A Seismic Source Summary for Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions by ert634

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									                                     Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 89, 3, pp. 640-647, June 1999




       A Seismic Source Summary for Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions
                               b y D. D. S u l t a n o v , J. R. M u r p h y , a n d Kh. D. R u b i n s t e i n


                Abstract     A summary of information is presented for 122 Soviet peaceful nuclear
                explosions (PNE) detonated during the 1965 to 1988 time period. The data presented
                include detonation times, locations, explosion yields, and depths o f burial, as well
                as summary information regarding the explosion configurations and source emplace-
                ment media. This summary is intended to provide a concise reference for use in
                research studies of the seismic data recorded from this unique set of explosion
                sources.




                           Introduction

     During the period extending from January 1965 to Sep-                          The Soviet PNE explosions were conducted in a variety
tember 1988, the former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted 122                       of geologic emplacement media (e.g., sandstone/shale, lime-
peaceful nuclear explosion (PNE) tests in a variety of com-                    stone/dolomite, salt, clay, tuff, granite) and are representa-
mercial and scientific applications. The majority of these                     tive of broad ranges in explosion yield (0.01 to 140 kt) and
tests can be roughly grouped into three areas of application:                  source depth (31 to 2860 m). The distributions of the PNE
(1) stimulation and control of oil, gas, and mining extraction                 events with respect to these source variables are summarized
processes; (2) creation of underground storage cavities, pri-                  in histogram form in Figure 2 where it can be seen that
marily in salt; and (3) deep seismic sounding (DSS) for map-                   approximately 75% of the events have yields in the 1 to 20
ping of major crustal and upper mantle geologic structures.                    kt range and that nearly 60% have source depths of greater
The remaining few events were devoted to a variety of pur-                     than 750 m. Thus, the majority of these PNE events are
poses, including excavation of near-surface materials for                      deeply overburied, low-yield explosions of the type that are
construction projects, development of technology for ob-                       of primary interest in verification studies related to seismic
taining transuranic elements through sequential explosions                     monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
in water, and earthquake hazard studies. Most of the explo-
sions were tamped and contained. Seven explosions were for
excavation purposes and created trenches, dams, or craters.
In two cases, large underground cavities created by explo-                                                      Discussion
sions in salt (i.e., Azgir A-2-1 and A-3-1) were used for re-
peated explosions in air (one cavity decoupled test; Adush-                         Seismic source tabulations for 122 Soviet PNE tests are
ldn et al., 1992) and water (six low-yield explosions;                         presented in Table 1. Preliminary, incomplete versions of
Murphy et al., 1996).                                                          this table were previously published by Sultanov et al.
     The locations of the PNE tests were widely dispersed                      (1993) and in a summary publication by the Russian Fed-
throughout the territories of the FSU. This fact is graphically                eration Ministries of Atomic Energy and Defense (1996).
illustrated in Figure 1, where these locations are shown as                    These prior lists provided starting points for assembling the
overlays (large squares) to a color-coded topographic map                      more complete list of Table 1, which we believe incorporates
of the FSU and surrounding countries. The International                        all currently available, verified information regarding these
Seismological Centre (ISC) seismicity database for the pe-                     tests. It should be noted that the referenced 1996 Russian
riod 1988 to 1990 is also included as an overlay (small                        Federation summary lists 124 tests that are designated as
squares) to this map to illustrate the tectonic diversity of the               PNE as opposed to the 122 tests of Table 1. The additional
PNE test environments. More specifically, these source lo-                     2 tests in this summary (04/09/71 and 12/16/74) were PNE
cations sample the Baltic shield; the Russian, Turan, Kazakh,                  device development tests conducted in tunnels at the seis-
West Siberian, and Siberian platforms, the Caspian, Pre-                       mically well-calibrated Semipalatinsk test site and are gen-
Urals, and Pre-Caucasus depressions; the Baikal rift zone;                     erally not regarded as operational PNE tests. Therefore, they
and the Altai-Sayan orogenic belt. Thus, seismic data re-                      have not been included in Table 1. Because the data in this
corded from these tests represent a unique resource for stud-                  table are of variable accuracy, it is necessary to qualify the
ies of the variability of crust and upper mantle structures                    various entries with respect to the sources of information as
over this wide range of geophysical environments.                              follows.


                                                                         640
A Seismic Source Summary for Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions                                                                 641




                        Figure 1. Locations of Soviet PNE events (large squares) shown as overlays to a
                        color-coded topographic map of the former Soviet Union and surrounding countries.
                        The larger red squares indicate locations where multiple PNE tests were conducted. The
                        small squares correspond to the ISC seismicity for the region for the period 1988 to
                        1990.


     Origin Time                                                     within about __+ 0.5 sec. Finally, there are 8 explosions for
      True origin times were obtained from automated re-             which the seismic data are inadequate for such a determi-
cordings of the detonation times for 97 of the 122 PNE tests.        nation of origin time, and the origin times in these cases are
These origin times are listed in Table 1 with a precision of         listed in Table 1 to the nearest second based on rough, an-
                                                                     nounced detonation times for these explosions.
0.01 sec. For an additional 17 of these explosions, the origin
times have been estimated from seismic hypocenter solu-                   Location
tions, and these are listed with a precision of 0.5 sec. These
                                                                          Actual locations are known for 79 of the 122 PNE
latter estimates are based on a statistical comparison of ISC
                                                                     events, and these are listed in Table 1 with a precision of
origin times and actual detonation times for 67 well-recorded
                                                                     0.001 °. These were estimated by geodetic means (DSS pro-
PNE events for which the detonation times were automati-
                                                                     jects) or from high-resolution maps of the sites and are con-
cally measured in the field. This comparison revealed that
                                                                     sidered to be accurate to within 0.2 to 1.0 km. Seismic lo-
the ISC seismic origin times for these events are early, on          cations are listed in Table 1 with a precision of 0.05 ° for an
average, by 2.50 sec, with an associated standard deviation          additional 37 explosions. A comparison of seismic [ISC or
of 0.38 sec. Thus, the origin times reported in Table 1 for          U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Data Report (EDR)] and
these 17 explosions were obtained by adding 2.5 sec to their         actual locations for more than 200 explosions at the Semi-
reported ISC origin times and are assumed to be accurate to          pa/atinsk test site indicates an average seismic mislocation
642                                                                                                                      D.D. Sultanov, J. R. Murphy, Kh. D. Rubinstein


                                                                                                        the yields were determined from in situ hydrodynamic mea-
     50-
                                                                                                        surements on the individual tests. Alternate, credible values
~ 40-                                                                                                   from other sources of information are shown in parentheses
     30-                                                                                                in some cases.

$ 20-
                                                                                                             Source Medium
     lO-
z       .                                                                                                    Given the complexity of the subsurface geology at a
      o-
       lO-2                          10-1                   100             lo 1             lo 2       number of the PNE sites, the source media listed in Table 1
                                                            Yield, kt                                   are only representative of the environments near source
     60-
               J                                                                                        depth in some cases and, consequently, may not always pro-
     5o"
                                                                                                        vide adequate descriptions for use in assessments of vari-
1~40-                                                                                                   ability in seismic source coupling. More detailed subsurface
'~ 30-                                                                                                  information is available for a number of these tests, but no
     20~                                                                                                comprehensive reference to these data is available at the
"~ 10-                                                                                                  present time.
7
    0-
     ao 1                                      102                        103                     104
                                                     Source Depth, m                                         mb
     60
                                                                                                             The mb values listed in Table 1 are ISC values, except
~50        -




                                                                                                        for the Magistral event of 25 June 1970 for which the avail-
•
LLI 4o~                                                                                                 able EDR value is given. No teleseismic ISC or EDR rnb val-
"6 30-                                                                                                  ues were reported for 14 of these PNE events, 9 of which
.~ 2o~.                     . ,                                                                         had yields of less than about 1 kt, and all of which had yields
=E                                                                                                      of less than 8 kt.
Z
      0            Sandstone/     Limestone/         Saff          Clay         Tuff    Other
                     Shale         Dolomite                                            Hardrock
                                                     Source Medium
                                                                                                             Comments

               Figure 2. Histograms showing the distributions of                                             The comments are limited to the excavation explosions
               the Soviet PNE events with respect to explosion yield,                                   and those with unusual source configurations. In cases in
               depth of burial, and source medium.                                                      which there were multiple explosions with horizontal offset,
                                                                                                        AR denotes the horizontal offsets between the explosions of
                                                                                                        the group.
of 6.7 km, with a standard deviation of 4.4 kin. A similar
comparison for 53 Soviet PNE events with mb > 5.0 indi-
cates an average seismic mislocation of about 7.0 km, with                                                                           Summary
an associated standard deviation of 3.3 km. Thus, the seis-
mological locations in Table 1 for explosions with yields                                                    A seismic source summary has been presented for 122
greater than about 10 kt are considered to be accurate to                                               PNE tests conducted by the FSU between 1965 and 1968.
within 5 to 10 kin. The locations for the remaining 6 PNE                                               Exact origin times and locations are currently available for
events, which were too small to be located using teleseismic                                            69 of these 122 explosions. Exact locations and seismically
data, are listed in Table 1 with a precision of 0.1 °. These                                            based origin times with estimated accuracies of -+ 0.5 sec
are based on rough, geographic descriptions of the source                                               have been provided for an additional 8 explosions. Thus,
locations and are of variable and currently unspecified ac-                                             Table 1 lists source parameters for some 77 Soviet PNE tests
curacy.                                                                                                 that are accurate enough for highly detailed seismological
                                                                                                        investigations. Hopefully, future studies encompassing anal-
                                                                                                        yses of satellite imagery and regional seismic data, perhaps
       Yield and Depth
                                                                                                        supplemented by GPS determinations from visits to selected
     The explosion yields and depths of burial listed in Table                                          sites, will eventually provide accurate locations for all the
1 are taken from the Russian Federation summary (1996)                                                  other explosions in this unique data set.
and are considered to have nominal accuracies of about
+ 10% and ___5 m, respectively. In most cases, the nuclear
explosives used in the PNE tests were standard devices, the
                                                                                                                               Acknowledgments
yields of which had been carefully determined during de-
velopment testing at the Semipalatinsk test site. In those few                                               This research was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency
cases in which previously uncalibrated devices were used,                                               under Contract DSWA-01-97-C-0156.
A Seismic Source Summary for Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions                                                                            643


                                                                 Table 1
                                            S e i s m i c Source Data for 122 Soviet P N E Tests

   Name and        Origin Time   Geodetic                                    Source
   Date (UT)          (UT)       Location       Yield, kt     Depth, m       Medium        mb                        Comments

Chagan 1004       06:00:00.79    49.935 N         140            178       sandstone       5.8     excavation explosion
01/15/65                         79.009 E        (125)
Butane 1-1        08:00:00       52.9 N          2.3X2          1375       limestone        -      simultaneous detonation of 2 devices,
03/30/65                         56.5 E                         1341                               AR = 200m
Butane 1-2        07:00:00       52.9 N           7.6           1350       limestone        -      detonated 350m west of Butane 1-1
06/10/65                         56.5 E
Sary-Uzen 1003    04:00:00.20    49.991 N          1.1            48       sandstone/       -      excavation explosion
10/14/65                         77.636 E                                  shale
Azgir A-1         02:58:00.26    47.829 N          1.1            161      salt            4.7
04/22/66                         47.935 E
Urtabulak         05:59:51.0     38.968 N          30           1532       clay            5.1
09/30/66                         64.517 E
Tawda             06:59:57.5     57.70 N           0.3            172      clay            4.7
10/06/67                         65.20 E          (0.2)
Pamuk             03:59:11.98    38.918 N          47           2440       salt            5.4
05/21/68                         65.032 E
Azgir A-2-1       04:02:00.5     47.909 N          27             597      salt            5.5
07/01/68                         47.912 E
Telkem 1          03:52:00.00    49.728 N         0.24          31.4       sandstone/       -      excavation explosion
10/21/68                         78.486 E        (0.20)                    shale
Telkem 2          07:30:00.00    49.712 N        0.24X3         31.4       sandstone/       -      excavation explosion, simultaneous detonation
11/12/68                         78.461 E       (0.20X3)                   shale                   of 3 devices, AR12 = AR23 = 40m
Grifon- 1         04:59:58.61    57.220 N          7.6          1212       limestone       4.8
09/02/69                         55.393 E
Grifon-2          04:59:58.70    57.220 N          7.6           1208      limestone       4.8
09/08/69                         55.417 E
Stavropol         06:59:58.14    45.848 N          10             712      clay            5.6
09/26/69                         42.600 E
Mangyshlak- 1     07:02:59.85    43.867 N          30             407      chalk           5.8
12/06/69                         54.800 E         (31 )
Magistral         04:59:55.5     52.20 N           2.3            702      salt            4.9
06/25/70                         55.70 E
Mangyshlak-2      07:00:59.83    43.85 N           80             497      chalk           6.0
12/12/70                         54.80 E          (85)
Mangyshlak-3      07:00:59.76    44.025 N          75             470      clay            6.0
12/23/70                         54.933 E                       (740)
Talga             06:59:58.38    61.40 N          15X3            127      sandstone/      5.5     excavation explosion, simultaneous detonation
03/23/71                         56.20 E                                   shale                   of 3 devices, AR12 = z~R23 = 165m
Globe-4           17:00:01.13    67.283 N          2.3            542      sandstone/      4.7
07/02/71                         63.467 E                                  shale
Globe-3           17:00:01.38    64.167 N          2.3            465      clay            5.2
07/10/71                         55.267 E
Globe- 1          11:00:01.08    57.508 N          2.3            610      limestone       4.5
09/19/71                         42.643 E
Globe-2           10:00:00.14    61.358 N          2.3            595      sandstone/      4.6
10/04/71                         48.092 E                                  shale
Sapphire-1        05:00:01.0     51.60 N           15           1140       salt            5.2
10/22/71                         54.45 E
Azgir A-3-1       06:59:59.0     47.897 N          64            986       salt            6.0
12/22/71                         48.133 E
Crater            06:00:01.92    37.35 N           15           1720       limestone       4.9
04/11/72                         62.05 E          (14)
Fakel             07:00:01.25    49.80 N           3.8          2483       salt            4.8
07/09/72                         35.40 E
Region-3          03:00:00.01    49.400 N         6.6            489       clay            5.7
08/20/72                         48.142 E
644                                                                                D.D. Sultanov, J. R. Murphy, Kh. D. Rubinstein


                                                            Table 1
                                                          Continued

  Name and      Origin Time    Geodetic                                 Source
  Date (UT)        (UT)        Location     Yield, kt   Depfh, m        Medium      mb                         Comments

Dnepr-1        07:00:00        67.75 N        2.1          13!        apatite      4.6     explosion in mine
09/04/72                       33.10 E
Region- 1      09:00:00.31     52.118 N       2.3         485         salt         5.0
09/21/72                       52.068 E
Region-4       09:00:00.18    46.853 N        6.6         485         clay         5.6
10/03/72                      44.938 N
Region-2       09:00:00.04    51.990 N        2.3         675         dolomite     4.5
11/24/72                      51.867 E
Region-5       10:00:00.23    51.842 N        6.6         423         limestone    5.2
11/24/72                      64.210 E
Meridian-3     02:00:00.02    42.775 N        6.3         600         clay         5.3
08/15/73                      67.408 E
Meridian- 1    03:00:00.04    50.527 N        6.3         395         sandstone/   5.2
08/28/73                      68.323 E                                shale
Meridian-2     03:00:00.18    45.758 N        6.3         615         sandstone/   5.1
09/19/73                      67.825 E                                shale
Sapphire-2     05:00:00.35    51.65 N         10         1145         salt         52
09/30/73                      54.55 E        (6.6)
Kama-2         05:59:59.5     53.65 N         10         2026         limestone    4.8
10/26/73                      55.40 E
Kama- 1        05:59:59.95    53.70 N         10         2123         limestone    4.6
07/08/74                      55.10 E
ttorizon-2     15:00:00.19    68.903 N        7.6         534         clay         5.4
08/14/74                      75.823 E
Horizon- 1     15:00:00.39     67.085 N       7.6         583         sandstone/   5.0
08/29/74                       62,625 E                               shale
Crystal        01:00:01.06     66,10 N        1.7          98         limestone    4.6     excavation explosion
10/02/74                      112.65 E
Lazurite       05:59:59.0      49,90 N        1.7          75         quartzite/   4.7     excavation explosion
12/07/74                       77.65 E                                shale
Azgir A-2-2    05:00:00        47,909 N      0.35          600        salt         4.7     explosion in A-2-1 water-filled cavity
04/25/75                       47.912 E                  (583)
Horizon-4      15:00:00.60     70.763 N       7.6         496         sandstone/   5.1
08/12/75                      126.953 E                               shale
Horizon-3      11:00:00.43    69.578    N     7.6         834         salt         4.8
09/29/75                      90,337    E
Azgir A-3-2    07:00:00.23    47.897    N     10          986         salt         4.3     explosion in A-3-1 air-filled cavity,   mb   value
03/29/76                      48.133    E     (8)                                          from Adushldn e t a L (1993)
Azgir A-4      05:00:00.5      47.870   N     58         1000         salt         5.9
07/29/76                       48.150   E
Oka            03:59:59.98     61.458   N     15         1522         limestone    5.3
11/05/76                      112.860   E
Meteorite-2    17:00:00.22    69.575 N        15           850        salt         5.0
07/26/77                      90.375 E       (13)        (880)
Meterorite-5   22:00:00.10     50.955   N     8.5         494         granite      5.0
08/10/77                      110.983   E
Meteorite-3    22:00:00.78     64.108   N     8.5          600        tuff         5.0
08/20/77                       99.558   E                (592)
Meteorite-4    16:00:00.18     57.251 N       7.6          550        sandstone/   4.8
09/10/77                      106.551 E       (7)        (537)        shale
Azgir A-5      06:59:58.43     47.897   N      10        1500         salt         5.0
09/30/77                       48.161   E    (9.3)
Azgir A-2-3    06:59:59.10     47.909   N     0.1          600        salt          -      explosion in A-2-1 water-filled cavity
10/14/77                       47.912   E   (0.11)       (588)
Azgh" A-2-4    06:59:59.07     47.909   N    0.01          600        salt          -      explosion in A-2-1 water-filled cavity
10/30/77                       47.912 E                  (586)
A Seismic Source Summary for Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions                                                                645


                                                            Table 1
                                                           Continued

  Name and       Origin Time     Geodetic                                 Source
  Date (UT)         (UT)         Location      Yield, kt    Depth, m      Medium      mb                   Comments

Kraton-4        18:00:00.79      63.678 N        22               567   sandstone/    5.6
08/09/78                        125.522 E                               shale
Kraton-3        18:00:00.35      65.925 N        22               577   limestone     5.1
08/24/78                        112.338 E       (19)
Azgir A-2-5     04:59:58.49      47.909 N       0.08            600     salt           -    explosion in A-2-1 water-filled cavity
09/12/78                         47.912 E                     (584)
Kraton-2        15:00:00.19      66.598 N        15               886   sandstone/    5.2
09/21/78                         86.210 E       (16)                    shale
Vyatka          00:00:00.0       61.55 N          15           1545     limestone     5.2
10/08/78                        112.85 E         (13)
Azgir A-7       04:59:59.06      47.850 N      18 + 56         1040     salt          5.8   simultaneous detonation of 2 devices in
10/17/78                         48.120 E                       970                         same hole
Kraton-I        14:00:00.16      63.185 N        22               593   sandstone/    5.5
10/17/78                         63.432 E       (23)                    shale
Azgir A-2-6     07:59:59.14      47.909 N       0.06            600     salt           -    explosion in A-2-1 water-filled cavity
11/30/78                         47.912 E                     (586)
Azgir A-9       07:59:58.5       47.860 N        103              630   clay          5.9
12/18/78                         48.160 E      (70-80)
Azgir A-2-7     08:00:00         47.909 N        0.5            600     salt           -    explosion in A-2-1 water-filled cavity
01/10/79                         47.912 E     (0.1-0.8)       (580)
Azgir A-8       07:59:58.5       47.920 N     •2.5 + 56           995   salt          6.0   simultaneous detonation of 2 devices in
01/17/79                         48.120 E                         934                       same hole
Azgir A-11      04:59:58.0       47.880 N         21        849,916     salt          5.6   simultaneous detonation of 3 devices in
07/I4/79                         48.120 E                       982                         same hole
Kimbeflite-4    18:00:00.21      61.803 N        8,5              982   dolomite      4.9
08/12/79                        122.430 E       (6.5)
Kirnberlite-3   18:00:00.31      64.110 N        8.5              599   tuff          4.9
09/06/79                         99.562 E       (6.5)
Cleavage        09:00:00         48.2 N          0.3              903   sandstone      -    explosion in coal mine
09/16/79                         38.3 E
Kimberlite- 1   16:00:00.03      60.675 N        22               837   clay          5.4
10/04/79                         71.455 E       (21)
Sheksna         21:00:00.22      61.85 N          15           1545     limestone     5.0
10/07/79                        113.10 E
Azgir A-10      05:59:59.0       47.850 N        33        915,980      salt          5.8   simultaneous detonation of 2 devices in
10/24/79                         48.140 E                                                   same hole
Butane 2-1      06:00:00         52.9 N          3.2           1400     limestone      -
06/16/80                         56.5 E          (3)
Butane 2-2      06:00:00         52.9 N          3.2           1390     limestone      -
06/25/80                         56.5 E          (3)
Vega-1          06:00:00.29      46.757 N        8.5           1050     salt          5.2
10/08/80                         48.275 E
Batholith- 1    13:00:00.42      60.80 N          8               720   salt          5.2
11/01/80                         97.55 E
Angara          07:00:00.06     61.75 N          15           2485      sandstone/    4.6
12/10/80                        66.75 E                                 shale
Pyrite          05:00:00.32     68.20 N         37.6           1511     sandstone/    5.5
05/25/81                        53.50 E                                 shale, clay
Hellum- 1       03:59:59.99     60,60 N          3.2          2088      limestone     4.4
09/02/81                        55.70 E
Vega 2-1        05:00:00.28     46.790 N         8.5           1050     salt          5.2
09/26/81                        48.313 E
Vega 2-2        05:03:59.94     46.771 N         8.5          1050      salt          5.3
09/26/81                        48.304 E
646                                                                         D.D. Sultanov, J. R. Murphy, Kh. D. Rubinstein


                                                        Table 1
                                                       Continued
 Name and    Origin Time    Geodetic                               Source
 Date (UT)      (UT)        Locatioa    Yield, kt   Depth, m       Medium   mb                       Comments

Shpat-2      14:00:00.36   63.80 N        8.5         581      dolomite     5.1
10/22/81                   97.55 E
Rift-3       21:00:00.00    53.80 N       8.5          554     dolomite     5.0
07/30/82                   104.15 E                  (854)
Rift- 1      18:00:00.06    69.20 N        16         960      sandstone    5.3
09/04/82                    81.65 E
Rift-4       18:00:00.18   64.35 N        8.5         554      gabbro       5.2
09/25182                   91.80 E
Neva- 1      05:00:00.23    61.55 N       15         1502      limestone    5.3
10/10/82                   112.85 E      (16)
Vega 3-1     06:00:00.15   46.759 N       8.5          947     salt         5.2
10116/82                   48.247 E                  (974)
Vega 3-2     06:05:00.08   46.752 N       8.5         991      salt         5.2
10/16/82                   48.258 E
Vega 3-3     06:10:00.10   46.766 N       8.5        1100      salt         5.2
10/16/82                   48.288 E
Vega 3-4     06:15:00.17   46.760 N      13.5        1057      salt         5.4
10/16/82                   48.300 E
Lira 1-1     03:59:59.99   51.363 N       15          907      salt         5.3
07/10183                   53.306 E     (13.5)
Lira 1-2     04:04:59.94   51.367 N       15          917      salt         5.3
07/10/83                   53.327 E     (13.5)
Lira 1-3     04:09:59.85   51.380 N       15          841      salt         5.3
07/10/83                   53.340 E     (13.5)
Vega 4-1     05:00:00.03   46.783 N       8.5        1050      salt         5.2
09/24/83                   48.315 E
Vega 4-2     05:05:00.03   46.788 N       8.5        1050      salt         5.1
09124/83                   48.297 E
Vega 4-3     05:10:00.08   46.767 N       8.5         920      salt         5.0
09/24/83                   48.310 E      (3.5)
Vega 4-4     05:15:00.14   46.749 N       8.5        1100      salt         5.2
09/24/83                   48.303 E
Vega 4-5     05:19:59.93   46.754 N       8.5         950      salt         5.4
09/24/83                   48.289 E
Vega 4-6     05:25:00.00   46.766 N       8.5        1100      salt         5.3
09124/83                   48.274 E
Lira 2-1     02:59:59.81    51.358 N      15           846     salt         5.4
07/21/84                    53.319 E    (13.5)
Lira 2-2     03:04:59.71    51.371 N      15          955      salt         5.3
07/21/84                    53.337 E    (13.5)
Lira 2-3     03:09:59.85    51.391 N      15           844     salt         5.4
07/21/84                    53.351 E    (13.5)
Quartz-2     19:00:00.20    65.05 N       8.5         759      clay         5.3
08/11/84                    55.10 E      (9.5)
Quartz-3     19:00:00.33    61.90   N     8.5         726      clay         5.3
08/25/84                    72.10   E
Dnepr-2      06:00:00.05    67.75   N    1.7X2         175     apatite      4.7    simultaneous detonation of 2 devices in mine,
08/27184                    33.00   E   (1.8X2)                                    AR = 75 km
Helium 2-1   02:59:59.84    60.30 N       3.2        2065      limestone    4.4
08/28/84                    57.10 E
Helhma 2-2   03:04:59.90    60.70 N       3.2        2075      limestone    4.4
08/28/84                    57.50 E
Quartz-4     21:00:00.03    55.834 N       10          557     granite      5.0
09/17/84                    87.526 E
Vega 5-1     06:00:00.10    46.90 N        3.2        1000     salt         5.0
10/27/84                    48.15 E
A Seismic Source Summary for Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions                                                                                       647


                                                                         Table 1
                                                                        Continued

 Nameand           OriginTime           Geodetic                                       Source
 Date (UT)            (UT)              Location        Yield,kt       Depth,m         Medium          rnb                       Comments

Vega 5-2          06:05:00.00          46.95 N            3.2            1000        salt              5.0
10/27/84                               48.10 E
Benzene           04:00:00.11          60.6 N             2.5           2860         sandstone/         -
06/18/85                               72.7 E                                        shale
Agate             21:15:00.29          65.994 N           8.5             772        granite           5.1
07/18/85                               41.038 E
Helium 3-1         04:00:00.01         60.60 N            3.2            2015        limestone         4.5
04/19/87                               57.20 E
Helium 3-2         04:04:59.98         60.80 N            3.2            2055        limestone         4.5
04/19/87                               57.50 E
Neva 2-1           00:00:00.0          61.50 N             15            1502         limestone        5.1
07/07/87                              112.85 E            (13)
Neva 2-2           02:00:00.0          61.45 N             15            1515         limestone        5.1
07/24/87                              112.80 E            (13)
Neva 2-3           01:30:00.5          61.45 N             3.2            815         salt             5.0
08/12/87                              112.80 E
Batholith-2        15:15:00.03         47.60 N             8.5           1002         salt             5.3
10/03/87                               56.20 E
Ruby-2             16:20:00.07          66.280 N           15             829         clay             5.3
08/22/88                                78.491 E          (16)
Ruby- 1            16:19:59.94         61.361 N            8.5            820         anhydrite        4.8
09/06/88                               48.092 E           (7.5)         (793)




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