultural differences between countries (variability;the resistance to
the changes and the necessity of behavioural changes of both teachers and students.At the moment it is necessary
to reorganization and implement the new knowledge into to our system (self-organization,that will be the result
of a confrontation between the internal and external characteristics of the our system. Evaluation: Our first
signals of self-organization is that we now realize we can’t implement in a short time a complete different
curricular plan like the ones used in countries like Denmark, The Netherlands or United Kingdom. An alternative
we adopted now is a “mixed system”, where we try to keep the positive and culturally embedded aspects of our
actual curriculum and introduce at the same time the innovative philosophy of a competence based curricula.
Conclusions: According to dynamic systems theories,the development of the educational system can't be equal
across the different countries Implications: We should contemplate the variability and self-organization
characteristics of each country Keywords: educational development,dynamic systems Funding
acknowledgements: unfunded Ethics approval: ethics approval not required

Platform Presentations

Bridging theory and practice 1

Innovative Service Learning: A Milestone in Improving Student Teaching and
Learning in Physical Therapy Education Programs.
Aliya N. Chaudry PT, MBA, J.D. Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma, U.S.A.; Elizabeth Beasley, PT,
M.S. Langston University, Langston, OK

Purpose: The purpose of this presentation is to present service learning as curriculum innovation to improve
physical therapy education; and to provide specific examples of application in a doctor of physical therapy
(DPT) program. Relevance: National studies in U.S.A. suggest students in effective service learning programs
are able to improve their academic grades, attend school more regularly, and are more personally and socially
responsible. Service learning provides students opportunities to plan and use skills and knowledge learned in the
classroom to address community needs in real-life situations. In this manner, service learning extends beyond
the classroom and fosters a sense of caring for others in the community. Description: Service learning fosters
experiential-learning that includes a service oriented project combined with an academically structured learning
experience. The service oriented project must address the following major curriculum components: preparation,
collaboration, service, curriculum integration, reflection, celebration, evaluation and professional development.
The role of the academic program is to provide positive, meaningful and realistic experiences to students by
identifying essential real-life community concerns/issues as opposed to classic textbook scenarios. The students
are required to resolve the real life community concerns by researching, designing, implementing, assessing, and
reflecting upon their service learning projects. A curriculum model with specific examples of service learning
projects relating to a DPT program will be presented at the conference. Evaluation: Success of service learning
project is assessed by student self assessment and course professor assessment. Conclusions: The components
of service learning serve as catalysts to enhance students' attitudes, meaning and competence within the learning
experience -- thus increasing positive feelings regarding serving the community along with enhanced knowledge
gleaned from working on the project. Implications: Service learning has widespread implications as it supports
psychosocial cognitive development and cultural competence in students at any level in any field of study.
Keywords: Service Learning, Community Service, Education Funding acknowledgements: Oklahoma Campus
Compact Ethics approval: None Required

To Enhance Life Long Learning by Creating new Real Life Learning Environments in
Physiotherapy Education
Ståhl Karin, PT, Fysiosporttis, Kauniainen / Espoo , Finland
Wikström-Grotell C, Head of department, Arcada, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: The over all purpose with this project was to create learning environments where connective and
active learning, professional growth and innovative thinking are fostered. Furthermore the aim was to develop a
new model for cooperation between a university of applied sciences and the private working life sector in
physiotherapy (PT). A private practice in PT as a living lab will also be discussed. Relevance:
The integration of theory and practice in physiotherapy education has been criticized for being inadequate.
Formal knowledge seems to be poorly transferable into practice. The higher education in health care has so far
only to a slight extent prepared the students for private professional activities and entrepreneurship.
Description: The project was carried out in collaboration between a school, several private practices and
companies in the area of PT. The emphasis is on enhancing evidence-based practice and innovations aiming to
create new health services or products. A background to how and why the living lab was founded and the created
conceptual model will be presented. The lab is based on core competencies both of the Physiotherapy (PT) and
business administration (BA) programmes at Arcada. The core competence areas are health promotion,
occupational health and marketing. The border-crossing cooperation between the PT and BA programmes focus
on integrating the living lab in education as well as research and development (R&D). Evaluation: The in this
project developed conceptual model for cooperation facilitates development of generic as well as professional
competences. The living lab enhances integration of research and development activities and education as a

cooperation between the university and working life. Conclusions: Using real life learning environments is a
way to foster innovative thinking, self-directed learning and professional growth in physiotherapy both in the
private and public sector. BA and PT students can contribute to knowledge and service development according
to actual needs in the physiotherapy practice. Implications: The model an be used to promote cooperation
between working life and higher education aiming to knowledge and competence development among students
and clinicians based on actual needs in working life. Keywords: Living lab, physiotherapy services, customer
orientation Funding acknowledgements: The EU Structural Fund co-financed by the Finnish Ministry of
Education. The Lindstedt Foundation. Arcada University of applied sciences. Ethics approval: Ethical approval
was not required.

Bridging theory and practice 2
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The reflective professional, making competences practical
Paul Beenen MSc, PT, Senior Lecturer the HAN University AHS, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Provide a practical framework for the entry level of physiotherapy in which students learn to deal with
the complexity and relativity of knowledge in daily practice. Relevance: The framework is part of the
competence profile of PT education of the HAN-university Description: Physiotherapy is quickly getting more
complex. The ‘body of knowledge’ needs to contain more from other fields and each day there is an increase of
scientific information. In practice the physiotherapist needs to show this ever changing evidence and the way she
improves continuously her performance. This process of increased complexity and relativity of knowledge asks
for a more critical and dynamic approach in knowledge. Students are in need compentence in dealing with the
described complexity and uncertainty. Education needs to provide a framework and the tools in a pure practical
way. We wanted to describe more explicit in the general competences of our education what we expect from the
entry level. To meet this we have written a competence profile in which as an umbrella for the specific
competences a framework for a reflective professional is developed. This framework focusses besides the
specific competences on a physiotherapist who is able to: • Position and specialize in the profession,
• improve performance continuously, • work in a methodic way, • practice evidence based,• externalise
competence, • align workattitude. The description of the competences needs to be practical and trained in a way
a physiotherapist can use it in daily practice. This ment a re-evaluation of the concepts and the tools we were
using. An example is the shift from an EBP-approach alike ‘Sakett’ to a casuistic approach in which the use of
different resources is more integrated in clinical reasoning. Evaluation: The new profile is in use for two years.
It is evaluated by students, teachers and supervisors. The main feedback is that this profile is more clear on how
the subjects relates to real practice and is more usefull in practice. Conclusions: There is now an awarness that
for both students and teachers the subjects proved to be much more abstract than expected. The practical
translation needs to be futher implemented Implications: The implication of this process is the provision of tools
to describe general competences in a specific way for the profession and make abstract subjects more practical
for both students and teachers Keywords: general competences, reflective professional Funding
acknowledgements: funded by HAN Ethics approval: Not required

Evidence in practice: the experience of an Evidence-Based Journal Club (EBJC)
with students and physiotherapists working together.
Bozzolan Michela(1), Balboni Martina(2), Simoni Giulia(3)
(1)Physiotherapy course co-ordinator University of Ferrara –Az. Osp.Univ.S.Anna , via C.Mayr 106/a 44100
Ferrara (Italy) bzh@unife.it phone +39 0532 236151 fax +39 0532 236158
(2,3) Physiotherapists, Ferrara (Italy)

Purpose: Evidence based practice (EBP) is a major challenge for students and physiotherapists (PTs). In theory
they are able to go through the five- step EBP process, but a number of barriers prevents them putting it into
everyday practice. The purpose of this work was to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of an EBJC of
students and physiotherapists in a rehabilitation hospital. Relevance: This EBJC collaborative model could be of
reciprocal help to PTstudents and PTs in the practical application of the 5-step EBP process, starting from a

foreground clinical question. Description: Five EBJCs were set up. A maximum of eleven participants
(PTstudents and PTs) was allowed, plus an EBP expert and at least one facilitator. Each JC consisted of four
sessions (about 1h 30’ each): to define the PICO (Patient/problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome), to
retrieve the literature, to critically appraise the study chosen, to decide on the applicability of the results in their
own clinical setting and to compile a Critically Appraised Paper (CAP). Evaluation: Some core EBP skills
(PICO and clinical question formulation), personal perception of improvement in EBP and the satisfaction level
of the activity were evaluated, with positive results . Group interaction was observed. Human and material
resources, and costs were recorded. Conclusions: EBJC has the potential to improve some EBP skills and to
offer the opportunity to change professional practice in an EBP perspective. It is feasible, low cost and
participants found it useful working together, despite cultural differences. Implications: An EBJC could
become part of the students’ scheduled activities in clinical placements, giving them the opportunity to put into
practice the 5- step process of EBP, together with PTs working in those placements. A reciprocal learning
process could be activated, resulting in a potentially better professional practice for all participants to bridge the
gap between theory and pratice in EBPhysiotherapy. Keywords: Evidence-Based Journal Club, PT students,
clinical placements. Funding acknowledgements: The Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria S.Anna of Ferrara
(Italy) funded the activity as workplace education. Ethics approval: The Health Management of the Azienda
Ospedaliero Universitaria S.Anna of Ferrara approved the project.

Learning from practice
Barbara Richardsson, UK

Purpose: To look at what and how we learn from practice and the importance of identifying the unique
contribution of physiotherapy in health and social care now and in the future. Relevance: Physical therapy
focuses onto individual patient centered care. Successful tailored individual intervention is contingent upon a
blending of individual therapists’ and patients’ attitudes, values and beliefs toward themselves and how they
relate to their world, including health and social care aspects. The health care team and health care context are
also influencing factors. Recognition of the importance of personal reflection to increasing understanding of
practice and the development of practice knowledge is central to providing evidence to underpin current practice
and future changes and to evaluate intervention outcomes. Description: This presentation will review the theory-
practice divide in the knowledge base of physiotherapy practice framed within the International Classification of
Disability and Functioning. The character of experiential knowledge of physiotherapist in the workplace and the
role of developing professional knowledge will be explored. Practice learning which underpins the evidence base
of practice will be examined and how practitioners can help to further identify physiotherapy expertise.
Evaluation: It is agued that recognition and description of the experiential knowledge of the practitioners in the
workplace is central to the development of professional growth and expertise that will continue to ensure the
relevance of physiotherapy in health services for individuals their relatives and friends. Conclusions: In order
to meet individual needs of the patient within a changing health care context, it is important for practitioners to
fully understand the role of development and dissemination of physiotherapy practice knowledge in shaping
health care services. Implications: Practitioners and managers need to promote the legitimacy of the
contribution that evidence from practice has to offer and to acknowledge a professional responsibility in
providing a unique physiotherapy perspective on standards of care that can move the profession forwards and
help maintain practice in contemporary health services. Keywords: Practice learning, experiential knowledge,
developing practice knowledge Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: Not applicable

Frameworks for developing clinical competence 1
Room 359

“Research and developmental minded“ approach in professional education –

teachers’ conceptions
Liisa Suhonen, MSc, LiSc (Health Sciences), Pt. Lahti University of Applied Sciences Hoitajankatu 3
15850 Lahti Finland

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) what are teachers’ conceptions
about “research and developmental minded“ approach 1) in their own work, and 2) in the future profession of
their students. Relevance: In the official aims of Lahti University of Applied Sciences it has always been
stressed that “research and developmental minded” approach should be adopted in all the functions. However, it
has never been stated what that would actually mean. Therefore it is important to find out teachers conceptions.
Participants: Teachers (n=18) from five different branches of study at Lahti University of Applied Sciences
were interviewed in spring 2003. Methods: Phenomenographic approach was used. Interviews were open-ended
and they were transcribed verbally. Analysis: The data were analyzed qualitatively by using inductive, data
based analyses. Results: There was variation in teachers’ conceptions between branches of study and also within
one branch. Four different categories were found in teachers’ conceptions: individual and collective reflexivity,
learning by doing, development and inquiry. The interviewed teachers did not consider themselves as researchers
or researching teachers. It was difficult to separate between the two researc questions. Teachers explained often
that they would like to work using “research and developmental minded“approach but could not because of lack
of time or other resources. Conclusions: The concept (“research and developmental minded“approach) was not
clarified and not easy to communicate. The approach was found important because of constant and rapid changes
in teachers’ work as well as in the entire working life. Teachers could learn from the theories and methodologies
used among the “teachers as researchers” –movement. In future conceptions of teachers, students, managers and
policy makers about teaching, research and development should be studied to find a common understanding
inside one university. Implications: Physiotherpy teachers can learn from different conceptions. That would
help them in multiprofessional collaboration and common knowledge production inside university. Keywords:
Teacing, research, gevelopment Funding acknowledgements: Acknowledgement to Lahti University of
Applied Sciences. Ethics approval: Participants and deans of faculties signed an agreement paper before

Pedagogic development of clinical supervisors
Bridging theory and practice with a pedagogic focus
Charlotte Urell MSc PT Ann Sundbom MSc PT

Purpose: The aim of this development project was to give the clinical supervisors of physiotherapy students at a
large teaching hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, the opportunity to adopt a common pedagogical platform and to
bridge the gap between the pedagogical vision of the university and the clinical supervisors. Relevance:
An increased pedagogical knowledge among clinical supervisors can help students to a lifelong learning in their
clinical practice. Description: An inventory of the basic pedagogic needs of the clinical supervisors was made
by a questionnaire. A step-by-step pedagogical program was developed using this questionnaire. A pedagogical
program was introduced with an individual learning profile exercise. Discussion and reflection in groups
followed with in the workplace and later in mixed groups. Simulated student and patient examples served as
tools for the discussions. The program also included lectures on knowledge, learning, interaction and
communication. Evaluation: During the program written individual evaluations were done followed by
discussion groups with representatives from different units. The most important result was the development of
daily pedagogical discussions among supervisors. Separate time for pedagogic issues was considered very
valuable. More time for hands-on supervising was asked for. Difficulties are still lack of time to practice and
implement the pedagogical vision and platform into clinical work together with the students.Conclusions:
The supervisors express that through the development project they have now, to a larger extent, realised that
both individual insight into your own learning strategies and more knowledge about learning in general makes
the supervision of physiotherapy students more satisfying for both students and supervisors. This program has
inspired supervisors to discuss and reflect with colleagues across workplaces and has led to closer and more
frequent contacts with the physiotherapy education department – that is bridging theory and practice.
Implications: Bridging between theoretical education and clinical supervisors in the physiotherapy department
Keywords: Bridging, pedagogical reflection, pedagogical discussion Funding acknowledgements:
Unfunded Ethics approval: Not needed

The role of the Practice Tutor: an audit exploring perspectives from students and

Practice Educators
Walsh J., Hussey J.,

Purpose: In recent years there has been significant investment into the Practice Education of Health Science
students in Ireland. We carried out a preliminary study to investigate the impact of having Practice Tutors on-site
from the student and Practice Educator perspective. Relevance: This is of relevance to the clinical education of
physiotherapy students. Participants: Participants were 23 students and 25 practice educators during their 5-
week clinical placement, in February 2007 in the three of the main teaching hospitals affiliated to the
Department of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin. The response rate was 100%. Methods: No suitable
previously validated questionnaire existed, thus questionnaires were developed for the purposes of this study for
the students and Practice Educators. A pilot was carried out to investigate usability of questionnaire. Anonymity
was assured. Analysis: Data were coded & entered onto an Excel spreadsheet. Descriptive statistics were carried
out and the modified grounded theory was used to identify themes in open-ended questions. Results: The main
findings from the student perspective were that teaching was carried out as planned in a safe, supportive
environment. Findings indicated that appropriateness and quality of teaching was high in general, although
volume and pitch of information was excessive at times. Practical, hands-on treatments with patients was
deemed to be most beneficial, some also commented on the lack of theory teaching. Students felt that case
presentations and case scenarios were good learning tools. The main findings from the Practice Educator
perspective were that the practice tutor was a good support to busy staff. Insufficient tutoring time for students
was mentioned in a small number of cases. Regular communication was highlighted as being integral to success.
Conclusions: The Practice Tutor posts received positive feedback from the perspective of students and Practice
Educators. Implications: Practice tutors need support to deliver high quality teaching and maximise the learning
experience. The complex continuing professional development needs of the practice tutor was highlighted,
particularly those who cover many clinical areas. Keywords: Practice Education, Practice Tutor Funding
acknowledgements: Nil funding Ethics approval: Ethical approval was not required as this was an audit

Frameworks for developing clinical competence 2
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Bridging theory and practice by a competence - based curriculum
Dorien Gerards-Last, Senior teacher, Faculty of Health, department of Physiotherapy, Zuyd University, The
Netherlands Mrs M. van den Broek- van den Boorn Dr. Y. Nelissen

Purpose: The research aimed to investigate whether the competence- based curriculum filled in the gap between
theory and practice better than the more traditional education. Relevance: A competency-based curriculum is
founded on the view that education must focus on the competencies that the student requires for professional
practice. To improve the transition from theory to practice, a guiding principle based on the 4C/ID was adopted
to improve the curriculum, this model is having a whole task approach and an emphasis on authentic learning
tasks (Van Merriënboer 1997). Participants: Roughly 110 first-year students from the 2000-2001, educated in
the more traditional curriculum, are compared with approximately 110 first-year students from 2006-2007,
educated in the new competence based curriculum. Methods: Data are available from the administered faculty
evaluation for both the 2000-2001 and the 2006-2007 classes. The study is conducted on the first two ten-week
blocks of the first programme year. The measuring instrument is a questionnaire with nine categories: general
impression about the block, tasks, study groups, tutors, coursework, applied training, trainers, study material and
study load (Hogeschool Zuyd 2002). Analysis: To demonstrate the difference between the old and new
curriculum, a t-test was administered on two independent samples, assuming a widely distributed population.
At p = 0.05, the level of significance was at 1.66 for N=100. Results: The competence-based curriculum
produces a higher score on nearly all components in the student evaluation concerning appreciation.
Conclusions: The blocks structured on the principle of the 4C/ID model receive better student evaluations,
suggesting that significantly more learning can occur in the new blocks. Implications: The question if higher
evaluation of the education programme correlates with increased competency remains an important one. It would
certainly be worthwhile to investigate if, at a later stage in their programme, these students are better able to
undertake the transfer to professional practice, and if they are better prepared for this transition. Keywords:
the competence- based curriculum 4 C/ID bridging theory and practice Funding acknowledgements: No
funding Ethics approval: No ethic approval required

NorNePtE – a Nordic-Baltic joint educational and clinical/practice program in health
promotion (HP) and preventive work (PW).
Lund B (PT, Master of Health Education) University College Sealand / DK, Fogstad L (PT, Cand San, Master of
Health and Education) Oslo University College / Norway

Purpose: To develop a joint educational program within the network institutions for bachelor physiotherapy
students in HP and PW. Relevance: Research and education must collaborate in improving educational quality
of students for future work tasks in HP and PW. Description: Content: The NordPlus Neighbour Physiotherapy
Educators` project focuses on a life span perspective related to: 1. HP and PW related to obese children
2. HP and PW related to occupational health (adults) 3. HP and PW related to fall incidents among elderly
Two objectives are highlighted: 1. Which competences do physiotherapy students need to promote:
• a physical active life style among obese children? • occupational health for adults in their work environment?
• a physical active life style among elderly people? 2. In which ways could this network develop a joint
educational program to qualify these competences? Launching: The project will launch three seminars:
1. Obese children: Naestved, DK, Sept. 2007 2. Occupational health/adults: Riga, Latvia, May 2008
3. Elderly /fallprevention: Lahti, Finland, August 2008 Evaluation: Seminar one: written essays on three
highlights: 1. own institution`s curriculum 2. HP and preventive work carried out in practice
3. to develop the physiotherapy curriculum in HP and preventive work The essays are grouped, compared, and
finalized in one document. Conclusions: Sharing knowledge, experiences, and participating in educational
discussions are beneficial to all institutions within the network. There are deviations in curriculum regarding
health promotion and preventive work between all the institutions. There is a need for joint developement with a
long term perspective to find mutual modules of interest such as: • international bachelor thesis with tutoring
across borders • evidence based practice in health promotion and preventive work Implications: The Nordplus
Neighbour Program is finalized in 2007. The network will send a new application to the Nordplus Program in
2008 to continue the collaboration with the Baltic countries and to complete the remaining seminars. It should be
underlined that the network will be working with both curriculum and developing relevant practice (field work)
in health promotion and preventive work. Keywords: Physiotherapy education, Nordic-Baltic, health
promotion and preventive work, health education Funding acknowledgements: Nordplus Neighbour Program
Ethics approval: None

Constructive Alignment in the Physiotherapy Curriculum
Karen McCreesh, Susan Coote, Amanda Connell, Norelee Kennedy, Ann Taylor, Kieran O’Sullivan, Anne
O’Connor, Amanda Clifford, David Sainsbury, Marie O’Donnell

Purpose: To describe how the curriculum of the BSc Physiotherapy at the University of Limerick (UL) uses the
principles of constructive alignment to ensure congruence between the learning context and the construction of
the appropriate practical and reasoning skills. Relevance: The BSc. in Physiotherapy at UL recognises the need
to prepare future physiotherapists with the competencies to provide an effective service for both patients and
health care providers. It is well recognised that curriculum design must acknowledge the importance of “what the
learner does” rather than “what the teacher does”. We believe this principle is particularly relevant in
Physiotherapy programmes, where the ultimate product is a graduate who has the ability to apply theory to
practice and has the transferable skills needed to be an effective practitioner. Description: Constructive
alignment refers to the idea of designing the curriculum so that learning activities and assessments are aligned
with learning outcomes in such a way that allows the learner and teacher to focus on the intended outcomes of
the process (Biggs 1996). In an aligned curriculum the desired outcomes of teaching are specified not only in
terms of topic content, but also in the level of understanding and behaviours we want the students to achieve.
This is achieved in our programme by ensuring that teaching and assessment methods reflect the learning
outcomes of not only the relevant module, but also of the overall programme. For example, in the second year of
the programme, in the Respiratory, Neurology and Musculoskeletal modules, the relevant theory is taught by
closely linking it to case studies, patient videos and clinical scenarios. This is matched to the assessments which
are all based around case studies but in a variety of formats i.e. essay, video analysis, practical and written case-
based exams. Evaluation: The success of this method has been corroborated by student feedback, confirming
their strong awareness of what is required of them and the linkage between their learning activities and the
assessments.Conclusions: The use of constructive alignment principles has ensured that learners achieve the
required levels of understanding, practical and reasoning skills for subsequent clinical placements. Implications:
Constructive alignment is an effective approach to ensure transparency in the links between teaching, learning
and assessment in physiotherapy education. Keywords: constructive alignment, learning outcomes Funding

acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: None required

Frameworks for developing clinical competence 3
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The construction of student's learning experience through discussion: A discourse
analytic study of the physiotherapy students' clinical education
Laitinen-Väänänen Sirpa, MSc, RPT, Lecturer 1) & Talvitie Ulla, PhD, Researcher, Lecturer in Department of
Health Sciences 2) & Luukka Minna-Riitta, PhD, Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Centre for Applied
Language Studies 2) & Vänskä Kirsti, Lic of Health Sciences, Principal Lecturer 1) 1)Teacher Education
Collage, Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences, Finland 2)The University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Purpose: The purpose was to analyse what was discussed and how the discussion was organised when the
student's learning experiences were discussed during students' clinical education. Relevance: The interaction
between the student and the clinical educator (CE) is stated to be the most significant part in developing
expertise and the professional identity during clinical education. Participants: The data comprised of ten
supervision discussion sessions organised after physiotherapy encounters. A total of ten undergraduate
physiotherapy students and ten CEs participated, one and one in each session. Methods: Qualitative approach
was used. The data was gathered by video-recording. Analysis: Discourse analysis was applied in purpose to
interpret the meanings the participants construct for the student's learning experiences and in analysing the
construction of interaction. Results: Four 'frames' to construct student's learning experiences were identified. In
'Student constructs learning' –frame learning was constructed through the student's point of view by asking him
to express what he had learned during the clinical education. In 'Learning as a bodily experience' -frame the CE
and the student practically rehearsed and discussed physiotherapy manoeuvres. 'Learning as exploring new ways
to accomplish physiotherapy' –frame the student's action in the preceding physiotherapy encounter was repeated
and new ways to accomplish the treatment were planned. In 'Learning as professional development' –frame
students described their professional development during the clinical education. Conclusions: CEs play an
essential role by bringing up issues essential for the professions and by organising the sessions to enhance the
student reflectivity. However, no intention to transform student's knowledge to other circumstances was
observed. Implications: Education courses focusing on feedback giving styles that promotes reflectivity could
be organised to the educators and students. Keywords: Physiotherapy, clinical education, discourse analysis.
Funding acknowledgements: The study was financially supported by the Finnish National Workplace
Development Program of Finland’s Ministry of Labour. Ethics approval: The ethical committee of the Social
and Health Services Department of the City of Lahti approved the study.

Clinical Reasoning in the Education of Physiotherapists
Jeanette Praestegaard, PT, MSc, Stud. PhD, lecturer, University College of Copenhagen, Faculty of
Physiotherapy, Copenhagen, Denmark. Gerd Buch Andersen, PT, Clinical Educator, Glostrup Hospital,
Copenhagen, Denmark. Nanna Linde, PT, BEd, MEd, lecturer, University College of Copenhagen, Faculty of
Physiotherapy, Copenhagen, Denmark. Merete Quvang, PT, MEd, Clinical Educator, Herlev Hospital,
Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: To develop one, consented model for clinical reasoning which can be applied to both the theoretical
and the clinical education of physiotherapists. Relevance: Traditionally individual models of reasoning and
assessment have been used by theoretical and clinical teachers, leading to considerable confusion and frustration
for both students and teachers. A consented model provides a better common base and frame of understanding,
leading to optimal focusing on the depth of clinical reasoning. Description: By source triangulation, combining
a model for assessment and decision making used by clinical teachers with a model for assessment and diagnosis
used by theoretical teachers and evaluation of research literature, a new model was discussed and developed to
fit into the local setting. It is now implemented throughout the education at the University College, Faculty of
Physiotherapy, in Copenhagen. Two clinical and two theoretical teachers have been the entrepreneurs and
innovators of this project. Evaluation: All theoretical and clinical teachers have had annual meetings since 2004,
where the model has been discussed and evaluated, using both verbal and written evaluations. Students have
been involved in the process via informal, ongoing evaluation. The involved parts have expressed great

contentment with the consented model and with its level of usability, rendering the students a deeper
understanding of the process of clinical reasoning. Conclusions: A common base of reasoning enables students
of physiotherapy to reach a higher degree of professionalism in their clinical education and is therefore
recommended in similar institutions. Implications: Negotiating a common professional and pedagogical basis is
worth while, as it facilitates the students´ understanding of the process of clinical reasoning and their depth of
learning. Keywords: Physiotherapy, Clinical Reasoning, Evidence based clinical practice. Funding
acknowledgements: The work has been supported by the University College of Copenhagen, Faculty of
Physiotherapy, Copenhagen. Ethics approval Not needed

A Way towards better Implementation of Clinical Reasoning (CR) Skills in Clinical
Herbert Schachner, Barbara Pumberger, Dagmar Koppensteiner. Academy for Physiotherapy, General Hospital
Wels, Austria.

Purpose: The aim of this project was to create an ideal learning situation for students to apply theoretical
knowledge about CR clinically. Relevance: The development of profound CR skills is the basis for a problem
based life long learning for physiotherapists. Therefore, it is an important component to any physiotherapy
training program. Description: We developed a specific setting for 3 weeks of clinical practice for 5th to 6th
semester PT students in which 3 students and one teacher of the academy as clinical supervisor (CS) are
involved. Each student is to perform in Orthopaedics, Neurology and Prevention, supervised by the CS and the
other two students reflecting on the clinical reasoning process. The feedback given by the CS and the other two
students at the end of the session includes: - professional attitude and interaction (incl. communication)
- set-up and realisation of the clinical reasoning process - manual skills Evaluation: At the end of the 3 weeks
clinical practice unit the individual improvements of each student are evaluated twice: 1. by self-evaluation in
form of a written report reflecting on the student own learning process 2. by a standardized appraisal tool
Due to the positive results of the evaluation this specific learning method was also implemented for the 3rd and
4th semester students. Conclusions: According to our experience this specific learning method is an excellent
way to enable students to transfer their theoretical knowledge about CR into clinical practice. Implications:
Furthermore we suggest an expansion of this learning method to all fields of clinical practice to provide excellent
life long learning skills to PT students during their training. Keywords: Clinical reasoning skills, learning
methods, clinical practice Funding acknowledgements: This subject was unfunded. Ethics approval: There
was no need for ethic approval.

Developing advanced clinical competence 1
Room 353

Physiotherapists’ adherence to cognitive behavioural principles in clinical practice.
Lessons learned from a clinical pilot study.
Maria Sandborgh 1 MSc, RPT, Doctoral student, PER LINDBERG 1 Ass Prof,PERNILLA ÅSENLÖF 2 PhD,
RPT, Eva Denison 1 Ass Prof, RPT. Uppsala University: 1 Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, 2
Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala, Sweden

Purpose: To describe and analyze treatment adherence to a physical therapy intervention based on cognitive
behavioural (CB) principles. Relevance: Theoretical knowledge about the relations between cognitions and
movement behaviour needs to be put into practice. Descriptions of how physiotherapists actually deliver a CB-
based intervention following a training program could generate information about barriers for change and ideas
for education in this area. Participants: Treatment documents for 18 patients with musculoskeletal pain who
underwent a treatment targeted to patients’ degree of cognitive risk factors for disability and tailored to the
individual patient's needs. Four physiotherapists underwent a pre-intervention training program, carried out the
treatments, and compiled the treatment files. These contained the physiotherapy record, patients’ individual
working sheets, and therapists’ documentation of each treatment session. Methods: A checklist with criteria for
treatment adherence was developed. Interrater reliability was good, Kappa=0.76 - 1.0. All documents were
reviewed and assessed by the third author, trained in tailored interventions, but not involved in the pre-
intervention training program. Analysis: Descriptive analyses were performed following the criteria in the

checklist. Results: The analyses of the patients’ problems/resources were lacking regarding situational
specificity and descriptions of functional and causal relationships between physical, cognitive and behavioural
factors. Cognitions of importance for movement behaviour were rarely specified. All treatments contained the
training of physical skills but lacked in cognitive behavioural skills training. Conclusions: The physiotherapists
in this study had problems identifying cognitions of importance for movement behaviour and hence to put
cognitions in relation to patients’ movement behaviour. Implications: Physiotherapists need increased
theoretical knowledge about cognitions but also skills to identify and put cognitions in relation to patients’
movement behaviour, and for addressing cognitions in treatment. Keywords: Physiotherapy, cognitive
behavioural, practice Funding acknowledgements: This pilot study was partly financed by The Olle Engkvist
Building Foundation Ethics approval: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Medical Faculty,
Uppsala University

Preference versus Evidence? Health Promotion Approaches for Chronic Widespread
Pain (CWP) Syndromes: Implications for Education and Practice
Dr Nicola Adams, University of Nottingham, UK Robert Hardy-Pickering, Liverpool John Moores University,
UK Professor Julius Sim, Keele University, UK

Purpose: The prevalence of CWP conditions is increasing and are often managed by physiotherapists as part of
the multidisciplinary team. Evidence exists for a combined management approach incorporating exercise and
cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on self-management (Sim and Adams 2002). However, a
recent study by Hardy-Pickering et al (2007) indicated that large numbers of patients are additionally seeking
interventions outside of the conventional health care system. The current study investigated this phenomenon.
Relevance: Physiotherapists require appropriate training in the delivery of health promotion approaches in order
to teach self-management effectively. Participants: All adult members of a national patient body (FMA UK).
Methods: A specifically developed anonymous postal survey was used. A total of n=665 (63% response rate)
questionnaires were returned. Analysis: Quantitative data was analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics.
Qualitative data were sorted according to themes and categories using content analysis. Results: 82% of
respondents reported using complementary therapies as part of their self-management strategy and 48% reported
regularly using 4 forms of CAM, most frequently massage, herbal medicine, acupuncture, reflexology and
homeopathy. 80% sought help and support from their patient support group and 62% from their GP. Information
was mainly accessed through the support group (75%) and/or the internet (65%). 52% self-prescribed over the
counter medicines. Patients felt they were well informed about their condition and in contrast 72% felt that NHS
health professionals were not well-informed. No statistically significant relationships were found between
variables. Conclusions: Despite evidence for the effectiveness of a multidimensional approach based on
cognitive-behavioural principles, many sufferers are still accessing interventions and information often from
unsolicited sources. Implications: The adoption of health promotion approaches in patient education and self-
management is an important aspect of physiotherapy practice in the management of CWP conditions and these
results indicate dissonance between patients’ preferences and evidence-based practice. Further investigation is
warranted. Keywords: chronic widespread pain, self-management Funding acknowledgements: Internal
funding from Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) Ethics approval: Ethical approval was granted by the
LJMU ethical committee

Prescription of physical activity in Södermalm and Gamla Stan, Stockholm
Susan Lindström, MSc Physoiotherapist, Magdalena Hedberg, MSc Physiotherapist. Rehab Södermalm, SLSO,

Purpose: In Sweden prescription of physical activity as prevention and treatment of several diseases has been
implemented as local projects since 2001. In Södermalm and Gamla Stan, a part of Stockholm with 112,000
inhabitants, a local project started in 2004. Rehab Södermalm is a rehabilitation unit supplying all primary health
care units in the area. The main purpose was to develop the method of prescribing physical activity (Swedish
FaR) in a structured way and to implement it within the ordinary work in primary health care. It also included
developing a supporting structure in the community. A secondary purpose was to develop the physiotherapist
role when using FaR. Relevance: The big increase of public health diseases caused by western lifestyle put
new demands on health care. Physiotherapy education has to keep up with the changes and adjust the methods to
the new demands. Description: A questionnaire was developed and distributed to primary health care units
before and after intervention. Each unit was informed of the study and consented to participating.

Several different activities were performed from 2004 until 2007: information and education to primary health
care units, appointments with contact persons in primary health care and fitness centres in the community to
develop collaboration between the two, developing printed matters and a web site. Physiotherapists worked as
physical activity counselors with the intention to support the primary health care units. This included
motivational interview and support for the patients. Evaluation: The project will be evaluated during January –
May 2008. It will answer:• What resources are needed and which is the best way to organize work with FaR
within primary health care?• What obstacles are there and what action can remove the obstacles?
• What is the role and challenge for the physiotherapist?• How can FaR be documented and evaluated?
Conclusions: The evaluation will give answers to the questions above. Implications: It is important that
physiotherapy education adjusts to new scientific evidence and the surrounding world. Teaching how to treat
isolated parts of the body is not sufficient; it is important to ask how physiotherapists can make a difference for
the person in the long view. Physical activity in health promotion and prevention and knowledge of behavioural
change are important areas for physiotherapists in the future. Keywords: Physical activity, behavioural change.
Funding acknowledgements: The project was funded by “Public health funds” from the Stockholm County
Council. Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required for the project.

Developing advanced clinical competence 2
Room 351

Master program of health sciences in neurological physioterapy, children and adults –
The challenge of uniting academic knowledge and advanced skills.
Head of program, assistant professor Britt Normann,University of Tromsø/Hospital of Nordland,Norway.

Purpose: The main purpose of establishing the program is to improve the quality of clinical education in
neurological physiotherapy regarding both children and adults and to enhance research in the field.
Relevance: Authumn 2007 a unique master program in neurological physiotherapy was established. The
criterias for applying are a Bachelor of Science in physiotherapy and two years of clinical practice.The program
gives access to PhD. programs in health sciences. Description: The program contains 120 ECTs, was developed
in close cooperation with the University of Tromsø, the University College of Tromsø and representatives from
clinical practice. It is a three years part time program, combining blocks of teaching with blocks of clinical work
under supervition of a clinical specialist. Theoretical and clinical subjects are integrated through-out the
program. The key elements in the program are integration of different theoretical perspectives and development
of both academic knowledge and advanced clinical skills. The overall perspective chosen is the phenomenology
of the body, a theory which claims that the body is the center of experience and expression simultaneously as the
body is a biological and biomechanical organism.The understanding of the embodied self is complemented with
social, cultural and communication theories, motor control theories and neuro- and muscle sciences. The
understanding of knowledge as a multidimentional concept is the basis for emphazising different forms of
learning, highlighting the relationship between actions and theories, enhancing an analytical attitude to the
different concepts of treatment and the underlying theories. Evaluation: The program is continually evaluated
by the students and the teachers. Conclusions: The amount of applyers to the program implies a great interest
among physioterapist clinicians, in both specialist and community health services. To our knowing no other
master program in clinical physiotherapy integrates the perspectives of this program. Implications: The lifespan
perspective, integration of different kinds of theory and the combination of academic and clinical knowledge
may contribute to the development of the profession, which hopefully will be reflected in clinical practice,
thesises and further PhD.prosjects. Keywords: Neurological physioterapy, adult, children, education,
masterprogram Funding acknowledgements: The Norwegian Fund for Post-Graduate Training in
Physiotherapy Ethics approval: Not required

Developing and implementing a Best-Practice Design: Real life problems of
practicing physiotherapists solved by master students in authentic contexts
RPS Van Peppen MSc, D Vroegindeweij MSc, H Wittink PhD
Contact: Roland van Peppen; e-mail: roland.vanpeppen@hu.nl; University of Applied Sciences Utrecht,

Department of Physiotherapy, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Purpose: In the curriculum of the Professional Master of Physiotherapy students learn to become competent in 4
professional roles: specialist, professional leader, innovator and advisor. In line with these professional roles,
master students are educated to develop and implement a Best-Practice Design (BPD) in the 2nd year of the
graduate program Relevance: In the past decades we educated physiotherapists (PTs) in graduate programs to
become purely specialists with a great deal of knowledge and skills in the area of their specific field of interest.
Nowadays PTs need competencies to perform professional innovations in their working settings and convince
PT-colleagues to adopt new treatments or to use specific new diagnostic tools Description: A BPD starts with a
clinical question of a PT (client) anywhere in the Netherlands, who needs a solution for a real life problem.
Students construct a SMART best-practice question out of the clinical question. They then perform a
discrepancy analysis describing the difference between the client’s way of working and the state of the art in
scientific literature. The BPD contains a description about the optimal way of working for the real life problem
of the client. Students develop an implementation strategy and they create indicators to measure the results of the
BPD implementation in the authentic context of the client Evaluation: The BPD education started in the
academic year 2006-2007. Clients sent questions like: What is the best treatment protocol for patient population
‘X’? What is the best screening for disorder ‘Y’? And what is the best core set of outcome measures to monitor
patients with a limitation in activity ‘Z’? In the 5 majors of our graduate program 21 projects were started and
concluded, divided into 8 projects in the major ‘manual therapy’; 5 ‘pediatrics’; 4 ‘sports’ and 3 ‘geriatrics’. In
the academic year 2007-2008 another 19 projects continue Conclusions: BPD is a well-appreciated educational
program in the professional master physiotherapy curriculum Implications: Cooperation and collaboration
between the lecturers, researchers and students of the university and PTs working in different settings in the
Netherlands give impulses for closing the gap between education, research and practice Keywords: Innovation,
curriculum development, best practice

The development of a clinical doctorate program in physiotherapy
Associate Professor Gillian Webb

Purpose: This paper will describe the development and introduction of a clinical doctorate program at the
School of Physiotherapy, The University of Melbourne. This follows on from the four year Bachelors program
for entry to practice and a number of Masters programs in specialist practice areas. Relevance: This program is
highly relevant to the profession in the changing context of physiotherapy practice. As physiotherapists take on
new roles and responsibilities it is important that there is an established educational framework top support them.
Physiotherapists are now working in many areas of advanced practice. Description: The clinical doctorate is a
three year program for qualified physiotherapists. It consists of a third of each of theory, advanced practice and
research. This program has been developed in consultation with the Australian Physiotherapy Association’s
specialisation agenda. Graduates from this program on completion will be able to apply for membership of the
Australian College of Physiotherapy. The program gives the students advanced knowledge and skills in a
specialised area of practice. Research is undertaken in the research teams of the School. Evaluation: Evaluation
of the separate components of the program has been very positive. Feedback from the students who are
undertaking this program has been gained at regular intervals. Conclusions: An advanced clinical qualification
has been developed that links with the professional assocaiations pathways to specialisation. Implications: This
will ensure that physiotherapists are fully prepared for advanced practice. Keywords: advanced practice,
professional development Funding acknowledgements: N/A Ethics approval: N/A

Developing advanced clinical competence 3
Room 456

Using the Capstone Project as a Scholarly Product of Clinical Residency
Theresa J. Kraemer, PhD, PT, ATC, Education & Research Consultant, Mesa, AZ, USA

Purpose: The program will explore what constitutes a research project worthy of demonstrating advanced
clinical competence for clinicians completing a clinical residency. Relevance: Clinical residencies are becoming
a means for clinicians to develop advanced clinical skills & knowledge as well as assume responsibility for
contributing to the existing body of evidence. One approach by which residencies can foster clinicians into the
realm of research is via a scholarly writing project. Description: A review of the literature & a semi-qualitative
ethnographic approach in the form of discussions & emails with faculty, expert clinicians, & clinical residents
contributed to an analysis of the opinions & identification of the components associated with using the writing
project as a culminating scholarly product in a clinical residency. The writing project should be seen as a means
of evaluating resident’s clinical competency, for determining faculty’s preparedness for tutoring residents
through the scholarly process, & for facilitating scholarly writing in physical therapy residents. Evaluation:
Although the concept of using a writing project (Capstone Project) as a scholarly product in a clinical residency
is admirable, the actual feasibility is somewhat less defined. While residents are cognitively capable of
conducting case-based research & writing in case report format, the extent of faculty available in residencies to
tutor residents in scholarly writing is less evident. While faculties in residential programs possess advanced
clinical skills, their scholarly capabilities & technical writing skills remain unclear. Conclusions: While clinical
residencies hold the potential to be an invaluable resource for developing and producing scholarly work, it
remains unclear whether incorporation of the scholarly writing project into a clinical residency is a feasible idea
due to available faculty scholarship, technical writing skills, & tutoring abilities. Future research should focus on
determining the extent of residency faculty preparedness in preparing clinical residents in the creation &
publication of scholarly products. Implications: By using the writing project as a scholarly product of a clinical
residency, residents will be able to generate scholarly products thereby contributing to the literature & expanding
their professional repertoire thereby enhancing their professional development while faculty will be able to usher
in a new cohort of tutors & residential scholars. Keywords: Clinical Residency, Capstone Project, Scholarly
work Funding acknowledgements: Non: Ethics approval: NA

Semantic problems in physiotherapy teaching:Giving prevention a precise and
profession-orientated meaning
Claudia Veprek,M.Ed. FH-Campus Wien:Physiotherapy Kundratstr.3 1100 Vienna/Austria

Purpose: Clearness about the meaning of terms and their exact use should be an essential component of the
professional communication of highly qualified professionals. Therefore students should be sensitized for a
prudent use of terms, which in turn requires a clear and unambiguous understanding of terms and definitions by
the teachers. Relevance: Today one of the most prevalent challenges of the Public Health is preventive work.
The characteristic of prevention, one of the most used terms at present, are a lot of different definitions which
allow a wide range of interpretation. Therefore this research asks for a specific physiotherapeutical definition of
prevention. Participants: Target group were all graduate physiotherapists (N=176), which taught at least one of
the subjects „physical application of all physiotherapeutical measures in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation”
in 11 different clinical fields at one of the 16 academies for physiotherapy in Austria at the time of the survey
(academic year 2004; n=98). Methods: A questionnaire was designed as survey instrument. The questions asked
were open worded to approach a huge number of differentiated understanding of the term prevention-on one
hand covered to physiotherapy in general, on the other hand in context with the teaching/clinical field . All the
questions should be answered by the interviewees in their role as teachers. Analysis: After all answers where
content analysed, the hypotheses that the understanding of the term prevention is a more professional definition
associated to the subject than in a general context with the profession physiotherapy was tested by Dixon and
Mood. Results: Based on the qualitative analysis of the answers nine basic characteristics of understanding of
the term prevention were founded. Besides a predominantly purely pathogenic understanding of the term
prevention and the linked aims of avoidance were evident. However the aspects of supporting health and
individual´s own responsibility for the body were scarcely mentioned. Furthermore the hypotheses could be
verified(Z = -1,741, p = 0,041; &#945;= 95%).Conclusions: Till nowadays in Austria the main working fields
for physiotherapists are therapy and rehabilitation. Therefore on physical deficits may be more clearly focused in
consciousness of physiotherapists than preserving health. Implications: Consequently in a first step a more
detailed implementation of teaching aims subscribing to prevention in the curriculum was done. Keywords:
education,semantic,prevention. Funding acknowledgements: none Ethics approval: not necessary

Living Lab Novarca integrates theory into practice

 Anne Kokko, Pt, MHS, Ira Jeglinsky, Pt, PTM Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland
Jan-Magnus Janssons plats 1, 00550 Helsingfors anne.kokko@arcada.fi, ph: +358207 699515

Purpose: The new curriculum for the physiotherapy degree focuses on the students´ learning process. There
seems to be a gap between formal and informal knowledge and therefore knowledge development need to be
integrated in clinical practice, research and education. Relevance: The integration of theory and practice in
physiotherapy education has been criticized for being inadequate. Formal knowledge seems to be poorly
transferable into practice. One way to foster innovate thinking and self-directed learning is using real life
learning environments. The Living Lab Novarca at Arcada gives the opportunity for the students to learn step by
step in a calm and instructive environment. Description: This developmental project started as collaboration
with work life and based on this a pedagogical model for bridging theory into practice has been developed. The
focus is on the situational nature and the effects of the context of learning, which enhance transformative
processes and give the students possibilities to become acquainted with the evidence-based practice in
physiotherapy and prerequisites to act in different environments. The learning assignments of the students are
connected to practice from the very beginning of the education. From a pedagogical point of view the living lab
is based on networking and collaborative learning. The dialogue between students, physiotherapists and teachers
forms the basis for a connective learning model breaking the traditional barriers between education and practice.
Evaluation: The students learning is evaluated trough their practical knowledge and ability to transfer their
theoretical knowledge into practice. The collected evaluation data show positive response, the students seems to
be better prepared to bring theory into practice and more confident in client situation.Conclusions:
Learning in a Living Lab environment through the whole education seems to be useful for self-direction, self-
reflection and metacognitive skills. The Living Lab concept also facilitates the integration of formal and
informal knowledge. Applying new models and bringing new ideas into practice is time-consuming and demands
commitment and dialogue between students, clinicians and teachers. Implications: The physiotherapy students
start to practice at Arcada living lab from their first study year and the tasks cumulates to be more demanding as
a part of the learning process. Keywords: Learning in practice, pedagogical model, living lab Ethics approval:
The project has been approved by the Ethical committee of Arcada

Symposium – A rough guide to UK master’s physiotherapy
education. Let’s Go Europe!

Chair: Ann Green, UK

Nikki Petty MSc GradDipPhys MMACP FHEA
Principal Lecturer
University of Brighton, UK
Sally Gosling PhD BA
Assistant Director, Practice & Development Function
Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, UK

Aims: To share findings from current research relating to UK Master’s physiotherapy education in order to explore the
development of a collaborative European Master’s programme Objectives: The session will discuss the strengths and
weaknesses of master’s physiotherapy education including:
•   The student perspective on Master’s physiotherapy education

•    Career opportunities following Master’s physiotherapy education

•    A professional body perspective on Master’s Physiotherapy education

•    The potential to develop a European Master’s in Physiotherapy

Structure: The first part will include short presentations based upon current research undertaken by the contributors. The
second half will be a discussion that invites consideration of whether lessons learned in the UK over the last 15 years could
usefully inform the development of a collaborative European physiotherapy Master’s programme to meet physiotherapists’
professional development needs. Learning objectives: The session will discuss:
•    The student perspective, career opportunities and the professional body perspective

•    The potential to develop a European Master’s in Physiotherapy

Summary: Physiotherapy became an all-graduate profession in the UK in 1992. At this time, the first physiotherapy-specific
Master’s programmes also began to be developed. Over the last decade provision has expanded with implications for
physiotherapists’ study and career opportunities and for the professional body. The presented findings explore three key
perspectives and have a UK context but the principles arising from the symposium may be extended to inform future
developments in Europe. The student perspective was explored through a qualitative single case study design carried out with
11 alumni from a Master’s degree in neuromusculoskeletal physiotherapy. A postal questionnaire sent to all graduates of a
clinically-based Master’s degree in manual therapy explored their subsequent career pathways. The UK professional body
for physiotherapy first formulated its policies, primarily to support physiotherapy educators for whom developing such
programmes was new. Expectations and requirements developed by the professional body, take account of the significant
expansion of Master’s degrees in physiotherapy at both post-qualifying and pre-qualifying levels. Implications:
There is an opportunity to explore how the findings can be extended within Europe to respond to physiotherapists’
professional development needs and to provide leadership, particularly in the context of increasing collaboration around
defining expectations of physiotherapy education and implementation of the Bologna process, for a collaborative European
Master’s in Physiotherapy (ENPHE, 2007; ER-WCPT, 2003; Europe Unit, 2006). Keywords: Physiotherapy master’s
education, career opportunities, postgraduate student, professional body, European

Symposium – Promoting, Delivering and Implementing Evidence
Based Physiotherapy
Charlotte Häger-Ross, Sweden

Eilin Ekeland, President of The Norwegian Physiotherapists Association, Norway,
David Baxter, Professor, School of Physiotherapy and Research Institute, University of Otago, New Zealand
Raija Tyni-Lenné, Director in Physiotherapy, Karolinska Hospital, Sweden
Annette Winkel, Coordinator of clinical guidelines of Danish Physiotherapists, Denmark

Aims: To inform the participants of the view and status of Evidence Based Physiotherapy (EBP) in Europe and to present
examples on how it is implemented.

This symposium will highlight the prevailing perspectives on EBP in Europe and the roles of the Member Organisations of
the European Region of the WCPT, the educational institutions, employers and the individual clinicians. Questions that will
be addressed include:
• How do we work with implementing and promoting EBP at various levels and throughout the European Region and what
importance does it have?
• Is EBP regarded as important and is it implemented in the PT programmes all across EU? How do we teach and promote it?
• The possibilities of EBP?
• Are there potential conflicts or risks in the ways EBP is implemented, interpreted and taught?
• Are the MOs involved in promoting EBP?
• EBP and the life long learning perspective

Structure: The first part will include short presentations of the given perspectives stated above. The second half of the
session will be reserved for questions and debate with the audience. Learning objectives: This symposium aims to inform
the participants of the view and status of Evidence Based Physiotherapy (EBP) in Europe, and to present examples on how it
is implemented. Summary: The symposium will highlight the prevailing perspectives on EBP in Europe and the roles of: 1)
the Member Organisations of the European Region of the WCPT, 2) the educational institutions, 3) employers and 4) the
individual clinicians. Issues that will be addressed include how we work with implementing and promoting EBP at various
levels and throughout the European Region and the significance of this work. Is EBP regarded as important and is it
implemented in the PT programmes all across EU? How do we teach and promote EBP? The challenges and potential
barriers of EBP will be disussed; are there potential conflicts or risks in the ways EBP is implemented, interpreted and
taught? The engagement the MOs and whether they are involved in promoting EBP will be debated. Finally, EBP from the
the life long learning perspective will be enhanced as will the importance of clinical guidelince for the individual
physiotherapist for the implementation of EBP. Implications: The symposia will give an updated scenario on EBP in
Europe and provide suggestion for implementation at several levels for the future. Keywords: Evidence based
physiotherapy, evidence based practice, life long learning, clinical guidelines.

Platform Presentations
Distance learning 1

Exploring one’s practice on the net: Experiences with a tool that combines video, text
and student-teacher communication
Marianne Aars, Ass.professor, Tromsoe University College, Tromsoe, Norway

Purpose: To implement a student assignment that promotes reflective practice by means of an internet-based
tool: "Physio-net”, within a distance learning context. Relevance: The particular internet-based assignment
stimulates reflection–on-action. The assignment expands learning in practice, and the principles involved are not
limited to distance learning. Description: The development of the assignment lies within the traditions of
Reflective Practice. The assignment was given to students in year 2. Each student was asked to make a
commented film of 15 min. from a treatment session with their own patient. The film should be divided into 5-8
sequences and explore what was going on. The text should also include references to theory. The student had 6
weeks to complete the task and opportunities to asynchronous communication with the teacher to guide the
process, which was entirely on the net. The film, the text and the communication were available to the student
and her/his supervisors only. Evaluation: The evaluation of the assignment has been conducted informally
along the way, and more formally by inviting the participant students to give their unstructured account on their
learning outcome, benefits and obstacles in the process. The results show that the students found this assignment
as the one with the highest learning outcome ever. Even if it was time-consuming and had some technical
obstacles, most of them found the hard work worthwhile. The task stimulated exploration of clinical competence
and helped them link theory and practice. The supervisors were mostly very enthusiastic by the possibility to
“share” a clinical situation with the student, and engage in discussions. One teacher found the asynchronous
communication too time-consuming. Conclusions: The assignment is valuable in promoting reflective practice.
Clinical knowledge can be critically examined by the use of new technology, which integrates visualisation,
written documentation, and supervision. For learning to occur it must be a fine balance between
acknowledgement and challenge of the student’s work. The assignment can be further developed and used for
purposes of continuing professional development in learning in – and from practice itself. Implications: The
new technology has advantages in using different media simultaneously to improve clinical practice and could be
integrated into curricula for both distance learners and on-campus learners. Keywords: Reflection, ICT,
Clinical knowledge Funding acknowledgements: Norgesuniversitetet Ethics approval: Not necessary

Distance Learning Preferences in Post-Professional Physiotherapy Education:
Program Characteristics
Suzanne Robben Brown, MPH,PT. Touro University - Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this Special Interest Report is to share the author’s experience in developing distance
education programs for physiotherapists in entry-level and post-professional education, as well as meeting
credentialing deficiencies. Relevance: Developers of education programs must consider the needs and
preferences of the target population to avoid costly mistakes and provide efficient and effective education. The
experiences shared in this presentation will allow future programs to be designed and implemented for cost and
time efficiencies. Description: Course offerings, scheduling, instructional formats, admission criteria and
faculty selection are critical issues in developing distance learning programs. The challenges of designing a
program for individuals who are more comfortable with personal face-to-face interactions and have time
constraints in business and personal lives will be discussed in this presentations. Solutions to overcome the
challenges will be offered.Evaluation: Over 700 US therapists have been enrolled in programs designed using
the methods to be discussed. The suggestions provided are the result of revisions based on participant’s
recommendations. Conclusions: Distance learning educational programs for physiotherapists are effective but
must take into account the unique needs of the individual as well as the profession. Translation of educational
design principles must be based on the unique characteristics of the population and the media to be used rather

than implementing traditional residential program designs. Implications: Physiotherapy education must
implement distance learning techniques effectively to meet the needs of current practitioners as well as the future
manpower needs of our communities. Keywords: Distance learning, program design, administration Funding
acknowledgements: No outside funding was required or received for this work. Ethics approval: No ethics
approval was necessary for this work.

A project focused on developing distance learning
Grete Barlindhaug, Ass. Professor, Tromsø University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, 9293 Tromsø,

Purpose The aim is to develop better, more stimulating distance learning, and to include clinical supervisors and
students in the process. Relevance: The results will affect future practices for distance learning in physiotherapy
education and will also have relevance for traditional physiotherapy education. Participants: The investigative
partnership consisted of 3 students, 5 supervisors and 2 teachers. The teachers were responsible for the distance
learning. One teacher was project leader. All students were invited to participate. Three of them were able to do
so. The supervisors were recruited from those supervising during the project period in addition to one who had
been involved in supervising before. Methods: The project builds on traditions in action and trailing research.
Data was collected by following the students learning processes through a 5 months course consisting of 6 weeks
practical placement, 3 weeks on campus and 10 weeks self study which included web communication with
teachers and fellow students. Supervisors, students and teachers regularly reflected on their own experiences
associated with the students learning assignments. Reflections were available in a virtual classroom. Also there
were three equally spaced meetings with all participants. A summary from the meetings was available in the
virtual classroom and was also included as data. Analysis: The data was continuously analysed using qualitative
text analysis carried out by the teachers and one of the supervisors for additional comments, further reflections
and identifying similar patterns. The project leader processed the data further to find main themes, tying these to
theory and posing new questions. These notes were shared with all the participants and used as a foundation for
further discussions. Results: In designing a curriculum that puts student learning first, the important factors
were: attention to the relational aspects of learning and creating an atmosphere where a feeling of confidence can
evolve; acknowledging each student as an individual, their understanding, goals and knowledge, including being
explicit in expectations and evaluations of the student; making room for open dialogue and reflection connected
to particular learning situations.Conclusions: Learning has individual and relational dimensions. Confidence
based on respect, clarity and predictability is essential, as is room for reflection. Implications: Good learning
situations must be planned according to these basic principles. Keywords: Curriculum design Funding
acknowledgements: Tromsø University College Ethics approval: Not required

Modes of learning
Room 361

Sports Physiotherapy: blending online and practice-based education in an innovative
postgraduate distance learning programme

Moore S & Bilham TD
School for Health, University of Bath, UK

Purpose: To design a part-time, e-learning postgraduate programme in sports physiotherapy for practising
Physiotherapists Relevance: There are few postgraduate programmes specifically in sports physiotherapy
delivered part-time and through e-learning. This flexibility enables physiotherapists to continue professional
practice while pursuing postgraduate study increasing accessibility to academic qualifications and facilitating
knowledge transfer to practice. Description: The proposition that learning is social involving a deepening
process of experience of participation in daily activities (Lave & Wenger,1991) is well accepted. Situated
learning involves engagement within a 'community of practice' (Wenger, 1998). E-learning is often based upon a
model of knowledge transmission. Practicing physiotherapists have enormous experience that is too infrequently
shared within programmes. This innovative design engages students in problem-based and interactive learning
activities, facilitating deep learning and enhanced practice. A media-rich online environment and asynchronous
tutor-mediated discussion forums support independent and shared learning. Professional development is

facilitated by creating communities of professional practitioners, online and at clinical education events. E-
learning diversifies these communities geographically and in speciality. Evaluation: Longitudinal study of the
student experience and participant feedback evaluates educational design efficacy, learning effectiveness and
students’ success. It is informed by reviewing how using a social constructivist perspective can motivate learner
participation, promote good practice sharing and facilitate reflective practitioner development. Conclusions:
Part-time online learning expands opportunity for busy physiotherapists to develop their professional career.
Knowledge transmission teaching models are not appropriate for experienced physiotherapists in postgraduate
study. Social learning through communities of practice facilitates deep learning and enhances experience. The
Virtual Clinics project at the University of Bath addresses challenges in integrating clinical skills within the
online environment. Implications: Online and blended learning can extend physiotherapy education
accessibility to learners across Europe. Partnerships with centres of excellence offer possibilities to integrate
online learning with local delivery of clinical education and physiotherapy services. Keywords: e-learning,
communities of practice, sport Funding acknowledgements: Internally from University Ethics approval:
Not required

IT - based Program to develop Students capability to analyse a Persons Posture.
Lene Grønkjær PT, MEd in Health Promotion and Education. Senior Lecture at VIA University College, School
of Physiotherapy, Aarhus.

Purpose: The Aim of this Study has been to develop an IT - based Program to make its possible to do long
distance Learning as supplementary to Classroom teaching. Another Purpose of this Study is to develop the
Students capability to do Clinical Reasoning. Relevance: The Study relate to Physiotherapy Education by using
an IT – based Learning Program. Description: The Study is based on Constructivist Learning Theory. The IT -
based Program uses steaming Video of a Persons Posture, which is possible to download from the Virtue Space
into “Fronter” (Learning Management System). The Video is connected to an Exercise developed for this
purpose, where the Students have to describe the Persons Posture, afterward they have to analyse the Posture by
different theories of understanding Posture. Comply with the Theories of Luhmann the written Language give
the Opportunity to remember ones Knowledge on a Subject, and the Student have the Possibility to continue
their study of the Persons Posture and maintain their Clinical Reasoning. Furthermore the Teacher has a chance
to control the Students way of constructing Knowledge. Evaluation: The Students have evaluated the IT-based
Learning Program positive in a Qualitative Evaluation. The Students feel that they learn a lot from writing their
Clinical Reasoning. The writing Process made the Students study the Theories more intensively than if they only
have to analyse a Persons Posture in Practise. The Teachers have evaluated the IT - based Program positive,
because it is possible to see the Students understanding of the Theories. Besides the Students seems more
confident with the Theories and the Applications in Physiotherapy. In the Spring 2008 a Quantitative Evaluation
will be made. Conclusions: It is possible to develop an IT- based Learning Program which make it possible to
help Students to construct their own Knowledge in order to Constructivists Learning Theory. Implications: It-
based Programs with use of steaming Video has potential for both Physiotherapy Education and further
development of physiotherapeutic Competences in a Lifelong Perspective. It is due to the fact that steaming
Video give a unick possibility to do Clinical Reasoning.Keywords: IT – based Learning, Clinical Reasoning.
Funding acknowledgements: JCVU, School of Physiotherapy, Aarhus has given me time and encouragement to
develop the IT – based Program Ethics approval: The filmed Person has given her Permission to use the Video
in teaching.

A Comparison of Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Methods for Teaching
Neuroanatomy to Physiotherapy Students
Shelagh Tittle, University Of Liverpool, England

Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL) is thought to enhance retention and retrieval of knowledge (Baker,
2000). However, research investigating the effect of PBL on cognitive outcomes suggest that it may have no
advantage over other teaching methods (Norman and Schmidt, 2000). Despite these findings students do find it
enjoyable (Williams et al., 2003). The aim of this study was to investigate whether changing from traditional
teaching methods to PBL had any effect on knowledge acquisition and student perceptions. Relevance: Medical
education should prepare students for life-long learning (O'Shea, 2003). Problem-based curricula have been
developed to fulfil this objective (Luvigsson, 1999). Participants: Two consecutive cohorts of physiotherapy
students were compared. Ninety nine students (12 males; 87 females) were recruited using the same selection

criteria. Methods: One cohort (n=50) was taught using traditional teaching methods and the second cohort
(n=49) was taught using PBL. Knowledge acquisition was assessed by comparing results from two summative
examinations; a seen long answer question (LAQ) paper, and an unseen short answer question (SAQ) paper.
Students' perceptions were gathered by asking students to rate eight statements using a six point Likert scale.
Analysis: The overall final examination marks and results from the LAQ and SAQ papers were analysed.
Students' responses to each statement were analysed, together with qualitative analysis of their comments.
Results: No significant difference in the overall examination marks was found. The traditional students
performed significantly better on the SAQ paper than the PBL students (p=0.015), and the PBL students
performed significantly better than the traditional students on the LAQ paper (p=0.05). However, the effect size
for both results was small; 0.25 and 0.2 respectively. Analysis of the eight statements showed a significant
increase in scores for the PBL group. Positive comments about PBL related to the benefits of group discussion
and teaching each other. Negative comments related to concerns about wasting time.Conclusions: The results
indicate that PBL had no advantage over traditional teaching methods with respect to knowledge acquisition.
However students felt that PBL made the content easier to understand and stimulated them to seek further
information. Implications: PBL is enjoyable and encourages self-directed learning which will hopefully
provides students with the skills for life-long learning. Keywords: Curriculum development, PBL Funding
acknowledgements: Unfunded Ethics approval: Ethical approval not required.

Professional development
Room 359

Fostering professionalism in undergraduate physiotherapy students at the University
of Limerick
Anne O'Connor, Susan Coote, Amanda Connell, Karen McCreesh, Ann Taylor, Marie O'Donnell, Norelee
Kennedy, Kieran O'Sullivan, David Sainsbury, Amanda Clifford

Purpose: To demonstrate how the ten professional behaviours of the WCPT guidelines for entry level education
programmes are integrated through the academic and clinical components of the University of Limerick
programme. Relevance: The WCPT declarations of principle state that "Professional behaviour within the
physiotherapy profession requires that therapists provide an honest, competent and accountable professional
service". It is therefore essential that professional behaviours are embedded throughout the physiotherapy
programme. Description: Professionalism and professional behaviours are introduced in the first semester of
year one through the module "Psychology for Physiotherapists". Later in year one, students apply these
professional behaviours in practical classes and on observational placement and demonstrate and understanding
of them through structured tasks and workshops. In year two, these professional behaviours continue to be an
underlying expectation in their physiotherapy modules, and are reinforced and assessed on their first clinical
placements where they abide by the Codes of Professional Conduct of the ISCP. Students on clinical placements
are initially guided to set individual placement goals, then encouraged to actively review performance and
modify appropriately. Year three and four sees the introduction of reflective practice modules which fosters
professional development through self and peer assessment and reflection on clinical placement. Evaluation:
The ability of the Physiotherapy undergraduate programme at UL, to embed the ten Professional Behaviours of
the WCPT guidelines for entry level education programmes into the curriculum, was assessed by matching the
behaviours described to elements of the academic and clinical components that are unique to the UL programme.
Conclusions: The acquisition of professional attributes by students on the UL programme is underpinned by the
integration of professional behaviours across clinical and academic components from the outset of the course.
Implications: This model of programme design where professional attributes are deep-rooted into all aspects of
the programme from the first semester, may serve as a reference for those developing new programmes or
modifying existing programmes. Keywords: Professionalism; WCPT guidelines, undergraduate; physiotherapy
Funding acknowledgements: None Ethics approval: None required

From learner to educator: development of thinking and skills in professional
Amanda Connell, Amanda Clifford,Karen McCreesh, Susan Coote, Norelee Kennedy, Ann Taylor, Kieran

O’Sullivan, Anne O’Connor, David Sainsbury, Marie O’Donnell

Purpose: Entrants to the physiotherapy profession must acquire the ability to teach skills and to impart
information effectively to patients/clients, healthcare professionals, academia and the wider public community.
The students’ cognitive ability and thinking needs to be sufficiently developed to enhance their learning skills
from primarily a recipient of didactically imparted knowledge to become independent thinkers who are able to
communicate their professional knowledge and skills. Relevance: Under graduate physiotherapy curricula are
designed to ensure that students attain requisite level of physiotherapy skills and knowledge. There is also a
requirement that physiotherapists adopt an evidence based approach to clinical practice and continue their
learning throughout their careers; they must be able to identify and fulfill their on-going learning needs and have
the skills to impart this knowledge. Description: The design and delivery of the physiotherapy programme at
University of Limerick aims to develop metacognition in undergraduate students and facilitate independence in
thinking and learning. Within each year of the programme, the learning process and intended outcomes are
matched to appropriate teaching strategies and assessment which are applied across the individual modules
within each year. The strategy progresses students though a series of stages from lecture based and exam
assessed delivery of foundation knowledge in year one, to independent academic research, peer teaching and
assessment in year four. Evaluation: Formal and informal feedback and evaluation from graduates, clinical
educators and employers indicate that graduates from this programme demonstrate the ability to think
independently, problem solve and deal with novel situations. Graduates have also performed well in terms
presenting their work at academic conferences both in poster and platform format.Conclusions: The
development of learning and metacognition is an integral component of physiotherapy education when
considering the lifelong learner and evidence based practioner. Implications: The development of metacognition
within the design, delivery and assessment of the undergraduate physiotherapy programme is a useful framework
for ensuring new graduates are appropriately skilled for continuing professional and personal development,
thereby enhancing physiotherapy practice in general Keywords: metacognition; continuing professional
development; curriculum design Funding acknowledgements: none Ethics approval: none required

Learning to be a physiotherapist - a longitudinal study
Ingrid Lindquist, PhD, Karolinska Institutet, Inst NVS, Sektionen för sjukgymnastik, 23 100, 141 83 Huddinge
Margaretha Engardt, PhD, Karolinska Institutet, Inst NVS, Sektionen för sjukgymnastik, 23 100, 141 83
Huddinge Barbara Richardson,Reader, School of Allied Health Professions, University of East Anglia, Norwich
NR4 7TJ, U.K.

Purpose: To explore students’ experience of learning to be a physiotherapist in a three- year programme.
Relevance: Few studies have explored student experience of learning in physiotherapy and none have explored
student experience throughout an education programme from a student perspective. Knowledge of students’
experience of learning may help to ensure curriculum development. Participants Twenty-one students from
Sweden and the UK was purposefully selected by sex, age, earlier work experience and educational background
to ensure diversity. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with the students at the beginning of
the programme and then after each term. One hundred and eleven interviews from four component studies were
analysed. This was followed by a metasynthesis of the findings of the four studies to capture the longitudinal
character of variation in learning experience throughout the education programme. Analysis: A
phenomenographic analysis of the findings from four earlier studies, a metasynthesis study was carried out.
Results: Three patterns of learning, ranging from a cognitive view of learning to a cultural one, are described as
‘performing treatment’, ‘solving problems’ and ‘managing health’. They indicate differences in learning to be a
physiotherapist in the focus of learning, the ways in which the learning occurred, and together with whom and in
what context learning took place. Conclusions: Patterns of learning identified over a physiotherapy education
programme show a variety in learning focus and in ways of learning. Experience of learning is influenced by the
context in which learning occurs. Experience of learning is influenced by learning partners participating in the
physiotherapy activity. Implications: The work offers to staff in physiotherapy education insights into students´
learning experience that may help students and staff to achieve desired educational outcomes. Keywords:
Learning, physiotherapy students, physiotherapy education, phenomenography, curricula development Funding
acknowledgements: The study was supported by the Physiotherapy Research Foundatio, UK, and the Board of
Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Ethics approval: Approved by the ethics committees of
Univerity of East Anglia, UK in 1999 and Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden in 2000.

Curriculum design 1
Room 357

Preparing Students to Meet Challenges of Culturally Diverse Aging World: Infusing
Cross Cultural Aging Content into Physical Therapy Curricula.
Aliya N. Chaudry, PT, MBA, J.D. Langston University, Oklahoma U.S.A.
Teresa Nemmers, PT, PhD., Langston University, Oklahoma, U.S.A.; Robin Washington PT, PhD., Alabama
State University, Alabama, U.S.A.

Purpose: The need to have a work force equipped to effectively address varied needs of an increasingly
culturally diverse aging patient population was driving force in investigating how physical therapy educational
institutions could bridge theory and practice by infusing more course content on cross cultural aging into current
curriculum to prepare students to administer “BEST” practice to aging patients in clinics. Relevance: According
to United Nations projections, individuals age 60 and over regardless of colour will increase from 214 Million in
1950 to over a Billion in 2025 individuals age 80 and over will increase from 15 Million in 1950 to 111 Million
in 2025. Therefore, physical therapy educational institutions must include curriculum content that prepares
physical therapy professionals to effectively work with diverse aging populations. Description: Generally, a
physical therapy curriculum is divided into 5 broad categories: Basic Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Behavioral
Sciences, Research, and Clinical Education. Cross-cultural aging content is selectively infused into courses
taught in each of these 5 broad categories. A sample proposed physical therapy curriculum that includes
essential topics of cross cultural aging content infused into each course will be presented at the conference.
Evaluation: Clinical Instructor and student assessments at end of clinical internships are used to assess student
ability to address cross cultural aging patient management issues. Conclusions: Significant increases in the
future “senior” age composition of the population of the United States is inevitable. Physical therapy programs
must bridge theory and practice by including cross-cultural aging content in their curricula as suggested in
proposed model above so as to better prepare their graduates to deliver culturally competent care to aging patient
population. Implications: The proposed model presented is a generic model for a physical therapy curriculum
which may be adapted with modifications to any physical therapy curriculum around the world.Keywords:
Cultural competence, aging, curriculumFunding acknowledgements: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
Grant Ethics approval: None required.

Comparing and contrasting physiotherapeutic bachelor projects from Denmark and
Norway - promoting transparency, coherence and tuning
Bente Hovmand, PT MSc, University College Oresund, Copenhagen, (UCO), Faculty of Physiotherapy, Bente
Andersen, PT MSc, UCO, Marit Fougner, PT MPhil, Oslo University College (OUC), Elisabet Hellem, PT
MPhil, OUC, Ingrid Narum, PT, MPhil, OUC, Nils Erik Sjöberg PT M. Ed., UCO

Purpose: The Bachelor degree system was implemented in Denmark in 2001 and in Norway in 2004. 20 ECTS
credits are allocated to the project at UCO and 15 ECTS at OUC. At both institutions the project is compulsory.
The purpose was to learn more about Bachelor projects by comparing and contrasting Bachelor theses from the
institutions, looking into structure, content and methods. Relevance: This study is in line with the European
Higher Education Area (EHEA): Transparency, coherence and tuning. The Bologna Declaration introduced the
ECTS system, common grading system and common degree-system. Tuning of educational frames, content, and
evaluation of Bachelor projects is important to clarify the level of the Bachelor project. Description: All
abstracts from 2007 (86 from Oslo and 51 from Oresund) and 7 bachelor theses from each institution of the 2
highest grades and of the 2 lowest grades of passed were included , as well as documents describing content and
criteria. Each Education evaluated the theses using their own grading criteria. Written evaluations were sent prior
to a two day discussion seminar. Discussions at the seminar were continuously typed. Level of analysis of theses,
evaluations and discussion was Miller and Crabtree's Immersion/crystallization Analysis style. All participants
validated final analysis Evaluation: Theses from both Educations were within the Anglo-American style with a
thesis statement directing the project. Headings: Background and Purpose, Material, Method, Result, Discussion,
Conclusion, Perspective. Conclusions: Both educations covered a variety of subjects. Prevention was seen in an
enlarged perspective. Studies including workplace environment are few. Both Educations included a chapter of
theory, but differ in view of placement, structure, extent and purpose. Use of empirical data was more frequent
in UCO. Stringent data analysis was used more at UCO due to more hours of focused supervision. Literature
studies were the prevailing method in OUC. Both educations got ideas for quality improvements for educational
frames, contents, supervision and evaluation. Implications: Evaluations promote transparency, coherence and
tuning within educations in Europe Keywords: Bachelor projects, theses, evaluation, written expression
Funding acknowledgements: Nordiske Undervisende Fysioterapeuter, UCO, OUC

Graduate research education: current development for physiotherapy
Professor G. David Baxter, Dean of School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Purpose: To assess the current state of development of research graduate education within the profession, with
particular reference to experience in the UK and New Zealand, and within the context of an increasing focus on
research quality assessment in universities. Relevance: Development of graduate research is a key strategic issue
for the profession, for universities, and for the academic unit. Physiotherapy has only relatively recently emerged
as an academic discipline with the move of pre-registration training programmes into universities. One of the key
challenges associated with this development has been the lack of a research tradition within the profession, and
associated limitations in research capacity and capability. Description: This paper reviewed available data from
a variety of sources including: the UK Research Assessment Exercise, previous work by the UK Council for
Graduate Education (UKCGE, 2003), and the New Zealand Performance Based Research Funding exercise, as
well as from national vignettes of physiotherapy education.Evaluation: There has been rapid development in
research graduate activities within the profession –particularly in research-intensive universities - as evidenced
by improved research performance and increased numbers of research-trained physiotherapists. However, there
would appear to be clear differences in emphasis in physiotherapy research programmes compared to disciplines
such as nursing, and an emergence of professional doctoral programmes as a preferred preparation for the
‘scholarly professional’ compared to the ‘professional scholar’. Conclusions: It would appear that while
graduate research education has developed rapidly within the physiotherapy profession as a natural consequence
of the move to univesity-based education, there are clear differences between types of institutions in terms of
research outputs and research training oppertunities. Implications: As a preparation for the academe, the PhD
degree will continue to be the preferred route for research training. In contrast, alternative programmes (e.g.
Masters in Clinical Research or Doctor of Health Sciences) appear to offer a more congruent fit with the
research-training needs of senior professionals in modern healthcare (e.g. clinical specialists, consultant
therapists). In this, there are opportunities for alignment with differing strategic priorities between academic
units and institutions Keywords: Research Training, Doctorate, Strategy Funding acknowledgements
University of Otago Ethics approval: Nil required

Curriculum design 2
Room 356

Developing consensus on the future of physiotherapy education in The Netherlands
Henri Kiers, PhD,
Van der Wees, Philip, MSc

Purpose: In The Netherlands, there are about 20.000 physical therapists working in all fields of outpatient and
inpatient clinics. They share their basic bachelor level education, while some 7.000 of them have been educated
in one of ten more specialised domains, like physical therapy in geriatrics, or with children, in sports, in manual
therapy, etc. This situation has lead to two important questions: 1.Does the broad education on bachelor level
provide the required level for a non-specialised physical therapist, or is a master level required? 2.Is it
appropriate to maintain the current structure of specialisations, or should it be reorganised taken into account the
developments in society and in physical therapy. These choices will affect many stakeholders in their interest,
and therefore it is essential to involve them in the development of a vision and in the required decision making
process. Relevance: The paper addresses the restructuring of a national physiotherapy education, taking into
-The need to implement a bachelor master structure.
- The need to be compatible with developments in other European countries.
- The need to modernise the classification of specialisations.
The current classification of specialisations is historically grown and based on therapeutic techniques, or age
groups, or specific organs, etc. This structure does not cover all areas in which specialised physical therapists are
required, for example there are no specialisations for oncology, or for COPD. The present project allows for a

more rational classification of specialisations over all fields taken much more consistent problem oriented
approach. Description: Two Invitational Conferences have been organised, involving the physiotherapy
educational institutions (bachelor and master level), the associations of specialised physical therapists, physical
therapy scientists, as well as representatives of other health care professions. On the annual Dutch physiotherapy
conference, several delegates from other countries have been invited to share their views and experiences. In
2008, other stakeholders will also be involved like patient groups, health care insurance companies, and the
government. Evaluation: There is no evaluation yet.Conclusions: It is too early to draw conclusions.
Implications: The project will have major implications on the Dutch physiotherapy education. Keywords:
Specialisation, Stakeholder involvement, Bachelor master structure Funding acknowledgements: The members
of the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy. Ethics approval: Ethics approval was not required.

Developing a Physiotherapy Curriculum in the Russian Federation
 Bithell C,Kingston University,London,UK,Beeston S,University of East London,UK,Didour M,St Petersburg
Pavlov State Medical University,RF,
Evseev S,St Petersburg Lesgaft State University of Physical Education,RF,Joutsemo A,Helsinki Polytechnic
Stadia,Finland,Kamaeva O,St Petersburg Pavlov State Medical University, RF,Klochkova E,St Petersburg Early
Intervention Institute,RF,Noronen L,Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia,Finland,Potapchuk A,St Petersburg Lesgaft
State University of Physical Education.

Purpose: Physiotherapy as a profession has not existed in the Russian Federation,although limited treatment
modalities and some rehabilitation facilities exist.An EU Tempus-funded curriculum development project aimed
at introducing physiotherapy programmes in universities in St Petersburg has recently been successfully
completed by physiotherapists from the UK and Finland working in partnership with Russian educators in
medical and adaptive physical education faculties. This 3-year project is the culmination of a 10-year
development plan that has enabled a group of doctors to learn how to practice physiotherapy, and to teach it to
others. Relevance: A curriculum,based on the WCPTE Benchmark Statement, has been developed and
approved for implementation within the education,political and economic system in the Russian Federation.
Description: Curriculum development is set in a context of change in the governance of healthcare and higher
education. The aims, guiding principles and process of curriculum development, development of a staff teaching
team equipped with student-centred methods, and provision of resources including clinical placements are
discussed. Evaluation: Quality assurance of all outcomes was integral to the project.Peer review of all
curriculum documentation, and peer-observation of teaching sessions were carried out by an experienced
physiotherapy educator from another UK university. Conclusions: The opportunities provided by
decentralisation of healthcare decision making, and new arrangements for curriculum approval brought about by
Russian alignment with the Bologna Agreement have enabled a successful outcome. Implications: Case study
of a TEMPUS-funded curriculum project, situated within a context of rapid educational and political change.
Keywords: Russian physiotherapy curriculum; WCPT Europe Benchmark Statement.Funding
acknowledgements: EU TEMPUS Fund Ethics approval: Ethics approval not required

Accreditation: ensuring quality in Australian university physiotherapy education
Professor Joan McMeeken1,2, Emeritus Professor Ruth Grant2, Ms Margaret Grant2, 1University of Melbourne,
Melbourne, Australia; 2Australian Physiotherapy Council, Canberra, Australia.

Purpose:A formal physiotherapy education accreditation process commenced in 1997. It has been tested with
programs increasing from six to 19 in 10 years. The Australian Physiotherapy Council undertakes accreditation
ensuring physiotherapists entering the profession achieve the Australian Standards for Physiotherapy and are
eligible to register as primary practitioners. Assessment of graduates by their employers is a key component for
full accreditation. A refined process sustains high quality educational outcomes whilst enabling universities to
deliver programs and assess students in a diversity of ways. Relevance: This has demonstrated ongoing rigour as
program numbers increased. It enables educators, practising clinicians and regulators to participate. Description:
Accreditation is an iterative process with preliminary approval required prior to Full Accreditation. Schools of
Physiotherapy submit documentation to the Australian Physiotherapy Council indicating their capacity to fulfil
the requirements of the Australian Standards for Physiotherapy. The Accreditation Committee of the Council
reviews documentation, undertakes Site Visits and makes recommendations to the Council. Diverse educational
paradigms are encouraged. Accreditation emphasises the critical roles of leadership, research, support to develop
staff and students and the primacy of clinical education. Full Accreditation is awarded when employers have

evaluated the performance of graduates. Evaluation: Evaluation of educational outcome through a major
Australian government grant (McMeeken et al 2005) reinforces that a major strength of the accreditation system
is its focus on educational outcomes in conjunction with ensuring appropriate resourcing. Current challenges are
a shortage experienced academic faculty and the availability of sufficient clinical education placements.
Conclusions: A robust process has been developed, reviewed and refined to ensure high standards of entry-level
physiotherapy graduates. This has been sustained over a period of unprecedented growth. Future evaluation by
international colleagues is under consideration. Implications: This work has worldwide implications for the
maintenance of high quality physiotherapy educational standards and the development of accreditation
processes. Keywords: Accreditation recognition quality Funding acknowledgements: Australian
Physiotherapy Council, Australian Universities Teaching Committee Ethics approval: This work involves an
accreditation process and does not require ethics approval.

Curriculum design 3
Room 353

Towards a common physiotherapy framework - a basis for curriculum development
Heli Kangas, Finnish Association of Physiotherapists (FAP), Helsinki; Anne Kärki, Satakunta University of
Applied Sciences; Marja-Leena Lähteenmäki, PIRAMK University of Applied Sciences; Raija Nurmi, Turku
University of Applied Sciences; Arja Veijola, Oulu University of Applied Sciences; Camilla Wikström-Grotell,
Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki.

Purpose: As a stage in renewing the physiotherapy (PT) curriculum in Finland according to the European
Higher Education Area (EHEA) there was a need to harmonize the understanding of physiotherapy core
knowledge. The aim of the project was to create a common framework for clinicians, educators and researchers
in the field of physiotherapy. Relevance: There had been a lack of a common and outsourced understanding of
the basis of physiotherapy. This framework offers to physiotherapists in different fields and especially for PT
students a common understanding of the main concepts related to the PT practice as well as to the knowledge
base in PT including epistemological and ontological questions. There was also a need to enhance evidence
based PT in the education as well as in the clinical practice. Description: The project was carried out in co-
operation between FAP and five Universities of Applied Sciences. The framework was developed during the
academic year 2007 during several meetings between the authors and their reference groups. The framework
consists of three parts that will be introduced in three different oral presentations in this conference. The parts are
Common understanding of 1) human being, health, movement, function and culture, 2) knowledge and learning
and 3) the physiotherapy process. Evaluation: The framework has been introduced to teachers, clinicians and
researchers in different seminars. The received feedback has been taken into consideration when developing the
framework further. The framework has already received positive acceptance in the selection of common
concepts and in the definition of them. Conclusions: The framework expresses the main concepts and their
relationships in PT area. The framework will be offered to Universities of Applied Sciences to be used when
developing PT education as well to clinicians and researchers to help them in reaching a common understanding
in physiotherapy. Implications: The framework has a significant place when bridging the gap between
education, practice and research.Keywords: Core concepts, framework, common understanding Funding
acknowledgements: FAP has paid the travelling costs for the authors and the Universities of Applied Sciences
have revealed time recourses. Ethics approval: The project has not required any special ethical approval.

Towards a common physiotherapy framework – the core concepts and ontological
basis for curriculum development
Heli Kangas, coordinator, Finnish Association of Physiotherapists, Helsinki, Finland; Camilla Wikström-
Grotell, head of department, Arcada University of applied sciences, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: As a stage in renewing the physiotherapy (PT) curriculum in Finland according to the European
Higher Education Area (EHEA) modernization reform, there was a need to harmonize the understanding of the
physiotherapy core knowledge. The aim of the project was to create a common framework for students,
clinicians, educators and researchers in the field of physiotherapy. Relevance: There is lack of common and

outsourced understanding of the basis of physiotherapy. The body of knowledge is said to be fragmentary and
split up in a naturalistic and humanistic paradigm. The underlying assumptions that have been adopted within the
PT profession are not much reflected and the ontological presumpositions are not articulated or part of the basic
research. Description: The project was carried out in co-operation between Finnish Association of
Physiotherapists and five Universities of Applied Sciences. Development of the framework was based on
scientific literature. Several meetings were carried out between the authors and their reference groups during the
academic year 2007. The human being, movement, health, function and culture were selected as the ontological
core concepts of the framework. The relevance of different theoretical perspectives will be discussed.
Evaluation: The framework has been introduced to teachers, clinicians and researchers in several different
seminars. The received feedback has been taken into consideration when developing the framework further
towards a humanistic view on PT. Conclusions: The framework expresses the main concepts and their
relationships in the area of PT. In order to be able to describe, explain and understand all the aspects of PT
reality and to bridge the gap between education, research and practice it is important to broaden the view from a
naturalistic to a humanistic perspective. Implications: The framework has a significant place when bridging the
gap between education, practice and research. Keywords: Core concepts, ontological assumptions, humanistic
perspective Funding acknowledgements: Finnish Association of Physiotherapists has paid the travelling costs
for the authors and the Universities of Applied Sciences have revealed time recourses.Ethics approval: The
project has not required any special ethical approval.

Towards a common physiotherapy framework -
Common understanding of knowledge and learning
Marja-Leena Lähteenmäki, principal lecturer, PIRAMK, Tampere, Finland; Raija Nurmi, principal lecturer,
Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland

Purpose: As a stage in renewing the physiotherapy (PT) curriculum in Finland according to the European
Higher Education Area (EHEA) there was a need to harmonize the understanding of the physiotherapy core
knowledge. The aim of the main project was to create a common framework for students, clinicians, educators
and researchers in the field of physiotherapy. Relevance: There is a lack of a common and outsourced
understanding of the basis of physiotherapy. This abstract presents the epistemological part of the framework. To
be able to develop physiotherapy and physiotherapy education we need a strong and coherent understanding of
the structure of knowledge and knowledge creation process. Description: The project was carried out in co-
operation between Finnish Association of Physiotherapists (FAP) and five Universities of Applied Sciences. The
framework was developed based on scientific literature. Several meetings were carried out between the authors
and their reference groups during the academic year 2007. The knowledge was understood as three dimensional.
The dimensions are theoretical or propositional knowledge, practical knowledge and experiential knowledge.
One can reach her/his own subjective experiential knowledge through active learning and reflective thinking
from propositional and practical knowledge. One’s professional development and expertise depends on the on
going life long learning process that can be compared to a problem solving process in clinical practice.
Evaluation: The framework has been introduced to teachers, clinicians and researchers in different seminars.
The main feedback was about the concepts to be chosen and their definitions. The received feedback has been
taken into account when developing the framework further. Conclusions: The framework expresses the main
concepts and their relationships in physiotherapy area. It will offer to higher education as well to all
physiotherapists a common knowledge basis for learning and supporting learning. It helps to understand
knowledge creation processes in clinical practice, research and in reflective critical thinking. Implications: The
framework gives a common basis for education, practice and research in developing professional knowledge,
practise and physiotherapy profession. Keywords: physiotherapy, knowledge, learning Funding
acknowledgements: The Finnish Association of Physiotherapists has paid the travelling costs for the authors
and the Universities of Applied Sciences have revealed time recourses. Ethics approval: The project has not
required any special ethical approval.

Curriculum design 4
Room 351

Evaluating a new physiotherapy curriculum with Learning by Developing (LbD)

operating model from the students´ perspectives
 Mikko Julin MSc, Arja Piirainen PhD, Heikki Penttilä MSc, Johanna Leskelä MSc, Irma Karhu MSc, Päivi
Immonen-Orpana MSc, Johanna Stepanoff MSc, Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo, Finland

Purpose: The purpose of new physiotherapy curriculum with the Learning by Developing (LbD) operating
model, is to produce graduates, who have the competence required for their degree and who are investigative
developers of their work and workplace. The functionality of this curriculum is evaluated by the physiotherapy
students who have studied two years with this curriculum. Relevance: The Learning by Developing operating
model combines and integrates the learning process and work-oriented development. Development initiatives are
built on the principle of partnership. This means that students, lecturers and experts from the working life
cooperate in project environments. Learning takes place as projects progress. This will create new ways for the
education to cooperate with the working life and raises the question of the diversity on the learning evaluation.
Description: The stages of Learning by Developing are based on authenticity, partnership, experiencing,
creativity and an investigative approach. Students are responsible for their own learning and they are seen as
partners and developers. Professional growth is based on recognising and reflecting on the students´ own
activities and their desire to become investigative and developmental experts in their field. Students evaluate
their professional growth through their education, using portfolios. Peer supervisors, workplace experts and
lecturers all help to guide the students´ professional growth process. The student’s learning process and the
development project process are interlinked so that the learning environment should support student’s learning
while producing new knowledge for the practice. Evaluation: Laurea University of Applied Sciences has been
appointed as a centre of excellence in education in 2005-2006.Conclusions: The curriculum challenges the
physiotherapy education to develop physiotherapy in conjunction with the working life and changes the
evaluation of student’s professional growth towards more holistic approach. Implications: The curriculum with
innovative learning environments enables to educate professionals for today’s working life needs and thus the
curriculum is part of the process for developing better physiotherapy practices. Keywords: Learning by
Developing model (LbD), physiotherapy curriculum Funding acknowledgements: No external funding. Ethics
approval: No ethical approval was included

How to Teach Physiotherapy Students to Become Reflective Learners.

Pia Jorgensen ,MSc. PT, associate research fellow RUML University College Lillebaelt,The Physiotherapy
Education , Odense Denmark, pijo@ucl.dk

Purpose: The goal was to allow physiotherapy students think reflectively and to implement this in later critical
reflections on their own clinical practice. The aim of the part of the project presented here was for the students to
integrate new knowledge concerning physiotherapy into their own life-worlds. Relevance: The project was a
professional and pedagogical research project carried out in a normal educational setting among first semester
students. Participants: 46 students from 2 classes in 2006 participated in the project. Students from first
semester were chosen because it was considered important for the students to practise a reflective way of
thinking from the very beginning of their education thus providing a supplement to a more hypothetical and
deductive way of thinking. Methods: In this qualitative and explorative action research project, six scenarios of
reflection were constructed, carried out and evaluated among first semester physiotherapy students. The
scenarios consisted of a conglomerate of verbal, written and body reflections. The data consisted of researcher
learning logs, group interviews, qualitative questionnaires, reflective writings from the students and tape
recordings from classes in physiotherapy where students asked questions. Analysis: A single scenario was
described and analysed in detail. Every single student had to change a habit in his or her daily life. The data from
all sources concerning the exemplary scenario enlightened the research questions. Results from other scenarios
constituted a frame of reference. Results: Surprisingly, all students succeeded in integrating new theories and
new knowledge into their own life-worlds. The students found 'real inner motivation' the most important factor
to succeed. Many personal and uncomfortable feelings were involved in the process and this demanded a safe
and confident learning environment. Conclusions: The integration between new knowledge concerning
Physiotherapy and the life-worlds of the students was documented in this study. The meaning of the concrete
context as well as the qualifications of the students and teachers needs to be analysed further. Implications: It is
of great importance to focus the students reflective competencies in different ways to educate professional
critical health workers. Keywords: Reflective thinking, reflective learning, verbal written and body reflections.
Funding acknowledgements: The work was unfunded. Ethics approval: Formal ethics approval was not

Innovative educational reform - The process and implications of transition to
competenct based individual learning tracks.
N.P. Mardjan; A.E.T. Metz; K.M. Verschoor; Saxion Universities, Enschede, The Netherlands

Purpose: The gradual change in Dutch society towards decreasing political governance and increasing
responsibility of the individual for his own wellbeing requires a different kind of health care professional. The
Dutch PT is expected to shift between (new) roles as formulated by the Royal Dutch PT Association (KNGF).
Students need to be prepared in their formal education. Relevance: The concept of customized individual study
tracks has been defined and developed by Saxion Universities for mandatory application in all education
programs of its schools. Required changes imply the need for new roles of faculty and clinicians. Description:
The student designs his own education program, making use of course offerings and other facilities. However,
professional requirements are defined in the competency profile on different levels, which are his leading
reference. The course menu is constructed conform the 4C/ID model (van Merriënboer). The student plans his
activities methodically in periodic ‘personal development plans’. Certified educational career coaches guide him
in formulating, executing and evaluating these plans. The achieved level of professional effectiveness is assessed
in a context representative for the required level of competence. All this requires the school to make a profound
transition from a prescription oriented to a facility oriented organization. Evaluation: Initial observations are
encouraging. Faculty are generally pleased with students' motivation and effort. The results of systematic
evaluations will be available in september '08. These results will reflect both students and faculty opinions.
Conclusions: It is more natural to put the student in charge of his education. In the current preparations for the
introduction of the concept in senior study phases ample attention needs be paid to ‘cultural change’ within the
school and in the clinic. Implications: Competency based learning requires a more fundamental change of
professional attitude by faculty than other recent developments in PT education. Specific attention needs be
given by management to facilitate faculty in acquiring new professional roles required. In our situation a new
organizational structure was created providing faculty with an optimal degree of freedom in organizing their own
work and plotting their careers. This is in line with the self management that is progressively required from
students. Keywords: professional roles, competencies,transition Funding acknowledgements: No external
funding sources have been used: Ethics approval: Ethics approval as such was not required.

Work shop- Inquiry Based Learning
Room 456

Trust and Allow the Course Participants to Sharpen Their Ability and
Engagement - Inquiry Based Learning
Eva Nordmark, Sweden
Christina Gummesson*, Eva Nordmark* & Anders Ahlberg**
Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy,Lund University, Sweden*, Center of
Educational Development, Lund University, Sweden**

Aims: This workshop offers an inquiry-based experience. Participants will be offered the possibility to
explore Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) through their own inquiries. Objectives: Having participated at the workshop the
participants should have had an experience related to their own background by their inquiries and exploration.
Structure: The workshop will engage participants to ask questions, explore and share experiences related
to this pedagogical approach. It will also include a short presentation based on our experiences.


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