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Slide 1 - US History

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									■Chapter 11: The Roaring 20s
         Life in the 1920s
■The 1920s were an era of change:
 –Increased wealth, consumerism,
  leisure time, & new forms of
  entertainment led to a “Jazz Age”
 –By 1920, more Americans lived
  in cities than in rural areas
 –Rural Americans reacted to these
  changes by attacking behaviors
  they viewed as “un-American”
Prohibition
           Prohibition
■In 1920, the 18th Amendment went
 into effect & Prohibition began:
  –Supported by rural Protestants
   who believed drinking led to
   crime, abuse, & job accidents
  –26 states had already outlawed
   alcohol before 1920
  –The Volstead Act made the sale,
   manufacture & transportation of
   alcohol illegal
Prohibition: A “Noble Experiment”
The U.S. Treasury Dept was in charge of
      enforcing the Volstead Act
As a result of prohibition, alcohol
      consumption declined
            Prohibition
■But, many urban Americans
 resisted prohibition:
  –Most immigrants considered
   drinking part of socializing
  –Wealthy urban Americans
   wanted to enjoy themselves
  –Bootleggers made illegal alcohol
   & rum runners smuggled foreign
   alcohol into the country
  –Secret saloons (speakeasies)
   were created to sell booze
Rum Runners smuggled booze from
 Canada, the Caribbean, & Europe
Bootleggers & moonshiners made illegal booze



 Why are they called
  “bootleggers”?
Speakeasies were secret saloons or nightclubs
             Prohibition
■Prohibition had some negative
 effects on America in the 1920s:
 –Smuggling & bootlegging
   increased crime & lawlessness
 –Organized crime grew & took
   control of the illegal alcohol trade
 –Mob bosses paid off politicians,
   judges, & police departments
 –The federal gov’t could not
   enforce prohibition effectively
             crime grew in American cities,
 Organizedthe liquor trade, mobsters resorted
 To control
 especially in killings; The most notorious was
to bloody gang Chicago where Al Capone’s
             gang was dominant
    the St. Valentines Day Massacre in 1929




Gangster Al Capone made $60 million per year
  in bootlegging & became a notorious icon
            Prohibition
■By the end of the 1920s, only 19%
 of Americans supported prohibition
 –The strongest defenders of
   prohibition were rural Americans
 –But, most Americans believed
   prohibition caused more problems
   than it solved
 –In 1933, the 21st Amendment
   ended prohibition
Intolerance
      Intolerance in the 1920s
■ In the 1920s, America experienced
  a new wave of nativism:
   –800,000 Southern & Eastern
    European immigrants arrived each
    year in the early 1920s
   –Rural folks associated immigrants
    with “anti-American” cultures:
    non-Protestant religions &
    supporters of anarchy or socialism
            The Red Scare
■ In 1917, Lenin led the Bolsheviks in
  the Russian Revolution & created
  the 1st communist gov’t
■ During WWI & 1920s, Americans
  feared a similar revolution in the U.S.
   –Eugene Debs formed an American
    Socialist Party & ran for president
   –Unskilled workers were unhappy
    with low wages & went on strike
Red Scare in America
         Sacco & Vanzetti
■During the Red Scare, suspected
 immigrants were under attack:
  –In 1920, two Italian immigrants
   named Sacco & Vanzetti were
   arrested & charged with murder
  –Sacco & Vanzetti were anarchists
   (believed in no gov’t) but claimed
   to be innocent of the crime
  –With only circumstantial evidence,
   they were found guilty & executed
Sacco & Vanzetti
     Immigration Restrictions
■In 1921 & 1924, the gov’t passed
 new laws restricting immigration:
  –These laws created quotas that
   placed a maximum number on
   how many immigrants could
   enter the United States
  –The laws discriminated against
   Southern & Eastern European
   immigrants & Asian immigrants
         The Ku Klux Klan
■The 1920s saw an increase in
 membership in the Ku Klux Klan:
 –The KKK promoted traditional
  values & “100% Americanism”
 –Used violence & fear to attack
  African Americans, immigrants,
  Catholics, Jews, unions, socialists
■By 1924, the KKK had 4.5 million
 members & elected politicians to
 power in several states
    The 1st KKK
 disbanded when
  Reconstruction
   ended in the
1870s, but the 2nd
  KKK formed in
 1915 to protect
  rural, Christian
      values
The KKK was anti-Catholic & anti-immigrant
  (many “new immigrants were Catholic)


                      The KKK supported
                       Protestant, white
                       American values,
                     including prohibition
   D.W. Griffith’s The
   Birth of a Nation
(1915) was one of the
   most controversial
films in movie history.
Set during & after the
   Civil War, the film
     glorifies white
supremacy & the KKK
At its height in the 1920s, the KKK had
   4.5 million members nationwide
Religion
     Religious Fundamentalism
■In the 1920s, rural Americans found
 comfort in religious fundamentalism
 (a literal interpretation of the Bible)
  –Disliked the immigrants, flappers,
   socialists they saw in cities
  –Evangelists used the radio to
   broadcast Christian messages
  –Rejected many modern scientific
   theories; Towns in the South &
   West outlawed teaching evolution
    Religious Fundamentalism
■In 1925, teacher John Scopes was
 arrested in Dayton, TN for teaching
 evolution in his biology class
    The Scopes “Monkey Trial” was a
           national sensation




  ACLU attorney Clarence & fined $100, but
  Scopes was found guilty
         defended Scopes; won because
 DarrowFormer presidential candidate
   evolutionists believed they
Represented urban America, that prosecutor;
  Darrow got Bryan to served
 William Jennings Bryanadmit as the world
    science & modernity
Represented fundamentalism & 24 hour days
might not have been made in sixrural America
            Conclusions
■America in the 1920s experienced
 a decade of change:
 –Wealth, consumerism, credit,
   cars, radios, advertising
 –Pro-business gov’t attitude &
   isolationist foreign policy
 –New freedoms for women &
   African Americans
 –Attempts by tradition-minded
   rural folks to protect against the
   rapid changes of America
The 1920s

								
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