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Interactive PowerPoint an interactive guide

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   Interactive PowerPoint:
     an interactive guide
                 Andrew Garth
          Sheffield Hallam University

If you can see this message hit the F5 button on
     the function keys to use the resource in
        interactive rather than edit mode.
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 Interactive PowerPoint, an overview.
Interactive PowerPoint is a method of applying PowerPoint to a different way of disseminating knowledge.
Usually PowerPoint presentations give a slide by slide discourse on the topic being addressed, this is fine for
tutor driven sessions, however, for more flexible and independent knowledge transfer resources this linearity can
be a disadvantage.
If you think of the way many websites work, letting the users direct themselves to the parts of the resource most
important to them you can see that the strict, default presentation structure of ordinary PowerPoint gives only
one, limited, way of structuring the knowledge.
Interactive PowerPoint lets you allow the user to be more flexible and allows you to include more information
because the user isn't necessarily having to go through it all in one go. It's a bit like the difference between a
novel and an encyclopaedia, to understand the novel you start at the beginning and go through to the end,
whereas the encyclopaedia can be read all the way through but is equally useful if referred to in practically any
order.
Because it is browsed by the user at their own pace there is room for multiple examples and more interaction to
help facilitate comprehension.
This tutorial works in two ways, it hopefully gives instructions that should cover the main techniques that will be
useful in helping you create interactive resources using PowerPoint, it also acts as an example of the various
techniques and to this end you can play with it and take it apart to see how it works.
This resource was created using PowerPoint and within this resource are the instructions to help you do it by
putting slides together in a structure navigable by a series of links from buttons and menus you create. It also
describes how to alter the settings in a presentation to prevent it working in the conventional "linear" manner i.e.
to work as a true online resource.
                                                                            OK tell me again but slow and simple...

For assistance on using this interactive PowerPoint tutorial click the help button above.
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                          OK – what's it all about?
The idea is simply to switch off the way that PowerPoint goes from slide to slide in a typical,
lecturer driven presentation and replace the navigation with hyperlinks, just like a website!

The hyperlink and other methods are covered on these pages (slides) and the slides under
the settings menu cover the change needed there, the settings are stored with the
presentation, they don't effect the PowerPoint program itself.

In simple terms, to create a resource like this one, where the different slides are linked to by
clicking buttons etc. we have to do two things;


1         learn how to make objects become links to other
          places, and,

2         switch off the default settings in PowerPoint that
          makes the resource a linear presentation rather
          than a browed resource.

This resource covers doing just that.

                                                                                     Click to hear an
                                                                                      explanation.
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Buttons and Links.
A typical feature of interactive                    Simple buttons are easy       Simple
resources, like websites are the links                                            buttons
                                                    to play with.
that enable the user to navigate the
resource. Buttons, pictures or simple
text can be used as links to other parts            Text can act as a link like
of the resource.                                    on a simple web page,
PowerPoint has a simple method that                 this is especially useful
                                                    for extra definitions etc.    Text links
does this using some simple default
buttons, it is a good way of getting to
grips with the concept but you’ll soon
want to branch out on your own!                     Animated “GIF” files can
                                                    be used as links – this
Of great importance however is getting              one actually looks like a
the structure right in delivering the               button!
information. For example try not to
leave any blind alleys in your resource,
it is frustrating for the user!                     Pictures can also be
                                                    used as links.
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                  Simple buttons are easy to play with
To add an action button, click on the AutoShapes button from the drawing toolbar and choose
Action Buttons. (Or Shapes, Action Buttons from the Home tab in v2007)
The function of each action button is described by the ToolTips if you move your mouse pointer over
each one. Most are similar to video recorder buttons.
To place one on a slide, click the AutoShapes button, then Action Buttons, to try one we could
use the "Back or Previous" button.
When you've clicked the button type, place the button just like any other object, by clicking to show
its place and dragging to show its size. The Action Setting dialog should appear.
               In later versions the Shapes are in the Drawing group under the Home tab.
      Old
                 New
                            The button can be set to hyperlink to either
                            an absolute slide in the presentation or a
                            relative path, e.g. the last slide viewed.
                          This is essentially the same procedure as
                          for any object set as a link, using these
                          default buttons however means that
                          PowerPoint already knows you are
                          intending to set up a link.
  The best way to find out more is to play with the system. You can
  also set a link to a URL in the presentation, but make sure victims
  know how to get back and it is a good idea to make sure they also
  know you aren’t to blame for content on the web!
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Text can act as a link rather like on a simple web page

 When you point to a hyperlink, the pointer becomes a hand, indicating
 that it is something you can click. Text that represents a hyperlink is
 also displayed underlined and in a colour.
 To set a text hyperlink first select the text then either right-click the
 selected text and pick either “Hyperlink” or “Action settings”, or select
 Hyperlink from the Insert menu. You may need to select the option for
 “place in this document” to see a list of slides to link to.
 If the slide has a title then this will
 displayed rather than the slide
 number, be careful though, don’t
 include any form of punctuation or
 special characters in the title of a
 slide you want to link to. (There is
 more on this limitation under the
 Advanced area.)
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       Pictures and Animated GIF files can be used as links
When you point to a hyperlink, the pointer becomes a hand, indicating that it
is something you can click (the buttons on the menu above for example).
To use a picture or GIF type animation as a hyperlink first select it then
either right-click it and pick either “Hyperlink” or “Action settings”, or select
Hyperlink from the Insert menu while the object is still selected. You may
need to select the option for “place in this document” to see a list of slides to
link to. If the slide has a title then this will be displayed rather than the slide
number, be careful though, don’t include any form of punctuation or special
characters in the title of a slide you want to link to.
Note how the lazy old author of this
resource has made two links go to the
same destination here! Annoying isn't
it! Linking is pretty well the same
technique regardless of the object
type used as the link button. There are
some hints on editing clipart and
creating GIFs in the more advanced
section. (Sorry about the mean trick!)
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                     Blind Alleys
Are you sure you want to go down a blind alley?



          Oh yes please, I
            can’t wait!
                                                  Maybe not, please
                                                   send me back
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                       Blind Alleys
 Don’t say I didn’t warn you!


 But since I’m really kind I’ll put in an exit for you in a few moments…




EXIT
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Menus.
Menus typically comprise a set of buttons that enable overall navigation. Deciding
on the underlying theme of the buttons though is not as simple as it may appear and
it is as well to remember that the way you as author of the resource think of the
learning sequence may not be the same as that of the recipient. I could for example
set this resource up as a more didactic tutorial, leading the user through creating an
interactive resource, I could even have a link to an alternative menu structure that
was topic lead instead so both views were covered. (Life is short – I didn’t!).
The menu on this resource is simply a collection of buttons, it could though be a set
of text based hyperlinks set in a table.

The example on the right is constructed using hyperlinked text        Home
in a table (the background and line style of the table give the       Overview
apparent gaps between items. To create a menu using more
conventional buttons choose the buttons & link option on the          Buttons and links
menu.                                                                 Menus
To get a menu to appear on every slide simply create it once on
                                                                      For a clever application
the master slide. To override it you can cover it with a filled       of object based links to
shape in the background colour on the odd slide that doesn't          make a graphical menu
need the default menu.                                                click here.
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                                            Dropdown...
Menus.
                                            Pick Area
                                        Aligning enable
Menus typically comprise a set of buttons that buttons overall navigation. Deciding
on the underlying theme of the buttons though is not as simple as it may appear and
it is as well to remember that the way you as author of the resource think of the
learning sequence may not be the sae as that of the recipient. I could for example
set this resource up as a more didactic tutorial, leading the user through creating an
interactive resource, I could even have a link to an alternative menu structure that
was topic lead instead so both views were covered. (Life is short – I didn’t!).
The menu on this resource is simply a collection of buttons, it could though be a set
of text based hyperlinks set in a table.

The example on the right is constructed using hyperlinked text           Home
in a table (the background and line style of the table give the          Overview
apparent gaps between items. To create a menu using more
conventional buttons choose the buttons & link option on the             Buttons and links
menu.                                                                    Menus
To get a menu to appear on every slide simply create it once on
                                                                        For a clever application
the master slide. To override it you can cover it with a filled         of object based links to
shape in the background colour on the odd slide that doesn't            make a graphical menu
need the default menu.                                                  click here.
           Overview    Buttons & links   Menus      Settings     Advanced   Help     Exit

Dropdown menus

Dropdown menus in PowerPoint are a trick. The click on the "Menu" button
from the master slide is intercepted by a see-through object on (in this case)
the menu slide, this sends the user to another slide, with the dropdown menu
on it. This menu appears over a copy of the original slide, so the user sees the
menu appear and no other change.
The menu is just a text box, the text is hyperlinked to other slides.
People are conditioned into using dropdown menus by familiarity with other
software so can generally use them but it is important that they realise that this
is the way the menu works.
(This isn't the way that such a technique would be effected on a webpage but
works well in PowerPoint.)
Another clever way of achieving this effect is to use "Triggers" – these are
covered in the Advanced area, they are very effective if a little complex!
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                                Click on the map to go to your region.
                                The click should link you to an external*
                                web page. Click the "Back" button or
                                close the browser window to return to
                                this point.

                                 Pick area menus can be used in a variety
                                 of applications, they can link to other slides
                                 as well as web pages. (This example links
                                 to external webpages, so if you aren't
                                 online it doesn't work, click here for an
                                 example that is self contained.)
                                 The method is simply to cover the picture
                                 with clear objects that are linked to the
                                 destination. You might need to change the
                                 level of transparency to make a clickable
                                 object that is translucent.



                             * Note the contents of an external web page are not the responsibility of this resource or its author.
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                             Click on the map to go to your region.

                             Pick area menus can be used in a variety
                             of applications, they can link to other slides
                             as well as web pages or use the "trigger"
                             facility to bring an object on the screen.

                             The method is simply to cover the picture
                             with clear objects that are linked to the
                             destination. You might need to change the
                             level of transparency to make a clickable
                             object that is translucent.



                              Wales - Area 20,779 square square
                              Scotland covers an about 51,000,000,
                              Northernpopulation area of
                              England Ireland, area 5,459
                              kilometres population about sq of the
                              miles (14,139 30,341miles²,
                              78,782km² or km²), At the time km
                              total area of is about130410
                              2,900,000. estimated in 2006
                              populationmiles).
                              UK Census in April 2001, its at
                              (50352 sq
                              5,116,900.
                              population was 1,685,000.
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Aligning buttons
When setting up a menu using objects like buttons it is worth knowing about the
alignment tools offered by PowerPoint.
                        The "Grids and Guides" dialog is reached                 Snapped
                                                                                  to grid
                        either through the View menu or the Draw
                        menu. Typicaly the objects in PowerPoint are
                        set to click into an invisible grid on the slide. I
                                                                                               Not
                        recommend that you leave the snap to grid                           snapped
                                                                                             to grid
                        option on but use the Alt key while dragging an
                        object if you want to override it.

You can display the grid on the screen, this is like working on graph paper, you can switch
them off in the same way.
Drawing guides can be useful as a way of guiding your "by eye" judgement of silting
objects, this is especially useful when the objects are not symmetrical (e.g. pictures).


                                    Click and drag the lines to           PowerPoint has some
                                    the place you need the
                                    guide. You can switch them
                                                                          really clever tools to
                                    off in the same way that              help line up objects
                                    you switched them on.                 click here for more on
                                                                          these...
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    Aligning buttons
    When setting up a menu using objects like buttons it is worth knowing about the
    alignment tools offered by PowerPoint.


                                                      The objects now should be aligned on the
                                                      vertical plane on their middles. To distribute
                                                      them evenly between the ones at the extreme
Select all the objects by either shift and clicking   ends click Draw then click Align Horizontally.
or dragging over the objects with the mouse. (If
you swap to edit view on this presentation you
can try this for real.)


                                                      By moving one of the objects further out and
                                                      distributing them again you can move them
                                                      further apart but still evenly spread.
When selected choose "Align Middle" from the          The same method can be used to align and
Draw menu.
                                                      distribute objects vertically.
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Changing the settings for the presentation
to stop PowerPoint moving to the next
slide when you click with the mouse...


Typicaly Microsoft PowerPoint expects a slide show to be a
linear progression of slides shown on the screen in sequential
order (1,2,3,4 etc), the next slide comes on the screen when
the presenter clicks the mouse or hits the space bar. We want
                             The menus have changed in v2007, for
to break away from this rigid linearity and so we disable the
                             more help look at the advanced area in
mouse click option.
                             this tutorial for a link to a Microsoft tutorial
                             on the changes to find out where the
                             features are hidden. (Click this picture to
                             make it disappear.)
Users of current versions (2003/2007) of PowerPoint can switch
off the linearity with a single adjustment. To disable this use Set
Up Show from the Slide Show menu and select the "Browsed
from kiosk – full screen" option. (Click here for a picture.)


A final issue is to check that the system is set up to produce an                     Where is this in 2007
"On-screen Show" click here for more details.
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Changing the settings for the presentation
to stop PowerPoint moving to the next
slide when you click with the mouse...


Typicaly Microsoft PowerPoint expects a slide show to be a
linear progression of slides shown on the screen in sequential
order (1,2,3,4 etc), the next slide comes on the screen when
the presenter clicks the mouse or hits the space bar. We want
to break away from this rigid linearity and so we disable the
mouse click option.




Users of current versions (2003/2007) of PowerPoint can switch
off the linearity with a single adjustment. To disable this use Set
Up Show from the Slide Show menu and select the "Browsed
from kiosk – full screen" option. (Click here for a picture.)


A final issue is to check that the system is set up to produce an           Where is this in 2007
"On-screen Show" click here for more details.
            Overview     Buttons & links   Menus         Settings     Advanced      Help      Exit


Changing the settings for the presentation
to stop PowerPoint moving to the next
slide when you click with the mouse...


Typicaly Microsoft PowerPoint expects a slide show to be a
linear progression of slides shown on the screen in sequential
order (1,2,3,4 etc), the next slide comes on the screen when
the presenter clicks the mouse or hits the space bar. We want
to break away from this rigid linearity and so we disable the
mouse click option.




Users of current versions (2003/2007) of PowerPoint can switch
off the linearity with a single adjustment. To disable this use Set
Up Show from the Slide Show menu and select the "Browsed
from kiosk – full screen" option. (Click here for a picture.)


A final issue is to check that the system is set up to produce an           Where is this in 2007
"On-screen Show" click here for more details.
                   Overview    Buttons & links   Menus      Settings    Advanced   Help     Exit


                                                  More advanced features.
Simulated scrolling text box
                                      Some of these advanced features can make very
Pictures and resolution
                                      impressive effects and greatly enhance the user
Planning the Resource                 interface, however there are some caveats; more
                                      complex isn't always better and some of the
Naming slides, secret names
and possible traps
                                      advanced features don't translate well into HTML if
                                      you want to put a version up that can be viewed
Zoom in diagrams                      directly in a browser without PowerPoint software.
Trigger effects                       The solution is to use appropriate methods, resist
                                      being carried away with the technology and always
Trigger effects - an example
game
                                      test the product thoroughly.

Trigger effects – making
                                      You should also be aware that there are some
menus                                 limitations introduced by the new (at the time of
                                      writing) version of PowerPoint (part of MS Office
Quizzes
                                      2007). Generally the simpler techniques are the best
Automatically running                 for version compatibility and for compatibility for
PowerPoint shows
                                      translation to directly readable web pages.
Versions of PowerPoint

More...
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                                                  More more advanced features.
Notes on editing clipart.
                                      This is a huge cheat in terms of a cogent menu
How to get GIFs
                                      structure, but rather like the old programmers' adage
The master slide                      of always leaving a few free fields in a database, you
Pros and Cons                         can have menus that go on and on and on...
Exit strategies
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                         Notes on editing clipart (1 of 2).                                                                     Next

Sizing Clipart.
Select the illustration by clicking
once on it, the Picture toolbar
may well appear depending on                                                                             REMEMBER:
the version you are using and                                                                            Hitting Delete with an image
                                                                                                         selected will delete it. (If you do
how it is set up. The object
                                                                                                         this by mistake try the Undo
selected should then appear                                                                              facility! under the Edit menu).
with the "drag handles" round it.

There are many type of clipart
that you might have. The two
main categories are "true"                                             Place the pointer
bitmap type pictures, e.g. from                                        over the drag
a digital camera and graphics                                          handle and drag to
                                                                       change the width. 
mad up from a selection of
geometrical shapes, often very                                                                            Hint:
complex ones. If the object is                                                                            The way a picture reacts to the
the latter it can be taken apart,                                    Place the pointer over the corner    corner drag handles may depend
                                                                     drag handle and drag to change       on the type of graphic it is, often
modified and glued back                                              the width and height.                after ungrouping the clipart the
together again within                                                                                     way the graphic reacts to being
PowerPoint. The photograph                              Place the pointer over the                        stretched, i.e. whether it keeps it
type picture can be edited but                                                                            height to width ratio. You can alter
                                                        drag handle and drag to
                                                        change the height.                               this by holding the shift key down
needs photo retouching skills.                                                                            while using the corner handle.
                                                                                                          A green dot above the selected
                                                                                                          graphic allows it to be swivelled
                                                                                                          round.
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                  Notes on editing clipart (2 of 2).                                        Previous


Grouping and ungrouping clipart.
                                                                                   On some pieces of
                                                                                   clipart you may find that
The Grouping/UnGrouping tools are under the                                        the grouping is all at one
Draw button in older versions or the Arrange area                                  level.
of the Drawing section under the Home menu in                                      The car on the left has
version 2007.                                                                      been     selected  then
                                                                                   ungrouped (from top to
                          The car on the left is as it                             bottom), notice it isn't
                                                                                   made up of a group for
                          was imported from the                                    each wheel, one for the
                          clipart gallery, to change                               body and another for the
                          just the colour of the body                              driver,     the   entire
                                                                                   collection of component
                          we need to select just that                              parts is grouped at one
                          one object of the ones                                   level.

                          making up the picture. To
                          do this select the object,         Using the mouse, you can select all the objects
                                                             in an area by clicking and dragging a selection
                          ungroup the object, make           rectangle - see below.
                          the changes to the
                          components and then
                          regroup them.
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                                     How to get GIFs
GIF, Graphics Interchange Format, supports 256 colours. GIFs can be put together for animated
images.
Creating your first GIF can be done online at; http://www.gifworks.com/cgi-bin/gifworks.pl this
software remotely run, i.e. on the server rather than on your PC. If you want to download some
shareware to run locally and create GIFs then try downloading Easy GIF Animator at;
http://www.blumentals.net/egifan/download.php . Users with access to Paint Shop Pro can run
Animation Shop and access a very fully featured GIF creation tool. It is not realy within the scope of
this tutorial to go into the minutia of using these tools but I imagine there'll be resources on the
inter-web that should help if just playing gets too frustrating. Inserting the finished product is like
any other picture, just use "Insert, Picture from file".
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                             The master slide
Changing a Slide Master

To change a Slide Master select Master from the View menu, and then choose
Slide Master.

The Slide Master appears. You can work on the master just as you would a slide,
adding a logo, changing text attributes, adding a background etc.

When you've finished making changes, from the View menu, choose Slides or
Normal so you're no longer viewing the master slide.

Now, when you look at the slides in your presentation, you see the changes you
made applied to every slide.

If you put a menu on your master slide then this will appear on all slides, you can
temporarily disable it by covering it up on a specific slide. You might also investigate
the use of multiple master slides, a feature available in later versions.

You can have multiple master slides within a presentation, each master can be set
to govern a set of slides.


 Any changes you make to the Master Slide will affect all the other
 slides dependant on it, usually all the slides in the presentation.
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    What are the good and bad issues of using interactive PowerPoint?

•   The resource site in one file, can be      •   Using the Microsoft PowerPoint
    easily stored, emailed, hosted on an e-        platform can give a hostage to fortune,
    learning platform and even password            Microsoft can happily remove support
    protected if needed.                           for certain features in new versions.
•   Easier than a conventional webpage to      •   Needs a special viewer, i.e.
    construct and uses transferable skills,        PowerPoint.
    building on existing PowerPoint skills.    •   Requires a new way of thinking about
•   Simple to put colour and movement in.          structure and delivery, at first this can
•   Allows us to be innovative about               be difficult.
    structure and delivery or the resource.    •   Can be a great draw on time and
•   Browse-able by people with minimal IT          encourage us to add more content
    skills, just like any web type resource.       than we might in other media.
•   Can be saved as raw HTML if the            •   Limited functionality compared to
    more complex features of PowerPoint            “proper” web authoring tools.
    are avoided.




             I’m sure there are lots and lots more, enjoy finding them!
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                    Exit Strategies
           How do you create an exit button? Easy, its a button, like
           any other, it can say "Exit" on it but might have some
           graphic, the "action buttons" are useful, choose a blank
           one and change its action settings to "End Show".


                                                                Add text to the
                                                                 blank action
           You can if you want give the user the                    button.
           option of changing their mind, i.e. get
           the exit button to send them to a slide
           with "Are you sure?" and buttons for
           "Yes" & "No" on.


           Are you realy sure you want to go?
           it's still early and when you go we all
           get frozen! please don't do that to us
           again, GIF files have feelings too!
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                    Are You Sure

  If you can see this message and want to use the
resource interactively again then hit the F5 button on
  the function keys you are currently in edit mode.



                                     Are You Sure?
                             Yes                     No
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Creating a simulated
scrolling text box in
PowerPoint.
 Creating a scrolling text box in
 PowerPoint.
 This method is useful because it looks
 like a similar system that users may
 have seen on the web BUT it is only a
 "sham" and so is to be used sparingly.
 It does lead to considerable
 duplication in order to give the effect
 unlike the real thing.
 How to do it...
 First you need a spellchecked version
 of the text you want to appear in the
 box.
 You can have this in one long text box
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Creating a simulated
scrolling text box in
PowerPoint.
 How to do it...
 First you need a spellchecked version
 of the text you want to appear in the
 box.
 You can have this in one long text box
 in PowerPoint, remember that the
 textbox in PowerPoint can be set to
 automatically resize as more text is
 added, this is fine for the initial typing
 but we'll need to change it later.
 When you have the text in a long
 textbox, probably too long to fit the
 screen, you can start the fun.
 First make an estimate of how many
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Creating a simulated
scrolling text box in
PowerPoint.
 First make an estimate of how many
 times longer than the box the text is.
 This will dictate how many slides you
 need. Don't create them yet.
 Change the textbox setting from
 Automatically resizing to being
 manually sized (see opposite) then
 manually change it to the size you
 want.
 Make sure you've saved the file. Copy
 the slide as many times as the text is
 longer than the box and maybe
 another for luck .
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 Picture resolution issues.

The two pictures here seem similar, there is a
difference however in the amount of information
each contains. The lower resolution version
takes up 24.79 KB (25,389 Bytes) of space on
disk and typically takes 16 milliseconds to
display on the screen, the higher resolution one
takes up 90.80 KB (92,983 Bytes) of space on
disk and typically takes 47 milliseconds to
display on the screen.
A larger resolution picture from a digital camera
might well take up 500 KB or more, even several
megabytes if a modern high resolution camera is
used! this makes the presentation very large and
unwieldy and offers no benefit to the viewer,
since the limiting factor is the screen resolution,
it just slows the interaction down.


  A guide to changing
  resolution – a simple way.                                        Click to see the pictures larger
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 Picture resolution
      issues.
The two pictures here seem similar, there is a
difference however in the amount of information
each contains. The lower resolution version
takes up 24.79 KB (25,389 Bytes) of space on
disk and typically takes 16 milliseconds to
display on the screen, the higher resolution one
takes up 90.80 KB (92,983 Bytes) of space on
disk and typically takes 47 milliseconds to
display on the screen.
A larger resolution picture from a digital camera
might well take up 500 KB or more, even several
megabytes if a modern high resolution camera is
used! this makes the presentation very large and
unwieldy and offers no benefit to the viewer,
since the limiting factor is the screen resolution,
it just slows the interaction down.


  A guide to changing
  resolution – a simple way.                                        Click to see the pictures larger
                           Overview    Buttons & links   Menus         Settings     Advanced    Help      Exit


  Back to Picture resolution issues.

                                             Medium resolution picture shown large.




This picture is stored in
roughly the same
resolution as the screen,
there is little point in using
files of a higher resolution
for showing on a screen,
they simply make the file
larger and pictures will be
slower to load and display
on the screen.



  A guide to changing
  resolution – a simple way.                  Click the image to switch between low and high resolution
                           Overview    Buttons & links   Menus         Settings     Advanced    Help      Exit


  Back to Picture resolution issues.

                                           Very Low resolution picture shown large.




This picture is stored in a
low resolution lower than
the screen resolution
when expanded to this
size. When used as a
smaller picture there is
not much difference
between the two
versions, only when
seeing this expanded
version does the lack of
resolution become
apparent..
  A guide to changing
  resolution – a simple way.                  Click the image to switch between low and high resolution
                    Overview         Buttons & links           Menus   Settings   Advanced   Help   Exit



An ideal solution to the size effect
If you have a document that is huge then this may well be due to embedded pictures that are of a
very high resolution, (many modern digital cameras work on a 6 megapixel resolution or more, each
picture may be well in excess of a megabyte! so if they are embedded in a document that
document it will become a big one!)


In The 2007 versions of Office products the "Compress
Pictures feature is available under the "Format tab" when
a picture is selected.

You can select the "Options" button to see the specific
settings before clicking "OK".

A similar feature was available on earlier versions.

You can check the file size in the well hidden "Advanced
document properties", or simply look at it on disk to see if
it is smaller.


              Another method of reducing resolution for pictures
              rather than within a document or presentation.
                           Overview   Buttons & links   Menus        Settings        Advanced      Help     Exit

Back to Picture resolution issues.


Solutions to the size effect...
Copy the picture from the source (a right mouse click over the picture then choose copy is easiest) – you can use
this method to reduce the size of pictures in a presentation (in edit mode) or even from the web.
Start the "paint" program. (under Start, Programs, Accessories...on a SHU PC it is Start, Programs, Tools and
Accessories, Accessories)
Once in the Paint program choose Paste from the Edit menu.
You may be asked if you want to "enlarge the bitmap" if the picture you want to paste is bigger than the current
canvas – if so answer yes.


                                             If your picture is smaller
                                             than the canvas you can
                                             reduce the size of the
                                             white canvas by clicking
                                             on the white area then
                                             clicking and dragging the
                                             bottom right corner.



When the picture looks reasonable choose Save As from the File menu
and change the file type to JPEG (.jpg) – this is the format that saves
space. Then click Save. Once back in PowerPoint, use Insert, Picture,
From file to insert the picture.
                    Overview    Buttons & links   Menus      Settings      Advanced    Help   Exit


    •    Paper and pencil are still
         excellent tools for designingPlanning the Resource
                                                    • If designing a resource along
         the structure and feel of the                 with others the rough outline
         resource.                                     helps collaborators share and
                                                          buy into a common view,
                                                          hopefully they will then be pulling
                                                          in roughly the same direction.

•       Good “off-keyboard planning” is the key to a           •    The plan isn’t written in stone
        good structure. A good tip in designing a                   but should be a fluid thing.
        menu structure is to allow for expansion, this
        resource originally didn’t have the
        “Advanced” menu item, when I added it I put
        in an intermediate sub-menu page to allow for
        future expansion!
                                                      •   Sketching out the design is
                                                          a useful development step,
                                                          you can do it in a way that
                                                          has meaning to you. There
                                                          is no need to use formal
                                                          flowcharting conventions!
                 Overview      Buttons & links     Menus           Settings      Advanced   Help   Exit



                               names
Naming slides secret naming slides.) and traps
       Naming slides, secret names and traps.
        (Tricks and traps when

•   If the slide has a title it is easier to recognise it when linking to it.

•   Only certain types of slide offer a title for you to fill in when they are
    created, so if you want a blank slide but also want to title it then you can
    create a title only slide, type in the title but then set the text colour for the
    title to the same as the background so it can't be seen.

•   Be careful, the linking system doesn't work if you try to link to a slide with
    certain punctuation in the title! Don't ask me why not, and it might not be
    a problem in some versions but in PowerPoint 2003 this is an issue. The
    title of this slide is realy "Naming slides secret names and traps"
    however, the one you see has all kinds of punctuation in it.

•   If you open this presentation in edit mode you’ll see that the title isn't
    “Naming slides, secret names and traps. (Tricks and traps when naming
    slides.)” but is actually “Naming slides secret names and traps”, this title
    is hidden from the user by making the font colour the same as this slides’
    background, the title the user sees is realy just a text box. While not an
    essential trick it can be useful in complex resources to help the author
    keep track!
                     Overview      Buttons & links      Menus           Settings         Advanced       Help     Exit


                                      Zoom in diagrams.
This very simple demonstration shows the general idea of zooming in/out. Given time and patience the entire
picture could be covered with areas to link to “zoomed in” images. I only did one part as a demo. On a picture
similar to this we might have the clickable areas take us to specific instructions or detail about how the particular
control works, ideal for tutorials about specific equipment or systems.

How does it work?
In a similar fashion to the
other methods and it is                                                                             Have a go at
used in other areas of this                                                                         reading the dial
resource. A drawing object                                                                          half way down
is created over the area in
                                                                                                    the picture on
the picture we want to
make clickable.
                                                                                                    the far right,
                                                                                                    click it to zoom
This annoyingly covers up                                                                           in…
the bit we are interested in,
don't worry yet.
We set this object (a
rectangle or in this case I
used an oval) to hyperlink
to the slide with the
zoomed in view on it.
Finally set both the fill
colour and the line colour
to “none” so we can see
through it.
                     Overview      Buttons & links      Menus           Settings         Advanced       Help      Exit


                                      Zoom in diagrams.
This very simple demonstration shows the general idea of zooming in/out. Given time and patience the entire
picture could be covered with areas to link to “zoomed in” images. I only did one part as a demo. On a picture
similar to this we might have the clickable areas take us to specific instructions or detail about how the particular
control works, ideal for tutorials about specific equipment or systems.

How does it work?
In a similar fashion to the
other methods and it is                                                                             Have a go at
used in other areas of this                                                                         reading the dial
resource. A drawing object                                                                          half way down
is created over the area in
                                                                                                    the picture on
the picture we want to
make clickable.
                                                                                                    the far right,
                                                                                                    click it to zoom
This annoyingly covers up                                                                           in…
the bit we are interested in,
don't worry yet.
We set this object (a
rectangle or in this case I
used an oval) to hyperlink                                                                                 Zoom
to the slide with the                                                                                       out
zoomed in view on it.
Finally set both the fill
colour and the line colour
to “none” so we can see
through it.
                     Overview      Buttons & links      Menus           Settings         Advanced       Help      Exit


                                      Zoom in diagrams.
This very simple demonstration shows the general idea of zooming in/out. Given time and patience the entire
picture could be covered with areas to link to “zoomed in” images. I only did one part as a demo. On a picture
similar to this we might have the clickable areas take us to specific instructions or detail about how the particular
control works, ideal for tutorials about specific equipment or systems.

How does it work?
In a similar fashion to the
other methods and it is                                                                             Have a go at
used in other areas of this                                                                         reading the dial
resource. A drawing object                                                                          half way down
is created over the area in
                                                                                                    the picture on
the picture we want to
make clickable.
                                                                                                    the far right,
                                                                                                    click it to zoom
This annoyingly covers up                                                                           in…
the bit we are interested in,
don't worry yet.
We set this object (a
rectangle or in this case I
used an oval) to hyperlink                                                                                 Zoom
to the slide with the                                                                                       out
zoomed in view on it.
Finally set both the fill
colour and the line colour
to “none” so we can see
through it.
                   Overview   Buttons & links   Menus      Settings     Advanced    Help    Exit



What are "Triggers"?                                                          Link to MS pages
                                                                              on triggers.
A trigger is an item on a PowerPoint slide (a picture, shape, button, or text etc.) that
sets off an action when you click it. The action might be a sound or video clip or more
likely an animation effect on some other object, for example making a picture move or
text appear. It is relatively easy if you make sure you start it simple! Already if you use
a hyperlink on an object it becomes a trigger, but PowerPoint has built in some clever
features in the animation system that allow you to trigger events other than simply
going to another slide.
                     This text should appear when the top oval is clicked. This textbox was
  Click here
  to trigger
                     selected and a "custom animation" set for it. Under the "timing"
  some text          options click "Triggers" and select "start effect on click of" then use
                     the dropdown to pick the object to be clicked as the trigger.
    Click here       The trigger is set as part of the animation for the object you want to
     to read
   more, click       appear or play. This text has two trigger events, one to appear and
   again f or it
   to go away        another to make it disappear – very messy!

  Click here,
    the text          This text is triggered by the bottom oval but has an exit animation
  should stay
     only 2
                      set to make it dissolve 2 seconds after it is triggered to appear
   seconds
                                  Click here to see how to set up triggers.
                     Overview    Buttons & links   Menus         Settings       Advanced     Help    Exit


                                Setting up trigger events.
                         Click on the item you want to be triggered, choose custom animation from the
                         Slideshow menu and add an entrance effect. This determines how the object
                         will appear on the screen. the object should appear in the list in the custom
                         animation pane. To make it appear when another object is clicked rather than
                         in a sequence of other objects click the arrowhead on the right of the objects'
                         name in the list on the custom animation list. The menu that drops down lets
                         you access the Effect Options. The timing tab is the most important for our
                         simple needs. Click the trigger button and choose the "start effect on click of:"
                         option. Then choose the object to be the trigger.

                                                                When you've set the trigger check it
                                                                works by displaying the slide.
                                                                When you get more than a couple of
                                                                triggers on a slide it can get very
                                                                complex and I certainly get easily
                                                                confused, for a complex example look
                                                                at the apple picking game.
                                                                It is important to note that if you are
                                                                intending to save the slides as a
For a step by step                                              webpage later then this is one of the
guide click here.
                                                                features that probably won't translate to
                                                                pure HTML.
           Overview    Buttons & links   Menus   Settings   Advanced   Help   Exit


          How many apples can you pick in 3 seconds?




Time remaining
2
3
0
1   seconds
Time done, how
many did you get?
did you get all ten?
              Overview   Buttons & links    Menus      Settings      Advanced         Help      Exit



                          Menus and triggers
Each of the sub links could have a hyperlink to another slide or be a trigger for
another event on the current slide. Having the menus drop or size is easier than
moving from the side because if the user doesnt "put them away" they can get quite
tangled up. In this example I haven't made the sub menus do anything in order to try
to keep the slide as clear as possible. Notice I changed the animation slightly on item
three, you can be quite clever with such things – depending upon how sure you are
that anyone is watching! (If you do click the items then you should hear an animal
sound, this is another feature of PowerPoint, accessed via the "Action settings"
menu on a right mouse click over the object you want to link to a sound. Click here if
you are desperate to know what each sound is.)
       Cow                        Horse                   Owl
       Duck                       Lamb                    Seagull               Notice the concertina
       Frog                       Lion                    Tiger                 effect on the sub
                                                                                menus, this is
                                                                                because I've set each
Item 1 sub choice 1       Item 2 sub choice 1       Item 2 sub choice 1         item in a separate text
                                                                                box rather than all in
Item 1 sub choice 2       Item 2 sub choice 2       Item 2 sub choice 2         one with a clear
                                                                                button on top. The
                                                                                advantage of my way
Item 1 sub choice 3       Item 2 sub choice 3       Item 2 sub choice 3         is that it makes the
                                                                                linking easier in the
                                                                                trigger dialog because
       Item one                  Item two               Item three              the text in the box
                                                                                helps navigation.
                    Overview      Buttons & links     Menus            Settings        Advanced      Help     Exit


                                    Triggers step by step




This animation will cycle through repeatedly, just let it wash over you a few times then have a go on a blank slide.
           Overview    Buttons & links    Menus      Settings     Advanced    Help      Exit


                                         Quizzes
I recon there are three basic ways to set up a quiz in interactive PowerPoint –
there may be more, but three is enough for me!
1. Putting a yes/no or other selectable link after the question, the link takes the
   user to a slide saying the answer is correct or not. These feedback slides
   can be common and just link back to the "last slide viewed". This method is
   simple but can lead to a lot of slides. (To link back to the previous slide
   viewed right click the button or item that activates the link and use the
   Action Settings menu to hyperlink to "last slide viewed".)
2. Use the trigger technique to give answers and feedback, this works well
   and allows quite in depth feedback but is complex to set up and may not
   transfer well to HTML if the resource is to be converted later. (Example)
3. Use the "Highlight click" action setting in older versions BUT it doesn't work
   if viewed in version 2007. This enables the answer to be hidden on the slide
   and revealed when an area is clicked on. The first two methods are covered
   in this tutorial though not in the context of testing, the last is explained here.
   This is an excellent system that works well in versions prior to Office 2007.
   Unfortunately it appears to be interpreted differently in this later version!
   however there is a workround.
                 Overview       Buttons & links   Menus        Settings       Advanced      Help      Exit




Quizzes not using the "Highlight on click" – an example.
                                                                                               True
                   •   Bar charts show categorical data, there is no
                                                                                               True
                       continuous progression between one bar and the
    Click the
                       next hence the bars not touching. (True/False?)
 boxes to see
  the answer
 when you've
                                                                                               True
 had a think.
                   •   Histograms are for data that is continuous or in
                                                                                               True
                       continuous groups, e.g. age 0-9,10-19,20-29...
                       (True/False?)

                   •   What kind of graph is the graph below?                               Histogram

NOTE: This method works Office 2007.                              You can have the answer appear over
I've left the action setting on for the                           the button BUT this may mean that
third answer, the effect works well in                            clicking on the centre of the button
either version but has the added zest if                          doesn't trigger the answer, the answer
viewed in pre 2007.                                               text may shield it. You must test these
                                                                  effects.


                                            How do we do it?
                 Overview       Buttons & links      Menus           Settings            Advanced   Help      Exit



                         Quizzes Version 2007 – how.
How does this work?
The answer buttons are set as trigger events for the box containing the answer. To do
                                                                                                       True
this create both objects, the trigger and the one that should appear when the trigger is
pressed.                                                                                               True
select the answer and set its custom animation to add an effect on entrance, e.g. set it
to "appear" – this would make the object appear on a mouse click – not what we want.
next, customise this effect so that it appears only when you click a given object (the                 True
trigger) do this while the object is still selected. The object will appear in the Custom              True
Animation pane, click the dropdown to the right of the description, in the example below
it says "Rectangle 11"


From the menu that drops down pick "Timing" and then "Trigger on the dialog box,
select the button for "Start effect on click of:" and use the dropdown to select the                Histogram
object that will trigger the objects appearance. This method is quite complex and
it is easy to get confused, do be sure to check that the objects do as you want
before releasing the resource to a wider audience! You can of course make the
object trigger itself, the last of the three answer boxes does this. Instead of having
a second box for the answer we simply change the font using the "Emphasis"
option rather than the "Appear" option, the button itself has the text already in but
in the same font as the background, by triggering "Change font colour" as the type
of emphasis we can make it change to a contrasting colour, the effect options are
useful, we could set "rewind after playing" so the answer disappears after
appearing. To get used to using this method I recommend trying it out on a
sparsely populated slide.
                  Overview      Buttons & links   Menus        Settings   Advanced   Help      Exit


    Quizzes using the Highlight on click feature – an example.
            (Pre 2007 versions of PowerPoint only.)
                   •   Bar charts show categorical data, there is no
                                                                                        True
Click or swipe         continuous progression between one bar and the
 the boxes to          next hence the bars not touching. (True/False?)
   see the
answer when
you've had a       •   Histograms are for data that is continuous or in
    think.                                                                              True
                       continuous groups, e.g. age 0-9,10-19,20-29...
                       (True/False?)

                   •   What kind of graph is the graph below?                        Histogram

NOTE: This is an excellent method
that works well in versions prior to
Office 2007. Unfortunately it
appears to be interpreted
differently in this later version!


                                            How do we do it?
                   Overview       Buttons & links         Menus           Settings         Advanced         Help          Exit


                  Quizzes – how we do it (pre 2007 versions).
                              If using Office 2007 this is not the method to use, Action settings are not
                              available from the RH mouse menu and if selected from the main menu, where
    Create a                  available (and it isn't for all objects) it doesn't have the desired effect of reversing
                              the video on a click.
    shape...                                                              In version 2007 use Custom animation,
                       Add the answer                                     Emphasis, More effects, Change Font Colour,
                        to the shape                                      then set the box to trigger itself. Set the font
                     (Right Hand click                                    colour on the shape to the same as its
                      the shape - add                                     background, when this changes on a click the
                         or edit text)
                                             Select the object            text becomes visible.
                                              (not the text).
                                                                      Right Hand click
                                                                       the shape and
                                                                       choose Action
  The action setting option does still exist in version                   Settings.
          2007 but is interpreted differently!
                                                                                             Choose Highlight
NOTE: This is an excellent                                                                       Click.
method that works well in
versions prior to Office
2007. Unfortunately it
appears to be interpreted                                                   The shape colour
differently in this later                                                   will now change
                                                                             when clicked.
version! Rather than
                                                                                                     Change the text
changing the colour of the                                                                          colour to the same
object it simply reduces its                                                                         as the un-clicked
size slightly, presumably to                                                                        shape colour. You
                                                                                                   can now only read it
indicate it has been clicked.                                                                         when clicked.
Overview   Buttons & links   Menus   Settings   Advanced   Help   Exit
             Overview    Buttons & links   Menus    Settings    Advanced    Help   Exit


                        Versions of PowerPoint

There are many versions of PowerPoint available on the PC and Apple Mac
platforms. Typicaly versions after version 97 support most of the features covered
in this resource. There are some changes in using version 2007. In v2007 the menu
structure is very different from the previous versions, this is likely to be quite a
barrier to many users – it certainly surprised me! Microsoft have created a simple
online tutorial designed to help people translate from version 2003 to 2007. The link
may decay in time but presently accessible here.
             Overview   Buttons & links    Menus        Settings    Advanced    Help   Exit



Help.

                                     Select a help topic by clicking the appropriate
                                     button...


   What does the menu at
        the top do?

    Why doesn't the slide
     change if I click?

  This feels like a website
   what's the difference?

   Back to the help index.

           About.
             Overview   Buttons & links        Menus           Settings        Advanced       Help        Exit



Help.

                                                        the “Home” button, it takes you back to the
                                                        opening page.

                                                        goes back to the last page (slide) viewed,
                                                        rather like the back button but only one shot..
   What does the menu at
                                          Overview      gives an overview of the process, and roughly
        the top do?                                     how it can be done.

                                                        covers the basics of creating buttons and
    Why doesn't the slide             Buttons & links
                                                        making hyperlinks.
     change if I click?
                                           Menus
                                                        creating a menu that appears on all the
                                                        pages/slides.
  This feels like a website
   what's the difference?                 Settings
                                                        covers the changes in PowerPoint default
                                                        settings needed

   Back to the help index.                Advanced
                                                        covers some quite advanced features you
                                                        might want to inflict on yourself.
           About.
                                            Help        goes to the help index (these
                                                        pages).

                                            Exit        Exits the presentation and returns to the
                                                        referring web page if viewing over the internet.
             Overview   Buttons & links    Menus         Settings      Advanced    Help   Exit



Help.

                                     PowerPoint by default is set to move from slide n
                                     to slide n+1 missing any hidden slides. This can
                                     be overridden in the slide transition settings. This
                                     can be done either on the “Master Slide” or a
   What does the menu at             single slide and applied to all slides.
        the top do?
                                     The Settings area on this presentation gives
    Why doesn't the slide            more detail.
     change if I click?
                                     An alternative method on older versions is to
  This feels like a website          create a transparent object the same size as a
   what's the difference?            slide that is set as a link to the slide it is on, this
                                     is then sent behind the active objects on the slide
   Back to the help index.           and so catches any mouse clicks on the body of
                                     the slide. This however doesn’t defend against
           About.                    the spacebar being used to move to the next
                                     number slide.
             Overview   Buttons & links      Menus              Settings          Advanced        Help      Exit



Help.

                                     It is very similar to a website. It uses hyperlinks in a similar way and
                                     can even link to web based resources. The advantage of this
                                     method is that it is based on similar skills to ordinary PowerPoint
                                     and the rest of MS Office and so is easier to work with and the
                                     content is packaged in a direct-able form, i.e. it can be placed on a
                                     website or emailed, or sent on disk for use on a PC with no internet
   What does the menu at             connection.
        the top do?
                                     It is possible to compile the slides into web pages using PowerPoint
                                     and with a few caveats this is a quick way to create online content
    Why doesn't the slide            simply. You will see though that for some advanced features this
     change if I click?              conversion isn't always available, the file will save as HTML but not
                                     all features will function as they did in the PowerPoint file. These
                                     help pages for example are set up simply as linked pages, rather
  This feels like a website          like they would be in a simple web site, if we had used the
                                     PowerPoint "trigger" method to create them they would not have
   what's the difference?            translated using version 2003 however we would have used less
                                     slides, but had considerably more content and complexity on one.
   Back to the help index.           Note: currently (in Office 2003) the files, if kept as PPT or PPS files,
                                     need the full PowerPoint version to browse them, the PowerPoint
           About.                    viewer is not currently enabled for this level of interaction. If
                                     converted to html though they can be viewed in a we browser.
                                     These issues I believe are due to change in Office 2007. However
                                     this latest version brings some other changes, I've tried to note the
                                     important ones in the appropriate parts of the tutorial.
                          Overview                Buttons & links    Menus        Settings    Advanced    Help   Exit



Help.

                                                               Interactive PowerPoint: an interactive guide, was
                                                               originally developed as a by-product of a set of
                                                               interactive tutorials to aid students understanding
                                                               of descriptive statistics and used as part of the
   What does the menu at                                              About undergraduate module at
                                                               teaching on anthis tutorial resource.
        the top do?                                            Sheffield Hallam University. The general
                                                               applicability of the technique is such that the
     Why doesn't the slide                                     technique is relevant to a vast range of teaching
      change if I click?                                       situations at many levels, consequently, with the
                                                               help of the CIPEL project I was able to create
  This feels like a website                                    this generic tutorial.
   what's the difference?                                      I hope you enjoy playing
                                                               with it as much as I've
   Back to the help index.                                     enjoyed developing it!
   Andrew Garth, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield,
                     About.
   England. 0114 2255555 http://www.shu.ac.uk/
                       Overview         Buttons & links        Menus              Settings          Advanced         Help      Exit



Annotated Bibliography (1 of 2)
NORMAN K L. (1991), The Psychology of Menu Selection: Designing Cognitive Control at the Human/Computer Interface Ablex
Publishing Corporation, also online at; http://lap.umd.edu/POMS/
Written at the dawn of computer science this book covers basic menu structure issues but before the general acceptance of WIMP
technology. It covers types of menus and cognitive structures, which is highly relevant to informing the menu structure for this
resource. Menu selection is emerging as an important mode of human/computer interaction. This book is gives detailed theoretical
and some empirical information of general interest to people designing human useable interfaces to complex information systems.




GILLESPIE J, (2005) Web Page Design for Designers [online] last accessed in November 2006 at; http://www.wpdfd.com/index.htm
The power of colour is an important one if not over used, in the resource Joe Gillespie gives many ideas for the use of colour,
contrast and tone as well as addressing some more technical such as palette complexity and its possible effects on transferability.
Specific colour and palette issues are addressed at; http://www.wpdfd.com/wpdpal3.htm




Idaho State University, Instructional Technology Resource Center (2005), Enhancing PowerPoint Presentations for PowerPoint XP
and 2003 [ONLIN] LAST ACCESSED November 2006 AT; http://www.isu.edu/itrc/resources/enhancingppt.pdf

This short guide on additional features of PowerPoint is a useful starting point for more advanced PowerPoint skills development. It
covers embedding additional media types into the slides and gives links and references to other useful resources.
                    Overview        Buttons & links    Menus           Settings        Advanced      Help     Exit



Annotated Bibliography (2 of 2) <


gifanimations.com (2005) GIFAnimations [online] last accessed in November 2006 at;
http://www.gifanimations.com/
Purports to be the Internet's original and largest collection of free animated GIFs. Right here, you have access to
more than 20,000 animations, clipart and backgrounds. Resources structured in topics – one of many free GIF
sources on the Web. It is always important to check the copyright on resources to be used, this site offers free
downloading but does have some limiting terms.

								
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