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					                                                                                                                                             Winter 2007




  William B. Lees, PhD, RPA, Newsletter Editor, Florida Public Archaeology Network, University of West Florida, U.S.A.



                    Index                                                              President’s Corner
                                                                                                   douglas d. Scott
President’s Corner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Editor’s Farewell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2       As 2007 comes to a close so does my         its endeavors. Kelly Dixon and the Uni-
Call for Papers: NASOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3           presidency of SHA. It has been a privilege      versity of Montana’s Spectral Fusion group
New Editorial Contact Information . . . . . 3                    to serve SHA and its membership for the         have worked tirelessly to give SHA’s Web
2007 Election Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4      past two years. The society is a very dy-       site a top-to-bottom makeover. It is now an
RPA Amends Code of Conduct . . . . . . . . . 5                   namic and multifaceted organization, and        outstanding presence in cyberspace. Thank
Tales from Field School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5        if there is anything I have learned during      you, Kelly and your “gang.”
Call for Papers: SIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7     my service to the society it is how dedicated       Nellie Longsworth, who has been SHA’s
Images of the Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8     our members, your officers, and our head-       eyes and ears in Washington, was recently
SHA 2009: Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9        quarters staff are to seeing the society grow   honored with the prestigious Louise Du-
Cost of SHA’s Publications . . . . . . . . . . . 10              and succeed in our mission.                     Pont Crownshield Award, the National
New National Register Listings . . . . . . . . 10                    I cannot fully express my thanks and        Trust for Historic Preservation’s highest
Witness to the Past Advertisement . . . . . . 11                 appreciation to all who have facilitated        accolade. Nellie’s long career and near
Current Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12      SHA’s mission and activities during my          crusade on behalf of historic preservation
  Canada-Atlantic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13       tenure as president. I have signed many         is noted in the trust’s acknowledgment of
  Mexico, Central and South America . . 14                       a piece of correspondence on behalf of the      the award. Congratulations, Nellie, on this
  Underwater Worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . 14                society, running the gamut from letters of      very well-deserved award and recognition
 U.S.A.-Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18       thanks, informational letters to interested     of your hard work and diligence!
 U.S.A.-Southeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25       parties, letters critical of proposed policy,       Each new year sees a rotation of officers
  U.S.A.-Pacific West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28       and stances on issues of the propriety of       in SHA. This year is no different, with the
Thirty-Year Perspective on the                                   certain museum exhibits and even televi-        exception that more than usual will leave
  Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project . . . . . 31                    sion programming content. To the many           their offices or positions. Mark Staniforth
                                                                 committee members, officers, and staff          completes his tenure as ACUA chair and
                                                                 who have drafted, corrected, and offered        as representative to the board. Mark gets
                                                                 suggestions in crafting this correspondence     the prize for regularly traveling the longest

         Announcing                                              I remain deeply grateful.
                                                                     No society such as ours can operate
                                                                                                                 distance to attend annual and mid-year
                                                                                                                 meetings, coming from Australia. It has
                                                                 without the dedication of its member vol-       been a pleasure serving with Mark, and I
    On Friday 11 January 2008                                    unteers and its staff. It is the membership     want to thank him for his service to SHA
                                                                 as a whole who make up a society, but it is     and ACUA.
      Dr. Alasdair Brooks will                                                                                       Two board members also complete
                                                                 also those who take the time to run for of-
     become the new editor of                                    fice, whether successfully or not; those who    their tenure, Terry Klein and Joe Joseph.
      the SHA Newsletter. All                                    take on committee work; and our profes-         Both have provided valuable comments
                                                                 sional staff in our headquarters office who     and insights during their service to SHA. I
   correspondence concerning                                                                                     want to thank them for their hard work and
                                                                 make SHA viable and so visible in the ar-
    future issues should imme-                                   chaeological and historic preservation field.   service to the society.
   diately be directed to him at:                                I would like to express my sincere thanks to        Rebecca Allen, as journal and publica-
                                                                 all who have worked so diligently on behalf     tions editor, chose not be reappointed to
        <Alasdair.Brooks@                                                                                        the position. Rebecca is one of the hardest-
                                                                 of SHA during my tenure as president. I
     cambridgeshire.gov.uk>                                      especially wish to thank Karen Hutchison,       working and most dedicated individuals
      Phone: +44 1954-273373                                     Grace Jan, and all of the MSP staff who         SHA has ever seen. I wish to express our
                                                                 make up our headquarters complement for         gratitude to her, on behalf of SHA, for all
                                                                 their dedication to seeing SHA succeed in
                                                                                                                                       Continued on Page 2

            Volume 40: Number 4                                                Winter 2007                                                Page 1
President’s Corner, Cont’d from Page 1          dair Brooks has accepted the Newsletter edi-
                                                tor position. Alasdair and Bill have worked
                                                closely over the last year to make the transi-
                                                                                                 Editor’s Farewell
she has done to make Historical Archaeology
                                                tion as smooth as possible. Best wishes to
and our partner publications such respect-                                                                     William B. Lees
                                                Alasdair in his new position. Bill may be
ed and high-quality publications in our
                                                “retiring” as Newsletter editor, but he does
field. Rebecca has been innovative with her
                                                not leave the board just yet, as he is the new
publications budgets, getting far more out
                                                president-elect. Congratulations, Bill.              This issue is my last as SHA Newslet-
of them than any of us expected. Rebecca
                                                    I wish to extend congratulations and a       ter Editor. I started out as editor when I
leaves a great legacy behind. Thank you,
                                                welcome to newly elected board members           worked for the Oklahoma Historical So-
Rebecca.
                                                Robyn Woodward and Charles Cheek.                ciety, moved the Newsletter to Lexington,
    Joe Joseph will get no respite as he com-
                                                    In formally handing the gavel to SHA’s       KY, when I worked for Cultural Resource
pletes his service as a director but takes on
                                                new president, Lu Ann De Cunzo, I can            Analysts, Inc., and am writing this from
the journal editorship with co-editor Mary
                                                only reiterate what a privilege it has been      my University of West Florida office over-
Beth Reed. Annalies Corbin is the co-pub-
                                                to serve SHA as your president. I look for-      looking Pensacola Bay. While my tenure
lications editor, and she is already hard at
                                                ward to watching our collective future un-       was short compared with my predecessor
work in that arena. I wish Joe, Mary Beth,
                                                fold with real anticipation.                     Norm Barka (who served 20 years), I know
and Annalies the best of luck with their
new responsibilities.                                                                            that it is time to give someone else a turn
    William Lees, our Newsletter editor, also                                                    at putting their creative energies into this
chose not to accept reappointment. Alas-                                                         worthwhile endeavor. Of course, the board
                                                                                                 has selected Dr. Alasdair Brooks to be the
                                                                                                 next Newsletter editor and I have every con-
                                                                                                 fidence that he will prove to be outstanding
                                Published Quarterly
                                                                                                 in this position.
      Subscription Rate: Individual: Regular ($125), Student ($70), Adjunct ($40),
                                                                                                     During the past six years I have pro-
           Friend ($175), Developer ($250), Benefactor ($400), Life ($3,600).
                                                                                                 duced 22 issues of the Newsletter. I have
                  Organizational: Institution ($200). All U.S. funds.
                                                                                                 done the initial editing and composition,
                                                                                                 but have relied heavily on a Chicago-based
                      Newsletter Editor: William B. Lees, PhD, RPA                               copy editor whom I have never met but
                     Incoming Newsletter Editor: Alasdair Brooks, PhD
                                                                                                 for whom I have great regard: Daniel Mc-
                           Copy Editor: Daniel McNaughton.
                                                                                                 Naughton. Dan has been absolutely es-
                                                                                                 sential to the quality of the Newsletter, and
   Special News Editors:                        U.S.A.-Pacific Northwest:                        I give him my sincere thanks for thorough
   Employment Opportunities: Cassandra            Robert Cromwell                                and consistent work done in a very timely
     Michaud                                    U.S.A.-Pacific West: Thad Van Bueren             fashion. I also want to thank Sandy De-
   Current Publications: Charles Ewen           U.S.A.-Southeast: Gifford Waters                 amer of Sheridan Press in Hanover, PA, for
   Public Education and Interpretation          U.S.A.-Southwest: Michael R. Polk                managing our account in a very profession-
     Committee: Brian Crane                                                                      al and fiscally conservative manner, and
   Images of the Past: Robert Schuyler          Editorial Address: The Society for               Karen Hutchison of our headquarters office
                                                Historical Archaeology Newsletter, c/o           for her assistance along the way.
   Current Research Editors:                    Dr. Alasdair Brooks, CAM ARC, Cam-                   Of course those who have helped with
   Africa: Kenneth Kelly                        bridgeshire County Council, 15 Tra-              the content of the Newsletter are the real
   Asia: Edward W. Tennant                      falgar Way, Bar Hill, Cambridgeshire,            heroes. High on my list here are our Cur-
   Australasia: Susan Piddock                   CB23 8SQ. Email to:                              rent Research editors, who are currently
   Canada-Atlantic: Robert Ferguson                  <Alasdair.Brooks@                           Kenneth Kelly (Africa), Edward Tennant
   Canada-Ontario: Jon Jouppien                                                                  (Asia), Susan Piddock (Australasia), Rob-
   Canada-Prairie: Jennifer Hamilton               cambridgeshire.gov.uk>
                                                                                                 ert Ferguson (Canada-Atlantic), Jon Joup-
   Canada-Québec: Allison Bain                                                                   pien (Canada-Ontario), Jennifer Hamilton
   Canada-Western: Rod J. Heitzmann             Business Address: 15245 Shady Grove
                                                Road, Ste. 130, Rockville, MD 20850.             (Canada-Prairie), Allison Bain (Canada-
   Caribbean/Bermuda: Norman F. Barka                                                            Québec), Rod Heitzmann (Canada-West),
   Europe: Paul Courtney                        Phone 301-990-2454; Fax 301-990-9771;
                                                Email <hq@sha.org> (New subscrip-                Norm Barka (Caribbean and Bermuda),
   Mexico, Central & South America:                                                              Paul Courtney (Europe), Pedro Paulo Fu-
     Pedro Paulo Funari                         tions, change of address, subscription
                                                fulfillment matters)                             nari (Mexico, Central and South America),
   Middle East: Uzi Baram                                                                        Uzi Baram (Middle East), Toni Carrell
   Underwater (Worldwide): Toni Carrell                                                          (Underwater worldwide), Doreen Cooper
   U.S.A.-Alaska: Doreen Cooper                 2007 The Society for Historical Archae-
                                                ology 3rd Class Postage Paid                     (Alaska), Jay Sturdevant (Central Plains),
   U.S.A.-Central Plains: Jay Sturdevant                                                         Kathleen Cande (Gulf States), Ben Resn-
   U.S.A.-Gulf States: Kathleen H. Cande                                                         ick (Mid-Atlantic), Lynn Evans (Midwest),
   U.S.A.-Mid-Atlantic: Ben Resnick             The paper used in this publication
                                                meets the minimum requirements of                David Starbuck (Northeast), Steven Baker
   U.S.A.-Midwest: Lynne L.M. Evans                                                              (Northern Plains and Mountain States),
   U.S.A.-Northeast: David Starbuck             the American National Stardards for
                                                Information Sciences--Permanence of              Robert Cromwell (Pacific Northwest), Thad
   U.S.A.-Northern Plains & Mountain                                                             M. Van Bueren (Pacific West), Gifford Wa-
     States: Steven G. Baker                    Paper for Printed Library Materials,
                                                ANSIZ39.48-1984.                                 ters (Southeast), and Michael Polk (South-
                                                                                                 west). Former current research editors
                                                                                                 during my tenure were Alasdair Brooks

         Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                 Page 
(Australasia), Doug Wilson (Pacific North-        the SHA by selecting me over a very capa-       listed below:
west), William Hunt (Central Plains), San-        ble opponent and friend, John Broadwater,
nie Osborn (Pacific West), Alfred Woods           to be the next SHA president-elect. But do         Victor T. Mastone
(Southeast), Dean Anderson (Midwest),             not worry, I will still have my camera in my       Co-chair, NASOH Program Committee
Karlene Leeper (Alaska), Reginald Auger           pocket in Albuquerque, and Alasdair has            Board of Underwater
(Canada-Quebéc), Janine Gasco (Mexico,            promised me a bit of space in the next is-         Archaeological Resources
Central and South America), and Lester            sue!                                               251 Causeway Street, Suite 800
Ross (Pacific Northwest).                                                                            Boston, MA 02114-2199
    Many others, such as Annalies Corbin                                                             <victor.mastone@state.ma.us>
and Charlie Ewen who coordinated Cur-
rent Publications, have helped to fill the
pages of the Newsletter with useful informa-         Call for Papers                                 John O. Jensen
                                                                                                     Co-chair, NASOH Program Committee
tion. Robert Schuyler has provided what I                                                            Sea Education Association
think is a very interesting feature, Images of     North American Society for Oce-                   P.O. Box 6
the Past, and Erika Seibert of the National                                                          Woods Hole, MA 02543
                                                   anic History and the Council of
Register religiously sends me the latest ar-                                                         <jensenheritage@cox.net>
chaeological sites that have been listed.           American Maritime Museums
    The officers, board members, and com-                                                             Program Committee: John O. Jensen,
mittee chairs of SHA have through the years           “Defining the Maritime Edge: The His-       Sea Education, Co-chair; Victor T. Mas-
contributed significant amounts of copy to        tory and Archaeology of Inland Environ-         tone, Commonwealth of Massachusetts,
these pages. I have delighted in publish-         ments, Coastal Encounters and Blue Water        Co-chair; William H. Thiesen, United States
ing the President’s Corner for Vergil Noble,      Connections,” the 27th Annual Conference        Coast Guard, Co-chair; James M. Allan, St.
Julia King, William Moss, Judy Bense, and         of the North American Society for Ocean-        Mary’s College; Cathy Green, National Oce-
Doug Scott.                                       ic History (NASOH) cosponsored by the           anic and Atmospheric Administration; C.
    To all of these individuals and many          Council of American Maritime Museums,           Douglas Kroll, College of the Desert; Tim-
more who have helped during the past              will be hosted by the University of West        othy G. Lynch, California State Maritime
year, I thank you. And to then-president          Florida in Pensacola, FL, 7-11 May 2008.        Academy; Christopher P. Magra, California
Doug Armstrong with whom I foolishly              The Conference Program Committee invites        State University-Northridge; Salvatore R.
shared a slight interest in taking over the       proposals for papers and sessions explor-       Mercogliano, Central Carolina Community
Newsletter, and who dogged me for months          ing all aspects of history and archaeology      College; Amy M. Mitchell-Cook, University
until I agreed to stand for approval as the       related to saltwater or navigable freshwater    of West Florida; James M. Morris, Christo-
next editor, I do, in retrospect, thank you       environments. Suggested areas of research       pher Newport University (emeritus); Brian
as well! I am grateful to the board of di-        include, but are not restricted to, archaeol-   J. Payne, Old Dominion University; Gene
rectors who approved my first and second          ogy and anthropology, arts and sciences,        A. Smith, Texas Christian University; Chan-
appointments as Newsletter editor, and who        history, or museum exhibitions. Propos-         ning M. Zucker, United States Navy (ret.).
have supported the work that I have done          als that identify the unique characteristics
for the society.                                  and influence of coastal and inland waters
    Finally, I thank all of those who have        and explore their interfaces with the larger
made it possible for me to continue to serve      continental or oceanic worlds are especially         New Editorial
                                                  encouraged.
                                                      The program committee welcomes the            Contact Information:
                                                  submission of individual papers and full
                                                  sessions, preferring panels with three pa-               SHA Newsletter Editor:
                                                  pers and a chair. Proposals should include                  Dr. Alasdair Brooks
                                                  a brief abstract for each paper or a one-page        Finds and Environmental Officer
                                                  abstract for panels and brief CVs for each                      CAM ARC
                                                  participant, including chairs. Graduate                      15 Trafalgar Way
                                                  students are strongly encouraged to submit                        Bar Hill
                                                  proposals for presentations. Accommoda-                      Cambridgeshire
                                                  tions for PowerPoint presentations will                          CB23 8SQ
                                                  be provided; however, any other require-                 Email: Alasdair.Brooks@
                                                  ments concerning audiovisual equipment,                   cambridgeshire.gov.uk
                                                  special outlets, or accommodations for dis-              Phone: +44 1954-273373
                                                  abilities should be included in the proposal.              Fax: +44 1954-273376
                                                  Scholars interested in chairing sessions are
                                                  welcome to send a brief CV to the Confer-            Current Research: Australasia
                                                  ence Program Committee Co-chairs. Please                    Dr. Susan Piddock
                                                  note that all participants must register for               Flinders University
                                                  the conference. Specific questions may be             Department of Archaeology
                                                  directed to Program Committee Co-chair                        GPO Box 2100
                                                  Bill Thiesen at <thiesen@earthlink.net>.             Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
                                                  The deadline for submissions is 31 January          Email: spiddock@ozemail.com.au
                                                  2008.                                                   Phone: +61 8 8201 5224
Lees in Belize shortly before putting a wrap on
                                                      Send or email submissions to the two                   Fax: +61 8 8201 2784
his last issue as Newsletter Editor.
                                                  Conference Program Committee Co-chairs


         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                               Page 3
                                    2007 Election Results
        SHA President-Elect, SHA Board of Directors, SHA Nominations Committee, ACUA Board of Directors




Results of the 2007 SHA Elections have
been announced by President Douglas
Scott as follows:

Top Row Left to Right:
   William Lees, President-Elect
   Robyn Woodward, SHA Board
   Charles Cheek, SHA Board

Middle Row Left to Right:
   Della Scott-Ireton, SHA Nominations
   Betty Seifert, SHA Nominations

Bottom Row Left to Right:
   Dave Ball, ACUA Board
   Ian Oxley, ACUA Board
   Amanda Evans, ACUA Board




    Volume 40: Number 4                         Winter 2007                                     Page 
                                RPA Amends Code of Conduct
                                                     Jeff Altschul, RPA President

     At their 5 November 2007 meeting the Register of Professional Archaeologists’ Board of Directors voted to amend the Code of
  Conduct (<www.rpanet.org>) as follows:

     I. The Archaeologist’s Responsibility to the Public
     1.2 An archaeologist shall not:
     e. knowingly be involved in the recovery or excavation of artifacts for commercial exploitation, or knowingly be employed by or
  knowingly contract with an individual or entity who recovers or excavates archaeological artifacts for commercial exploitation.

      The change stems from a request nearly three years ago by one of RPA’s sponsoring organizations (SHA) to amend the code of
  conduct to address the problem posed by underwater salvage operations. In time, we expanded the amendment to include land-
  based operations aimed at profiting from the sale of looted archaeological objects. Much of the discussion has lately focused on
  tailoring an amendment that clearly stated our intent to focus on commercial operations and not common museum practices or
  incidental acquisitions of historic objects from the public.
      In adopting this amendment, the Register of Professional Archaeologists’ (Register) Board of Directors acknowledges that the
  commercial exploitation of archaeological heritage for sale, trade, or speculation or its irretrievable dispersal is fundamentally in-
  compatible with the protection and proper management of the archaeological heritage. Therefore, archaeological heritage shall
  not be traded, sold, bought, or bartered as commercial goods, and no registered professional archaeologist (RPA) shall knowingly
  engage in such commercial exploitation. Commercial exploitation is defined as the sale, trade, purchase, or barter of archaeological
  objects and/or sites by entities or individuals whose motivation is primarily profit driven.
      In adopting this amendment, the board of directors further seeks to bring the Register into concordance with current ethical
  positions of heritage organizations, governments, and nongovernmental organizations regarding the commercial exploitation of the
  world’s cultural heritage as represented by artifacts and other archaeological remains and information. The amendment should not
  be construed to prohibit RPAs from engaging in exhibit or education projects for which a fee is charged, video or book projects which
  are intended to generate revenue, activities where revenue is realized that does not result from the sale of artifacts, or the exchange
  or transfer of artifacts to another museum following practices accepted by legitimate museum-accrediting organizations such as the
  American Association of Museums. The amendment would prohibit an RPA from being knowingly involved with an individual
  or entity that recovers or excavates artifacts for commercial exploitation, including association with related exhibit, video, and book
  projects.




                           Cautionary Tales and Advice from
                                 Summer Field School
                                                 By Sarah Heffner and Marissa Hughes

    Participating in a field school is a cru-     give advice to those who are thinking about          What sorts of fieldwork and/or archae-
cial step toward becoming an archaeolo-           participating in a field school.                 ological techniques did you use? Survey
gist. This step toward professionalism can            Below are some of the responses to the       and test excavations
often be difficult and humbling, but also         survey that was sent out. The responses are          Find anything really cool? Pithouses
one of the most exciting times of your un-        as varied as the sites the students worked           Did you enjoy your field school? Great-
dergraduate or graduate career. Each year         on, but present a general picture of the field   ly
thousands of students participate in field        school experience for those that have not            If so, why? The archaeology was neat,
schools across the country, learning the          yet done excavation work. Hopefully their        good people, lots of beer!
ins and outs of archaeological excavation.        responses and stories will provide answers,          Any funny stories from your field
Before they do so, many of these students         give a few laughs, and help students new         school experience? I married my field
naturally have questions about what field         to field schools and fieldwork realize what      school sweetheart, then got divorced. So
school will be like, what they will learn,        they need to look for and ask about prior to     it appears to be true—love is fleeting, but
and so forth.                                     attending a field school, and what to expect     stone tools are forever...
    In order to ease the minds of those think-    once they have begun.                                What advice would you give a student
ing about participating in a field school this                                                     who is about to do their first field school?
coming summer, students who have com-                How long was your field school? 6             Have fun but take it seriously. You may
pleted field schools were asked some ques-        weeks                                            know (and need) some of these people for
tions about their experiences, and asked to          What type of site was it? Prehistoric         the rest of your career.


        Volume 40: Number 4                                      Winter 2007                                                Page 5
     How long was your field school? 6           would go to the bar after dropping us off             Will I be trained on how to optimize
weeks                                            at the site in the morning). Our only sav-        pictures for archaeology? Such as minimiz-
     What type of site was it? Prehistoric       ior was the other grad students who were          ing how much sky to get into the picture,
     What sorts of fieldwork and/or archae-      there to help her. If it wasn’t for them I        getting as close to an artifact as possible be-
ological techniques did you use? GPS, To-        would have asked for my money back. Af-           fore taking a picture, using a scale, using a
tal Station, excavation, pedestrian survey,      ter returning to school she only remained         camera, proper use of a macro, and camera
profile work, identification of local fauna,     a grad student for two more months and            care. (I say this because in the private sec-
flotation analysis, and lab work in cleaning     dropped out.                                      tor there are a lot of new grads who take a
the excavated material.                               If so, why? I enjoyed the field school,      lot of horrible pictures, I was one.)
     Did you enjoy your field school? En-        even though it was at times scorching heat,           Will there be discussions about what
joyed with bounteous delight.                    followed by terrible black gnats flying into      CRM is and how it differs from an academ-
     If so, why? The teacher respected us        my nose and ears all day. I guess what I          ic dig?
and was there to teach us the work. He lis-      liked about it was the friends I made and             Will there be any Native American in-
tened to suggestions and ideas on alterna-       the memories of all the smiles and jokes.         volvement if this is a prehistoric site? Why
tive ways to do things. If he didn’t agree            Any funny stories from your field            or why not?
with something he told us why and correct-       school experience? Well, going through
ed our behavior. As part of the field school     the girls’ dorm window and piling on top               How long was your field school? Both
we cooked different foods with fire-heated       of two others on a bunk bed, then having          were 6 weeks.
rocks. During that time we got the oppor-        three others come through the window and               What type of site was it? The one was
tunity to learn how to do some rudimenta-        pile on top of me, then the whole mattress        prehistoric (Mid-Late Woodland) and the
ry knapping. The next day we looked at the       slumped off the bed, taking the light out on      other was historic.
FCR we created. Part of the experience was       the way down making the room go black.                 What sorts of fieldwork and/or archae-
to look at several different rock types, such         What advice would you give to a stu-         ological techniques did you use? For both
as obsidian, CCS, basalt, etc. to see how fire   dent who is about to do their first field         field schools, I did excavations of units,
heating would affect the rocks (baking and       school? Check and see if the person who           mapping of profiles, washing artifacts, us-
boiling, we didn’t eat the boiled soup).         is in charge or the immediate supervisor is       ing a transit.
     Any funny stories from your field school    passionate about their project. Talk with              Find anything really cool? Found a cou-
experience? Standard story, someone not          them and ask questions like:                      ple of points for the prehistoric field school,
paying attention and falling into the river.          How are they on safety?                      a whole bunch of cool stuff for the historic
     What advice would you give a student             If a student feels uncomfortable about a     one (like Civil War buttons).
who is about to do their first field school?     driver driving too fast, would the director            Did you enjoy your field school? Didn’t
Be open and prepared for any situation.          slow down or tell the driver to slow down?        enjoy the prehistoric field school as much
Buy a trowel before you go as you will trea-          Does the director care about the student     as the historic one.
sure it for the rest of your archaeological      learning or are they viewed as slaves? Does            If so, why? Great experience, made
life. Furthermore, it will have even greater     the director bring water out to the field for     some good contacts, got to deal with tour-
meaning to you because you used it during        all the students?                                 ists (which was actually fun).
field school. If the instructor is someone            Will there be a meal program in which             If not, why? For the prehistoric field
you don’t know ask around in the depart-         we all contribute?                                school we had to work out in the middle of
ment for other peoples’ opinion. If you               What types of things will we be doing        a cornfield and damn, did it get hot!! Also,
don’t like gloves, use mechanics’ gloves,        during the field school?                          some of the other students were immature
they don’t have fingers. TAKE CARE OF                 Will each of us be trained on using a        and would spend a lot of the time fight-
YOUR FEET!                                       GPS unit?                                         ing like children. For the historic one, our
                                                      Will I be trained on how to fill out pa-     field director spent quite a bit of time in the
    How long was your field school? 6            perwork? Will I be made a part of discus-         shade working on paperwork. Also, the TA
weeks                                            sions relating to the site and what I think? (I   was kind of bitchy.
    What type of site was it? Prehistoric        say this is important to train people in how           Any funny stories from your field school
    What sorts of fieldwork and/or archae-       to think about a site).                           experience? Dealing with some silly tour-
ological techniques did you use? We used 1            Will I be taught how to use my com-          ists. Chopping roots with an axe seemed to
X 1 m units with trowels, shovels, 5-pound       pass?                                             be an exciting activity for everyone.
mattocks, dustpans, whisks, buckets, and              Will there be any test?                           What advice would you give to a student
1/8-inch screens. We bagged the artifacts             If we will be excavating will I be taught    who is about to do their first field school?
at the end of each level by type, and then       how to assess different soils?                    Don’t be afraid to get dirty, dress properly,
placed the bagged artifacts into a level bag.         Will I receive feedback on my notes?         wear sunscreen, and use bug spray.
Also there was an off-site lab in which we       Are they good, bad, or how to improve?
took turns learning how to wash and count             What happens if I get sick?                     How long was your field school? 5
what seemed like zillions of flakes.                  Will any family emergencies be re-           weeks
    Find anything cool? I found what may         ported to me immediately? (A girl’s mom              What type of site was it? Historic
have been an obsidian trade biface which         went into the hospital and was informed in           Did you enjoy your field school? Yes!
was about as long as my forearm.                 the field but was then not allowed to leave.         If so, why? The people there were cool
    Did you enjoy your field school? I en-       The grad student quickly said after hand-         and it was fun!
joyed my field school; however, I was let        ing the notice, “Yeah, I know but just keep          What advice would you give a student
down by the lack of instruction we received      working” and the girl did even though she         who is about to do their first field school?
from the grad student in charge. She was         was distraught. Her mom died later.)              Have fun and try to absorb as much infor-
never there and it was rumored that she               Can I choose when to receive emergen-        mation as you can.
was disenchanted with her own Ph.D. (and         cy notices in the field or after work?

         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                  Page 
    How long was your field school? 6
weeks
                                                had a great time!
                                                    If so, why? Learning how to do the              CALL FOR PAPERS
    What type of site was it? Historic          whole archaeological excavation processes.
    What sorts of fieldwork and/or archae-          What advice would you give to some-
ological techniques did you use? Excava-        one who is about to do their first field              Society for Industrial
tion, some lab work to clean the excavated      school? Be patient, have fun, and don’t be                 Archeology
material and profiling.                         afraid to get dirty!
    Did you enjoy your field school? Worst
                                                                                                        The Society for Industrial Archeology
moments of my archaeological life!                  How long was your field school? 5
                                                                                                   (SIA) invites proposals for papers and post-
    If so, why? I did enjoy making the 30-40    weeks
                                                                                                   er sessions to be presented at the annual
layer profile.                                      What type of site was it? Historic but
                                                                                                   conference on Saturday, 31 May 2007, at San
    If not, why? I did not like my field        there was also evidence of prehistoric oc-
                                                                                                   José, CA. The conference theme is “Change
school as the entire experience was just so     cupation.
                                                                                                   is the Constant: Dynamics of Technology
the field director did not have to do all the       What sorts of fieldwork and/or ar-
                                                                                                   and Society.”
work for his paper. He only did one field       chaeological techniques did you use? We
                                                                                                        Poster sessions can be works in prog-
school for this fairly decent site. I doubt     worked in 2 x 2 m squares troweling down
                                                                                                   ress. Presentations on all topics related to
he would have taken soil samples, or dug        in levels and used 1/4-inch screens. We
                                                                                                   industrial archaeology, technology, and so-
the privy if I had not offered and asked to     also mapped in features and artifacts.
                                                                                                   cial change as related to industry and bridg-
do so. As I was digging the privy with a            Find anything really cool? This past
                                                                                                   es are welcome. Papers about industries in
partner he reassigned my digging partner        summer we opened a latrine. In it we un-
                                                                                                   the Silicon Valley region are encouraged.
to a different unit. If my sidewalls had col-   covered several chamber pot fragments,
                                                                                                   All papers and poster sessions should offer
lapsed that day I would have been hurt as I     complete bottles, as well as numerous bottle
                                                                                                   interpretation and synthesis of data.
was as deep in the hole as I am tall, having    clusters, tin cans, a fully intact toothbrush,
                                                                                                        Presentation Formats: Proposals may be
to use a bucket to get out of the small hole.   etc. I think that the toothbrush was partic-
                                                                                                   for individual papers, 20 minutes in length,
                                                ularly interesting because it was complete
                                                                                                   themed papers filling a 90-minute session,
    How long was your field school? 5           and is a very personal item.
                                                                                                   or organized 90-minute panel discussions
weeks                                               Did you enjoy your field school? I thor-
                                                                                                   (formal commentator optional).
    What type of site was it? Historic          oughly enjoyed the field school.
                                                                                                        Proposal Formats: Each proposal must
    What sort of fieldwork and/or archaeo-          If so, why? I enjoyed it because it was
                                                                                                   include: (1) title; (2) an abstract of 300 to 500
logical techniques did you use? Basic exca-     really my first glimpse into the archaeo-
                                                                                                   words with a detailed discussion of points,
vation and mapping techniques.                  logical world. I learned so much, met very
                                                                                                   findings, or conclusions in both hard copy
    Find anything really cool? Lots of neat     interesting and knowledgeable people, and
                                                                                                   and electronic formats (Word or WordPer-
stuff—projectile points from prehistoric        experienced the ability to work in an ex-
                                                                                                   fect); (3) résumé(s) for the presenter(s), in-
site usage, embossed glass, buttons, etc.       tremely well-preserved and documented
                                                                                                   cluding postal address, telephone/fax, and
    Did you enjoy your field school? Yes,       historical site.
                                                                                                   email; and (4) a list of visual-aid requests.
very much.                                          What advice would you give to a stu-
                                                                                                   A panel organizer should submit all paper
    If so, why? The hands-on and informa-       dent who is about to do their first field
                                                                                                   proposals as a group, accompanied by a
tive atmosphere really made archaeology         school? I highly encourage people who are
                                                                                                   title and a brief description of the theme or
an easy and fun subject to learn.               interested in archaeology and anthropol-
                                                                                                   purpose. If any of these items are missing,
    Any funny stories from your field           ogy to take a field school to make sure it is a
                                                                                                   the proposal will not be considered.
school? The site director tricked me into       line of work that they will enjoy. Definitely
                                                                                                        Presenters are encouraged to consider
thinking I had found a miníe ball and then      be prepared for the weather and work, but
                                                                                                   transforming papers into articles for IA: The
smashed it with a hammer when in fact it        also have fun knowing that you are uncov-
                                                                                                   Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
had been a piece of horn coral he had him-      ering history.
                                                                                                   No conference proceedings are published.
self worked to look like a miníe ball.
                                                                                                        Visit      <http://www.knightsia.org/
    What advice would you give a student             Editor’s Note: The Register of Profession-
                                                                                                   sia2008/> for more information.
who is about to do their first field school?    al Archaeologists (RPA) certifies archaeological
                                                                                                        Deadline for paper proposals: 29 Febru-
Read up on the site you’re going to be          field schools on an annual basis. The RPA field
                                                                                                   ary 2008. Send copies of all proposals to:
working at, and enjoy the experience.           school guidelines are useful reading for anyone
                                                                                                   Marco Meniketti, Program Chair, SIA 2008
                                                considering attending a field school, and can
                                                                                                   Paper Sessions, Department of Anthropol-
    How long was your field school? I’ve        be found under “Links” on the RPA Web site:
                                                                                                   ogy, San José State University, One Wash-
not done an official field school but I did     <www.rpanet.org>. Field schools certified by
                                                                                                   ington Square, San José, CA 95192-0113.
work for two 10-day sessions in the sum-        the register agree to abide by these guidelines.
                                                                                                        For paper questions and submissions,
mer.                                            The RPA field school list is also on their Web
                                                                                                   please email: <papers.sia2008@knightsia.
    What type of site was it? Historic          site; the 2006 list contained 21 different pro-
                                                                                                   org>.
    What sorts of fieldwork and/or ar-          grams.
                                                                                                        The conference hotel will be the Sainte
chaeological techniques did you use? 1 X
                                                                                                   Claire in downtown San José. Paper ses-
1 excavation grids, field notebooks, artifact
                                                                                                   sions are planned for venues on the San
sorting and documentation, drawing of the
                                                                                                   José State campus.
unit, and anything else the two grad stu-
dents requested of me.
    Find anything really cool? I found a
pocket knife handle shaped like a woman’s
leg with ivory inlaid bits.
    Did you enjoy your field school? Yes, I

        Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                     Page 
Images of the Past
Roderick Sprague—Early and Typical Director Pose
(Supervising, hands in pockets, watching others dig)




A young Rick (August 1970) directing the University of Idaho/University of Washington joint field school at English Camp, San
Juan Island National Historic Park, Washington state. Left to right in back: Kathy Sprague; Rick Sprague; a nervous Superinten-
dent; The Honorable Walter J. Hickel, Secretary of the Interior; and Mrs. Hickel. In front, an unidentified student.

English Camp, American Camp, San Juan Town, and Hudson’s Bay Company Bellevue Farm are all components of the park
which were excavated from 1970 through 1978 by the University of Idaho. The park celebrates the last border dispute between
the United States and Great Britain; it was known as the Pig War and started with the killing of an American settler’s pig in 1859.
The dispute was over ownership, and was settled peacefully by Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany in favor of the United States. That
is, the U.S. got the island and not just the dead pig.

Photo courtesy of Roderick Sprague.




    Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                Page 
                          SHA 2009 Annual Conference
                              5-12 January 2009
                           Toronto, Ontario, Canada
     Get ready to experience “The Ties That
Divide: Trade, Borders, & Conflict” as the
2009 Conference on Historical and Un-
derwater Archaeology comes to Toronto,
Ontario, Canada, 5-12 January 2009.
     Join us as we discover Toronto’s
rich and storied history; a thematic
plenary session on Thursday morn-
ing; and a collection of informa-
tive papers, posters, workshops, and
tours throughout the conference.
     The conference venue is the Fair-
mount Royal York Hotel in down-
town Toronto which has numerous
museums, restaurants, and shops
within a short walking distance.
     The Call for Papers will be printed in
the spring 2008 issue of the SHA Newslet-
ter. Preliminary program and conference
   .
registration information will be published
in the fall 2008 issue of the Newslet-
ter which will be mailed to members in
the September/October time frame.

    Those wishing additional informa-
tion on SHA 2009 should contact SHA
headquarters via email at <hq@sha.org>
or by phone at 301-990-2454, or contact
the principal conference organizers:

Conference Co-Chairs:
Dena Doroszenko, Ontario Heritage Trust
<Dena.doroszenko@heritagetrust.on.ca>

Eva MacDonald, Archaelogcal Services Inc.
<emacdonald@iasi.com>

Program Coordinator:
Neal Ferris, University of Western Ontario

Local Arrangements:
Mima Kapches, Royal Ontario Museum

Program Chairs:
Underwater Archaeology Program:
Jonathan Moore, Parks Canada
Erika Laanela, Ontario Ministry of Culture

Terrestrial Archaeology Program:
Joseph Last, Parks Canada
Susan Bazely, Cataraqui
 Archaeological Research Foundation




   Volume 40: Number 4                        Winter 2007   Page 9
             The Cost of the SHA’s Publication Program:
                 Journal, Web site, Co-publications
                                                     Rebecca Allen, SHA Editor
    As your editor for the last three years, I have some figures that I would like to share with you (Table 1), and some people and institu-
tions that I would like to thank. I have been working very hard, with vital assistance from the SHA editorial staff, to keep publication
costs down while at the same time expanding the program. I have been fortunate to be able to negotiate printing costs, and to decrease
some production costs by increasing the use of email as an alternative to “snail mail.”
    We have also been able to keep costs down because the SHA has a core of dedicated volunteers. Their companies, universities, and
agencies have covered the majority of their SHA publication-related expenses, such as postage, photocopying, and telephone calls. Many
individuals have also covered their own editorial expenses. And of course, ALL of us donate our valuable time!
	          •		Associate Editors and Editorial Advisors: all cover their own postage, telephone, photocopying, and printing costs;
           • Dave Burley: Simon Fraser University funded the creation and launching of the new Technical Briefs in Historical Archaeology
on the Web site;
           • Greg Waselkov: University of South Alabama covered much of the Web site and Webmaster costs in 2005;
           • Mark Warner: University of Idaho paid for student time to help with the indexing of journals for the new Web site publication
explorer;
           • Terry Majewski: Statistical Research, Inc. covered the majority of the photocopying and postage costs associated with the dis-
sertation prize;
           • Kelly Dixon: University of Montana covers most office-related expenses;
           • Annalies Corbin: PAST Foundation supports our new Co-Publications Editor;
           • Joe Joseph and Mary Beth Reed: New South Associates, Inc. supports our new Journal and Co-journal Editor;
           • Past Forward, Inc.: covered 90% of this editor’s office-related expenses and time;
           • Spectral Fusion, University of Montana: in 2006, charged SHA $8K for Web site programming and updates; DONATED $27K
of time and energy
    If I have forgotten anyone here, please accept my apologies. THANK YOU ALL.
    The SHA’s editorial staff will continue to work at keeping costs down, and should any additional funds be earmarked, you can be
sure that we will make the best use of them.

                                   Table 1. Publication Program Monies: Journal, Web site, Co-publication
 Dollars Spent for:              2004                        2005                        2006                   2007 (thru September)
 Journal
  Copy Editor                    $20,962.60                  $18,248.39                  $20,702.61
  Composition                    $19,755.39                  $10,082.18                  $9,775.90
  Printing                       $21,171.37                  $22,886.02                  $19,205.20
  Postage to membership          $10,069.15                  $10,420.24                  $11,274.44
  Software, equipment,           $11,083.75                  $5,655.29                   $4,839.68
    courier expenses
                       Total     $83,042.26                  $67,292.29                  $65,797.83             $44,490.52
 Web site                        $2,085.80                   $4,673.81                   $15,838.51*            $17,911.03
 Co-publications program         $1,010.50                   $381.11                     $1,299.47**            $1,186.44
 TOTAL PUBLICATIONS
 MONEY SPENT                     $169,180.82                 $139,639.16                 $148,732.64
 * $3,681 for software came out of Publication Fund, not operating budget; costs include VerSign security fees for online transactions.
 ** $799.71 for Unlocking reception paid for by Past Forward, Inc. and the Sonoma Wine Company.



                             New National Register Listings
                                                     Submitted by Erika Seibert
The following archaeological properties were listed in the National Register of Historic Places during the third quarter of 2007. For a full
list of National Register listings every week, check “Weekly List” at <http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/>.
     Florida, Volusia County. Turnbull Canal System (Archeological Resources of the 18th Century Smyrnea Settlement of Dr. Andrew
Turnbull MPS). Listed 25 August 2007.
     New Mexico, Santa Fe County. Arroyo Hondo Pueblo. Listed 13 September 2007.
     Puerto Rico, Vega Baja Municipality. Paso del Indio Site. Listed 25 July 2007.
     Virginia, Fairfax County. Gunston Hall. Additional Documentation Approved 9 August 2007.
     Virginia, Hopewell Independent City. Kippax Plantation Archeological Site. Listed 9 August 2007.
     Virginia, King William County. Sharon Indian School. Listed 27 July 2007.
     West Virginia, Fayette County. Nuttallburg Coal Mining Complex and Town Historic District. Listed 22 August 2007.


         Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                               Page 10
    Witness to the Past
    The Life and Works of John L. Cotter
     During his long and distinguished career,
     John L. Cotter was a living icon to many
     American archaeologists and, at the time
     of his passing in February 1999, one of
     the last surviving links to the seminal
     Paleoindian excavations at Clovis and
     Lindenmeier in the 1930s. Witness to the
     Past: The Life and Works of John L. Cotter
     serves as a posthumous tribute to Cotter’s
     life and career, reprinting many of his
     most important, and in some cases least
     accessible, works, beginning with his first
     publication in 1937 and ending with his
     last shortly after his death. Also included
     are several introductory and transitional
     sections newly written by the editors, as
     well as a few previously published tributes,
                                                                  Regular Price: $37.95
     an interview, and his formal memorial/            SAA and SHA Member Discount Price: $29.95
     bibliography. The book will appeal to                      ISBN No. 0-932839-31-2
     a wide audience of those interested in
                                                            For ordering information,
     the twentieth-century development of                         please contact:
     American archaeology as seen by one of the
     discipline’s leading practitioners.

     Edited by Daniel G. Roberts
     and David G. Orr
     Published in cooperation with                           Telephone: +1 202-789-8200
     The Society for Historical Archaeology                     Fax: +1 202-789-0284
                                                             Email: thesaapress@saa.org
     Available May 2007                                              www.saa.org




   Volume 40: 1
Ad_CotterCover.indd Number   4                Winter 2007                                    Page 11
                                                                                          4/10/07 4:27:00 PM
                                        Current Research

Please send summaries of your recent research to the appropriate geographical coordinator
listed below. Photographs and other illustrations are encouraged. Please submit summaries as
Word or text-only files. Submit illustrations as separate files (.jpeg preferred, 300 dpi or greater
resolution).
AFRICA
   Kenneth G. Kelly, University of South Carolina, <kenneth.kelly@sc.edu>
ASIA
   Edward W. Tennant, University of Florida, <etennant@ufl.edu>
AUSTRALASIA
   Susan Piddock, Flinders University, <spiddock@ozemail.com.au>
CANADA-ATLANTIC (New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island)
   Robert Ferguson, Parks Canada, <rob.ferguson@pc.gc.ca>
CANADA-ONTARIO
  Jon K. Jouppien, <jouppien@niagara.com>
CANADA-PRAIRIE (Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, Yukon and Nunavut)
  Jennifer Hamilton, Parks Canada, <jennifer.hamilton@pc.gc.ca>
CANADA-QUÉBEC
  Allison Bain, Université Laval, <allison.bain@hst.ulaval.ca>
CANADA-WEST (Alberta, British Columbia)
  Rod J. Heitzmann, Parks Canada, <rod.heitzmann@pc.gc.ca>
CARIBBEAN AND BERMUDA
  Norman F. Barka, College of William and Mary, <nfbark@wm.edu>
EUROPE
  Paul Courtney, <paul.courtney2@ntlworld.com>
MEXICO, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
  Pedro Paulo Funari, <ppfunari@uol.com.br>
MIDDLE EAST
  Uzi Baram, New College of Florida, <baram@ncf.edu>
UNDERWATER (Worldwide)
  Toni L. Carrell, Ships of Discovery, <tlcarrell@shipsofdiscovery.org>
U.S.A.-ALASKA
  Doreen Cooper, R&D Consulting, <dccooper_99840@yahoo.com>
U.S.A.-CENTRAL PLAINS (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska)
  Jay Sturdevant, National Park Service, <jay_sturdevant@nps.gov>
U.S.A.-GULF STATES (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Texas)
  Kathleen H. Cande, Arkansas Archaeological Survey, <kcande@uark.edu>
U.S.A.-MID-ATLANTIC (Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia)
  Ben Resnick, GAI Consultants, <b.resnick@gaiconsultants.com>
U.S.A.-MIDWEST (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin)
  Lynn L.M. Evans, Mackinac State Historic Parks, <evansll@michigan.gov>
U.S.A.-NORTHEAST (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont)
  David Starbuck, <dstarbuck@frontiernet.net>
U.S.A.-NORTHERN PLAINS AND MOUNTAIN STATES (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming)
  Steven G. Baker, Centuries Research, <sbaker@montrose.net>
U.S.A.-PACIFIC NORTHWEST (Idaho, Oregon, Washington)
  Robert Cromwell, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, <Bob_Cromwell@nps.gov>
U.S.A.-PACIFIC WEST (California, Hawaii, Nevada)
  Thad M. Van Bueren, CalTrans, <thad_van_bueren@dot.ca.gov>
U.S.A.-SOUTHEAST (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee)
  Gifford Waters, Florida Museum of Natural History, <gwaters@flmnh.ufl.edu>
U.S.A.-SOUTHWEST (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah)
  Michael R. Polk, Sagebrush Consultants, <sageb@sagebrushconsultants.com>


                                     CURRENT RESEARCH BEGINS ON NEXT PAGE


    Volume 40: Number 4                              Winter 2007                                          Page 1
   CANAdA-AtlANtiC                                     In 2006, a plain silver cross
                                                   was found in the rubble stra-
      Reported by Rob Ferguson                     tum of the cellar. The cross has
        <rob.ferguson@pc.gc.ca>                    a tab at the bottom for inserting
                                                   into a base, perhaps the lid of a
Nova Scotia                                        ciborium. This year, a French
                                                   30-deniers coin dated 1711 and a
                                                   silver sleeve link were recovered,
Grand-Pré National Historic Site: In July suggesting that the occupant had
the Grand-Pré Archaeological Field School relatively high status and finan-
took to the field for its seventh consecutive cial success in the community.
year. A collaborative initiative of Parks              In August, Rob Ferguson of
Canada, Saint Mary’s University, and the Parks Canada completed an EM-
Société Promotion Grand-Pré, directed by 38B (Geonics Ltd.) geophysical
Jonathan Fowler, the field school this year survey of newly acquired land
                                                           south of the park. Two
                                                           house sites, identified in Magnetic Susceptibility plot at Grand-Pré, showing two-
                                                           the 1960s, had been re- new potential house sites. Anomaly in upper right is previ-
                                                           corded in an EM survey ously verified Acadian house site.
                                                           by Fred Schwartz in 1999.
                                                           The new survey covered                   vey of the property and additional excava-
                                                           an adjacent field just under 200 m2 tions are planned for 2008, which will mark
                                                           and shows two additional anomalies the house’s 300th year.
                                                           likely to be Acadian house cellars.
                                                           Testing will be undertaken this fall the Archaeology of Slavery in Nova Sco-
                                                           or spring.                               tia: Following the American Revolution,
                                                               An EM-38B survey was also con- thousands of Loyalists moved with their
                                                           ducted at Horton Landing, embarka- servants and slaves to eastern Canada to
                                                           tion site for the 1755 forced deporta- start anew. Historians have estimated that
                                                                                                    3,500 black Loyalists and 1,300 slave Loy-
Grand-Pré National Historic Site: Kenzie Jessom, Ste- tion of the Acadians from Grand-Pré.
phen Uloth, and Ashley deYoung excavate destruction        Anomalies in this area likely relate to alists immigrated to the province of Nova
                                                                                                    Scotia at the end of the Revolution. In the
level of burnt clay and charcoal, possibly dating to the 19th-century ship-building activities
                                                                                                    late 18th century, one region of the prov-
1755 deportation period, in an Acadian house cellar, on the site.
                                                               Grand-Pré National Historic Site ince in particular, the Annapolis Valley,
                                                            commemorates the Acadian experi- was recognized as slave-owning territory.
                                                            ence at Grand-Pré in the late 17th because its rich agricultural lands were well
                                                            and early 18th centuries, as well as suited to the Loyalists’ use of slave labor to
                                                            the Deportation of the Acadians that produce crops.
                                                            took place here in 1755.                    In the fall of 2007 Curator of Archaeolo-
                                                                                                    gy (Nova Scotia Museum), Katie Cottreau-
                                                            Annapolis Royal: In September, Robins began the fieldwork component of
                                                            Jonathan Fowler and his crew initi- her Ph.D. research (Interdisciplinary Ph.D.
                                                            ated a multistage project at the de Program, Dalhousie University). At the
                                                            Gannes-Cosby House in Annapolis core of her dissertation is the exploration of
                                                            Royal, NS. The house dates to 1708. the daily life of slaves in the Annapolis Val-
                                                            Funded by the current owners, Jim ley of Nova Scotia. The fieldwork consist-
                                                            and Pauline Howe, the project is de- ed of a reconnaissance survey of the case-
                                                            signed to recover evidence              study property (the small-scale plantation
                                                            of the various activities
Grand-Pré National Historic Site: Christophe Rivet that took place in the yards
runs the EM-38B over the south field; memorial church around the house, includ-
of Grand-Pré in the background.                             ing the location of a second
                                                            dwelling that stood on the
                                                            property in the early 18th
continued to excavate the cellar of a prede- century. The initial tests located a
portation Acadian building near the center 19th-century garbage dump at the
of Grand-Pré National Historic Site. Coin rear of the house, and uncovered a
evidence from the destruction layer in- beautifully preserved pavé at the
dicates that this building met a fiery end front. Sealed by destruction mate-
some time between 1734 and the 1755 de- rial associated with the 1707 New
portation. Student archaeologists also con- England raid, which claimed an
tinued to examine the remains of a second, earlier house on the property, this
more recently discovered building in the pavement clearly dates to the open-
eastern section of the site near the Acadian ing years of the 18th century if not
                                                                                             Matt Cloutier records cobble pavement pre-dating the
cemetery.                                          earlier. A complete geophysical sur- 1708 de Gannes-Cosby house.

        Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                  Page 13
landscape of a prominent, slave-holding,       the periphery of the site. The church domi-      by CONACyT.
Massachusetts Loyalist). The fieldwork re-     nated the central plaza, while peripheral
sulted in the collection of information con-   indigenous domestic zones evidence the           u.S.A.-Florida
cerning the main house, orchard, vaulted       social hierarchy expressed through daily
garden, two possible slave quarters, and a     practices. Even while demonstrating the
slave cemetery.                                Jesuits’ attempts to implement their colo-       Florida Public Archaeology Network (sub-
    An interdisciplinary approach is key to    nial strategy, the archaeological record pro-    mitted by della Scott-ireton): The Florida
the framework of the thesis project. Three     vides unequivocal evidence for the vulner-       Public Archaeology Network has been
streams of research—historical archaeol-       ability of the mission project and resistance    steadily growing and developing new pro-
ogy, Atlantic World history, and cultural      by natives. The missionaries depended on         grams. The new Southeast Regional Center
geography—connected by a case-study ap-        the indigenous members of the community          in Ft. Lauderdale is now up and running,
proach, are blending together, adding lever-   for most of their subsistence, labor supply,     staffed by Director Dr. Michele Williams
age to insights about the slavery “hybrids”    and technology. The wide distribution of         and underwater archaeologist Dr .Kira
occurring that occurred in Nova Scotia in      locally made ceramics at the site suggested      Kaufmann. The Central Regional Center
the late 18th century. Fieldwork is expect-    to the investigators that the limited number     in Crystal River is getting organized as
ed to continue in the summer of 2008.          of European wares were complemented by           well. The final center, in the North Central
                                               the use of indigenous pottery. The creative      Region, will be established by early 2008,
                                               conversion of European materials into tra-       resulting in the entire state of Florida being
  MExiCo, CENtRAl                              ditional products is another aspect of the       served by the network.
 ANd SoutH AMERiCA                             archaeological record that indicates indig-          This fall the network participated in sev-
                                                                                                eral conferences and meetings. Staff repre-
Reported by Pedro Paulo A. Funari              enous control of certain realms of mission
                                               culture.                                         sented the network at the Maritime Heri-
    <ppfunari@uol.com.br>                                                                       tage conference in San Diego, the Southeast
                                                                                                Archaeology Conference in Knoxville, the
Venezuela                                              uNdERwAtER                               Florida Maritime Heritage conference in
                                                       (woRldwidE)                              Cortez, the Florida Social Studies confer-
                                                                                                ence in Orlando, the Diving Equipment &
Archaeology of Jesuit Mission in the                Reported by Toni Carrell                    Marketing Association trade show in Or-
Middle orinoco, Venezuela: The Central          <tlcarrell@shipsofdiscovery.org>                lando, and the Nautical Archaeology Soci-
University of Venezuela provided support
                                                                                                ety conference in Portsmouth, England. At
for excavations at Piedra Rajada, under the
supervision of Kay Tarble with assistance      Mexico                                           all of these events the network’s mission
                                                                                                and projects were described and partner-
from Richard Romero and Franz Scaramelli.
                                               Subdirectora de Arqueología Subacuáti-           ships were formed with other agencies and
Archaeological surveys of the western re-
                                               ca, instituto Nacional de Antropología e         organizations.
gion of Bolívar State in Venezuela revealed
                                               Historia/México (iNAH): The Underwater               In early October, the network, in part-
remains of a Spanish colonial presence. The
                                               Archaeology Sub-Directorate undertook            nership with the Florida Bureau of Ar-
investigators believed that the archaeologi-
                                               an extended 2006 field season on the 1630-       chaeological Research and the Florida
cal record could provide new evidence con-
                                               1631 New Spain’s Fleet Research Project          Keys National Marine Sanctuary, hosted
cerning life in the missionary community
                                               and Inventory of Submerged Cultural Re-          the Heritage Awareness Diver seminar in
and this proved to be the case. The data
                                               sources in the Gulf of Mexico from the end       Marathon. The seminar is targeted at in-
yielded by the fieldwork enabled them to
                                               of April until the beginning of July 2006 at     structor trainers and course directors for
challenge the current historical discourse
                                               the Sonda de Campeche, Gulf of Mexico,           NAUI, PADI, and SSI, the major sport-div-
grounded solely on the biased historical
                                               and Campeche’s coast with the participa-         er-training agencies. The seminar explains
record. The archaeologists were working
                                               tion of archaeologists Michael Jablonowski       the advantages of conserving shipwrecks
from the theoretical premise that society is
                                               from Sonoma State University, Peter Wad-         and other submerged cultural resources,
composed of a variety of social groups in
                                               dell from Parks Canada, and Margaret Le-         not only to preserve information about
conflict, leading them to highlight both the
                                               shikar-Denton, formerly with the Cayman          our collective past, but also to preserve the
missionaries’ intentions and the resistance
                                               Islands’ National Museum; students and           vibrant ecosystems that grow up around
by native peoples. In the 18th century, the
                                               diving instructors from several parts of         shipwrecks. Seminar participants are pro-
Jesuits attempted to establish missions in
                                               Mexico; and local fishermen. In addition to      vided with information and teaching ma-
the Middle Orinoco, in the wake of similar
                                               documenting and recording new sites, field       terials and are encouraged to incorporate
settlements elsewhere in the New World.
                                               season activities included training, lectures,   their new knowledge into their diver train-
At the Middle Orinoco, though, the Jesu-
                                               and public outreach through the press, ra-       ing classes. After the first seminar, held
its were confronted with a variety of na-
                                               dio, TV, and an exhibit. Reports of material     last spring, NAUI, PADI, and SSI officially
tive populations who continually thwarted
                                               findings by local fishermen were attended.       designated the new Heritage Awareness
their intentions. Documents attest to the
                                               New sites were registered.                       Diver Specialty Course. The seminars will
challenges faced by the missionaries and
                                                   Pilar Luna, project director, coordinated    be held twice per year. Contact Della Scott-
the archaeological evidence recovered from
                                               and presented the first annual report before     Ireton at <dscottireton@uwf.edu> for more
the mission sites indicates the dominance
                                               the National Council for Science and Tech-       information.
of native technology, subsistence strate-
gies, and social relations of production.      nology (CONACyT). The organization
The Mission of Our Lady of the Angels          granted financial support for three years to     u.S.A.-Georgia
at Pararuma has been studied and the ar-       the New Spain Fleet Project through a col-
chaeological remains highlight the differen-   laboration agreement with INAH. A book           GdNR Coastal underwater Archaeology
tial distribution of imported goods and the    on this project is being prepared by mem-        Field Station: In recent months the GDNR
construction of indigenous dwellings on        bers of the Sub-Directorate to be published      has undertaken two significant projects:

         Volume 40: Number 4                                  Winter 2007                                                  Page 1
    USS/CSS Water Witch: In late October        Study: Researchers from the Skidaway In-         the past by illuminating the role of vessels
2007, archaeologists from the Georgia De-       stitute of Oceanography and archaeologists       in the nation’s economy and acquainting us
partment of Natural Resources, Georgia          from Georgia’s Coastal Underwater Archae-        with the ordinary men and women, build-
Department of Transportation, and Tide-         ology Field Station spent several months         ers, sailors, and longshoremen who were
water Atlantic Research, Inc. joined forces     last year surveying shorelines throughout        the lifeblood of the shipping industry.
to locate the apparent remains of USS/CSS       Georgia’s barrier island system to gauge             In addition to shipwrecks, the sanctu-
Water Witch. Built at the Washington Navy       the effect of natural erosion on selected ar-    ary protects and interprets the remains of
Yard in 1851, the sail- and steam-powered       chaeological sites. These data are currently     commercial fishing sites, historic docks,
hybrid began her career as a U.S. Navy          being incorporated into a GIS-based project      and other underwater archaeological sites.
vessel conducting coastal surveys along         funded by the Coastal Zone Management            Geological and archaeological evidence
the shores of South America. During the         Program. The study’s purpose is to evalu-        suggests a high probability of prehistoric
American Civil War she served as a gun-         ate the erosion rates of significant archaeo-    archaeological sites resting below sanctuary
boat with both the Gulf and South Atlan-        logical sites and generate a prioritized list    waters. Whether examined as individual
tic Blockading Squadrons. On 3 June 1864,       of those in danger of being lost to dynamic      sites, or read as a complex maritime land-
while anchored south of Savannah in Os-         processes, so they can be targeted for docu-     scape, the maritime heritage resources of
sabaw Sound, a Confederate raiding party        mentation and National Register eligibil-        the Thunder Bay NMS are of national and
attacked the vessel under cover of dark-        ity. This information is critical for resource   international significance. Collectively, the
ness. Confederate Lieutenant Thomas P.          managers and coastal planners who need to        sanctuary encompasses and protects the re-
Pelot commanded the boarding party and          consider cultural resources in their decision    mains of a complex and evolving maritime
successfully captured Water Witch after a       making. Additionally, the identification of      landscape shaped by thousands of years of
brief but violent assault. Casualties were      rapidly eroding shorelines can aid permit-       human use of the Great Lakes.
high on both sides and included the deaths      ting agencies in establishing effective buf-         Since its 17 September opening in 2005,
of Pelot and his skilled African American       fers around development for cultural re-         the Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center
river pilot Moses Dallas. After the fray, Wa-   source protection and hazard mitigation.         has received nearly 30,000 visitors. Visi-
ter Witch was moved inland along the Ver-           For more information contact Christo-        tors from the community and across the
non River, away from approaching Union          pher P. McCabe, Deputy State Archaeolo-          nation have explored Thunder Bay’s ship-
warships and secured near the small com-        gist, GDNR Coastal Underwater Archae-            wrecks via exhibits, an artifact conserva-
munity of Vernonburg. Unfortunately for         ology Field Station, Skidaway Institute          tion laboratory, visible artifact storage, and
the Confederacy, the Federal blockade pre-      of Oceanography, Savannah, GA 31411,             theater viewing of Tragedies in the Mist,
vented CSS Water Witch from ever escaping       <Chris_McCabe@dnr.state.ga.us>.                  the sanctuary’s documentary on the his-
into open waters. On 19 December 1864, in                                                        tory and archaeology of Thunder Bay. The
the final days of General William Tecumseh      u.S.A.-Michigan                                  center hosts educational programs, group
Sherman’s March to the Sea, Confederate                                                          meetings in the technologically enhanced
sailors burned the vessel to the waterline                                                       education room and theater, and guided
to keep her from falling back into enemy        thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary            tours for groups and individuals. Nearly
hands. For the next 143 years, the remains      (tBNMS): Located in northwestern Lake            30 live broadcasts have been brought into
of Water Witch slowly settled into the mud      Huron, Thunder Bay is adjacent to one of         the Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center
and rising sediment of the Vernon River,        the most treacherous stretches of water          including Dr. Robert Ballard’s telepresence
largely forgotten.                              within the Great Lakes system. Unpredict-        broadcasts, broadcasts from the Monitor
    As part of a 2007 survey associated with    able weather, murky fog banks, sudden            and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanc-
a nearby bridge construction project, ar-       gales, and rocky shoals have earned the          tuaries, and shipboard broadcasts from the
chaeologists Gordon Watts, Harry Pecorelli,     area the name “Shipwreck Alley.” Today,          schooner Denis Sullivan, connecting Thun-
Chris McCabe, Dave Crass, and Jim Pomfret       the 448-square-mile Thunder Bay National         der Bay with people around the nation and
detected several strong magnetometer sig-       Marine Sanctuary (NMS) is managed joint-         bringing the wonders of the nation’s marine
natures within the Water Witch search area.     ly by NOAA and the State of Michigan to          sanctuaries to Michigan. The sanctuary has
After several underwater dives and a series     protect one of America’s best-preserved          a number of ongoing projects including:
of sub-bottom probes, the initial search area   and historically significant collections of          Science on a Sphere: In February 2006,
was localized to a space approximately 75       shipwrecks.                                      the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctu-
meters long. This location, viewed in re-           Historical research suggests that more       ary received $100,000 from NOAA’s Office
lation to an 1865 U.S. Coast Survey map         than 200 shipwrecks lie in and around the        of Education to install Science on a Sphere
which listed the wreck as a potential hazard    sanctuary. To date, more than 50 shipwrecks      at the Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Cen-
to navigation, is believed to hold the im-      have been discovered within the sanctuary,       ter. Developed by NOAA’s Earth System
bedded remains of USS/CSS Water Witch.          and an additional 30 wrecks have been lo-        Research Laboratory Global Systems Divi-
Efforts are currently underway to confirm       cated outside of the sanctuary boundaries.       sion in Boulder, CO, Science on a Sphere
the find with a sub-bottom profiler remote      Although the sheer number of shipwrecks          uses four projectors to cast rotating images,
sensing survey and continued probing.           is impressive, it is the range of vessel types   or data sets, onto a sphere six feet in diame-
Excavation is also being considered; how-       that makes the collection nationally signifi-    ter to create the effect of the Earth spinning
ever, river bottom overburden is estimated      cant. From an 1844 side-wheel steamer to         in space. Installed in late June 2006, the
to exceed eight meters in some places. If       a modern 500-foot-long German freighter,         sphere has awed thousands of visitors, con-
excavation and artifact recovery proceed        the shipwrecks of Thunder Bay repre-             necting them to NOAA’s global research.
the Coastal Underwater Archaeology Field        sent a microcosm of maritime commerce            In the future, the sanctuary will develop
Station and National Civil War Naval Mu-        and travel on the Great Lakes. These are         programming for Science on a Sphere that
seum at Port Columbus will manage con-          unique sites that have tremendous histori-       focuses on the Great Lakes and maritime
servation, curation, and display.               cal, archaeological, and recreational value.     heritage.
    Barrier Island Archaeological Erosion       Each of these shipwrecks offer insights into         thunder Bay Maritime Festival: The

        Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                 Page 15
Great Lakes once governed community              shop: Staff at Thunder Bay National Ma-         tion. The “You Have the Power” campaign
life in northeastern Michigan’s coastal          rine Sanctuary organized and facilitated a      helps federal agencies reach their energy-
towns and villages. In order to reconnect        remotely operated vehicle (ROV) building        saving goals by raising awareness about
with this living heritage, the Thunder Bay       workshop for educators at the Great Lakes       energy efficiency at federal facilities.
National Marine Sanctuary began hosting          Maritime Heritage Center. Twenty-one                improvements: In late 2006, construc-
the Thunder Bay Maritime Festival in 2001        formal and informal educators from across       tion began on the Great Lakes Maritime
(then called the Thunder Bay Tall Ships          the country participated in this two-day        Heritage Trail behind the Great Lakes
Festival), attracting approximately 2,000        event led by Ike Coffman and Dave Schuler       Maritime Heritage Center and on Fletcher
visitors. The Sixth Annual Thunder Bay           of Alvin Community College, Houston, TX.        Street, the main thoroughfare leading to
Maritime Festival in 2006 brought nearly         The workshop was designed to expose edu-        the center. The sanctuary partnered with
10,000 visitors to participate in family boat-   cators to the Marine Advanced Technology        the City of Alpena and Alpena Marc, LLC
building, maritime entertainment, kids’ ac-      Education (MATE) Center’s International         on a $3.8 million grant from the Michigan
tivities, educational workshops, diving and      ROV Building Competition for high school        Department of Transportation to fund the
ROV demonstrations, and tours of the new         students, and to enable educators to men-       Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Trail which
Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center. The        tor students who wish to participate in the     will include dockage for visiting tall ships,
sanctuary will continue to host the festival     competition. The sanctuary hosts a regional     a boardwalk, a pedestrian bridge, acres of
to share with children and adults the mari-      ROV building competition where students         new landscaping, historically themed light-
time history that makes Thunder Bay a lo-        compete for a qualifying spot in the inter-     ing, and 12 interpretive panels. Developed
cal, state, and national treasure.               national MATE competition. The program          by the sanctuary, the panels will interpret
    Remote Sensing technology used to            inspires high school students to pursue         shipwrecks, Great Lakes shipping, lumber
Characterize Shallow waters of thunder           careers in marine technology, science, and      mills, dock remnants, and historic water-
Bay: Remote sensing technology was used          archaeology.                                    front buildings to create a broader maritime
in 2006 to further characterize the TBNMS.           Archaeologists document Sanctuary’s         heritage context for the sanctuary’s ship-
The sanctuary and the University of Rhode        oldest-known Shipwreck: In late 2006, a         wrecks. Renovation of Fletcher Street with
Island’s Institute for Archaeological Ocean-     team of archaeologists from NOAA and East       a $1.75 million grant from the Michigan
ography conducted side scan sonar surveys        Carolina University documented the side-        Economic Development Corporation will
within the sanctuary’s shallower waters.         wheel steamer New Orleans, the sanctuary’s      improve public access to the Great Lakes
Hundreds of targets were detected and the        oldest-known shipwreck. Built in Detroit,       Maritime Heritage Center, and historical
data will be incorporated into a Geographic      MI in 1844, the vessel ran aground during       lighting and brick-paved crosswalks will
Information System to assist resource man-       heavy fog on 13 June 1847. All passengers       complement the renovations taking place
agement, interpretation, and information         and crew were removed safely, but heavy         in and around the center.
dissemination. With funding support from         winds the next day broke the vessel’s back          Exploring the Shipwreck Century: In
NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration, the          and it sank in 15 feet of water. The location   2006, the Thunder Bay National Marine
sanctuary worked with NOAA’s National            of the wreck remained forgotten until it        Sanctuary began developing innovative,
Geodetic Survey, Remote Sensing Division,        was located in 1992 during an aerial survey     permanent exhibits for the 9,000-square-
to conduct Light Detection and Ranging           of the area. In 2001, the Center for Maritime   foot exhibit area at the Great Lakes Mari-
(LIDAR) and high-resolution aerial photo-        and Underwater Resource Management              time Heritage Center. Entitled “Explor-
grammetry surveys of the sanctuary and           conducted preliminary documentation             ing the Shipwreck Century,” the exhibits
the surrounding area’s shoreline. The data       on the site and the resulting Preliminary       will help visitors appreciate the role of the
collected will be used to update existing        Archaeological Site Report, Historic Ship-      Great Lakes in American history, and will
shoreline information, and to locate and         wreck New Orleans, Site Number 20UH209          foster public awareness and appreciation
document maritime heritage resources in          provided the basis for this follow-up work      for Great Lakes shipwrecks. The exhibits
the shallow and shoreline areas of the sanc-     which included detailed documentation of        are expected to be completed in late 2007.
tuary.                                           the wreck site and installation of a perma-     In addition, a new curriculum featuring
    Funding to Preserve Historic Photos:         nent mooring buoy.                              Great Lakes shipping and shipwrecks will
Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary                tBNMS Receives two “You Have the            be published in 2007. The curriculum will
was awarded $25,000 through NOAA’s               Power” Awards: The Great Lakes Maritime         use examples of Thunder Bay shipwrecks
Climate Database Modernization Program           Heritage Center and the sanctuary’s re-         to relate to the larger story of Great Lakes
to digitize a collection of negatives recently   search vessel, the Huron Explorer, were each    maritime history, and will tie in directly
loaned to the sanctuary for use in the Thun-     awarded the U.S. Department of Energy’s         with the exhibits and programming at the
der Bay Sanctuary Research Collection.           “You Have the Power” Award. A working           Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center.
The negatives largely depict 20th-century        demonstration of the merits of bioprod-             Management Plan Review: Manage-
Great Lakes watercraft and will greatly          ucts in the marine environment, the Huron       ment plans are sanctuary-specific planning
enhance the scope of the collection, which       Explorer operates without any petroleum         and management documents are required
presently focuses on 19th-century water-         products, using rapeseed hydraulic oil for      by law for all national marine sanctuaries.
craft. This funding complements a $235,000       its deck crane, winches, and marine gear,       They identify immediate, mid-range, and
grant now being utilized by the sanctuary        100% soy biodiesel for engine fuel, and         long-term challenges and opportunities,
and the Alpena County Library to digitize        canola motor oil. The Great Lakes Mari-         and develop a dedicated course for the fu-
the collection’s 65,000 historic photographs.    time Heritage Center’s systems, fixtures,       ture. A management plan describes regu-
Digitization will accelerate the pace of his-    flooring, furniture, and landscaping dem-       lations, boundaries, resource protection,
toric research, foster greater public access     onstrate NOAA’s commitment to an envi-          research, and education programs which
to the collection, and aid in the preservation   ronmentally sustainable future. Its design,     guide sanctuary operations. It specifies
of fragile documents by reducing the need        including a geothermal heating and cooling      how a sanctuary should conserve, protect,
for physical handling.                           system and low volume and waterless toi-        and enhance its resources. Ultimately, the
    Educators Experience an RoV work-            lets, reduces energy and water consump-         review will ensure that the Thunder Bay

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                Page 1
NMS will emerge better able to protect and      the NHC-UA undertook several archaeo-           in the various fields of marine research, uti-
use its maritime heritage resources for the     logical projects:                               lization, surveillance, and protection.
benefit of current and future generations.           uSS Cumberland Survey: The Naval               lake Michigan Aircraft: Work contin-
     The Thunder Bay NMS management             Historical Center’s Underwater Archaeol-        ued on the Lake Michigan project through
plan review is taking place through a           ogy Branch (UA) and the Hampton Roads           analysis of side scan sonar data and research
well-proven, community-based process            Naval Museum drafted results of their 2005      of historical documents. UA staff conducted
that guarantees regular opportunities for       shipwreck survey of USS Cumberland in the       inspections on three aircraft retrieved from
public and government agencies to share         James River, VA. The project was a collab-      freshwater environments which are now on
their knowledge, voice their opinions, and      orative effort funded by a research grant       loan to the Patriot’s Point Naval Museum
directly participate as active stewards of      from the Hampton Roads Naval Museum             in Charleston, SC. SBD-5 36173 and F4F-3A
America’s marine sanctuaries. The review        and with ship time donated by the National      3956 were retrieved from Lake Michigan in
began with a scoping period where public        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s        1987, and FG-1D 88368 was recovered from
comments were accepted at meetings in Al-       (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration, and         Lake Washington four years previously.
pena, Presque Isle County, Alcona County,       supported by staff of the National Ocean        The aircraft had been restored and rebuilt,
and Lansing, and at the Association for         Service. Cumberland, a U.S. Navy frigate,       and have been on display in the museum’s
Great Lakes Maritime History Meeting in         began its active career in 1842, but is per-    hangar deck for more than 15 years. Based
Alpena. Written comments were also ac-          haps more widely known for its battle with      on the dangerously high level of corrosion
cepted via mail, fax, and email.                the Confederate ironclad Virginia at Hamp-      found during inspection of another Daunt-
     Comments from the scoping meetings         ton Roads, VA in 1862.                          less retrieved from Lake Michigan last year,
and additional written comments have                 Bonhomme Richard: Underwater Archae-       it was decided that more inspections should
been summarized and used to identify            ology Branch and the Ocean Technology           be done on similar aircraft, and these being
important issues and opportunities facing       Foundation surveyed an area off Flambor-        the most easily accessible, they were in-
the sanctuary. The sanctuary is currently       ough Head, England for the famous wreck         spected first. While not nearly so corroded
working with the sanctuary advisory coun-       of Capt. John Paul Jones’ ship, Bonhomme        as the Dauntless inspected initially, these
cil to prioritize and characterize the issues   Richard. The survey used predictive mod-        three aircraft displayed enough corrosion
to be addressed in the updated manage-          eling prepared by Applied Science Associ-       to suggest that new policies and protocols
ment plan. Based on scoping comments,           ates and JMS Naval Architects and Salvage       are necessary if these aircraft are to be re-
the following six working groups were           Engineers to pinpoint the location of the       tained for any length of time. As a result,
identified: sanctuary operations, funding,      wreck. In addition JMS and University of        work is underway to change how retrieved
resource protection, boundary expansion,        New Hampshire’s Center for Coastal and          aircraft are treated initially and throughout
education and outreach, and research and        Ocean Mapping (CCOM/Joint Hydro-                their display life. The work also initiated
monitoring. These groups will address is-       graphic Center (JHC) prepared a GIS proj-       changes in managing radiological hazards
sues such as improving sanctuary opera-         ect incorporating historic shipwrecks and       from the cockpits of these historic aircraft,
tions, increasing funds through donations       previous surveys. The survey located at         as well as discussions on aluminum conser-
and grants, improving accessibility of the      least five shipwreck targets fitting the pro-   vation with the Naval Research Lab, corro-
resources, boundary expansion, increas-         file for the wreck of Bonhomme Richard for      sion specialists at Naval District Washing-
ing public awareness of the sanctuary, its      investigation in 2007.                          ton-Carderock, and the Naval Academy at
resources, and the Great Lakes Maritime              d-day: The Naval Historical Center’s       Annapolis.
Heritage Center, and further development        Underwater Archaeology Branch (UA) and              torpedo Bomber devastator Aircraft:
of the education, volunteer, research, and      the University of New Hampshire’s Center        The Naval Historical Center, USS Safeguard,
monitoring programs.                            for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hy-         the not-for-profit aviation archaeology
     Once the issues have been prioritized      drographic Center, Coastal Ocean provided       group Tighar, and Texas A&M University
and characterized and action plans have         Interactive Visualization Systems (IVS 3D)      conducted a survey of two exceedingly rare
been developed to address the issues,           permission to reproduce the Caissons 8125       WW-II U.S. Navy aircraft, Torpedo Bomber
sanctuary staff, with assistance from SAC       Fledermaus image on the company’s 2007          Devastators. These aircraft are unique in
members and other experts, will prepare a       calendar. IVS 3D is a leader in the provi-      that they played an important early role in
Draft Management Plan. This plan will be        sion of interactive 3D visualization and        naval actions at the beginning of the war in
circulated to the public and hearings will be   analysis software for marine information,       the Pacific, but despite their importance no
held to gather further comments and sug-        and a recipient of the 2006 Information &       examples survived the war to be placed in a
gestions before development of the Final        Computer Technology (ICT) Global Busi-          museum. Recovery of one of these aircraft
Management Plan. The management plan            ness of the Year Award.                         for placement in a museum is the eventual
review is expected to take approximately             The Naval Historical Center’s Under-       goal of the project. Tighar is the lead orga-
12-18 months. For more information on           water Archaeology Branch (UA) and the           nization in the recovery project.
the process or to keep updated, please          University of New Hampshire’s Center for
visit <www.thunderbay.noaa.gov>. For            Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydro-          other News
a complete report on the programs of the        graphic Center, Coastal Ocean contributed
Thunder Bay NMS, see our 2006 State of the      multibeam images and supporting captions        uNESCo: On 17 September 2007, Cambo-
Sanctuary Report at <www.thunderbay.            and text for Dr. Peter Wille’s 2005 publica-    dia ratified the Convention on the Protec-
noaa.gov/pdfs/SOS.pdf>.                         tion Sound Images of the Ocean: in Research     tion of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.
                                                and Monitoring (now available in the U.S.).     In accordance with the terms of its Article
u.S.A.-washington, d.C.                         The images, captured during the 2002 Nor-       27, the Convention will enter into force
                                                mandy project, appear in chapter 7.3.5—D-       three months after 20 instruments of rati-
                                                Day: Documentation of the Relics. Sound         fication, acceptance, approval, or accession
u.S. Naval Historical Center, underwater        Images of the Ocean offers a comprehensive
Archaeology Branch (NHC-uA): In 2006,                                                           have been deposited. To date, 16 instru-
                                                overview of acoustic imaging applications       ments, including that of Cambodia, have

        Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                 Page 1
been deposited.                                  a Concord-based nonprofit organization.         summer field schools in the village of Deer-
                                                 The house, parts of which date to the early     field have as a general goal the reconstruc-
Meetings of interest                             18th century, initially attracted historical    tion and explanation of past European and
                                                 interest because of its association with the    American landscapes, the additional goals
7-11 May 2008. North American Society            American Revolution.                            at the Frary House/Barnard Tavern were
for Oceanic History, first call for papers.           Col. James Barrett was the commander       to focus on issues related to the presence of
The annual NASOH conference with the             of the Concord-area militia on the eve of the   17th-century material culture, the architec-
Council of American Maritime Museums             Revolution. The Barrett Farm became the         tural and social history of the tavern in the
conference will be hosted by the University      focus of the British military in mid-April      late 18th and early 19th centuries, the class
of West Florida in historic Pensacola, FL in     1775. A column of soldiers left Boston on       and gender positions of the various occu-
May 2008. The conference theme is: “Defin-       18 April, determined to seize arms and          pants, and the renovations of the house by
ing the Maritime Edge: The History and Ar-       munitions stockpiled in various places in       C. Alice Baker in the late 19th century.
chaeology of Inland Environments, Coastal        Concord, including the Barrett Farm. The            In 2005, the UMass field school worked
Encounters, and Blue Water Connections.”         British failed to locate Colonel Barrett or     on the south lawn in order to explore the
The Conference Program Committee invites         the weapons. Along the way, the soldiers        presence of tavern-period (e.g., 1790s-1810)
proposals for papers and sessions explor-        became involved in the battles of Lexing-       material culture, which had been invisible
ing all aspects of history and archaeology       ton and Concord, which were the opening         in previous archaeological surveys. While
related to saltwater or navigable freshwater     skirmishes of the American Revolution.          a vast array of 18th- and 19th-century ce-
environments. Suggested areas of research        The property was a private residence un-        ramics and other items were uncovered in
include, but are not restricted to, archaeol-    til 2005 when Save Our Heritage began its       this area, the complex and confusing stra-
ogy and anthropology, arts and sciences,         restoration. Part of the restoration includes   tigraphy made results somewhat inconclu-
history, or museum exhibitions. Propos-          archaeological excavations conducted by         sive as to depositional date. This summer,
als that identify the unique characteristics     the Fiske Center at the University of Mas-      students working in this area dug directly
and influence of coastal and inland waters       sachusetts, Boston. Initial fieldwork was       to the south of the 2005 unit to explore one
and explore their interfaces with the larger     carried out in May and June of 2007, ex-        of these deposits and uncovered a trench
continental or oceanic worlds are especially     ploring areas around the house to assess        of unknown length running approximately
encouraged. Please note that all partici-        the nature and extent of the archaeological     west to east. This trench was filled with re-
pants must register for the conference. Spe-     deposits. Excavations uncovered a number        fuse that seemed on first examination to be
cific questions may be directed to Program       of intact cobbled surfaces and a primary        both similar to the 2005 materials as well as
Committee Co-chair Bill Thiesen at <thie-        trash deposit from the mid-19th century.        typical of material from a tavern. Further
sen@earthlink.net>. The deadline for sub-        The results of the excavation are being ana-    analysis will need to be conducted with
missions is 31 January 2008. For more in-        lyzed at the University of Massachusetts        these artifacts to get a better sense of both
formation about the conference please visit:     by Thomas Mailhot and Christa Beranek to        the time depth and the function of the un-
<www.nasoh.org/conference.htm>.                  interpret the historical development of the     covered deposit.
                                                 houselot and help guide restoration.                Work in the backyard of the house also
                                                                                                 followed up on questions raised by the 2005
    u.S.A.-NoRtHEASt                             deerfield (submitted by Quentin lewis):         survey. The discovery of a previously un-
    Reported by David Starbuck                   The University of Massachusetts, Amherst,       known dry-laid stone wall-like feature in
    <dstarbuck@frontiernet.net>                  Department of Anthropology/Historic             the backyard prompted us to try to deter-
                                                 Deerfield, Inc. Summer Archaeological           mine its full extent this summer. However,
                                                 Field School was a great success. Running       despite meticulous excavation of consider-
Maine                                            between 18 July and 11 August, students         able depth and distance, we were unable to
                                                 sought to address questions of the extent       conclusively find the opposite end of the
Northeast Merrymeeting Bay Archaeo-              and integrity of the archaeological resourc-    wall. Further testing may be needed to de-
logical Survey: Two students from the Uni-       es at the Frary House/Barnard Tavern in         termine its full extent and function.
versity of Southern Maine at Lewiston-Au-        the village of Deerfield, MA, while learn-          For the first time, archaeological work
burn and their professor, Barry Rodrigue,        ing about archaeological survey technique,      was conducted in the front yard of the
worked on the Northeast Merrymeeting             local and regional history, anthropological     property, near the front door to the tav-
Bay Archaeological Survey in the spring,         method and theory, and public outreach.         ern and the walkway. It was hoped that
summer, and fall of 2007. Corinna Miller         The field school was directed by Bob Payn-      this proximity would reveal tavern-period
searched out the initial sites associated with   ter, and led by Quentin Lewis, Elizabeth        refuse, as well as architectural remains of
the French Protestant settlement in west         Harlow, and Christopher Douyard, with           a general store, supposedly built on and
Dresden, ca. 1752. Rebecca Graham iden-          additional assistance by Linda Ziegenbein       then moved from this part of the property
tified the initial Anglo-American sites in       and Heidi Bauer-Clapp. This year, the           to the backyard. The high number of ar-
Nequassett (northwest Woolwich) ca. 1754         field school continued the Archaeology          tifacts recovered from this area could indi-
to 1800 with the goal of working backwards       Workshop program begun in 2005 and co-          cate a higher level of foot traffic from the
to locate the Ulster Scots sites associated      ordinated with Claire Carlson at Historic       tavern or the store, though these interpre-
with the Cork Settlement (1719).                 Deerfield, which allowed members of the         tations rest upon identifying and dating
                                                 public to work on the project alongside the     the recovered materials and relating them
Massachusetts                                    students for a more hands-on experience of      to particular stratigraphic contexts. This
                                                 archaeology.                                    last task may prove exceedingly difficult,
Concord (submitted by thomas Mailhot):               Students worked in multiple areas of        as the stratigraphy was not easily readable
The Barrett Farm is the focus of a major         the site, attempting to answer research         in plan, and only slightly more sensible in
restoration project by Save Our Heritage,        questions built on previous documentary         profile. Landscaping by C. Alice Baker, as
                                                 and archaeological research. While UMass        well as architectural renovation in the early

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                Page 1
20th century, may have cut through and de-        accordance with archaeological standards.        tion wall and southeast corner of a structure
stroyed what was originally fairly normal         Strawbery Banke Archaeologist Sheila             formerly located west of the Yeaton-Walsh
superposition. An Hibernian penny, with           Charles served as principal investigator, as-    House. The northeast corner of this lot
a date of 1723, was recovered on nearly the       sisted by Archaeological Field Supervisor/       contained a 2-story structure, owned by D.
last day of excavation, in a feature that may     Lead Interpreter Marla Taylor.                   Blasdell as early as 1803 as noted on the NH
be a post mold. This coin has an interest-            The archaeological field investigation       Fire and Marine Insurance Company map.
ing social and economic history, and we           focused on the grounds of the endangered         An “old” 2-story dwelling west of the Yea-
hope to learn more about it in the coming         ca. 1795 Yeaton-Walsh House (measuring           ton-Walsh House is depicted on the 1887
months.                                           approximately 20 m square). There have           Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, although re-
    Subsurface testing to the south of the        been no previous archaeological investi-         marks on the 1892 Sanborn Fire Insurance
garage also revealed surprises. No previ-         gations of this property. In addition, no        Map indicate that the site no longer includ-
ous subsurface testing had been done in           historic structures report has been writ-        ed a dwelling and instead contained “Ruins
this area, though a 1986 resistivity survey       ten. Archival and map research indicates         of Fire.” Burnt artifacts provide evidence
indicated anomalous readings for this area.       Thales Greenwood Yeaton at the age of 24         of this event. Sometime between 1910 and
After uncovering a concrete pad, probably         purchased the associated L-shaped parcel         1939, another 2-1/2-story structure was
the result of waste from the pouring of the       from Supply Clapp for 90 pounds in 1794.         erected in the same location.
garage foundation in the 1950s, students          In addition to constructing the Winn-Yea-            During the field school, key members
working in this area uncovered a sandy            ton connected houses with his brother-in-        of the Strawbery Banke team, including
trench, running north to south, and oriented      law Timothy Winn, Yeaton built the Yea-          Kimberly Alexander, John Forti, Michelle
approximately 45 degrees east of magnetic         ton-Walsh House as an investment rental          Moon, Ron Raiselis, Rodney Rowland, and
north. This trench contained a number of          property sometime between 1794 and 1803.         Steve Zoldak, also provided well-received
artifacts, including an intact canister, pos-     In 1803 Yeaton sold the property to Joseph       educational tours and presentations. Ann
sibly for oil, several horseshoes, and at least   Smith for $1,200. After 1850 Michael Walsh,      Breazeale and Victor Maslov showed par-
one pipe stem dating to the turn of the 18th      a sawyer, occupied the home. The property        ticipants an alternative field strategy em-
century. Obviously, more analysis will be         remained in the Walsh family into the 20th       ployed on historic archaeological sites, the
necessary to determine the origin and func-       century. The 1939 Sanborn Fire Insurance         use of a metal detector. On 4 July, partici-
tion of this trench and its contents.             Map also depicted the former location of a       pants interacted with the visiting public
    Finally, the task of dating the four wells    3-car garage directly behind and north of        demonstrating archaeological methods,
on the site was conducted as part of the Ar-      the Yeaton-Walsh site.                           sharing information on the most recent
chaeology Workshop program. Members                   The 2007 archaeological field investi-       finds derived from the current investiga-
of the public, assisted by field school staff     gation included 8 excavation units. Due          tion, and manning the Children’s Archaeol-
Linda Ziegenbein and Heidi Bauer-Clapp,           to the highly deteriorated condition of the      ogy Tent.
sought to locate the builders’ trench of a        Yeaton-Walsh foundation, care was taken
well north of the garage, in order to date the    to not place test units adjacent to the most     Vermont
construction of said well. While more ar-         deteriorated sections. Measurements of
tifact and laboratory analysis is necessary,      the displaced stone foundation indicate          2007 Relics & Ruins: Kids and Research at
we feel fairly confident that we collected        the northeast corner of the Yeaton-Walsh         the “old Job” in the Green Mountain Na-
enough of a dateable sample to give us a          House, which is essentially suspended in         tional Forest (submitted by Sheila Charles
good chronological range.                         air, has moved off line as much as 47 cm.        and david lacy): Relics & Ruins is a 2-
    Cataloging and analysis of data from          Former foundation repair and fill episodes       week summer archaeological field program
the summer continues with the help of stu-        as well as the huge mat of spreading roots       designed for kids entering the fifth through
dents throughout the upcoming semester            from a silver maple tree off the southeast       ninth grades. Over the course of 11 summer
and Elizabeth Harlow, as she continues her        corner of the house have impacted the site       field seasons we have integrated art, his-
dissertation research on the Frary House/         and, as a result, evidence of the builders’      tory, environmental science, and archaeol-
Barnard Tavern site.                              trench was not encountered. Nevertheless,        ogy into a fun, outdoor learning experience
                                                  archaeological excavation units surround-        in the Green Mountain National Forest in
New Hampshire                                     ing the Yeaton-Walsh House disclosed rela-       Vermont. In 2005 and 2007 our focus was
                                                  tively dense trash deposits in the former        on the so-called “Old Job” village, ca. 1865-
                                                  alley between the Yeaton-Walsh House and         1930 in Mount Tabor, VT, formally known
2007 Strawbery Banke Archaeologi-                 the dwelling to the west, and in the front
cal Field School (submitted by Sheila                                                              as Griffith in deference to the larger-than-
                                                  and rear yards of the Yeaton-Walsh House.        life land baron and Vermont’s first mil-
Charles): Thirteen participants, as well as       Numerous artifacts were recovered, with
5 core archaeology department volunteers                                                           lionaire, Silas L. Griffith (1837-1903), who
                                                  manufacture dates ranging from the late          developed and owned the village, among
and 15 guest volunteers (including archae-        18th to the 20th century. The recovered
ologist Brian Valimont of New England Ar-                                                          many other acres and assets. The village
                                                  assemblage includes: whole blown-in-             site features the remains of mills, charcoal
chaeology Company and students from the           mold liniment and medicine bottles; ce-
University of Southern Maine and Phillips                                                          kilns, houses, a boarding house, a one-room
                                                  ramic table and kitchen wares, including         school, and more. We emphasize a place-
Andover Academy accompanied by Dr.                transfer-printed pearlware, whiteware,
Nathan Hamilton and Dr. Robert Sanford)                                                            based, hands-on approach; an awareness of
                                                  tin-enameled wares, redware, and combed          multiple ways of re-creating the past; and
were involved in the 2007 archaeology             slipwares; a variety of sawn bone; and sub-
field school which took place from 25 June                                                         the notion that past land-use histories can
                                                  stantial quantities of structural material as-   inform us about the changing environment
through 6 July. Field school participants,        sociated with the construction and repair of
ranging in age from 12 years old to senior                                                         as well as the people who lived there.
                                                  the buildings on the lot.                            While the interrelated environmental
adults, participated in hands-on archaeo-             Two units established west of the Yea-
logical field and laboratory experiences in                                                        science and art element of the field school
                                                  ton-Walsh House revealed the east founda-        concentrated on habitat research and iden-

         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                Page 19
tification of the various fish and amphib-      of natural and cultural resources; however,
ians in the streams running though the          this year’s schoolhouse site investigation       Bureau of Historic Sites, New York State
village, this year’s archaeological field in-   seemed particularly appropriate for our          Field Season: Archaeologists from the Bu-
vestigation concentrated on the site of the     school-age “junior-archaeologists.” In ad-       reau of Historic Sites at Peebles Island ex-
one-room schoolhouse, which in its latter       dition, our focus on Silas Griffith’s estate,    cavated at 11 state-owned sites during the
years was used as a hunting camp. While         part of the core of the original (1932) Green    2007 field season, which started in January
no foundation is apparent on the knoll of       Mountain National Forest, was fitting as         this year! The largest project was at Olana
the hill where the schoolhouse was situ-        this year marks the 75th anniversary of the      State Historic Site, the home of the famous
ated, the hill terrace would have easily        Green Mountain National Forest.                  19th-century artist Fredrick Church. Devel-
accommodated a one-room schoolhouse,                                                             opment of the site in the barn complex area
which typically measured approximately          New York                                         led to testing and mitigation work for the
18 to 20 feet by 24 feet. It was no surprise                                                     reconstruction of a wagon shed and moni-
that the schoolhouse did not contain a cellar   Shaker Family Farm, town of Colonie:             toring of new utility lines up to the main
hole, and in fact, 19th-century institutional   Maps of this property were incorrect so that     house. The excavations resulted in new
guidelines warranted corner footstones to       workmen constructing a new sewer line hit        information about the appearance of the
encourage ventilation and deter wood-floor      the west wall of a seed house. Hartgen           wagon shed, its size, and location on the
deterioration.                                  Archeological Associates responded to the        landscape. A small project at Hyde Hall
     Although we presumed the school-           emergency and mitigated the remains with-        State Historic Site located on Glimmerglass
house site would not contain a dense arti-      in the sewer line corridor. Intact structural    Lake near Cooperstown located a huge
fact horizon, we were surprised to encoun-      features associated with the seed house          multicomponent prehistoric site at the end
ter a widespread scatter of period artifacts    and garden barn were also found. An in-          of the lake. The site either will be avoided
reflecting activities of the former students    tact midden deposit found between the            or full mitigation will take place before con-
and teachers, including a bell clapper, slate   two structures included whiteware, glass         struction of a drainage ditch.
pencils, slate-board fragments, conical         bottles, vessel glass, structural artifacts, a
blown-in-mold glass ink bottle fragments,       plow blade, and lamp-chimney glass. In-          Hudson landings, City of Kingston and
and numerous “lead” pencil parts—result-        side the rubble masonry and mortar of the        town of ulster, ulster County (submitted
ing in pencil research!                         seed house, a dirt floor covered the entire      by Hunter Research, inc.): An extensive
     The “lead” pencil (which contains no       cellar. A drainage system was located. The       program of supplemental Phase I and II
lead) was invented in 1564 when a huge          garden bar had no cellar and no substan-         cultural resources investigations was car-
graphite (black carbon) mine was discov-        tial foundation. Cobble-filled footers were      ried out by Hunter Research, Inc. between
ered in Borrowdale, Cumbria, England.           found with large limestone flagstones over       October 2005 and July 2006 for the proposed
The writing apparatuses, formed by in-          the top. The purpose of the barn, judging by     development known as Hudson Landings
serting graphite rods into carved and hol-      the finds, was to store seed pots, fertilizer,   in the City of Kingston and the Town of Ul-
lowed-out wooden sticks, were called lead       drain tiles, and window sashes. Documents        ster in Ulster County, NY. The proposed
pencils, as the newly discovered graph-         show the barn was also used for storage of       development involves the construction of
ite resembled lead and was called black         waste from privies for use on the gardens.       1,750 residential units and 78,500 square
lead or plumbago, from the Latin word for                                                        feet of commercial space. The project site
lead ore. The word pencil comes from the        President Martin Van Buren’s House: The          comprised approximately 524 contiguous
Latin word penicillus, which means “little      need for a fire-suppression system at Presi-     acres of vacant land on the right (west)
tail”—the name of the tiny brush that an-       dent Martin Van Buren’s House in Stock-          bank of the Hudson River between Kings-
cient Romans used as a writing instrument.      port involved installing a water tank in the     ton and East Kingston. The proposed de-
The first mass-produced wood-cased pen-         basement of the 1797 house. The Public Ar-       velopment lies within view of the Hudson
cils were made in Nuremberg, Germany            chaeology company removed parts of the           River National Historic Landmark District
in 1662. William Monroe, a cabinetmaker         original cobblestone floor where the tank        (established in 1990) and the Mid-Hudson
in Concord, MA, made the first American         was to go; samples were kept. Creamware,         Shorelands Scenic District. The Hudson
wood pencils in 1812. Benjamin Franklin         window glass, brick, redware, pearlware,         River has also been designated an Ameri-
advertised pencils for sale in his Pennsyl-     and nails were found under the cobbles on        can Heritage River.
vania Gazette in 1729. George Washington        top of brown loamy sand. No other cultural           The project site saw limited occupation
used a three-inch pencil when he surveyed       materials were found below the sand fill.        and land use during the prehistoric and
the Ohio Territory in 1762. The idea of at-                                                      early historic periods, although outcrops of
taching an eraser to a pencil is traced to      Cemetery Remains: The inadvertent dis-           local chert were likely attractive to Native
Hyman W. Lipman of Philadelphia whose           covery of human remains in a Mount Mor-          Americans and the area served as common
1858 U.S. patent was bought by Joseph Re-       ris, NY, utility trench resulted in archae-      land for the residents of nearby Kingston
chendorfer in 1872 for a reported $100,000.     ologists from the Rochester Museum and           in the late 17th and 18th centuries. During
Numerous graphite rod fragments and fer-        Science Center coming in to mechanically         the 19th and early 20th centuries, however,
rules, the metal rings that hold erasers onto   screen the excavated soils. More remains         brickyards and icehouses lined the proper-
the wood pencil shafts, were recovered          were found in a 5-ft.-wide undisturbed           ty’s Hudson River frontage, while cement
during our field investigation of the Old       section of soil between utility trenches.        quarrying and mining operations, small
Job schoolhouse site. In addition, cast-iron    Analysis of the skeletal material revealed       farms, and homesteads occupied the inland
woodstove fragments, window and brick           this was at least one adult and a small child    and upland portions of the tract. Presently,
fragments, building hardware, stoneware         of European ancestry. Artifacts included         the only standing buildings/structures on
and whiteware fragments, and shotgun            coffin nails and shroud pins. The Pioneer        the site are the derelict infrastructure of
shells were recovered.                          Cemetery was once located here. The finds        the mid-20th-century cement and quarry-
     Each group of kids that passes through     indicate not all burials were removed when       ing operation, and a former mule barn and
our camp leaves with a greater appreciation     the cemetery was abandoned in 1818.              chimney of the Shultz brickworks.

         Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                  Page 0
    A single prehistoric archaeological re-    ity Church Farm, and remained a venerable         a brick dividing wall and sand floors, and
source, four industrial archaeological com-    community institution for 166 years. The          likely represent the original vaults con-
plexes with multiple elements, two farm-       cornerstone of the first church building, a       structed on the property. The southern two
stead sites, an icehouse site, an abandoned    modest 30 x 60 ft. wood frame structure           chambers appear to be those added in 1831,
natural cement mine, a segment of historic     with room enough for 176 pews, was laid           and were built of brick with a dry-laid brick
roadway, and various features along the        on 5 July 1810. Over the next few decades         floor. While the northern three vaults were
waterfront were identified during the          the church flourished and quickly devel-          preserved remarkably well, nearly the en-
course of the Phase I and II survey work.      oped a reputation for its progressive racial      tire southernmost vault had been destroyed
Five archaeological resources—the Hudson       views, and for the abolitionist activities of     by construction machinery before excava-
Landings Prehistoric Site, the Terry Brick-    its members. By the 1820s the church had          tion work was halted. Human remains
yard and Icehouse Complex, the Shultz          forged an integrated congregation (though         contained within that chamber were subse-
Brickyard Complex (including an extant         seating within the church remained segre-         quently recovered from disturbed contexts
mule barn and brick chimney), the William      gated), and by the end of the decade had          by members of the New York Medical Ex-
Terry Icehouse Site (which has an 18th-cen-    established a multiracial Sunday school.          aminers Office, and subsequently by mem-
tury domestic component), and the Lost         During the turbulent years of the 1830s,          bers of the archaeological team.
Lake Mine (an abandoned 19th-century           however, these progressive attitudes at-               The northern three burial vaults were
natural cement mine)—have been judged          tracted the disdain of antiabolitionist ac-       found to contain large quantities of human
eligible for inclusion in the New York and     tivists, and on 11 July 1834, an angry mob        remains, potentially representing more
National Registers of Historic Places. No      attacked and seriously damaged both the           than 100 individuals. The preservation of
expanses of landscape or individual land-      church and the home of its pastor. Follow-        remains within these vaults ranged from
scape features in the project area are con-    ing this assault, church members decided          excellent to very poor, and all bore evidence
sidered National Register eligible.            to construct a new, larger brick church on        of having been extensively disturbed at an
    Two of the five National Register-eligi-   the property, with construction of this sec-      earlier time. At least some disturbance of
ble resources, the Terry Brickyard and Ice-    ond sanctuary being completed on 19 June          the remains (crushing caused by roof col-
house Complex and the Shultz Brickyard         1836.                                             lapse) appears to have occurred in associa-
Complex, will be affected by the proposed           The Spring Street Church remained on         tion with the demolition of the property in
development project. Recommendations           this site for another 130 years, although by      the 1960s, although some earlier impacts
have been made for limited archaeological      the middle of the 20th century the congre-        may have been caused by the activities of
data recovery at these properties in miti-     gation was badly in debt and had been re-         individuals hired by the church in 1830 to
gation of the project’s effects. Alternative   duced to fewer than 50 members. In 1963           “regulate” the vaults. Evidence also sug-
methods of mitigation, including public        the congregation was officially dissolved         gests that some rearrangement of the inter-
outreach measures and the incorporation of     by the New York Presbytery, and in 1966 a         ments may have occurred in conjunction
historic themes into the project’s architec-   fire destroyed the church. Later that same        with repairs made to the vaults at some
tural and landscape design, were also sug-     year the church’s shell was demolished and        unknown time. Both of the northernmost
gested as appropriate mitigation of project    replaced by a public parking lot.                 vaults contained internal brick support col-
impacts on these two industrial complexes.          Surviving church records do not indi-        umns, evidently installed to support failing
The proposed project, as currently planned,    cate exactly when or where the burial vaults      ceilings, and the disposition of remains in
will avoid impacting the Hudson Landings       were constructed on the property, but frag-       these chambers may indicate that remains
Prehistoric Site, the William Terry Icehouse   mentary evidence suggests that they were          were moved in order to create space so that
Site, and the historic character of the Lost   in active use as early as 1820 and contin-        this work could be completed.
Lake Mine.                                     ued to receive remains until at least 1835.            Despite the highly disturbed, jumbled
                                               These documents unfortunately contain             nature of the vault contents, a total of 45
Spring Street Cemetery (submitted by           little information regarding the identities       partially intact sets of skeletal remains rep-
douglas Mooney, uRS Corporation): In           of individuals buried in the vaults, though       resenting discrete individual interments
January 2007, archaeologists from AKRF         a partial list of those who purchased inter-      were able to be identified. These burial
and the Archaeology and Historic Architec-     ment rights does exist. Church financial          remains included adult men and women,
ture Group, URS Corporation, Burlington,       records only contain vague references to          children of varying ages, and infants, and
NJ completed investigations of a series of     the fact that many children were interred in      represent one of only a handful of well-
burial vaults contained within the former      those chambers. What does appear clear is         documented early-19th-century cemetery
Spring Street Presbyterian Church prop-        that the original burial vaults filled rapidly,   populations excavated within New York
erty, located near the corner of Spring and    and in May of 1831 the church minutes re-         City. All of the recovered remains from
Varick Streets, in Manhattan. These vaults     cord that the construction of two additional      the Spring Street Presbyterian Church are
were initially identified in December 2006     vaults had been completed. No informa-            currently being examined and documented
during the excavation of foundations for a     tion related to the vaults has thus far been      by Utica College’s Osteology Laboratory,
proposed new hotel/condominium prop-           located for the years after 1835.                 and will be reburied by the First Presbyte-
erty. The ensuing historical background re-         Archaeological investigations of the site    rian Church of New York City once those
search and the archaeological recovery and     have helped to fill in at least some of the       studies are completed. A full report of the
documentation of funerary remains from         gaps in the church’s historical records, and      investigations and forensic analyses is cur-
the site were requested by the New York        have resulted in the identification of four       rently in preparation.
City Department of Buildings, in conjunc-      burial vaults located in what was then an
tion with the New York City Landmarks          open side yard, at the far southeast corner       New Jersey
Preservation Commission.                       of the property. These vaults were contigu-
    The Spring Street Presbyterian Church      ous with each exhibiting an interior space        Archaeology at Point Breeze, the Bonapar-
was initially established in the early 19th    measuring 14 x 9 feet. The northern burial        te Estate in Bordentown (submitted by
century, on land purchased from the Trin-      chambers were constructed of stone, with          Richard Veit): Monmouth University’s

        Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                  Page 1
summer 2007 field school took place at Point     we attempted to look for traces of a previ-        well as clam and oyster shells.
Breeze in Bordentown, NJ. It was directed        ous, 18th-century occupation by the Sayre               Four excavation units were used to
by Richard Veit, Gerry Scharfenberger, Bill      family. Third, we hoped to see if prehistoric      sample the house-related deposits. Two
Schindler, and Michael Gall, with assistance     deposits associated with the nearby Abbott         of these uncovered foundation remains. A
from JoAnn Aiton, Sean Bratton, Angelica         Farm National Historic Landmark extend-            third revealed the robbed-out location of
Dougherty, Allison Gall, Adam Heinrich,          ed south onto the Divine Word property.            the foundation. Excavations revealed that
and Lauren Milideo. Sixty students partici-      From a theoretical standpoint, our work            the mansion was constructed on a thick,
pated in the field school, as well as numer-     was guided and informed by the theories of         mortared-stone foundation, with internal
ous volunteers. The property, now owned          power and social control employed by his-          mortared-brick partitions. It appears that
by Divine Word Missionaries, was once the        torical archaeologists such as Mark Leone,         after the fire, when the house was demol-
home of Joseph Bonaparte, the elder brother      who have studied early American gardens.           ished, usable bricks, stones, and other
of Napoleon Bonaparte. Joseph, the former        Leone and others have argued that gardens          building materials were salvaged from the
king of Spain and Naples, fled to America        were social statements created to highlight        ruins for reuse in the construction of the
after Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo. He          their builders’ understanding of nature and        second mansion.
soon acquired several properties on the          hence man. We hypothesize that gardens,                 Some early materials, dating from the
Delaware River. During Joseph’s tenure           such as the massive Point Breeze gardens,          mid- to late 18th century, were also recov-
(1816-1839), he transformed the 1,900-acre       were indeed created as social statements,          ered. These likely relate to an earlier oc-
property into a magnificent estate. His pa-      but that they could be read by visitors in         cupation of the property by Stephen Sayre,
latial home, constructed between 1816 and        very different ways than their creators in-        former High Sheriff of London. Although
1817, housed the largest collection of fine      tended.                                            Bonaparte is known to have moved Sayre’s
art in North America, including paintings             A total of 65 shovel test pits and 8 ex-      house off the property, it appears that its
and sculptures, as well as the then-largest      cavation units were dug over the course            foundation may have been incorporated
library in the United States. When his man-      of the field school. Scattered prehistoric         into Joseph’s first mansion.
sion was consumed by a destructive fire          and historic artifacts were found across the            Excavation at the site will continue this
in 1820, he constructed a second imposing        entire area tested; however, plowing and           fall and next summer as we work to better
house less than a quarter mile away near         landscaping had considerably altered the           determine the dimensions and configura-
the edge of his impressive estate. There, he     stratigraphy. Nevertheless, a small early          tion of the first mansion and identify asso-
converted an existing horse stable to serve      Middle Woodland Native American com-               ciated features. The artifact assemblage re-
as the core of the second mansion, which         ponent was identified in a swale that ap-          flects a massive and elaborately furnished
stood until 1850.                                pears to have escaped the plow. Moreover,          structure, the primary function of which
    Bonaparte’s passion was landscape ar-        a large, deep cellar hole filled in the early      appears to have been entertainment, fitting
chitecture, and on his property he created       19th century was discovered during shovel          for a man who took pleasure in entertaining
one of the first picturesque landscapes in       testing. Measuring at least 50 feet wide and       friends, renowned artists, politicians, and
America. He drew from earlier Continen-          close to 100 feet long, it appears to be the re-   foreign dignitaries.
tal and Oriental models. Winding paths,          mains of Joseph’s first mansion. The cellar             The generous support of Divine Word
carefully placed pieces of sculpture, sce-       is filled with rubble, large chunks of burnt       Missionaries, Father Ray Lennon, the De-
nic lookouts, a large belvedere tower, and       wood, and high-style artifacts dating from         scendants of the Founders of New Jersey,
exotic plantings graced the property. Due        the early 19th century. Most of the artifacts      and Dr. Andrew Cosentino are gratefully
to its location on the main route from New       relate to the architecture of the building.        acknowledged. The Cultural Resource
York City to Washington, D.C., the house         They include numerous broken brickbats,            Consulting Group and Richard Grubb and
and property were visited by many of the         large quantities of mortar, worked stone,          Associates graciously loaned field equip-
leading lights of the time, including John       white-washed plaster (presumably from              ment to support the project. Site mapping
Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and the Mar-           the building’s foundation), white, gray, and       was assisted by Bill Schindler, Sr.
quis de Lafayette. Some visitors found it        variegated marble floor tiles, and mantle
beautiful and delightful; others were dis-       piece fragments. Carbonized fragments of           Mount Zion Cemetery, Swedesboro,
turbed by the lavish lifestyle of the former     floor joists and tongue-and-groove flooring        woolwich township, Gloucester County
despot. In many ways, the exiled Joseph          were noted in one excavation unit. Hun-            (submitted by Hunter Research, inc.): In
acted as a cultural attaché, entertaining vis-   dreds of nails in many sizes were also re-         2006-2007, Hunter Research, Inc. under
itors, loaning and showing artworks, and         covered. Many were exceptionally well              contract to the Historical and Educational
building gardens.                                preserved. Window glass was also present           Lodge-Hall Preservatory, Inc. (HELP) and
    Today, roughly half of the property          in substantial quantities.                         with funding assistance from the Garden
is wooded; the rest consists of manicured             Nonarchitectural artifacts include large      State Historic Preservation Trust Fund,
lawns and the Divine Word campus. Fea-           quantities of bottle glass, perhaps reflect-       produced a site preservation plan for the
tures from the Bonaparte era remain vis-         ing Joseph’s nickname “Pepe Botellas” or           Mount Zion Cemetery, an African Ameri-
ible, including the foundations of several       Joe Bottles. Ceramics made up a relatively         can burial ground associated with the
outbuildings associated with the second          small portion of the collection and consist-       Mount Zion A.M.E. Church on Garwin
mansion, curious tunnel systems associated       ed primarily of highly decorated porcelain         Road in Woolwich Township, Gloucester
with the first and second mansions, a lake       vessels. One noteworthy find was a refined         County, NJ. The plan presents a detailed
he constructed as part of his picturesque        earthenware plate, decorated with a trans-         account of the history of the cemetery, pro-
garden landscape, tree lines, and a ruined       fer print and inscribed “Histoire Romaine”         vides a conditions assessment of the cem-
bridge.                                          (Roman History). Small finds include clock         etery plot and its gravestones, and offers
    The field school’s principal goal was        parts, numerous mirror-glass fragments,            recommendations for the management of
to determine if archaeological deposits as-      pieces of picture frames, a thimble, and           this historic resource.
sociated with the first mansion (1817-1820)      furniture hardware. Meal scraps were evi-              The date when the Mount Zion Cem-
were still present on the property. Second,      denced by chicken, cow, and pig bone, as           etery was established remains unknown.

         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                   Page 
The Mount Zion A.M.E. Church, with             District, which encompasses the resources        and time from FOLPI and a clear, ongoing
which the cemetery is later associated, or-    addressed in this site preservation plan, is     commitment of resources from the state,
ganized in the early 1830s, but the earliest   listed in the New Jersey and National Reg-       both sustained over a period of many years.
burial in the cemetery which can be defi-      isters of Historic Places.                       The site preservation plan lays out an un-
nitely documented is that of Mary Hoops             The Long Pond Ironworks was estab-          derlying philosophy for the preservation
who died in 1857 at the age of 18 years. The   lished in the mid-1760s by a German iron-        of the site as a whole, stressing the value
most recent documented burial is that of       master, Peter Hasenclever, acting on behalf      of adaptive reuse of buildings that can still
Hattie G. Jackson who died in 1931 at the      of the London-based American Company.            be rehabilitated as well as the need for sta-
age of 54 years. Analysis of historical data   During the Revolutionary War the site was        bilization and low-key interpretation of
and gravestone inscriptions resulted in the    managed by Robert Erskine, geographer            resources, while at the same time seeking
identification of 72 individuals who are       and surveyor-general for the Continental         to avoid overdevelopment and encourage-
definitely known to have been buried in the    Army, and made an important contribution         ment of inappropriate uses and vandalism.
cemetery. An additional 105 individuals        to the American war effort. The ironworks        Using a framework of five functional zones,
have also been identified as being possibly,   continued in operation throughout the first      individual architectural and archaeological
if not probably, buried here. All told, an     half of the 19th century, when it was mostly     resources within the historic district are de-
estimated 200 to 300 burials are predicted     under the control of the Ryerson family. In      scribed, evaluated in terms of their current
to lie within the cemetery. A large number     1853, the site entered into its final and most   condition and suitability for preservation
of the interments are of young children. At    productive phase following its purchase by       action, and then considered with regard to
least 12 Civil War veterans are buried here.   the Trenton Iron Company and develop-            potential uses and preservation and inter-
     The cemetery covers almost half an acre   ment by Cooper, Hewitt & Company. Dur-           pretive treatments. The landscape of the
and measures approximately 150 feet east-      ing the Civil War Long Pond witnessed a          district as a whole is also addressed in terms
west by 125 feet north-south. The lightly      dramatic surge in activity as the Cooper &       of visitor circulation, roads, trails, parking,
wooded plot contains 68 grave markers          Hewitt iron and steel empire expanded its        fencing, and signage. Programmatic goals
comprising mostly headstones, but also in-     operations to support the Union cause. In        are offered for historic interpretation and
cluding several footstones, border markers,    the immediate post-Civil War era, Penn-          environmental education, event hosting,
and one substantial monument to Joshua A.      sylvania’s plentiful coal deposits lured the     and passive recreation.
Smith, patriarch of a local African American   regional iron industry increasingly west-            The final section of the plan document
family and a steward of the church. While      ward, and Long Pond’s relative inaccessi-        presents a prioritized plan of action orga-
most of the headstones are formal tablets      bility and small scale of operation obstruct-    nized over a 15-year period in 5-year incre-
with inscriptions, several consist of un-      ed its growth. The ironworks extinguished        ments, with responsibilities provisionally
marked blocks of stone. In all, 38 of the 72   its furnace fires for the last time in 1882.     assigned to FOLPI and the State of New
individuals known to be definitely interred    Throughout its history of industrial pro-        Jersey. Approximate costs assigned to the
in the cemetery are identifiable through       duction the ironworks was accompanied            various tasks identified in this action plan
gravestone inscriptions. Ground-penetrat-      by a village community, which in the later       are daunting, but do reflect the immensity
ing radar survey within the cemetery limits    19th century took on the name of Hewitt.         of the challenge ahead. Not all of the tasks
recorded numerous subsurface anomalies,             The principal components of the Long        may be feasible or affordable, but the over-
many of which may correlate with buried        Pond Ironworks Historic District today are:      all plan can still serve as a framework for
grave markers. Surface depressions may         a ruined industrial core that contains impos-    progress in a manner that respects the po-
also indicate the locations of grave shafts.   ing remains of blast furnaces, waterwheels,      tential of this exceptional historic site.
                                               and other industrial buildings and features;
long Pond ironworks, west Milford              and the remnants of the associated village       west State Street, trenton, Mercer County
township, Passaic County (submitted            of Hewitt and the community which pre-           (submitted by Hunter Research, inc.): In
by Hunter Research, inc.): From 2005 to        ceded it, including several vacant residen-      the spring and summer of 2006, Hunter
2007 Hunter Research, Inc. and Holt Mor-       tial buildings, a partially restored church, a   Research, Inc. carried out a program of ar-
gan Russell Architects, under contract to      store/post office (now a visitor center and      chaeological monitoring and data recovery
the Friends of Long Pond Ironworks, Inc.       museum) and numerous ruins and sites of          work in conjunction with recently com-
(FOLPI) and with funding assistance from       buildings that are transitioning from ar-        pleted security improvements along West
the Garden State Historic Preservation         chitecture to archaeology. The village of        State Street in front of the New Jersey State
Trust Fund, produced a site preservation       Hewitt also contains two vacant, stabilized      House. The security improvements were
plan for the Long Pond Ironworks, one of       historic buildings relocated into the heart of   a capital project of the State of New Jersey
New Jersey’s pre-eminent historic sites. The   the settlement in the late 1980s from their      Department of the Treasury, Division of
Long Pond Ironworks comprises a range of       original sites that now lie beneath Monks-       Property Management and Construction.
late-18th- through early-20th-century ar-      ville Reservoir. The ironworks district          Archaeological investigations and docu-
chitectural and archaeological resources       stretches north from the Greenwood Lake          mentation were required in this instance in
set deep within the densely wooded New         Turnpike upstream along the Wanaque              compliance with the New Jersey State Reg-
Jersey Highlands. The Long Pond Iron-          River through wooded hilly terrain, occu-        ister of Historic Places Act.
works site is owned by the State of New        pying a fine natural setting that contributes        Archaeological monitoring involved the
Jersey, administered by the New Jersey         substantively to the visitor experience.         observation of various ground-disturbing
State Park Service and forms the core of the        Preserving the Long Pond Ironworks          operations by the project contractor. The
Long Pond Ironworks State Park, which is       for the long term, as the site preservation      relocation of a water main passing along
itself a part of Ringwood State Park. FOLPI    plan makes plain, will be an extraordinarily     West State Street in front of the State House
works alongside the state park service and     challenging task that will require a strongly    resulted in the recovery of sections of an
performs a vital role in helping to safe-      funded and well-coordinated effort led by        earlier abandoned water line. These re-
guard and promote the ironworks prop-          the State of New Jersey and FOLPI. It will       mains consisted of a series of wooden pipes
erty. The Long Pond Ironworks Historic         require an abundance of energy, patience,        (or “water logs”), cast-iron couplings, and

        Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                 Page 3
wrought-iron bands, which are thought            carried out in partial fulfillment of the stip-   evidence of the use of this property by its
to date from no later than 1820, and per-        ulations of a Memorandum of Agreement             Irish-American and German-American
haps as early as the 1790s, and were prob-       (MOA) signed in 1998 between the Fed-             owners and saloon patrons, again primarily
ably installed by the Trenton Water Works        eral Highway Administration (New Jersey           of the lower middle class. Documentation
Company. Samples of the water logs, two          Division Office) and the New Jersey State         and artifacts gathered from this data recov-
couplings, and three bands are to be depos-      Historic Preservation Officer pursuant to         ery project have been submitted to the New
ited with the Meredith Havens Fire Mu-           Section 106 of the National Historic Pres-        Jersey State Museum.
seum. Other monitoring activity recorded:        ervation Act of 1966, as amended, and its
evidence of grading deposits (containing         related regulation 36CFR 800.5(E)(4).             Christoffel Vought Farm, Clinton town-
late-19th-century ceramic waste from the             The principal goal of the data recovery       ship, Hunterdon County (submitted by
Trenton potteries) related to the recon-         program was to gather, through archaeo-           Hunter Research, inc.): A cultural resource
struction of the State House following the       logical excavation, archival study, and oth-      survey was carried out by Hunter Re-
fire of 1885; foundation remains of 127 and      er means of research an appropriate level of      search, Inc. in 2005 for the Clinton Town-
129 West State Street, early- and mid-19th-      information from four sites that would be         ship Board of Education in connection
century residential structures, respectively;    impacted by the highway improvements.             with the construction of a proposed new
the top of the brick arch of the Petty’s Run     The four archaeological resources forming         middle school on Gray Rock Road in Clin-
culvert constructed ca. 1870; and part of the    the subject of this data recovery all com-        ton Township, Hunterdon County, NJ. The
late-18th-century stone-arched bridge that       prised mid-19th-century urban row proper-         historic components lying within the pro-
carried West State Street over Petty’s Run.      ties ranged along Front and Ogden Streets,        posed construction area are the Christoffel
    During the course of archaeological          both predecessors of the modern Route 21          Vought Farm Site (28Hu550) comprised
monitoring, substantial remains of the of-       corridor in this riverfront section of the        of the house, its related outbuildings, and
fices of the secretary of state and the clerk    city. From north to south, these resources        the farm setting on Gray Rock Road. The
of the Supreme Court and a related brick-        were: the Latimer property (historically          property is a significant example of a Ger-
lined privy shaft were encountered in front      329 and 331 Ogden Street), a corner lot that      man-American farmstead and was built by
of the east side of the West State Street fa-    contained a dwelling and a combination            a prominent and active Loyalist, Christoffel
çade of the state house. A limited program       saloon and dwelling, both erected in the          Vought.
of archaeological data recovery was un-          early 1860s; the Gisch properties (373, 375,          Extensive historical research under-
dertaken in late March and early April of        377, and 379 Ogden Street), three adjoining       taken for this project firmly connects the
2006 to investigate and document these re-       lots that contained four buildings (three         property with Johannes Christoffel Vought
mains. The offices of the secretary of state     dwellings and a combination saloon and            (1714-1809). Vought was of Palatinate Ger-
and the clerk of the Supreme Court, New          dwelling), two of which were erected ca.          man ancestry, was born in New Jersey, and
Jersey’s first public office building, were      1849-1850 and two in the early 1860s; and         was a prominent Loyalist during the Revo-
constructed in 1795-1796 and remained in         the Van Wagenen and Nuttman properties            lution. His family was one of approximate-
use until the mid-1840s. The overall 46 x        (62 and 64 Front Street), two adjoining lots      ly 45 to 50 German families who settled
28-foot footprint of this one-story stuccoed     that were first developed in the late 1840s.      along the lower Raritan and Millstone Riv-
stone building was documented and signif-        All of these properties remained occupied         er drainages in central New Jersey around
icant parts of the cellars at both ends of the   into the 20th century; all had been pulled        1714. In 1759 Christoffel Vought purchased
buildings, along with the remains of at least    down by the early 1930s.                          285 acres of land in the so-called Great Tract
one front entry stoop and one exterior base-         Archaeological data recovery focused          “in Lebanon [Township] near the Union
ment entry, were found to survive. These         on the backyards of the subject properties,       Iron Works.” Soon after he acquired the
remains have been preserved in situ and          where a variety of “shaft features” (cisterns,    land, Christoffel Vought began to improve
will shortly receive interpretive treatment      dry wells, wells, privies, and cesspits) sur-     it and built the large stone house which still
at street level.                                 vived to varying degrees and with a range of      stands. He was of considerable standing in
    Some 45 feet to the rear of the office       soil and artifact contents. A total of 15 shaft   his local community: in 1763 he was elected
building, the remains of a brick-lined privy     features were excavated at the eight street       to the council of the Zion German Lutheran
shaft were documented. This feature was          addresses, with particular attention being        Church and later became a church elder. In
identified as part of the state house neces-     given to a complex sequence of nine back-         1768 he was also appointed a Hunterdon
sary, a rest room facility erected in the sum-   yard water supply and sewerage structures         County Road Commissioner.
mer of 1797 for the use of legislators and       on the adjoining Van Wagenen and Nutt-                This increasingly prosperous civic life
denizens of the office building. Other privy     man properties. These latter structures,          was turned upside down by the American
shafts and remains of the necessary may yet      mostly built in the late 1840s and filled in      Revolution. Christoffel and John Vought
be found beneath and alongside the West          around 1910, revealed evidence of modifi-         found themselves unable to side with the
State Street portico.                            cation interpreted as a response to a vari-       rebel cause and held their ground as ac-
                                                 ety of factors, including flooding, changes       tive Loyalists. They engaged in violent acts
Route 21 (McCarter Highway), Newark,             in ownership and occupancy, and hookups           against local patriots and became widely
Essex County (submitted by Hunter Re-            to city water supply and sewerage systems         known figureheads for the Loyalist resis-
search, inc.): In early 2007, Hunter Re-         in Front Street. Artifacts dated predomi-         tance. Father and son fought with the Loy-
search, Inc. concluded an extensive mul-         nantly to the 1890s and the first decade of       alist New Jersey Volunteers, and for these
tiyear program of archaeological data            the 20th century, reflecting the later lower-     and other actions Christoffel’s property
recovery at several historical archaeological    middle class tenant usage of the properties       was confiscated and sold in 1779, and his
sites in downtown Newark, Essex County,          while they were under the ownership of the        family forced into exile. By 1783 he and
NJ, in connection with the New Jersey De-        neighboring Ballantine Brewery Company.           his family had joined many other Loyalists
partment of Transportation’s recent recon-       In addition, a prolific collection of artifacts   in Nova Scotia, but a few years later were
struction of a 2-mile segment of N.J. Route      recovered from a privy shaft at 373 Ogden         able to return to their remaining property
21 (McCarter Highway). This work was             Street, one of the Gisch properties, revealed     in Duanesburg, NY.

         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                  Page 
     The stone house built by Christoffel        ment structure approximately 12 x 14 feet         century at the Reed Mine, until all under-
Vought and the buildings of the farmstead        in extent with stucco interior walls, was lo-     ground mining activity on the property
were subjected to detailed survey as part of     cated on the northern edge of the cultivated      ceased in 1912. In December 1971, this land
this investigation. The house is an example      field. The character of the foundation, its       was acquired by the State of North Caroli-
of the German bank-house type, reflecting        location, the presence of a domestic yard         na, and designated as a State Historic Site.
Vought’s continuing identification with his      surface, and surviving analogs suggest that           Since that time, a number of archaeo-
ethnic roots. The most notable decorative        this is an example of an ancillary house,         logical projects have mined the past of this
features of the house are the exceptionally      often used for relatives or parents on these      historic site, all designed towards develop-
rare molded-plaster ceilings contemporary        farmsteads. If interpreted correctly, these       ment and interpretation for public visita-
with the house. These are German both in         two structures confirm the strongly Ger-          tion. Excavations have taken place at the
style and in method of construction and are      man character of the Vought farmstead.            19th-century mill house (including the as-
of great cultural value.                             It was concluded that the Christoffel         sociated boiler pit and chimney), whim
     The landscape and buildings on the          Vought Farm is significant under National         house and blacksmith shop on Upper Hill,
property were analyzed in relation to cul-       Register Criteria A, B, C, and D. Recom-          an early-20th-century stamp mill on Middle
tural features expected at a regional Ger-       mendations were made for the protection           Hill, and many isolated locations around
man-American farmstead, and this assisted        of the house and farmstead during the con-        the property associated with the construc-
in the interpretation of foundations identi-     struction of the new school, for documen-         tion of a visitor center and parking facili-
fied through archaeological testing. These       tation of the farm, and for its longer-term       ties. These projects yielded 25 artifact col-
farmsteads were conceptually and func-           preservation as an historic resource.             lections, which are presently housed at the
tionally divided into two spheres, the hof,                                                        North Carolina Office of State Archaeology
for domestic and house-related functions         “Remarkable for His industry—william              Research Center (OSARC) in Raleigh.
and the scheierhof, the agricultural buildings   Richards, trade & Manufactory in Revo-                As part of a cooperative partnership
and structures.                                  lutionary trenton”(Exhibit at the old Bar-        between the Division of State Historic Sites
     Another distinctive feature of German-      racks, trenton, New Jersey, 2007-08) (sub-        and Properties and OSARC, from March
American farming was meadow irriga-              mitted by Hunter Research, inc.): With            to June 2007 a comprehensive inventory of
tion, used to encourage early and luxuriant      the assistance of the New Jersey Historical       archaeological materials from Reed Gold
grass growth by irrigating meadows from          Commission, the New Jersey Department             Mine was created under the direction of Dr.
water channels off impoundments. There           of Transportation, and Hunter Research,           Billy L. Oliver, RPA, Director of OSARC.
is strong evidence, both from the documen-       Inc., the Old Barracks Museum in Trenton,         Archaeologist Tom Beaman, RPA, pro-
tary and field evidence, that such a system      NJ, has assembled an exhibit based on the         vided laboratory supervision, ably assisted
was used here. It appears that a stone-lined     business and manufacturing activities of          by Amanda Bullman (OSARC) and North
channel situated immediately to the east of      William Richards, a Philadelphia merchant         Carolina State University graduate student
the house probably contained a water-con-        who established various commercial and            Chris Musto. Dick Webb, Nancy Webb,
trol feature that would have raised the level    industrial facilities on the banks of the Dela-   Ron Downes, and Judy Ambrose, all experi-
of the water in the channel to the north of      ware River in Trenton’s port community of         enced volunteers from the Coe Foundation
that point. Water would then have flowed         Lamberton. Among Richards’ operations             for Archaeological Research (CFAR), were
through outlets in the east side of the chan-    were a fishery and fish-processing plant, a       contracted as laboratory technicians to as-
nel, wetting the lands to the east.              stoneware pottery manufactory, a cooper-          sist with this undertaking. With guidance
     Archaeological survey consisted of the      age, a commercial bakery, and a store. Ar-        and direction, plus additional assistance
excavation of 67 shovel tests at 20-foot in-     tifacts recovered from archaeological data        from other CFAR volunteers and students
tervals and 8 3-foot-square units, all placed    recovery and monitoring operations under-         from several local colleges and universities,
within the core of the farmstead site. Over-     taken in conjunction with the Route 29 re-        the numerous artifacts from the different
all, this testing suggested that there had       construction project form a large part of the     archaeological projects were proficiently
been considerable displacement of 18th-          exhibit, while archaeological and archival        cataloged and repackaged in modern ar-
and 19th-century strata, and landscaping of      research provide the basis for many other         chival materials. Imaging specialist Gary
certain areas during the 20th century. Eigh-     displays. For further detail, visit: <www.        Knight, retired SBI and CCBI agent, as-
teenth-century material was concentrated         barracks.org/programs/gallery>.                   sisted by Randolph Community College
around and to the south of the house, in the                                                       intern Hamilton Chesson, photographed
area of the hof, and coincided with the loca-                                                      significant, unique, and representative ar-
tion of the foundations of two structures.
                                                      u.S.A.-SoutHEASt                             tifacts encountered during this process.
     Immediately southwest of the house             Reported by Gifford J. Waters                  Bullman and Musto also provided invalu-
the northeast corner of a substantial stone          <gwaters@flmnh.ufl.edu>                       able technical assistance during the project
foundation was exposed in one of the Phase                                                         with the data entry of the thousands of arti-
II excavation units, and probing demon-          North Carolina                                    fact records. Musto additionally provided
strated that it extended under the retaining                                                       conservation assessments and treatment for
wall along Gray Rock Road. It seems likely                                                         many of the metal artifacts.
that the structure predates the establish-       investigations at Reed Mine and Rose                  As a result of the efforts of these indi-
ment of Gray Rock Road, and is probably          Hill (submitted by thomas E. Beaman, Jr.,         viduals, these collections—42,163 artifacts
18th century in date. Although certainty is      RPA, tar River Archaeological Research):          in total—were reinventoried and repack-
not possible on the basis of the work com-       In 1799, half a century before gold was           aged in modern archival materials. While
pleted, it is probable that this structure was   discovered in California, the first authenti-     many of these artifacts were identified as
a summer kitchen, a common feature of            cated discovery of gold in the U.S. occurred      relating to industrial functions of the vari-
German-American farms.                           at Reed Gold Mine, located in what is now         ous locations around the site, the single
     Southeast of the house a second sub-        Cabarrus County near Charlotte, NC. The           largest artifact class identified was con-
stantial foundation, this time for a base-       search for gold continued for more than a         struction fasteners. An impressive total of

        Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                 Page 5
13,998 nails and nail fragments were cata-        original site and axis. Preliminary inter-        row hexagonal and rectangular grave pits
loged from these various collections, com-        pretations indicate the kitchen had a swept       contained hexagonal stains, wrought-iron
prising almost one-third of the entire sum        front yard and a wooden chimney that was          nails, and blunt-tipped screws revealing
of artifacts.                                     pulled down before being replaced with            the use of hexagonal coffins as burial recep-
     In addition to insuring safe, long-term      the extant stone-and-brick chimney. Four          tacles. The cemetery contained the remains
preservation for these collections, this col-     exploratory units in the area south of the        of one of Charlotte’s founding fathers,
lection also made readily apparent the al-        kitchen revealed evidence of another struc-       Thomas Sprott. Sprott’s remains unfortu-
most exclusive industrial focus of previous       ture in the form of burned clay from a for-       nately could not be positively identified.
investigations at Reed Gold Mine. Though          mer chimney base. More investigations             Many of Sprott’s kinsmen still reside in the
many locations of miners’ camps and cab-          are needed to determine the function and          Charlotte/Mecklenburg County Metro-
ins, as well as the residences of different       orientation of this structure. Finally, one       plex, presenting opportunities for interac-
owners of the Reed property, are known            exploratory unit placed beside the original       tion between the archaeologists and direct
through historical research, virtually none       1803 residence revealed evidence of past or-      descendants. Under the directorship of Mr.
have been documented by archaeological            namental plantings and suggests the front         Bill Merritt, Senior Project Manager, Caroli-
research. While this was a suggested topic        porch was constructed at the same time as         nas Healthcare granted family members ac-
of future research on the property, for the       the main house.                                   cess to the excavations; they were provided
present the tremendous benefit of this co-            Rose Hill proved to be an excellent in-       with first-hand opportunities to learn how
operative project is the availability of the      structional laboratory for learning the tech-     cemeteries reveal important aspects of their
artifact data to future researchers who wish      niques of archaeological investigations.          past that are not addressed in historical or
to continue to mine the past of this State        Additional education opportunities for the        genealogical texts. A positive collabora-
Historic Site.                                    students took the form of discussions and         tion between Carolinas Healthcare and the
     Last year Peace College, a four-year         participation involving members of the Coe        descendant community resulted in a rein-
women’s college in Raleigh, added anthro-         Foundation for Archaeological Research
pology as its newest undergraduate major.         (CFAR), as well as Paul Mohler and Shane
As part of the expanded curriculum for this       Peterson of NCDOT, who volunteered their
new major, this summer Peace sponsored            time to assist in these excavations and talk
its first archaeological field school. Dr. Bil-   about opportunities for students following
ly Oliver (an Adjunct Assistant Professor         graduation in the archaeological field. This
of North Carolina State University) served        first field school was a success, and is likely
as principal investigator and Tom Beaman          to become the first of many for future an-
(Tar River Archaeological Research) as field      thropology majors at Peace College.
director. Seven students, as well as Peace
anthropology professors Dr. Laura Vick            Sprott Family Cemetery (31MK1081) (sub-
and Dr. Vinnie Melomo, took part in this          mitted by Hugh B. Matternes, New South
educational exercise that combined instruc-       Associates): In March 2007, construction
tion in American historical archaeology           workers digging a basement for a new wing
and southeastern archaeological excavation        of the CMC Mercy Hospital in Charlotte,
techniques.                                       NC, encountered five steatite grave mark-
     The location chosen for this inaugural       ers in a disturbed 20th-century fill. An ex-
archaeological field school was Rose Hill         amination of the find site by New South As-
(31FK73**), a 19th-century plantation site        sociates archaeologists determined that no
in Franklin County near Louisburg. Built          graves were present; however, the watchful
by plantation owner Lark Fox in 1803, the         eyes of alerted construction workers detect-
main residence was a transitional Georgian-       ed human remains in an undisturbed con-
Federal structure. Later owners oversaw           text nearby. Grave stone inscriptions re-
improvements to the main house around             corded the deaths of members of the Sprott
1840, in the 1880s, and again around 1910.        and Barnet families in the 1770s. Histori-        Nathan Mountjoy and Jonathan Flood reveal
Listed in the National Register of Historic       cal documentation revealed that these and         18th-century lifeways to descendant family
Places, this residence and its landscape,         other families, including the McKnights,          members at the Sprott Family Cemetery.
which includes several extant antebellum-         Binghams, and Peels had developed a small
era outbuildings, are undergoing exten-           burial ground in a wooded corner of the
sive restorations by owners Joe and Sonya         Sprott family property holdings during the
Webb. More information on the history of          mid- to late 18th century. This cemetery’s        terment ceremony at Steele Creek Presby-
the site and restoration photos can be seen       presence can be traced until at least the         terian Church, Charlotte, NC among other
at       <http://www.timberlakeweddings.          turn of the 20th century; however, it was         18th-century members of the Sprott, Bing-
com>.                                             believed destroyed by urban development           ham, McKnight, and Barnet families. The
     The excavations focused primarily in         over the course of the last century.              service, witnessed by over 200 visitors,
the area of the outbuildings and were de-             Excavation and recovery by New South          was also attended by such dignitaries as
signed to determine whether the structures        Associates revealed the presence of no less       South Carolina Congressman John Spratt,
were in their original location or an orienta-    than 13 graves containing mostly adults.          a descendant of Thomas Sprott, and Hon.
tion that faces the more recent main road.        Skeletal preservation was extremely poor.         Mike Easley, governor of North Carolina.
Three large units were placed around the          There were numerous cupreous straight             Chris Espenshade of New South Associates
structure identified as the ca. 1840 kitchen.     pin stains and fragments and no other per-        served as the principal investigator for the
While artifact analysis is still pending, the     sonal effects, indicating that the dead were      project.
fieldwork suggests this structure is on its       probably buried in burial shrouds. Nar-

         Volume 40: Number 4                                      Winter 2007                                                 Page 
Georgia                                         of the Planning and Zoning Department              was also overlaid onto historic maps and
                                                of Coweta County, and was also funded in           aerials to discern significant activity areas
                                                part by the American Battlefield Protection        and potential routes through the battle that
old School Cemetery, washington, Geor-
                                                Program (ABPP), an initiative of the Na-           were no longer present. Additionally, in-
gia (submitted by Hugh B. Matternes,
                                                tional Park Service.                               frared image analysis conducted by Dr.
New South Associates): In the City of
                                                     The primary goal of the archaeologi-          Bill Drummond of the Georgia Institute of
Washington, as part of Georgia’s Main
                                                cal study was to establish the core area           Technology supplemented the project ef-
Street Program (an initiative to realize and
                                                in which the conflict was fought and the           fort by identifying the remnants of signifi-
promote the city’s historic and cultural re-
                                                battle’s extent. An understanding of troop         cant trails in and out of the project area. In-
sources) New South Associates addressed
                                                movements into and out of the field of battle      terviews with current and former collectors
a landscape feature known locally as the
                                                was needed and would be realized through           were also conducted to compile as much
Old School Cemetery. The Old School
                                                the identification of particular battle-relat-     information as possible and provided the
Cemetery is a 7.7-acre informal cemetery,
                                                ed artifacts. Specifically, the survey sought      most well-informed interpretation possible,
used by the African American community
                                                to identify the location of the Union can-         given the site’s complicated history.
as a burial area alternative to church, fam-
                                                non battery. It is this element of the battle          Despite the impact of agriculture and
ily, and the more economically restrictive
                                                that most of the historic accounts revolved        years of collecting the events of July 1864
Resthaven cemeteries. A search of histori-
                                                around. Additionally, the munitions car-           could be understood archaeologically,
cal documentation failed to identify any re-
                                                ried by individual Union regiments were            through an investigation that coordinated
cords of the cemetery. It appears to have
                                                unique to each group. Therefore, the loca-         data from numerous sources. The use of
been established in the late 19th century
                                                tions of dropped or spent rounds could be          GIS spatial data analysis as a framework
and saw sporadic use throughout the 20th
                                                attributed to a specific subgroup of troops        to organize information drawn from ar-
century. Over the last few generations, the
                                                within the battle. In addition to the unique       chaeological fieldwork, local residents, and
cemetery had fallen into disrepair, requir-
                                                ammunition signature, another element              the past as well as the current landscape
ing survey, inventorying, and mapping to
                                                working in our favor was the fact that his-        proved to be an invaluable tool in the in-
take an archaeological approach. Working
                                                toric accounts placed the Union cannons            terpretation of the Battle of Brown’s Mill.
with local community groups, including
                                                near a cabin or church during the battle.          Though a skirmish of this kind leaves less
Boy Scout Troop 34, brush was systemati-
                                                Once these resources could be located, the         of an archaeological signature than more
cally trimmed back to reveal the cemetery’s
                                                accounts of the battle could be oriented in        organized battles and much of its defining
boundaries. Several hundred unmarked
                                                geographic space. In practice, achieving           cultural material was displaced by con-
graves were identified by the presence of
                                                these objectives would prove to be a search        tinual land use and collecting, the recon-
surface depressions or through probing.
                                                for the proverbial needle in the haystack,         struction provided insight into the events
The entire cemetery tract was digitally
                                                one that had been rummaged through, scat-          that unfolded. Without the stewardship of
mapped revealing an assemblage of no less
                                                tered, and piled again for the next search-        Sandra Parker, of the Coweta County Plan-
than 1730 interments, many of whom were
                                                er.                                                ning Department, and the input of David
placed in terraced family plots, down the
                                                     The impact of agricultural activity is        Evans, a local Civil War historian, the goals
side of a gentle slope. Living descendants
                                                always a factor on archaeological sites in         of the project would not have been realized.
of those buried in the Old School Cemetery
                                                the Georgia Piedmont, and the Battle of            With additional guidance from Kristen Mc-
were interviewed not only to determine
                                                Brown’s Mill was no exception. However,            Masters of the ABPP, New South Associ-
who was present in some of the unmarked
                                                the impact of Civil War artifact collectors        ates, Inc. was able to develop an interpreta-
graves, but also to learn about the funerary
                                                far outweighed the effect of plowing over          tion at this significant cavalry battle. New
traditions followed by the burying commu-
                                                the years. The field survey consisted of           South Associates’ effort was conducted by
nity. When cross-referenced with record-
                                                examination of 10 landforms that poten-            Archaeologist Wm. Matthew Tankersley,
ed surface features and recorded African
                                                tially served as battery locations during the      Principal Investigator Chris Espenshade,
American funerary traditions, a rich mo-
                                                battle. Systematic metal detector survey           and Project Manager J. W. Joseph.
saic of life among 20th-century rural and
                                                and shovel test pit excavation produced no
blue-collar African American communities
                                                battle-related items on any of the landforms       Studying tenancy in Randolph County,
emerged. The City of Washington plans to
                                                examined. The paucity of cultural material         GA (submitted by Jennifer Azzarello,
use the information collected by this project
                                                was a testament to the effect collectors had       New South Associates, inc.): The Georgia
to develop this unique cultural landmark
                                                on the site starting as early as the late 1960s.   Department of Transportation (GDOT) and
as an open-air interpretive park. Dr. Joe Jo-
                                                Only one artifact found could be directly at-      New South Associates, Inc. conducted ar-
seph of New South Associates served as the
                                                tributed to the Battle of Brown’s Mill, and it     chaeological investigations at Site 9RH41
principal investigator for the project.
                                                was located in a drainage ditch outside the        in Randolph County. The investigations
                                                primary areas of investigation.                    involved four tenant houses that are still
“Collectors and detectors: Reconstruct-
                                                     A Civil War-period house site was dis-        standing and reflect remnants of a small
ing the Cavalry Skirmish at Brown’s Mill”
                                                covered on a landform central to the battle        part of the tenant community that once
(submitted by wm. Matthew tankersley,
                                                and served as a starting point for interpre-       existed there on the 1,200-acre farm. The
New South Associates): In February and
                                                tation, but an understanding of the battle         investigations were conducted by Nata-
March of 2007, New South Associates, Inc.
                                                would have to come from sources other              lie Adams and Jennifer Azzarello of New
conducted an archaeological survey of the
                                                than artifact finds. Local relic collectors had    South Associates, and administered by Te-
Battle of Brown’s Mill site, located south-
                                                compiled a sketch map of the locations and         resa Lotti of GDOT as part of mitigation ef-
east of Newnan, GA. The battle consisted
                                                types of finds they had made over the years        forts for planned improvements to U.S. 27.
of a cavalry skirmish between Union forces
                                                at Brown’s Mill. This information was then         Important components of the study were
under the command of General Edward
                                                transferred into a GIS format and projected        an oral history survey, architectural evalu-
M. McCook and Confederate forces led by
                                                onto a USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle. The             ation, and a public outreach program.
General Joseph Wheeler in July of 1864.
                                                spatial data concerning the collectors’ finds          Archaeological investigations focused
The survey was conducted on the behalf

        Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                   Page 
on generating data on refuse disposal pat-      turn a profit from agricultur-
terns, temporal differences, consumer           al pursuits were resounding
choice, status, and subsistence. Through        failures after just three years.
intensive shovel testing, the sheet middens     Eventually Jean de Berard
were located around the tenant houses.          Mocquet Montalet, another
Once the middens were defined, test units       French expatriate, acquired
were excavated to sample them systemati-        the barely functional planta-
cally. Excavations included mechanical re-      tion and lived there until his
moval of overburden at each site to glean       death in 1814. After that a
additional information on front and rear        series of absentee landlords
yard activities. The data collected from the    sporadically farmed the site
midden excavations are currently being          until the Postbellum period,
evaluated and will be presented in a report     when Northern business-
for GDOT. The study also included inter-        man John Griswold built
viewing residents of Randolph County who        a tabby-block foundation
had experienced life on tenant farms. The       frame house at High Point in
interviews focused on the daily activities,     1866 (Figure 1). His efforts
the community, and the work arrangement         at turning a profit also failed, FIGURE 1. Griswold House tabby-block foundations. Facing
of tenant farmers. The information gained       and the site was essentially northeast.
from the interviews will provide valuable       abandoned after 1870.
insight into the interpretation of data from        A UTC archaeologi-                        green glass bead. Small amounts of prehis-
the archaeological excavations.                 cal field school under the direction of Dr. toric pottery were also noted. The shaft of
    As part of the project New South and        Nicholas Honerkamp carried out the sur- the well was excavated to a depth of 1 m
GDOT created a public outreach program          vey. A total of 101 half-meter survey units below surface, and no ceramic types earlier
for local elementary schools. Jennifer Az-      were excavated on a systematic 20-meter than whiteware were recovered from this
zarello and Sadhana Singh of New South          grid. All survey units were dug to sterile context. Time limitations prevented deeper
Associates took part in after-school pro-       and screened using 1/4-in. mesh. An ag- testing of this “late” well, which is probably
grams and made presentations to local           gressive field laboratory allowed real-time associated with the Griswold occupation.
Girl Scout councils in southwest Georgia.       feedback concerning temporally sensitive          Artifact identification, analysis and con-
Each Girl Scout answered simple questions       artifacts. Besides the survey, limited test- servation, and a final report will be com-
about themselves, then paired up to share                                                     pleted in the fall of 2007 at UTC’s Jeffrey L.
their information with each other in an in-                                                   Brown Institute of Archaeology. The final
terview format. They were sent home with                                                      report will focus on a comparison of the
the same questions and a waiver, asked to                                                     High Point material remains and those of
interview a member of their family, and                                                       Chocolate Plantation (9MC96), which UTC
later presented what they learned to the                                                      surveyed last year using an identical meth-
group. In the end the girls learned a great                                                   odology. The survey report will be incor-
deal about oral history, history of the area,                                                 porated in DNR’s cultural resource man-
and their families. Much of the information                                                   agement plan for Sapelo, and will guide
learned from the interviews will be applied                                                   future research at the site. Based on the
to the interpretation of consumer choice in                                                   survey methodology applied at Chocolate
material culture.                                                                             and High Point, another UTC field school is
    New South is currently in the process                                                     anticipated for next summer to investigate
of preparing the report of investigations for                                                 a third plantation on Sapelo Island.
GDOT and is expected to have valuable in-       FIGURE 2. Corner tabby foundations at High
formation to contribute to tenant studies in    Point. Facing south; scale in 10 cm zones.
the southeast U.S. and Georgia.                                                                      u.S.A.-PACiFiC wESt
                                                                                                   Reported by Thad M. VanBueren
Survey of High Point Plantation (9MC66)         ing of a possible well near the Griswold ru-       <thad_van_bueren@dot.ca.gov>
(submitted by Nick Honerkamp): The Uni-         ins was carried out. Finally, in cooperation
versity of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC)       with the Sapelo Island Library, the UTC
recently completed a four-week survey of        team presented the results of the archaeo-        California
High Point Plantation (9MC96) on Sapelo         logical research as part of an “Archaeology
Island, GA. This research was supported         Day” event.                                       Archaeological data Recovery at the
by the Georgia Department of Natural Re-            Ten features were identified in the sur-      Former Santa Barbara i Manufactured
sources (DNR) and the UTC Institute of          vey. Besides the well and a natural distur-       Gas Plant (submitted by Kholood Abdo-
Archaeology. Located at the north end of        bance, tabby foundation elements were not-        Hintzman, Applied Earthworks inc.): Ar-
Sapelo, the site was probably first occupied    ed in seven different areas of the site (Figure   chaeological excavations in the city of Santa
in the British colonial period by Patrick       2). A total of five faience sherds and a frag-    Barbara have revealed physical evidence of
McKay. In 1791 the island was purchased         ment of delftware in addition to two French       colonization, acculturation, urbanization,
by the Société de Sapelo, a group of wealthy    blade gunflints were found, and this mate-        and industrialization in the central coast
investors who wished to avoid the unpleas-      rial no doubt relates to the site’s “French       region of California. Reflected in the ar-
antness of the Terror during the French         Connection.” Other notable artifacts in-          chaeological record are early colonial land
Revolution. Their attempts to live together     clude a portion of a pewter spoon, brass          use of the environment; changing land use
in a communal house at High Point and           furniture tacks, an iron hoe, and a faceted       strategies during the Spanish, Mexican, and

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                 Page 
American struggle for coastal dominance;          the south corner of the quadrangle. As the      riod MGP features were found throughout
residential expansion and site urbanization       pueblo grew more structures appeared and        the project area. Artifacts dating from the
during the Victorian era; industrialization       soon Presidio Avenue developed west of          operation of the plant included large metal
in the form of construction of a gas-manu-        the compound.                                   gears, paving blocks, and glass insulators.
facturing plant; civic improvement with               An organic midden was exposed in                 The Cooley house was built around
the establishment of the Santa Barbara His-       front of the museum. At the base of what        1875 on the northwestern side of Block 191.
torical Society; and modern environmental         appears to be a ditch was a fired-clay lens,    This structure was built immediately west
cleanup through site remediation. South-          perhaps the result of clearing brush and or     of the gas plant during its early years of op-
ern California Edison Company’s final             construction of an irrigation channel. Upon     eration. It was originally a two-story frame
Remedial Action Plan (RPA) at the site of         abandonment of this ditch in the 1790s to       dwelling, constructed with a front-facing
a former manufactured gas plant required          early 1800s, domestic fill accumulated rap-     gable and porch. By 1892, a one-story wing
the removal of contaminated soil sur-             idly including abundant faunal remains,         had been added to the east elevation and
rounding the Historical Society Museum in         low-fired earthenware, and fragments of         the porch had been extended. Two years
downtown Santa Barbara, CA. Contamina-            imported ceramics. Brownware and Mexi-          after building the house, Edward Gillett
tion resulted from many years of storage          can earthenware dominated this fill deposit,    sold the property to Henry Emigh. Emigh
and manufacture of gas at the plant built in      although majolica was found in moderate         and his family resided in the house until
1875 and abandoned by 1907.                       amounts, and Chinese porcelain and Brit-        1887, when they sold it to Vincent Leyva
    The Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP)              ish refined earthenware were recovered in       Feliz. The Levya family and daughter Mary
site (CA-SBA-3505H) is approximately              small quantities. Also found were chipped       Cooley owned the property until 1960s.
0.75 mi. northwest of the Pacific Ocean and       stone debitage, worked bone, steatite-bowl      Archaeological evidence suggested that the
approximately 1.0 mi. south of the Santa          fragments, and shell disc and glass beads.      property was linked to the gas plant.
Ynez Mountain Range. First investigated           The midden-filled feature is located across          The Victorian privies and remnants of
when remediation was proposed in 1999,            the street from the main entrance of the pre-   an auto garage were found in association
CA-SBA-3505H is now known to have con-            sidio. The presence of military items such      with the Cooley house. The pit features
tained archaeological deposits from presidio      as hardware, imported gunflints, buttons,       were filled in 1907 and the garage built in
times, the period of Hispanic transition, the     and lead for musket balls suggests an as-       the 1930s.
Victorian era, and the advent of industrial-      sociation with the presidio soldiers. This           In 2006-2007 Applied Earthworks con-
ization. Significant archaeological features      association might be indirect via residents     ducted archaeological monitoring and data
were first identified during construction         who lived along Presidio Avenue and             recovery at CA-SBA-3505H during the fi-
monitoring associated with the combined           worked within the presidio walls.               nal phase of site remediation. A number
Phase I/II remediation of the Santa Barbara           The Spanish midden in the Cooley Lot        of testing units were excavated in the front
I MGP undertaken in 2002. Archaeological          yielded artifacts recovered from two areas      of the museum area, exposing more of the
deposits were found in four distinct areas of     of tejas concentration dating to the 1790s      Spanish midden associated with the presi-
the site. Mission-era midden was identified       to 1810s. The artifacts recovered from the      dio. In the lower courtyard four additional
in front of the Santa Barbara Historical Mu-      bone-filled midden that lies above this ear-    features were exposed, including a His-
seum along De la Guerra Street. Additional        ly horizon appears to date to the 1830s.        panic-era large pit feature (a possible well)
colonial midden deposits and Victorian-era            The Covarrubias adobe was built be-         and three privies believed to be associated
structural remains were exposed within the        tween 1817 and 1818. Don Carrillo built the     with the Covarrubias adobe. A large col-
Cooley Lot, located 16.4 ft. (50 m) south of      house following his marriage to Concep-         lection of ceramics was retrieved from the
De la Guerra Street. Two Victorian privies        cion, sister of Pio Pico, the Spanish gover-    lower courtyard adobe features. Ceramics
were found beneath the paved parking area         nor. The house gained importance in 1846        consisted predominantly of transfer-print-
and at the back margin of the Cooley Lot,         when it was occupied as the capitol of Alta     ed vessels, hand-painted pearlware vessels,
while Hispanic-era deposits were found in         California in the year preceding the collapse   brownware, redware, and Asian porcelains.
the lower courtyard north of the Historic         of Mexican rule. Jose Maria Covarrubias,        Also found were personal items such as
and Covarrubias adobes. These structures          secretary to Pico, married Don Carrillo’s       jewelry and women’s and children’s shoes.
have been onsite since 1918 and 1923 re-          daughter Maria in 1853 and the adobe be-        The noticeable large amount of flooring
spectively. MGP-related features dating           came their home. It was at that time it be-     and roofing tiles from the large pit feature
to the late 19th to early 20th century were       came known as Casa Covarrubias. Initially,      is suggestive of a cleanup and reconstruc-
found throughout the museum property.             two features were found in the lower court-     tion phase associated with the Covarrubias
    Historical artifacts indicate that the cur-   yard and are associated with the Covarru-       adobe. The refuse pit features were re-ex-
rent location of the museum property has          bias adobe and dated to the 1840s to 1850s.     cavated during the 2006-2007 investigation
been in use since the establishment of the        The features likely represent a cleanout epi-   in the Pitman property located north of the
Santa Barbara Presidio ca. 1782. While the        sode as new family members moved into           Cooley house. The date of these features is
presidio was founded as a military out-           the house.                                      still being determined.
post, it also offered living quarters for sol-        With the Covarrubias as a backdrop, the          The analysis and research of CA-SBA-
diers and their families. By the late 1780s       gas plant was built and the Cooley house        3505H cultural material collected in 2006
the presidio served as a trading station, a       was erected. The first municipal lighting       and 2007 is ongoing, and is likely to yield
supply depot, and a religious center for          program went into effect two years after        more evidence of the different phases of
settlers, making it the focal point of resi-      the founding of the Santa Barbara Gas Light     historical development reflecting the mul-
dential activity in Santa Barbara. With the       Company in 1872. The oldest brick-foun-         tifaceted character of Santa Barbara today.
the steady increase of the population and         dation remnants of the plant were found in      Most revealing in this analysis are the con-
the completion of all presidio buildings,         the museum parking lot. At that time, the       temporary British ceramic marked vessels
new construction was limited to outside           gas works consisted of a retort house and       and transfer-print patterns, reflecting the
the presidio compound. In 1795, the first         purifying room, a gas holder, a coal house,     wide variety of imported commodities
adobe was built approximately 50 ft. from         and an office/storage building. Later-pe-       available to Santa Barbara’s first citizens.

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                 Page 9
                                                 indications of the fort. We
Nevada                                           collected more than 4,000 arti-
                                                 facts, nearly half of which re-
Fort Ruby Passport in time testing Project       lated to Native American use
(submitted by lou Ann Speulda-drews,             of the site. Eight diagnostic
u.S. Fish and wildlife Service and Karen         projectile points were recov-
Kumiega, u.S.d.A. Forest Service): Lo-           ered, suggesting use back 4500
cated in northeastern Nevada, Ruby Valley        years, while several pieces of
has a lush marsh and grasslands flanked by       Western Shoshone brownware
high rugged mountains and dry uplands.           ceramics indicate historic oc-
The Overland Stage and Mail Service, car-        cupation.
rying both passengers and mail, crossed              Based on the results of the
the southern end of Ruby Valley en route         initial fieldwork, we focused
to California. The stage service along with      our attention in 2007 on a
increasing numbers of emigrants traveling        smaller area and excavated 53 1
through the region caused conflicts with         x 1 m units in a more intensive
Native Americans over limited resources.         block style, opening up a larg- FIGURE 1. Fort Ruby 2007 PIT Crew (FWS 2007-07-03:127.
Military protection for travelers and prop-      er surface area. We collected jpg).
erty along the stage route was deemed nec-       about 4400 artifacts which are
essary and the southern end of Ruby Valley       currently being analyzed.
was chosen as the site of a fort. Fort Ruby          The primary goals of the
was established on 4 September 1862.             project focused on identifying
    A few palisade log buildings were            the location of the officers’ row
quickly constructed that first fall to protect   of housing and finding mate-
the men from winter weather. Over time,          rial culture indicative of the
more substantial officers’ housing, barracks,    lives of the officers and their
a hospital, and a quartermaster’s office         families. The nature of the in-
were constructed around a parade ground.         teraction between the military
Soldiers stationed there complained of the       and the local Native Americans
rough quarters and monotonous duty at            who camped nearby is also an
the remote station.                              important research question.
    In 1869 the transcontinental railroad            Evidence of the fort build-
was completed, transporting mail and pas-        ings was discovered, includ-
sengers more swiftly than the stage. Fort        ing a privy, two palisade wall
Ruby was no longer needed to protect the         buildings, several charcoal- FIGURE 2. Fort Ruby’s Officers Row, 1868. Palisade build-
stage and in April 1869 the fort was of-         stained pit features, and many ing on the right was located during PIT project 2007. (Photo
ficially closed and its buildings sold to lo-    artifacts relating to the fort-era by Timothy O’Sullivan; courtesy of Special Collections, Uni-
cal ranchers who moved them off the site.        occupation. Machine-cut nails versity of Reno-Nevada Library #1510B.)
Since 1869 the site has been heavily im-         and window glass were found
                                                 in abundance with the upright                  in a black dress sitting on the porch of the
pacted by development of a ranch, a fishing
resort, and a trailer park.                      posts. The posts are remnants of the pali- commanding officer’s house. The records
    Today, the fort area straddles the           sade-style architecture associated with the do not identify the women at the fort, nor
boundary between the Forest Service, Hum-        earliest building phase at the fort. The do we have diaries from the occupants.
                                                 upright logs were probably cut when the            Other items recovered are consistent
boldt-Toiyabe National Forest (FS) and the                                                      with an 1860s military post: military but-
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ruby Lake        buildings were sold, leaving only the be-
National Wildlife Refuge (FWS). Manage-          low-grade portion. A stone base to a chim- tons; ammunition such as percussion caps
ment of the historic site is shared between      ney was also located in conjunction with and miníe balls; plain white earthenware
the agencies and we have joined together to      the upright logs, providing clear evidence and ironstone; and mold-blown alcohol
conduct a testing program to provide infor-      of the end of one building. The building’s and panel patent-medicine bottles.
                                                 construction style and orientation appears         The Passport in Time program recruits
mation for the management and interpreta-
tion of the site.                                to match the northernmost building in an nationwide through a Web site (<www.
    Passport In Time (PIT) is a Forest Service   1868 photograph of the officers’ housing. passportintime.com>).              Our volunteers
                                                 Analysis of the artifacts collected from this  came from as far away as New York and
heritage program offering opportunities for                                                     Georgia, with several veterans of the 2005
volunteers to participate in preservation        building is just beginning.
projects working alongside professionals.            Both higher-status goods and items re- project returning. By joining forces and
Supervision is supplied by FS and FWS            lating to women and children were found sharing staff time, supplies, and equipment,
archaeologists. The Fort Ruby PIT Project        in the officers’ housing area, including a the FS and FWS succeeded in gathering
was initiated in 2005 with Passport in Time      porcelain doll’s head, several black dress valuable information with the assistance of
volunteers, the Ruby Lake National Wild-         buttons, etched-glass tableware, and white hardworking volunteers.
life Refuge’s Youth Conservation Corps           earthenware and ironstone tableware (soup
crew, and volunteers from the local com-         tureen lid). Based on records, we know that
munity. A second week-long project was           women were present in 1864 with the Ne-
sponsored in 2007 with 11 volunteers.            vada Volunteer Infantry which was garri-
    In 2005 we placed 27 1 x 1 m test units      soned at Fort Ruby, and there is the addi-
over a large area, looking for subsurface        tional evidence of a photograph of a woman

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                  Page 30
         A Thirty-Year Perspective on the
  Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project, Western Colorado
                    Steven G. Baker, President, Centuries Research, Inc., Montrose, Colorado



    It was nearly 33 years ago that I depart-   Victorian cultural tradition which are so cal record of the hunting and gathering Ute
ed from the University of South Carolina        prominent among our state’s cultural re- Peoples themselves had been cast in indi-
for the then “historical archaeology wilds”     sources. These referenced sources should vidual nuclear family households which
of the San Juan Mountains of western Colo-      be consulted for further information on the focused on tipi and conical stick shelters
rado. By that time I had spent several years    evolution and overall current status of his- (aka “wickiups”). When I began work in
working as an historical archaeologist in       torical archaeology in Colorado.              the Uncompahgre River valley there was
Canada, Georgia, and South Carolina. It              Although I moved to Colorado primar- not even an elementary baseline of archae-
seemed the opportune time for me to “go         ily to concentrate on the American Victo- ological data for the Utes’ former presence
west, young man.” I hoped to pit the meth-      rian cultural context (Baker 1978a, 1978b, on the landscape of Colorado, and some
od and theory of historical archaeology I       1983, 1999, 2006), a major portion of my archaeologists actually believed none could
had learned back in the “heartland” during      career over the past 30-plus years has been ever be developed.
the late 60s and early 70s against the then-    focused on the historical archaeology and         The Utes, however, as one of the last
unexplored potential offered by the 19th-       ethnohistory of Colorado’s Ute-speaking free-roaming Native American groups in
century Victorian mining-derived resource       Native Americans. These peoples are com- the lower 48 states figured very promi-
base of Colorado.                               monly referred to simply as “the Utes” and nently in the history of Colorado and left
    It proved to be a very long uphill battle   they alone of the Native American peoples behind uncounted multitudes of small
to establish historical archaeology in Colo-    currently residing in Colorado have inhab- household sites. Until they ceded away
rado and I found that funding for such ef-      ited the region since prehistoric times. Af- the mineral-rich San Juan Mountains in the
forts here was especially hard to come by.      ter I had been in Colorado for just a short southwest corner of the state in 1873, only a
Accordingly, until recently very little sub-    time it became apparent to me that virtually few thousand Ute speakers occupied a res-
stantive historical archaeology has been        nothing was known about the archaeology ervation of some 40,000 square miles. This
undertaken in Colorado, relative to the late-   of the Ute People and what historical infor- stretched from the continental divide west
19th-century European American resource         mation was available was very limited and to Utah and from the New Mexico border
base, by me or anyone else. Over the years      badly out of date.                            northward nearly to Wyoming. I was sim-
I found myself doing all kinds of archaeol-          The vicinity of Montrose in the Un- ply stunned by the lack of information re-
ogy other than that which lured me here         compahgre River valley of west-central garding the former Ute presence in this vast
in the first place. That situation has lately   Colorado (Figures 1 and 2), where I elect- area.
begun to change dramatically in our Cen-        ed to settle, had been a focal point in the       In Georgia and South Carolina I had
tennial State through the efforts of the few    late preremoval history of the prominent been deeply involved with Native American
historical archaeologists who have sought       Uncompahgre (aka Sabaguana) and Ta- ethnohistory and archaeology and quickly
to establish their specialty here and a shift   beguache Bands as well as the Ute People came to appreciate the unsung potential of-
in the bureaucracy’s view of the profession.    generally. While the major sites associated fered by Colorado’s Ute context. Accord-
The latter change was, in no small measure,     with the events of the 1870s and early 1880s ingly, I resolved to include them among the
brought about by Colorado’s visionary           were commonly mentioned in relation to highest priorities in the public archaeology
State Archaeologist, Dr. Susan Collins, and     popularized Ute and
her fine staff at the Office of Archaeology     Colorado history, their
and Historic Preservation at the Colorado       locations were virtu-
Historical Society.                             ally unknown. Largely
    This sea change in the perception of        because of cultural era-
historical archaeology was recently memo-       sure/amnesia the iden-
rialized in the volume Colorado History: A      tities, nature, and loca-
Context for Historical Archaeology (Cassells    tions of these places had
2007) published by the Colorado Council         been effectively purged
of Professional Archaeologists with very        from local historical tra-
significant financial help from our State       dition; Coloradoans did
Historic Fund. Colorado History compre-         not want to be reminded
hensively outlines the growth and current       of the not-so-aboveboard
status of historical archaeology in Colo-       dealings the American
rado. A brief article by Baker, Smith, and      public, the State of Colo-
Sullenberger-Fry (2007) in this volume and      rado, and the Office of
another recently published in Southwestern      Indian Affairs had with
Lore by Baker (2006) focus on the mining        the Ute People. The very FIGURE 1. Aerial overview of the Uncompahgre Valley. The small
settlements and their associated American       ephemeral archaeologi- arrow indicates the site of the Second Los Pinos Agency at photo left.
                                                                             (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)

        Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                Page 31
outreach efforts of the then newly formed        many private landowners. The project was          gre Valley and western Colorado gener-
Centuries Research, Inc. I founded the           designed as a long-term, historically con-        ally. The Montrose Youth and Community
corporation in 1977 as a 501-C-3 nonprofit       trolled, and special-purpose archaeological       Foundation, in a rather rare venture for a
archaeological research institution. The         inventory, testing/exploratory, and plan-         group of its kind, has supported the pro-
Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project (UVUP)            ning effort emphasizing the archaeological        gram because the members believe it will
evolved from that early commitment and           record of the Colorado Ute People(s) (aka         contribute meaningfully to the long-term
over the past 30 years has done much to ad-      “Eastern Utes”) and their former reserva-         cultural environment of the region.
vance the history and archaeology of the Ute     tion. It was first and foremost designed to           As a project in local historical archaeolo-
People and re-enfranchise them with their        help reconnect the Uncompahgre Ute Peo-           gy, the geographical focus of the UVUP has
homeland. It has also played a prominent         ple with their homeland both historically         primarily been on the Uncompahgre River
role in the growth of historical archaeology                                                       drainage on Colorado’s western slope (Fig-
in Colorado. The latter is attested to by the                                                      ures 1 and 2) some 250 miles southwest of
amount of new information drawn from                                                               Denver. The project is set within portions
the program which was included in the                                                              of what is commonly called the Gunnison
Ute section of the Native American chapter                                                         and Uncompahgre Country and is spread
(Baker, Carrillo, Späth 2007) of the recently                                                      over Ouray, Montrose, and Delta Coun-
published Colorado History: A Context for                                                          ties. The project has, however, not been
Historical Archaeology (Cassells 2007).                                                            restricted to any precise boundaries but
     The Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project                                                            has focused along the valley running north
has now successfully accomplished most                                                             to south between the area around Delta to
of its major objectives. Over the years the                                                        the north and the community of Ouray to
project has been intermittently active and                                                         the south. This stretch of some 60 miles en-
was threaded within the commercial work-                                                           compasses the heartland of the historically
load at Centuries. For a number of reasons                                                         known territory of the Uncompahgre (aka
this public archaeology program has kept                                                           Sabaguana) Ute Band. This area was also
a low profile and not sought substantial                                                           the heart of the Ute Reservation organized
publicity outside of the Colorado and Utah                                                         around the Ute Indian Agency (Second Los
archaeological communities, such as within                                                         Pinos Agency) at Colona in the 1870s (Bak-
the SHA. As the project passes its 30th year                                                       er 2004a) (Figure 3). The settlement system
                                                 FIGURE 2. Map of the Colorado Utes’
of ongoing research it is finally appropriate                                                      for this occupation generally extended from
                                                 Reservation boundaries as established under the
to introduce the project and the more signif-                                                      the San Juan Mountains north to the Colo-
                                                 Treaty of 1868 and the 1873 Brunot Agreement.
icant of its accomplishments to the broader                                                        rado River and between the Continental
                                                 (Copyrighted map reproduced courtesy of
historical archaeology community. The in-                                                          Divide and the Uncompahgre Plateau. The
                                                 UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)
formation contained in the various reports                                                         earliest-documented territory of the Tabe-
and publications deriving from the UVUP                                                            guache Ute Band, which merged with the
should be of interest to archaeologists and      and archaeologically, so that one specific        Uncompahgres in the 1860s, was west of
ethnohistorians involved with historic Na-       objective was to conserve key historic-era        the Uncompahgre Plateau. As it happens,
tive American studies in Colorado as well as     sites associated with the Uncompahgre             most of our historical knowledge of the Ute
other areas of the western U.S. I have now       Ute occupation of the area. These sites fig-      Reservation period (ca. 1868 to 1881) relates
partially retired and it seems even more         ured prominently in Colorado’s history of         to the latter portion of the 1870s. During
fitting to begin to close the loop and (1) let   Native American/white interaction up to           this time the areas to the south of the San
those with whom I worked many years ago          1881, when the combined Uncompahgre               Juans and north of the Colorado River
back in Canada and the southeastern U.S.         and Tabeguache Bands were removed to              were the territories of two Ute groups not
know that I did not die or leave the profes-     Utah and their western slope reservation          part of the Uncompahgre Utes. These be-
sion early and have indeed remained very,        was opened up for European American               came known generally as the Southern and
very active as an historical archaeologist;      settlement. Given the extreme rarity and          Northern or White River Utes, respectively
and (2) summarize the more noteworthy            only occasional prominence of these sites,        (Baker 2005a).
accomplishments of the UVUP and present          they remain critical for Colorado’s histori-          The first step in the research curve of
an annotated bibliography relative to it.        cal legacy as well as that of the Ute People      the UVUP was to utilize the historical re-
                                                 themselves. Many, such as Chief Ouray’s           cord to identify individual Ute-related his-
                                                 Ranch at 5MN847, are one of a kind, and it        toric sites in and about the Uncompahgre
       The Uncompahgre                           was hoped that they might be made avail-          Valley. Once identified, these resources
                                                 able for designation as traditional Ute cul-      became the targets of the program. This
       Valley Ute Project                        tural properties (TCP’s) as the Ute People        initial research effort also emphasized de-
                                                 and individual landowners may so desire.          velopment of a detailed baseline ethnohis-
    The UVUP was designed as a public-           On a more general level, conservation of          tory within a model of Ute culture change,
service program emphasizing historical           these sites would contribute to the heritage      and an archaeological context of the Ute
archaeology at the local community level.        awareness of all of the people of Colorado        occupation of the Uncompahgre drainage.
Over time it has come to involve Centuries’      and safeguard them for future archaeologi-        Historical case files for the targeted sites
collaboration with various research part-        cal research. Yet another motivation for          were put together as part of this context.
ners and sponsors, most notably the Colo-        conservation was that the sites held the          The historical research was followed by an
rado Historical Society and its State Historic   potential for interpretive development as         archaeological inventory designed to locate
Fund, the Montrose Youth and Community           tourism/recreational resources and the            and ground-truth the sites. The sites were
Foundation (an adjunct of the Montrose           general educational, environmental, and           then formally recorded and exploratory
Rotary Club), the Northern Ute Tribe, and        economic enhancement of the Uncompah-             excavations were conducted to test and as-

         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                  Page 3
                                                                           Chief Ouray        ranted. The work completed at the agency
                                                                           and overviews      was part of a broader survey and planning
                                                                           of a number        project to inventory and assess historic Ute-
                                                                           of other sites.    related sites in the general vicinity of the old
                                                                           Since that time    agency. The project was sponsored by the
                                                                           this author has    Montrose Youth and Community Founda-
                                                                           conducted an-      tion in cooperation with the Northern Ute
                                                                           other excava-      Tribe, the Colorado Historical Society, and
                                                                           tion program       Centuries Research, Inc. Along with other
                                                                           at The Chief       partners, the State Historic Fund helped
                                                                           Ouray Moun-        support the initiative. The work was con-
                                                                           tain     House     ducted by Centuries Research, Inc. and di-
                                                                           and prepared       rected by Steven Baker.
                                                                           the final report       The site of the Second Los Pinos Agency
FIGURE 3. View of the Second Los Pinos Indian Agency ca. January of 1878 on that work.        is located on the west bank of the Uncom-
to July of 1879. (Photo by Barnhouse and Wheeler of Lake City, courtesy of The final ex-      pahgre River and covers approximately 23
Colorado Historical Society f-7357 10028968.)                              cavation and       acres divided among at least four different
                                                                           assessment         owners. For recording and excavation con-
sess several of them. The excavations were                                 report on the      trol purposes the large site (5OR139) was
designed to confirm site identifications/lo- Ute Indian and Mexican component at the          divided into four parts: north, east, south,
cations and to evaluate site conditions and Chief Ouray Ranch (Baker 2005d) has also          and west. Comprehensive inventory forms
interpretive and formal scholarly contribu- been completed. Summaries and some an-            were filed with the Office of the State Ar-
tion potential. Most of the documented notated references for the various reports to          chaeologist in 2002. All excavations were
target sites have been located but efforts date derived from or relative to the UVUP          confined to the east and west portions of
to pin down some important specific sites are reprinted here along with selected illus-       the site only (Figures 4 and 5). The west
are ongoing. These include the search for trations from them. The discussions of Na-          portion of the site originally contained three
the elusive 1830s Fort Robideau (aka Fort tional Register eligibility and management          primary buildings including an adobe home
Uncompahgre) on the Gunnison River, the recommendations have been deleted from                and office for the agent, a very substantial
equally elusive early 1860s Arnold Expedi- these summaries due to length consider-            root cellar, and a large stone-and-adobe
tion Fort on the upper Uncompahgre River, ations.                                             storehouse. All of these structures were lo-
and Chief Ouray’s 1850s—1860s home near                                                       cated in the one area of the site which had
Montrose.                                                                                     not been completely plowed. They were all
    To date, the sites that have been lo-
                                                        Exploration and                       partially excavated and found to conform
cated and investigated archaeologically        Assessment of the Second                       closely to the 1882 map of the site prepared
include the Second Los Pinos Indian Agen-                                                     by the General Land Office.
cy (5OR139) (aka Uncompahgre Agency)            Los Pinos Indian Agency                           The agent’s building was found to have
(Baker 2004a) and some associated Ute tipi           (Abstracted from Baker 2004a)            survived beyond the agency period and
encampments (Baker 2005a); Chief Ouray’s                                                      had been used for the storage of firewood
homes in both Ouray (5OR965) (Baker               In 2003 historical archaeological inven-    and coal most likely gleaned from the Mon-
1991b, 2004b) and Montrose (5MN847) tory and exploratory excavation was under-                trose to Ouray branch of the Denver and
(Baker 1991b, 2005a); and the Fort Crawford taken by the UVUP at the Second Los Pinos         Rio Grande Railroad. The grade for this
Cemetery (5MN848) (Baker 2004c). The Indian Agency (aka Uncompahgre Agency)                   line was constructed directly in front of
Kallstrom Jacal (5MN4117) (Baker 2007a) (5OR139) (Figure 3). The agency was con-              the building in 1887. The structure was
and the Robideau Canyon Rock Art Gallery structed in 1875 on the Uncompahgre River            razed sometime after 1897, and at that time
(5MN5110) (Baker 2004d, Blackburn 2004) near Colona in Ouray and Montrose Coun-               wooden structural elements were robbed
have also been recorded. At the request of ties on Colorado’s western slope. This facil-      and the adobe bricks removed. Excavation
the Colorado Historical Society, the UVUP ity replaced the First Los Pinos Agency (ca.        revealed a mud-mortared stone foundation
also compiled the history of the Ute Me- 1868) in the mountains near Gunnison and             conforming to the building’s documented
morial Park at the Ute Indian Museum served the combined Tabeguache-Uncom-                    28 x 22 ft. footprint. A deteriorated wood
(5MN1841) and conducted historical land- pahgre Ute Band until it was abandoned by            flooring system, wooden porch remnants,
scape archaeological investigations there in the Office of Indian Affairs in 1881 when        and an unexpected adobe brick veranda
2001 (Baker 2002b). The first formal archae- this group of Utes was removed to Utah.          which skirted it were all that remained of
ological investigations undertaken by the Extensive historical research on the agency         the building. Artifact returns were large-
UVUP were at The Chief Ouray Mountain was conducted prior to 2002, which became               ly structural in nature but a few personal
House in Ouray in 1988. Following that the basis for a summary history written                items were found. These included glass
a substantial effort was mounted at The in the spring of that year. From this his-            seed beads and a metal tinkler cone from
Chief Ouray Ranch in 1989; these investiga- tory a field guide on the agency’s structural     the floor area which suggest that Native
tions were sponsored in part by the City of evolution was extracted and used to guide         Americans had once been present there.
Montrose as well as by Centuries Research the excavations. These efforts were core            Documentary evidence directly links Chief
and other local agencies. Following these components of the UVUP’s “2002-2003 Old             Ouray with this building. The backyard
two excavation initiatives, the First Interim Agency Initiative” and were designed to as-     area of the house had been heavily plowed
Report and Executive Summary for the sess the extent, condition, and eligibility of           and nearly all backyard features had been
UVUP was prepared by this author in 1991 the agency site for inclusion in the State and       destroyed except for very faint traces of two
(Baker 1991b). This contained preliminary National Registers of Historic Places and to        outhouse pits which were found when the
excavation reports on the two properties of plan for its ongoing conservation if war-         plow zone was stripped away by machine.

        Volume 40: Number 4                                  Winter 2007                                                 Page 33
    The footprint of the reported 35 x 19 ft.    The east site area also had another 29 x 22 the margins of the site. Although it now
root cellar was confirmed at or near ground      ft. adobe building which served as living seems that he totally destroyed the build-
surface and a deep cross trench tested the       quarters for agency staff as well as the post ing sites, this effort did push overburden
deep fill of the cellar down to where wood       office. The doctor’s 21 x 13 ft. log home over and thus preserved agency-period
structural elements were encountered. It         and office stood there along with several yard sheet middens and the evidence of
appeared that the subsurface portions of the     log shanties and a combined carpenter and dependency structures associated with the
root cellar were intact but filled with large    blacksmith’s building. A series of long nar- mess house.
amounts of heavy stone-and-adobe rubble.         row slot trenches were excavated in the             An outhouse pit believed associated
The stone foundation for the north wall of       central area where these buildings had been with the mess house was found exposed in
the 60.5 x 28 ft. stone-and-adobe storehouse     located, with special emphasis being given a cut in the bluff edge in the backyard area
was revealed under a heavy layer of melt-        to the area of the mess house and post office of the mess house. The backyard area had
ed adobe and large river cobbles. Most of        buildings. Except for heavy building stone been truncated in past years when gravel
this building extended across a boundary         which was present throughout the margins was mined from the cliff edge to repair a
fence into an irrigated hay field on an ad-      of this area, no trace of these buildings could break in an irrigation ditch at the bottom of
jacent landowner’s property. No attempts         be seen on either the ground surface or un- the bluff. Organic fill and artifacts from the
were made to follow the footprint across         derground. The immediate post agency agency period were actively falling out of
                                                                history of this part of the site the outhouse pit and rolling down the bluff
                                                                is not well understood but it is face. The contents were salvaged from this
                                                                believed that some manner of pit and evaluated for dietary information.
                                                                occupation did occur.             The preserved sheet midden was lightly
                                                                    Fort Crawford operated sampled and indicated that a considerable
                                                                until 1890 and was located less area of the sheet midden had survived the
                                                                than two miles to the north. reclamation effort. Additional privy vaults
                                                                The old agency site was just and subsurface features are believed to sur-
                                                                outside the boundary of the vive in this area. Although badly damaged
                                                                military reservation and on the in some places, the agency site overall re-
                                                                main road as well as being ad- tains good archaeological integrity in some
                                                                jacent to the railroad. For these very specific areas, particularly in parts of
                                                                and other reasons it is suspect- the west portion and in the extreme east
                                                                ed that the old agency may edge of the east portion along the bluff
                                                                have served as a “tenderloin/ above the Uncompahgre River.
                                                                sporting area” or “hog ranch”        The architectural evidence recovered
FIGURE 4. Progress overview of excavations underway at the
                                                                up until about 1890. Brothels during the investigation indicates that the
agent’s house at the Second Los Pinos Agency. (CRI#526, 02-
                                                                such as these were common agency construction was quite flimsy and
8B/16)
                                                                fixtures near military bases inexpensive (Figure 6). It was obviously
                                                                during this period. The post never intended to be a permanent facility
the fence. Two irrigation ditches had been agency history of the site more certainly in- and was characterized by the use of com-
cut through the east and west walls at the cludes a small farmstead occupation. It is bined Native American/Mexican stone-
extreme north end of the structure and had known that about 1949 a landowner moved and-adobe construction techniques. These
caused extensive damage in this area. It is a small frame residence from this area and were combined with some more typical
suspected, however, that further structural proceeded to reclaim the entire parcel for attributes of American Victorian construc-
elements of the storehouse may still sur- irrigated hay fields and truck gardens. He tion tradition, such as gabled roofs. All
vive across the fence along with some other obviously did this with machinery such as together the agency’s construction exhib-
period features, possibly including a docu- a bulldozer and subsequently plowed the ited what might best be referred to as an
mented building which seems to have been area repeatedly. These operations pushed “incipient territorial” architectural style.
a large outhouse. The pit for this may still all of the debris from the old buildings to Good information on the diet and portable
survive and is presumed to have been used                                                                           material culture in use at
primarily by the agency’s Ute charges.                                                                              the agency was obtained
     The agency was laid out with the agent’s                                                                       and showed a domi-
house and storage facilities on the west side                                                                       nance of mass-produced
of a large open expanse of sagebrush bi-                                                                            artifacts believed typical
sected by the Salt Lake Wagon Road. The                                                                             of frontier outposts of the
majority of the agency buildings, which                                                                             American Victorian pe-
were used as residences and work facilities                                                                         riod. These were heavily
for the general staff and boarding places                                                                           weighted to gustatory
for visitors, were on the east side of the                                                                          objects along with intoxi-
road. This configuration was apparently                                                                             cants and medicinals.
related to the relatively higher social status
of the agent and the need for his constant
oversight of the storage facilities. An 82 x
22 ft. adobe mess house originally stood in
the eastern portion of the site and burned
in 1879. This was replaced with a 20 x 22 FIGURE 5. Postexcavation overview of the remains of the agent’s
ft. frame building with an attached 12 x 16 house. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)
ft. post lean-to which served as the kitchen.

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                 Page 3
                                                                  Creek and the Uncompah-         possible along the Springs of San Francisco
                                                                  gre River. This is referred     near the Chief Ouray Ranch at 5MN847
                                                                  to herein as the “Agency        near present-day Montrose and the Rob-
                                                                  Ridge.” Sites were also         ideau Bottoms on the Gunnison River near
                                                                  strongly suspected to have      present-day Delta, Colorado. Yet even
                                                                  been located along Horse-       these locations were not able to provide
                                                                  fly Creek further west from     enough forage for the large numbers of
                                                                  the agency (Figure 1). Both     horses held by the various Ute households
                                                                  of these areas were in dry      for any extended period. In the summer
                                                                  semidesert environments         the households would graze their horses in
                                                                  and originally located in       the mountain pastures.
                                                                  piñon and juniper wood-             Due to extensive ground-surface modi-
                                                                  lands. There soil building is   fications attending agricultural develop-
                                                                  slow and ground visibility      ments, it was not possible to locate sites in
                                                                  is thus still good. Accord-     the river bottoms near Ouray’s ranch or on
                                                                  ingly, the Agency Ridge         the Robideau. All evidence of such house-
FIGURE 6. Conjectural reconstruction drawing of the adobe and the Horsefly Creek ar-              hold sites was destroyed long ago. We thus
brick agent’s house at the Second Los Pinos Agency. (Courtesy of eas became primary targets       turned to the documentary record in order
UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)                                   in the inventory effort.        to determine the Ute settlement pattern.
                                                                      Although it was sus-        The inventory effort, however, located just
                                                 pected that Ute household sites associated       six Ute tipi encampments (Figure 7) on top
                                                 with the agency had once been located in         of the Agency Ridge within about a mile of
          Late-Contact Ute                       the riparian zone along the Uncompahgre          the agency. Two additional agency-period
          Ethnohistory and                       River, ongoing stream action, agriculture,       household sites were located in other areas.
                                                              vegetation
 Archaeology at the Second and heavyno chance ofindicated any of the
                                                 would be                  finding
                                                                                    that there    With the encouragement of their owners
                                                                                                  extensive surface collections were made
   Los Pinos Indian Agency                       very ephemeral Ute household sites in this       from most of the sites on the Agency Ridge.
       (Abstracted from Baker 2005a)             environment. The results of the inventory        Two of these sites were explored archaeo-
                                                 and accompanying documentary research            logically. These were the Many Bullets
                                                 indicated that only a few Ute families had       Lodge (5OR1062) and the Jutten Lodges Site
    This is the final project report deriv- actually ever established their households            (5OR1065). This report describes the inven-
ing from the Old Agency Initiative of the in the close vicinity of the agency. These              tory findings and summarizes the archaeo-
UVUP. It details the efforts to inventory families were the most closely tethered to              logical character of these very ephemeral
and assess Ute tipi encampments and mis- the agency and much more acculturated to                 Ute tipi encampments. It provides detailed
cellaneous Ute sites which were associated white ways than the majority of the Utes.              site reports on the two sites that were exca-
with the Second Los Pinos Indian agency As with some of the Ute leaders, such as                  vated. As with their prehistoric predeces-
ca. 1875-1881. The fieldwork for this part of Chief Ouray and Chipeta, their settlement           sors, the late Ute occupants had a minimal
the project was completed on an intermit- system was not typical of most of the Utes.             impact on their environment and left only
tent basis from 2002 to 2004.                    In the winter during the agency period the       the most fleeting traces of their presence.
    The historical documents of the period vast majority of the Utes lived scattered              The archaeological footprints of the individ-
do not discuss the Ute settlement system about the reservation to the north of the                ual Ute households are virtually identical
for the years of the Second Los Pinos Agen- southern boundary which was near pres-                to those documented from prehistoric and
cy (1875-1881) in any detail. Prior to the ent-day Ridgway, Colorado. Most of them                earlier historic sites. Each household site
Old Agency Initiative, no attempts to study tended to establish their households as far           (Figure 11) is of the two-hearth (one exte-
this record had been made. There had also from the agency as they could while still be-           rior and one interior) Group 1B site plan as
never been any systematic attempt to locate ing able to reach the facility on ration days.        described previously by this author (Baker
and inventory the Ute tipi encampments               In the warmer seasons the Ute house-         1996, 2003; Baker, Carrillo, Späth 2007). At
which were generally known to have been holds would commonly disperse widely                      the Molding Bullet House there was evi-
located in and about the Uncompahgre and if possible would attempt to leave the                   dence of two hearths within the lodge. One
Valley in association with the operation reservation to hunt. After 1875 the increas-             was obviously a primary hearth and the
of the agency. This author had, however, ing white presence around the agency to                  other a smaller and presumably secondary
conducted extensive documentary research the south and east made it more and more                 one. There was some indication that there
(Baker 1991b, 2005d) and excavation at the difficult and dangerous for the Utes to                may have also been two exterior hearths
site of the Chief Ouray Ranch on the Un- leave the reservation and ramble widely as               associated with the lodge. The suspected
compahgre River (5MN847). Most of this they had done for generations since acquir-                two-hearth issue was not resolved but is be-
site was established at the same time as the ing horses. Government intervention by               lieved related to the social structure within
agency and was closely associated with it the Indian agent and the army caused the                the nuclear family and probably relates to
and the localized Ute settlement system. Utes to stay north of the agency and away                the presence of women, such as multiple
As a result of this research it was known from the whites in the mining region along              wives or other female relatives.
that at least some Ute households had been the southern reservation boundary. As the                  This report on the inventory and ex-
located in the near vicinity of the agency. Utes became more and more economically                cavations is set within the Baker model
Some were historically reported to have dependent on the agency, they gathered                    of Ute culture change (Baker 1988, 1991,
been located one mile away from the agen- together in and about the Uncompahgre                   2004a, 2005a; Baker, Carrillo, Späth 2007).
cy in a location which was believed to have Valley north of the agency. Large winter              The report deals with the Uncompahgre
been on top of the divide between Horsefly encampments of households were only                    Utes’ “Late Contact Chief Ouray Phase”

        Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                Page 35
of their cultural history as defined in that from the Many Bullets Lodge (5OR1062)            sitive discussion. Chief Ouray Phase Ute
model (Figure 8). For the most part, this where a stove had been used but was ob-             household sites, for instance, must be con-
is the terminal phase of Ute archaeological viously taken away, a bullet mold (Figure         sidered very rare cultural resources. They
culture in Colorado. During this time the 10) for a .50 caliber Sharps rifle from Mold-       are also greatly endangered due to increas-
Uncompahgre Utes lost their economic and ing Bullet House (5OR1065), and a deco-              ing population pressures in and around
political independence and became depen- rative harness brass which may well have             the Uncompahgre Valley portion of the
dent wards of the                                                                             old reservation. This growth is bringing
United       States.                                                                          about rapid and extreme changes in land-
This was a critical                                                                           use patterns. Activities of the past, such
step in the govern-                                                                           as ranching and farming, usually served
ment’s conscious                                                                              to protect the resources. This is no longer
preparation       of                                                                          the case and several of the known sites are
these people for                                                                              on property which has been sold and sold
their      removal                                                                            again by speculators even since fieldwork
from Colorado.                                                                                was completed. Access to some of the sites
    Except for a                                                                              has been at least temporarily denied to this
small       number                                                                            author while sales were pending. It should
of historic items                                                                             be mentioned, though, that the owner of
(Figures 9, 10, 12),                                                                          some of the better sites wishes to conserve
most notably hole-                                                                            them and has, at his own expense, actually
in-cap and other                                                                              commemorated them for posterity by plac-
period tin food                                                                               ing substantial granite markers on some of
cans, the content                                                                             them.
of the sites is in                                                                                It is predicted that additional Late Con-
general remark- FIGURE 7. A Late Contact Phase Uncompahgre Ute ranchería (ca. 1875-           tact Phase Ute household sites will only
ably similar to 1881) in the Uncompahgre Valley. (Photo courtesy of Gilmore Collection,       be found on an occasional basis via seren-
that of prehistoric Montrose, CO.)                                                            dipitous discovery. This report maintains
sites and includes                                                                            that it may not in fact be good management
an      assemblage                                                                            policy to try to avoid excavation of these
of traditional ground- and flaked-stone or been worn as a medallion (Sterling Powder          sites when they are found, as the likelihood
even glass tools. Tin acquired by break- House, 5OR1065). It can never be proven              of their survival is very questionable. It is
ing down cans was obviously considered that these items were actually lost during             probably better to investigate them thor-
a valuable enough resource to justify con- the household packing which attended the           oughly when found rather than hope they
siderable expenditures of time and energy, removal. However, their presence on the            will be preserved intact until archaeolo-
presumably by Ute women (Figures 12, 13). sites, when everything else in the house-           gists with better tools can investigate them.
There is strong evidence for dependence hold inventory of possible value was taken            Most are surface or near-surface sites and
on government-provided rations instead away, is quite striking and appears to be              thus quite fragile. They will not survive,
of traditional subsistence strategies at these strong evidence that some special circum-      particularly when located on private lands
late sites. Unlike sites of more sedentary stances were involved. All three of these          where there is so seldom any consideration
historic Native Americans, the ephemeral sites are very late in the Ute occupation            for protecting them. There have also been
short-term occupations by the Utes resulted and could well date to the time of removal.       some questionable management efforts at
in development of extremely limited mid- Given the likelihood that these apparently           some local late-historic Ute household sites
dens and accumulations of broken or lost useful/important items were accidentally             wherein the Bureau of Land Management
items which had formerly possessed some left behind as the Utes were being pushed             has actually allowed them to be high-grad-
utility or other value. The material culture out of their homes, the artifacts take on a      ed for metal artifacts by professional ar-
recovered at these sites thus does not even special symbolic importance as tangible           chaeologists utilizing metal detectors only.
begin to hint at the overall inventory of evidence of a most dramatic and tragic              This was seemingly done without any re-
Native American- or European American- event in the history of the Ute People and             quirement that accompanying excavations
derived items of material culture which the State of Colorado.                                be conducted and report(s) be prepared.
would have been present in individual              Most of the Ute tipi encampment sites
households.                                    are believed to be eligible for the National
    What may be the most compelling ar- Register of Historic Places and may, de-
                                                                                              Archaeological Assessment
chaeological finds from the Ute household pending on the wishes of the Uncompah-                  of the Chief Ouray
sites appear to be items of value or at least gre People themselves, well be eligible for
utility but which seem to have been inad- listing as Traditional Cultural Properties.              Mountain House
vertently left behind when three separate There is some serious question, however,                  (Abstracted from Baker 2004b)
households were packed up and moved. about the continued eligibility of these
This was probably when the Utes were kinds of sites after they have been investi-                Intact remnants of Chief Ouray’s small
forced to hurry up their preparations for re- gated archaeologically. This is because of      two-roomed rammed-earth and puddled-
moval in early September of 1881. At that the limited nature and content of the depos-        adobe mountain house were discovered
time the army ordered the Utes to leave its. Once the hearths have been excavated             by the UVUP in 1988. The remains were
immediately for Utah, having reneged on there is typically little useful data left in the     found in the cellar beneath an extant later
its promise to give the Utes adequate time sites. There are also some special sites in-       frame structure at site 5OR965 in Ouray,
to prepare for departure. Inexplicably left volved in the inventory, including possible       Ouray County, CO. In the 1870s Ouray,
behind were a hand-forged stove-lid lifter Ute graves, which demand extremely sen-            an Uncompahgre Ute, was recognized by

         Volume 40: Number 4                                  Winter 2007                                               Page 3
                                                             rial-style adobe brick residence
                                                             at his ranch (5MN847) at the
                                                             massive Springs of San Fran-
                                                             cisco near present Montrose, CO
                                                             in 1876. He also had an earlier
                                                             and much less well-documented
                                                             house there. He and his wife,
                                                             Chipeta, had occupied this older
                                                             house at the ranch site for many
                                                             years before building the new
                                                             house. His mountain residence,
                                                             which apparently served as his
                                                             seasonal hunting camp, would
                                                             most likely have been construct-
                                                             ed prior to the Brunot Cession of
                                                             1873 whereby the Utes ceded the
                                                             San Juan Mountains and the site
                                                             of the house to the government.
                                                             It was certainly built prior to the FIGURE 10. Sharps .50 caliber bullet mold
                                                             formal founding of the town of found near the Molding Bullet House at the
                                                             Ouray in 1876.                        Jutten Lodges. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries
                                                                 The mountain house is known Research, Inc.)
                                                             only from mini-
                                                             mal documen-
                                                             tation.     There
                                                             is, however, an
                                                             excellent     and
                                                             widely distribut-
FIGURE 8. The Baker Model of Eastern Ute Culture Change. ed photographic
(Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)                 overview of the
                                                             then-     deterio-
the U.S. government as the titular head
                                                  rated and perhaps altered
chief of what it was then referring to as the
                                                  structure which was taken
Confederated Ute Bands of Colorado. The
                                                  in the late 1880s or 1890s,
comparatively wealthy chief commenced
                                                  apparently by George Mel-
construction of a well-documented Territo-
                                                  lon who took many photos
                                                  in the San Juan Mountains
                                                  for William H. Jackson.
                                                  This view clearly shows a
                                                  small house, which might FIGURE 11. Postexcavation detail of the central portion of the
                                                  readily be called a cottage, floor of the lodge at Sterling Powder House at the Jutten Lodges.
                                                  built in the New Mexico (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)
                                                  Vernacular style. The pho-
                                                  to is labeled in Jackson’s
                                                  Detroit Publishing Co. negative registers
                                                  as the “Ruins of Ouray’s House.” The at-
                                                  tribution to Chief Ouray on the negative is
                                                  supported by other lines of evidence and
                                                  constitutes impeccable first-order prima-
                                                  ry historical documentation. Other than
                                                  through the photo (Figures 15 and 16) the
                                                  very existence of the house could not have
FIGURE 9. Unmodified artifacts of white been known to the general public since it
manufacture from the Many Bullets Lodge: was destroyed by about 1900—which is
(a) silvered Bavarian-style cinder cover from far beyond the working memory of any of
a smoking pipe bearing a patent date of 9 July Ouray’s older citizens.
1878; (b) cut siding nail which appears to be         Excavations intended to locate and con-
identical to those used in construction of the firm the site of the mountain house were
Second Los Pinos Agency (Baker 2004a); (c) conducted during 1988 on the hillside be-
common lip finish from a brown liquor bottle; hind the Wiesbaden Hot Springs Spa and
(d) round tin percussion-cap can with a friction Lodging in Ouray. At that time no evidence FIGURE 12. Examples of the lids and
lid; (e) overall buckle; (f) stem with mouthpiece of the structure was found via excavations. construction details of can bodies of the many
of common clay tobacco pipe; (g) tag from plug The only physical evidence of the structure Sterling Baking Powder cans recovered from the
tobacco ration. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries was found in the soil profile (Figure 17) at Jutten Lodges. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries
Research, Inc.)                                   the back of the cellar of the extant structure Research, Inc.)

        Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                 Page 3
                                                                       In 2003 site assessment       pation. Two bases from brown-glass whis-
                                                                  grant funds were awarded to        key bottles (Figure 19) bearing the maker’s
                                                                  the Ouray County Historical        mark of the Louisville Glass Works (LGCo)
                                                                  Society by the State Historic      were, however, found in fill just above the
                                                                  Fund administered by the           occupation surface both within and out-
                                                                  Colorado Historical Society.       side the cellar. These are notably similar to
                                                                  These funds were intended to       other whiskey bottle bases from the same
                                                                  support an historical archaeo-     company recovered from the Second Los
                                                                  logical test-excavation pro-
                                                                  gram designed to locate and
                                                                  outline any adobe ruins which
FIGURE 13. Portions of baking powder cans from the Jutten might be surviving outside the
Lodges. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)              cellar of the Hill Cottage. It
                                                                  was anticipated that this effort
                                                                  might reveal a significant por-
                                                                  tion of the original footprint
                                                                  of the structure as well as in-
                                                                  formation on its construction
                                                                  and, hopefully, artifact evi-
                                                                  dence of the Chief Ouray oc-
                                                                  cupation. In the fourth week
                                                                  of September 2003 excavations
                                                                  were completed on both the
                                                                  north and south exteriors of
                                                                  the Hill Cottage in an effort to
                                                                  locate surviving adobe ruins
                                                                  which might extend outside
                                                                  the cellar. These excavations
                                                                  were entirely negative. It thus
                                                                  appears that the adobe rem-
                                                                  nants beneath the cottage are
                                                                  likely all that remains of the     FIGURE 15. The famous and originally
                                                                  Chief Ouray Mountain House.        controversial photo of the rare rammed-earth
                                                                  Because of the low headroom        “ruins of Ouray’s House” in Ouray, CO believed
                                                                  beneath the floor of the cot-      to have been taken by George Mellon ca. 1888-
                                                                  tage it was not possible to de-    1900. (Photo courtesy of the Colorado Historical
                                                                  termine the full extent of the     Society, Jackson Collection #30,700.)
                                                                  adobe which lies eastward of
                                                                   the profile exposed in the cel-
                                                                   lar (Figure 17).
FIGURE 14. (a-e) Alfred Meakin and J & G Meakin maker’s                 It was, however, possible
marks on white ironstone table service from the contemporaneous to identify an extant occupa-
(1875-1881) Second Los Pinos Agency; (f) displaced J & G tion surface which joined with
Meakin specimen from the root cellar at the Los Pinos Agency; the exterior of the adobe struc-
(g) from lowest levels of the Chief Ouray privy vault; (h-i) from ture on its south edge (Figure
the Jukuwik tipi encampment at 5OR1063.                            18). This would have been the
                                                                   surface used during construc-
known as the “Hill Cottage” by the own-                            tion of the house and the Chief
ers of the Wiesbaden. On the basis of this Ouray occupation. This extends southward
evidence the brief 1988 field program was outside the Hill Cottage to the edge of the
able to unquestionably confirm the site as terrace where it was encountered in a 1988
the location of the photo-documented ruin backhoe test cut. The occupation surface
and provide further historical detail on the clearly joins with the adobe remains in the             FIGURE 16. Historic Buckwalter photograph of
site, but it was not possible to determine cellar (Figure 17). The presence of this in-              the ruins of the Chief Ouray House, apparently
anything further about the house from an tact surface and its certain association with               taken in the 1890s sometime after the Mellon
archaeological perspective. The extent and the adobe remains very clearly demon-                     view. (Photo courtesy of Colorado Historical
remaining footprint of the surviving adobe strates that the site, despite the limited ado-           Society, Buckwalter Collection, Book 6, No.
ruins were not determined and no items of be remains, still retains good archaeological              36.)
material culture obviously deriving from integrity in some areas. The fill overlying
the Chief Ouray occupation were noted. this occupation surface yielded 19th-centu-                   Pinos Agency (5OR139) and apparently in
Considerable historical research was com- ry artifacts which mostly postdate the Chief               association with the Many Bullets Lodge
pleted as part of the 1988 fieldwork and Ouray occupation; nothing was found                         (5OR1062), a Ute tipi encampment associat-
strongly indicated that there was no rea- which could be dated to the Chief Ouray                    ed with the agency. Both of these contexts
son to question the attribution of the site to period or which was indicative of a Mexi-             appear to date to before the Ute removal of
Chief Ouray.                                         can-style Native American/Genízaro occu-        1881. As this glass manufacturer had been

         Volume 40: Number 4                                      Winter 2007                                                    Page 3
in existence since the 1850s, the bottle glass        16) of the structure to allow for relatively      Archaeological Assessment
from the Mountain House may well date                 accurate reconstruction drawings to be
to the Chief Ouray occupation and may be              made of the Chief Ouray Mountain House             of the Reservation Period
from some of the earliest whiskey bottles             after it had undergone some modification          Ute/Mexican Component at
imported to the Uncompahgre Valley dur-               and was being lived in, presumably by an
                                                                          Anglo-American. These           the Chief Ouray Ranch
                                                                          drawings (Figure 20) are        (Abstracted from Baker 1991b, 2005d)
                                                                          believed to be of a high-
                                                                          enough quality that they          Prior to 1873 Chief Ouray and his wife,
                                                                          could readily support         Chipeta, made their primary winter home
                                                                          a reconstruction of the       on what were then officially recognized
                                                                          house that would be rela-     as Indian lands just south of present-day
                                                                          tively true to its original   Montrose, CO. The location of their home
                                                                          architectural character.      was beside the marshes of the copious
                                                                               Despite the paucity      Springs of San Francisco, one of the best-
                                                                          of surviving architectural    watered and most arable tracts in the entire
                                                                          data, the site of the Chief   Uncompahgre Valley. In 1876 Ouray made
                                                                          Ouray Mountain House          improvements on his personal holdings
                                                                          still maintains reasonable    there in conjunction with the simultane-
                                                                          archaeological integrity      ous development of the Second Los Pinos
                                                                          and has the potential to      or Uncompahgre Indian Agency (5OR139)
                                                                          yield information regard-     a few miles to the south. This upgrading
                                                                          ing Ouray and the late        included construction of a new, substantial,
FIGURE 17. 1988 view of the operation 1 soil profile in the east reservation-period Utes.               and well-appointed Territorial-style adobe
wall of the cellar hole beneath the Hill Cottage at the site of the Chief The site is considered to     home and some dependency structures at
Ouray Mountain House and Spring Waters. (Courtesy of UVUP, be of the utmost histori-                    what is now designated as archaeological
Centuries Research, Inc.)                                                 cal significance to the Ute   site 5MN847 (Figures 21-24). It also in-
                                                                          People, and particularly      volved development of agricultural fields
                                                                          the Uncompahgre Utes,         and herding of cattle, sheep, goats, and
                                                                          as well as the people of      horses. In the 1870s and 1880s this was
                                                                          the town of Ouray and         commonly referred to as “Ouray’s Ranch.”
                                                                          the State of Colorado.        The facility was intended to showcase the
                                                                          The town is of course         progress which Native American could
                                                                          named after the famous
                                                                          chief. It is therefore be-
                                                                          lieved to be eligible for
                                                                          designation as an Ouray
                                                                          County Landmark and
                                                                          for Colorado’s Regis-
                                                                          ter of Historic Sites. Its
                                                                          importance is naturally
                                                                          based on the association
                                                                          with Chief Ouray but
                                                                          also has to do with the
FIGURE 18. Postexcavation overview of the south side of the Hill hot spring waters which
Cottage at 5OR965 showing remnant Chief Ouray Period occupation emanate onsite. The lat-
surface and the deep test below it. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries ter are important in tra-
Research, Inc.)                                                           ditional Ute beliefs and
                                                                          certainly a major reason
                                                                          why Ouray elected to
ing the Ute Reservation period.                       build one of his houses there. These two
    While the archaeological portion of the associations together make the site, includ-
project sadly failed to locate more adobe ing its spring waters, a strong contender
remains, it was still productive. Most no- for consideration as a Traditional Cultural
                                                                                                        FIGURE 19. Brown-glass whiskey bottle bases
tably it was possible to obtain some rather Property or “TCP” under the auspices of
                                                                                                        marked for the Louisville Glass Works (Co.)
good architectural data from period pho- Ouray County, the State of Colorado’s Reg-
                                                                                                        from: (a-b) operations 1 and 3-Chief Ouray
tographs, including the probable footprint ister, and perhaps even the National Regis-
                                                                                                        occupation surface (under and outside the
and elevation views of the original struc- ter of Historic Places. In 2007 the Town of
                                                                                                        Hill Cottage, respectively) at the Chief Ouray
ture. This portion of the project included Ouray and its residents undertook to cele-
                                                                                                        Mountain House Site (5OR965); (c) the 1875-
the study of digital photo enlargements of brate and commemorate the return of Chief
                                                                                                        1881 context at the Second Los Pinos Ute
the house. These were made from very tiny Ouray’s long-lost Mountain House to the
                                                                                                        Agency (5OR139) (Baker 2004a); (d) a context
portions of sweeping 19th-century photo collective memory of the community. This
                                                                                                        believed associated with the Many Bullets
panoramas of the town of Ouray. Suffi- is an instance where historical archaeology
                                                                                                        Lodge (5OR1062), a Ute tipi site ca. 1875-1881.
cient data were obtained from these and has restored a cultural icon to the public.
                                                                                                        (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)
the other better-known photos (Figures 15,

         Volume 40: Number 4                                        Winter 2007                                                   Page 39
make by becoming yeoman farmers who              of “cultural erasure” set in and the actual       and assess the Chief Ouray Ranch. It was
were engaged in the “useful pursuits” as         location and configuration became con-            anticipated that the project would take only
envisioned by the Victorian-minded white         fused in the general public mind as well as       two or three weeks. The project, however,
American public and Office of Indian Af-         in the understanding of historians. By 1989       proved to be an unusually complex and
fairs. It was hoped that the removal of the      the research of the UVUP had brought to           difficult archaeological exercise which re-
Utes from Colorado could be prevented by         light much of the original record of Ouray’s      quired two full months of excavation time
this modeling of desirable (from the white       Ranch and suggested that enough combined          in order to answer the most basic questions
point of view) behavior, but unfortunately       archaeological and historical data might be       regarding this important site.
                                                 assembled to allow for a clear picture of the         The excavation program proved that a
                                                 property to be developed and conservation         gross mistake had been made in the origi-
                                                 steps initiated. It was recognized that this      nal 1883 GLO mapping of Chief Ouray’s
                                                 database might eventually be capable of           ranch developments. It was confirmed
                                                 supporting a reconstruction of parts of the       that they were actually located at the tra-
                                                 Chief Ouray development. It was believed          ditionally known site beneath the Earl and
                                                 that this offered much potential as a public      Ida Thomas farmstead and not beneath the
                                                 educational/recreational facility which, in       cattle feed lots of Collins Farms as mapped.
                                                 combination with the neighboring Ute Mu-          Some key architectural features of the Chief
                                                 seum operated by the Colorado Historical          Ouray Ranch (a privy vault, a root cellar,
                                                 Society, could become important to tourism        and a substantial adobe storehouse) were
                                                 as well as the general community heritage         located and documented. Excavation yield-
                                                 environment. It was also believed that the        ed enough evidence to identify a combined
                                                 property might still be considered an im-         Native American and Mexican archaeologi-
                                                 portant heritage resource by the descen-          cal component from ca. 1876-1881. This is
                                                 dants of the original Uncompahgre Utes            referred to as the Chief Ouray occupation
                                                 now residing in Utah.                             of the site and includes both portable mate-
                                                      Historical research and surface inven-       rial culture and architectural elements. It
                                                 tory had, however, revealed a very seri-          was, however, found that this was not a
                                                 ous problem in the documentation for the          pure sealed archaeological component and
                                                 site. There was a conflict between the for-       that subsequent occupations and farming
                                                 mally platted site location in the Surveyor       on the site had seriously damaged portions
FIGURE 20. Reconstruction drawings of the        General’s General Land Office (GLO) sur-          of it. Interpretation of this archaeological
entire two-room Chief Ouray Mountain House       vey of 1883 and the traditional popular and       data was thus a particularly difficult pro-
as it appeared in somewhat modified form         written history of the valley. The formal         cess.
following the Chief Ouray occupation. (Drawing   map plat from that survey showed the site             The damage to the site included not
copyrighted 2004 Centuries Research, Inc.)       west of a section line while the traditional      only the razing of Ouray’s adobe home, but
                                                 site location was to the east. An additional      extensive scraping of the ground surface
                                                 problem was that adobe ruins were known           around it. This action removed all traces of
the removal eventually did take place.           to have once existed at both places. As a         the house and most immediately associated
    Ouray’s Ranch facilities comprised a         result UVUP proposed test excavations             archaeological deposits such as domestic
mixture of Spanish Colonial and New Mex-         designed to “ground-truth” the potential          middens and sheet debris (Figure 25). De-
ican Vernacular adobe architecture laid          locations of the site. Another goal of the        spite the fact that a significant part of the site
out along the lines of an incipient Mexican      project was to determine if the site, once lo-    revealed a highly disturbed archaeological
plaza. This was described as a Ute and           cated and confirmed, might contain poten-         profile, there was still potential for inter-
Mexican settlement and is believed to have       tial architectural data capable of supporting     pretive development and further archaeo-
been reminiscent of New Mexico’s older           a reconstruction of the property. It was also     logical studies in other areas. The damage
and still poorly understood Genízaro cul-        necessary to sample the basic site context to     notwithstanding, the site is believed to be
tural tradition. The settlement served as        see what forms of data it might contain so        eligible for the National Register of Historic
the major Ute social and political center on     that formal research designs could be de-         Places and may also be eligible for listing as
the reservation during the last years of the     veloped if it was ever decided to undertake       a Traditional Cultural Property relative to
Uncompahgre Ute occupation of west-cen-          further excavation and interpretive devel-        the Uncompahgre Ute People.
tral Colorado.                                   opment of the site.                                   In addition to providing management
    Chief Ouray died in August 1880. The              As it happened, in 1989 a series of fortu-   recommendations, this report summarized
widowed Chipeta seems to have at least           itous events occurred that led to the under-      the architectural and archaeological find-
temporarily abandoned the property at            taking of an exploratory ground-truthing          ings of the 1989 fieldwork. In particular
that time as part of her mourning ritual.        project. This was carried out by the UVUP         it interpreted extraordinarily rare data
After the Ute removal in September 1881          under the aegis of Centuries Research, Inc.       gleaned from the lowest levels of the fill of
the property reverted to public domain           The initiative was supported in part by the       a privy vault believed to have been directly
and was eventually patented and became a         City of Montrose and a variety of public          derived from the household of Chief Ouray
white farmstead. It has served in this ca-       and private individuals and agencies from         and Chipeta (Figures 26-28). The data
pacity to the present time.                      the Montrose community. A community-              provides ethnobotanical and faunal evi-
    After the Ute removal the local hydrol-      sponsored initiative in public archaeology        dence which indicated that in keeping with
ogy of the Springs of San Francisco and the      was thus born. In the summer of 1989, then,       Ouray’s substantial social, political, and
configuration of Ouray’s Ranch were radi-        the UVUP undertook what was anticipated           economic status the household had a good
cally altered. Eventually all aboveground        to be a constrained, brief, and relatively un-    diet which included a variety of both wild
traces of the ranch were lost. The process       complicated exploratory program to find           and domesticated flora and fauna. With

         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                    Page 0
FIGURE 21. 1879 artist’s sketch of the Chief Ouray Ranch (5MN847)
near Montrose as it appeared in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.
(Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper 1,262(XLIX)(6 December 1879.)
                                                                        FIGURE 23. Chief Ouray adobe home and adobe storehouse at 5MN847
                                                                        at about the time of razing of the house by Louis “Dutch” Meyers in 1919.




FIGURE 22. The earliest-known view of Chief Ouray’s 1870s adobe home    FIGURE 24. Ca. 1901 photo of the east- or plaza-facing front of the big
at his ranch at 5MN847 on the Uncompahgre Trail near the Springs of     adobe storehouse at the Chief Ouray Ranch (5MN847). (Courtesy of
San Francisco. (Courtesy of Colorado Historical Society.)               Colorado Historical Society.)

the exception of faunal remains, the lower      which appear to have been intentionally          tempt by Ouray’s followers to destroy all of
vault fill was generally free of domestic       thrown into the vault. These included a          his personal property during their mourn-
trash and indicates that the privy had been     yellow ware baking dish which broke when         ing of the popular departed chief. These
well maintained and used primarily for its      it was discarded and two zoomorphic figu-        items are fully in keeping with the gaudy
intended function during the Chief Ouray        rines (Figure 28). These were a dolphin-         manner in which Chipeta is known to have
occupation. This contrasts sharply with         shaped finial from the lid of a fancy dol-       furnished the house. The data from the
the middle levels of the vault fill which are   phin-pattern frosted pressed-glass vessel        Chief Ouray occupation is also utilized in a
believed to be associated with white squat-     and a polychrome handle in the shape of a        description of what this author refers to as
ters who are thought to have lived on the       bird dog from the lid of a fancy ironstone       the Late Contact Chief Ouray Phase of the
site after its abandonment by Chipeta in        serving dish or perhaps a piece of a statue.     Ute archaeological tradition. This is a taxo-
1881. This level is characterized by con-       These two items would have been totally          nomic unit within a model of the evolution
siderably more trash and rubble and less        out of place in nearly all households of the     of Ute culture since the prehistoric period
organic material. The clean nature of the       period in western Colorado except for one        (Figure 8).
lower vault fill is entirely in keeping with    belonging to people of Chipeta and Ouray’s           Chief Ouray died suddenly far away
what is known of the Chief Ouray Ranch,         status and documented tastes in home fur-        from his Uncompahgre Valley home in Au-
namely that it was, for its time and place,     nishings. The specimens are not associated       gust of 1880 while visiting Chief Ignacio of
an exceptional facility of which most white     with any meaningful ceramic or glass ves-        the Southern Utes to discuss issues of the
settlers would have been envious. Chief         sel assemblages in the lower privy fill and      pending removal. Late in his life Colonel
Ouray was wealthy even when measured            there is no evidence of the parent vessels       Henry Dodge spoke about the events lead-
against most white settlers/homesteaders        from which the zoomorphs derived. They           ing up to and following Ouray’s death and
of the period.                                  are interpreted as having been thrown into       what transpired at his ranch where there
    Among the few mass-produced artifacts       the privy for a special reason, most likely      was a rush by his followers to destroy his
found in the lower level were three items       during the early stages of a documented at-      possessions:


        Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                   Page 1
                                                        violation of their ancient and honored  decision was made to focus on the immedi-
                                                        customs, and predicting the dire pun-   ate grounds of the Ute Indian Museum, the
                                                        ishment of God. Custom and supersti-    archaeological potential of which had not
                                                        tion so far prevailed that
                                                        after wrangling half the
                                                        night, the followers of the
                                                        “white man’s road” were
                                                        glad to effect a compro-
                                                        mise, turning over to the
                                                        others seventeen horses
                                                        for sacrifice.
                                                            Ouray’s house is
FIGURE 25. Excavation at the Chief Ouray                built on a bluff bank,
Ranch showing the typical soil profile in this area     some thirty feet high,
of the Meyers and Thomas families’ ash heap as          overlooking the bed of
it overlies machine cuts in sterile clay subsoil.       the Uncompagre River.
(Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)            Directly under a perpen-
                                                        dicular part of this bank
                                                        the Indians piled an im-
      Everything, no matter how valu-                   mense quantity of dry
  able or how worthless, not given away                 driftwood. The seven-
  before death, is ruthlessly destroyed.                teen horses were led one
      Ouray died away from home and                     by one to the edge of this
  without making a will. Ouray was                      bank, killed, and their
  “wise in his generation,” and very rich.              bodies tumbled on to the
                                                        pile of wood. When all
                                                        had been killed the pyre
                                                        was fired, and the spir-
                                                        its of the horses sent to
                                                        join their master. These,
                                                        with the five killed at the
                                                        grave, [author’s note: FIGURE 27. Drawing of the soil profile through the 1870s 5C privy
                                                        Ouray was buried near at the Chief Ouray House at the Chief Ouray Ranch. (Courtesy of
                                                        Ignacio on the Southern UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)
                                                        Ute Reservation] will
                                                        give him a comfortable
                                                        start in his new life.                  been previously evaluated. The museum
                                                                                                grounds were within the area being actively
                                                                                                investigated by the UVUP. Integrating the
FIGURE 26. Progress photo at 5MN847
                                                             Historic Landscape                 two programs made the integrated histori-
showing crew members cleaning and defining               Archaeology at the Ute/                cal landscape archaeology study possible.
the upper surfaces of the Chief Ouray privy at                                                  This multidisciplinary effort has helped to
left and the entrance to his root cellar at right.         Ouray Memorial Park                  clarify the history and evolution of the Ute
(Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.)                (Abstracted from Baker 2002b)       Indian Museum grounds.

                                                          During 2001 Centuries Research, Inc.
  When it was positively known in the                 conducted an extensive program of histori-
  tribe that Ouray was dead, nearly ev-               cal archaeological monitoring and associ-
  ery Indian of the Uncompagre band                   ated historical research and data recovery
  collected at his house and made prepa-              on the grounds of the Colorado Histori-
  rations for the destruction of all of his           cal Society’s (CHS) Ute Indian Museum
  property. In great alarm Chipita, his               (5MN1841) at Montrose. The museum
  widow, sent for Mr. Berry, the Indian               grounds contain the original Ute (aka
  Agent. He arrived just in time. Using               Ouray) Memorial Park established by the
  all his influence and eloquence, and                citizens of Montrose in 1924 and are listed in
  working with them all day, he suc-                  the National Register of Historic Places and
  ceeded in obtaining a promise from a                                                                 FIGURE 28. From the lower unit of the Chief
                                                      the State Historic Sites Register (Figures 29-
  large majority that no harm should be                                                                Ouray (5C) privy vault at the Chief Ouray
                                                      31). The immediate research needs of this
  done to Chipita or the property. Leav-                                                               Ranch (5MN847): (b) is a frosted pressed-
                                                      effort were integrated with established his-
  ing some seventy Indians on guard                                                                    glass finial from the lid of a sugar bowl or other
                                                      torical landscape studies focused on the vi-
  about the premises he returned to the                                                                fancy piece of glassware. It is a variation of the
                                                      cinity of the Ute Indian Museum and Chief
  agency.                                                                                              common “Dolphin” pattern which was popular
                                                      Ouray’s nearby ranch at 5MN847. The
      But the malcontents had very                                                                     in the third quarter of the 19th century. (c) is a
                                                      2001 field monitoring and mitigation pro-
  strong grounds to work on, and when                                                                  hand-painted polychrome hunting dog on white
                                                      gram was integrated with previous work
  Mr. Berry had gone they renewed their                                                                ware. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research,
                                                      completed by the UVUP and as a result the
  arguments, protesting against this                                                                   Inc.)

          Volume 40: Number 4                                        Winter 2007                                                    Page 
    The museum grounds contain about 13           Ute woman, particularly among local white        ple rock borders (Figure 31). In 1945 the
acres of park and general open space near         women who referred to her as “Queen              D.A.R. built a scaled-down reconstruction
the Uncompahgre River in the near vicinity        Chipeta.” This spring tap was covered            of Chief Ouray’s adobe storehouse (Figures
of Chief Ouray’s 1870s ranch at 5MN847 and        with a symbolic cement tipi and named the        23-24) from 5MN847 within the park in the
the dispersed Native American and Mexi-           “Chipeta Spring” even though the spring          incorrect belief that it represented Ouray
can settlement which clustered around it                                                                     and Chipeta’s house. Vigas and
and the Springs of San Francisco. The latter                                                                 adobe bricks had been salvaged
were unusually fine springs on the eastern                                                                   from the storehouse which
leg of the Old Spanish Trail which watered                                                                   burned in 1944. This structure
a substantial area along the Uncompahgre                                                                     apparently stood within the park
River just south of present-day Montrose.                                                                    into the 1960s and gave rise to
These springs and associated wetlands                                                                        the popular misconception that
were favorably described by the Spanish                                                                      the grounds of the park had once
in 1765 and 1776 in the first meaningful de-                                                                 been the home of Ouray and
scriptions of Colorado’s western slope and                                                                   Chipeta. This has been one of
the state as a whole. The grounds of the Ute                                                                 the great historical conundrums
Indian Museum contain spring pools which                                                                     involving the park.
appear to be relics of the original Springs of                                                                    In the 1940s the park was
San Francisco. They also contain relic ford-                                                                 gifted to the Colorado Historical
ing cuts in the banks of the Uncompahgre                                                                     Society. The society undertook
River which have probably been used for                                                                      new landscaping ca. 1949-1950
centuries. The museum grounds are bi-                                                                         and began planning for the ad-
sected by a modern road known as Chipeta                                                                      dition of a museum which had
Drive, which was constructed over the             FIGURE 29. Overview of the Ute Museum Building and long been envisioned by the lo-
original trace of the eastern leg of the Old      Ute Memorial Park (5MN1841) which includes the park’s cal residents. A pressurized ir-
Spanish Trail. This was the major travel          earliest archaeological components such as the concrete rigation system was apparently
route along the western slope and became          tipi (1924) over the Chipeta Spring in right foreground. added about this time as part of
the Great Salt Lake Wagon Road in the lat-        (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.).               the rather extensive landscape
ter portion of the 19th century. The mu-                                                                      upgrading carried out according
seum was clearly established within one of                                                                    to plans developed by the De-
the most important historic landscapes of         originally used by Chipeta was located near Boer firm of Denver. The park’s landscape
the western slope.                                her home at 5MN847. The second feature to shifted from a xeric to a well-watered mesic
    In the early 20th century local citizens of   be added to the new memorial park was the profile with many new decorative trees and
Montrose, led by the Uncompahgre Chap-            crypt for Chipeta
ter of the Daughters of the American Revo-        who died suddenly
lution, were endeavoring to establish a me-       in 1924 (Figure 30).
morial to the great chief Ouray and his wife      Her remains were
Chipeta of the Uncompahgre Utes. Ouray            interred in the
died in 1880 and Chipeta and the other Un-        crypt in that year.
compahgre Utes were forced to remove to           An      unsuccessful
Utah in 1881. Plans were made to establish        attempt was made
a house museum and memorial at his origi-         to bring Chief
nal home at 5MN847 some 1,000 feet north          Ouray’s remains
of the Ute Museum property. This effort           back from the cem-
came to a head in 1919 but was not suc-           etery at Ignacio on
cessful; due to a local depression the com-       the Southern Ute
munity could not raise the funds needed to        Reservation so that
obtain a 99-year lease on the property. The       they could also be
site’s owner then totally razed Ouray and         placed in the me-
Chipeta’s home. This effectively precluded        morial park. In the
the establishment of a memorial to Ouray          early years the park FIGURE 30. Very early photo of the Chipeta Springs memorial tipi. (Photo
and Chipeta at the site of their home.            commemorated            by Jesse Nusbaum; courtesy of Denver Public Library, Western History
    The memorial was subsequently estab-          Ouray and Chipeta Collection from the City of Denver collections, N266).
lished in 1924 on land which was eventu-          specifically     and
ally integrated with that of the Ute Indian       only evolved into a
Museum (Figures 29-31). In 1924 this loca-        memorial to the Ute People as a whole after shrubs. This basic landscape remained until
tion was basically scrub wasteland near the       World War II.                                    2001 when the state undertook an extensive
Springs of San Francisco. It was, however,            A granite monument honoring Ouray upgrading of the badly deteriorated com-
the closest point to the original Ouray home      and Chipeta was dedicated in 1927 and memorative features and park grounds.
site where land could be procured. The            became the third major feature of the early          This report provides an interpretive
Ouray (aka Ute) Memorial Park was first           park. The remains of Chief John McCook overview of the historical landscape of the
established by excavating into the hillside       were interred next to Chipeta’s Crypt museum grounds and discusses the genesis
and tapping a major seep of the Springs of        in 1937. In the early years the memorial and evolution of the memorial park up to
San Francisco and dedicating it to the mem-       park was minimally landscaped in a typi- the time when the Ute Museum (Figure 29)
ory of Chipeta who was a highly revered           cal western slope xeric manner with sim- was constructed in the early 1950s. It re-

         Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                Page 3
vises some of the history of the park and     needed revisions to the historical interpre-   vera. In 1765 he made an expedition to the
corrects some historical inaccuracies which   tations of the property and the management     Gunnison River just a few miles from the
have arisen in the oral traditions concern-   of its archaeological values.                  canyon. This expedition was made in part
ing the park. Foremost among these were                                                      to verify the old and persistent rumors of
the beliefs that the museum grounds might                                                    the presence of bearded Indians who re-
have been the site of Ouray and Chipeta’s
                                                 Assessment of the                           sembled Europeans. Since the 1600s it had
home, and that the adobe building built       Robideau Canyon Rock Art                       been said that they lived in the province of
on the site was constructed with materials                                                   Teguayo near Utah’s Great Salt Lake. Rive-
salvaged from Ouray and Chipeta’s home         Gallery and Juan Rivera                       ra’s trip preceded and laid the groundwork
at 5MN847 and was thus a legitimate rep-           Signature Panel                           for the subsequent monumental and much
resentation of it. The report clarifies the         (Abstracted from Baker 2004d)            better-known expedition of the Fathers
history and evolution of the Chipeta Spring                                                  Domínguez and Escalante in 1776. Their
and other features of the original memorial                                                  trip followed up on Rivera’s early path-
park.                                              In September of 2004, the UVUP com-       finding: a member of the original Rivera
    Archaeological findings from the moni-     pleted a detailed recording and conser-       party guided them and they made use of
toring and mitigation program are dis-         vation and management assessment of           Rivera’s diary as well. Where Rivera did
cussed by feature areas and indicate that      the Robideau Canyon Rock Art Gallery          not succeed, they actually did penetrate all
the entire site upgrading program was ac-      (5MN5110). This site is located in the re-    the way to Teguayo and found the bearded
complished without compromising any ar-        mote Robideau Canyon west of Olathe in        Indians. If a Rivera signature panel could
chaeological features. Archaeological work     Montrose County, CO (Figure 32). The field    be located, recorded, and authenticated in
was undertaken at the high-status Ute buri-    recording effort was undertaken on behalf     Robideau Canyon, therefore, it would have
als (Figure 31), the remains of the recon-     of the UVUP by Fred Blackburn and his         great historical significance. It would likely
                                                               team of inscription record-   be the oldest European inscription in the
                                                               ing specialists of Cortez,    western U.S. north of the immediate Span-
                                                               CO under subcontract with     ish colonial area of New Mexico. It would
                                                               Centuries Research, Inc.      also help to verify the route which Rivera
                                                               which owns and admin-         took in 1765.
                                                               isters the UVUP (Figure            The Rivera signature panel had been
                                                               33). The site conservation    called to the attention of this author some
                                                               assessment was complet-       years ago by two local individuals. Al-
                                                               ed by Dr. Carol Patterson     though they had both viewed the purported
                                                               of Urraca Productions of      Rivera signature in the years between 1938
                                                               Montrose via Centuries        and 1980, neither informant could located
                                                               Research. This initiative of  it again. The panel was found in 2003 and
                                                               the UVUP was sponsored        was very badly eroded. It was therefore de-
                                                               by the Montrose Youth and     termined that any information which could
                                                               Community Foundation in       still be recovered from the panel must be
                                                               cooperation with Centu-       preserved, even if the panel was ultimately
                                                               ries with funding provided    lost (Figure 34).
                                                               by the State Historic Fund         The entire rock art gallery was recorded
                                                               which is administered by      by Blackburn’s team and a badly eroded
                                                               the Colorado Historical So-   signature which clearly read “Juan Ma-
FIGURE 31. Postexcavation overview of the limits of Chief John ciety. The site is owned by   ria” was recovered (Figure 34) along with
McCook’s grave at the Ute Indian Musem. (Courtesy of UVUP, the Bureau of Land Man-           a less-certain “Rivera.” The interpretation
Centuries Research, Inc.)                                      agement.
                                                                   The
                                                               Robideau
structed adobe building, a 1940s outhouse Canyon Rock Art Gallery is
vault, and the general surface area of the not well known due to its
museum grounds. The major finding of the remote location. Pioneering
archaeological monitoring program was archaeologists Harold and
that the property showed no evidence of Betty Huscher did carry out
any human occupation or other usage prior incidental and incomplete
to the establishment of the memorial park recording of the site in the
in 1924. It also indicated that the undiscov- late 1930s, by which time
ered first home of Ouray and Chipeta (ca. it was already badly erod-
1860s or earlier) is not located on the prop- ed. In addition to a limited
erty and must lie to the north between it and amount of not uncommon
the ranchstead developments at 5MN847. prehistoric and historic ab-
The material culture of the park to date re- original petroglyphs, the gal-
lates entirely to the time frame of 1924 and lery contained some fading
later and is consistent with the property’s historic inscriptions, includ-
use as a public park and picnic area. The ing one presumed to have FIGURE 32. Overview of Robideau Canyon and the Robideau
report concludes with recommendations to been made by the Spaniard Canyon Rock Art Gallery. (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries
the Colorado Historical Society regarding Juan Mária Antonio de Ri- Research, Inc.)

        Volume 40: Number 4                                  Winter 2007                                                Page 
was that it was indeed an authentic signa-       Gunnison River near present Delta, CO,           Juan María Antonio Rivera (from the
ture of Juan Rivera. Unfortunately, no date      just as recorded by Fathers Dominguez and        translated version of the Rivera Diary
can yet be read and probably never will          Escalante.                                       made by Donald C. Cutter ca. 1968)
be. There was very little if anything which
could be done to conserve the inscription                                                           Rivera had followed what is now
or other elements in the gallery. It was
                                                     Juan Rivera’s 1765                         known to have been the primary Native
therefore recommended that any and all             Journeys Among the Ute                       American path from Santa Fe to the Salt
potential measures be taken to capture any                                                      Lake City area. This was the Teguayo Trail
last remaining information from the Rivera           Indians of Colorado                        which was the critical northward route long
inscription, even if such measures are det-         (Abstracted from Baker 1994, 2007b)
                                                                                                before the Old Spanish Trail to California
rimental to the survival of any remaining                                                       was even a consideration. If one looks for
vestiges of it. The panel is almost invisible         In 1765 the Spaniard Juan María Anto-     the origins of the Old Spanish Trail, it is in
to the naked eye at this time and is at the      nio de Rivera made two expeditions from        Rivera’s route.
point of complete destruction by natural         Santa Fe northward into western Colorado.          In conjunction with the ongoing re-
erosional processes. Although it is likely       These travels yielded the first description of search of the UVUP, Baker has spent the
eligible for the State and National Registers,   western Colorado and the Ute Indians by a      past 20 years researching the route of Ri-
the integrity of the inscription is such that    European American. The goals of Rivera’s       vera through the Ute country of western
there may be no point in going through the       travels were: (1) to discover the source of    Colorado. At the present time (late 2007) a
nomination process. Other than attempting        some native wire silver which had been         manuscript detailing the Rivera expedition
to glean the last possible bits of information   brought into Santa Fe by a Ute Indian; (2)     is nearly complete. Rick Hendricks of Las
from the Spanish inscription, it was recom-      to locate the source of the Río del Tizón (the Cruces, NM is completing a new transla-
mended that nothing else can or should           Colorado River); and most importantly, (3)     tion of the Rivera document.
be done to further conserve any portion of       to learn as much as possible about the route
the gallery. It was further recommended          to the ancient Land of Teguayo
                                                                                                    The Old Wood Calibration
that no publicity be accorded the existence      with its famed Lake of Copala. It
of the Rivera signature panel at this time.      was there that a long-rumored race
Such revelations would not only cause a          of bearded people, who suppos-
deluge of curiosity seekers to descend on        edly resembled Spaniards, were
Robideau Canyon, but also might com-             said to live. The Land of Teguayo
promise scholarly efforts to interpret the       was one of the last great “Myths
                                                 of the Indies” to be investigated
                                                 by the Spanish; other such myths
                                                 were those of Cíbola and Quivera.
                                                 If possible Rivera was to go on to
                                                 Teguayo and verify the tales of the
                                                 bearded Indians.
                                                      In October 1765, with a series of
                                                 different Native American guides,
                                                 Rivera and his men made their FIGURE 34. Recorder’s drawing of the Rivera inscription
                                                 way to the Gunnison River. At panel and aboriginal images and later initials. (Drawing
                                                 that point he rested his men and by Joe Paycheck of Blackburn inscription team, from
                                                 mounts while meeting and inter- Blackburn 2004.)
                                                 viewing various Native Americans
                                                 about the route ahead to the Land
                                                 of Teguayo. It was either on this or a subse- Project: A Progress Report
                                                 quent trip that he left what appears to be an     (Abstracted from Baker, Dean, Towner
                                                 inscription in Robideau Canyon, which the                          2007)
                                                 UVUP documented in 2004 as described
                                                 above. After reaching the Gunnison Rivera
                                                                                                    In 2004 the UVUP and the Laboratory
                                                 started back to Santa Fe. According to the
                                                                                                of Tree Ring Research at the University of
                                                 Tabeguache Utes, he was the first Spaniard
                                                                                                Arizona formed a partnership known as
                                                 to enter the region. Appropriately, he left
                                                                                                the “Old Wood Calibration Project” (Fig-
                                                 an inscription in the Robideau Bottoms as
                                                                                                ure 35). The goal of this project was to de-
FIGURE 33. Progress view during the recording    follows:
                                                                                                termine the magnitude(s) of the old wood
of the Rivera signature panel at the Robideau                                                   problem relative to our understanding of
Canyon Rock Art Gallery, 2004. (Photo by Bill           I left on the bank of the great Río del
                                                                                                the 14C date ranges of prehistoric compo-
Harris of the Blackburn team.)                      Tizón on the shoot of a white cotton-
                                                                                                nents in western Colorado. Some archaeol-
                                                    wood tree as a sign a large cross with
                                                                                                ogists have long believed that the regional
                                                    a “viva Jesús” at the head, my name
                                                                                                14C record contains many dates which, due
                                                    and the year at the foot so that our ar-
route of Rivera which have been ongoing                                                         to the old wood problem, are significantly
                                                    rival there can be verified at any time.
for many years now. These efforts are now                                                       older than the targeted events. In order
                                                    So that all the rest that is related may
close to completion (Baker 1994, 2007b) and                                                     to test this belief a substantial number of
                                                    have the same certification, I signed it
the recording effort has been instrumental                                                      dead wood samples and cores from living
                                                    on November 20, 1765.
in proving that Rivera did indeed reach the                                                     trees have been collected from piñon and


        Volume 40: Number 4                                    Winter 2007                                                Page 5
juniper woodlands in west-central and                     References Cited
northwestern Colorado. By comparing old                (or derived from or relative to the         1996 Numic Archaeology on the Douglas
dead wood and cores from living trees, it              Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project)             Creek Arch, Rio Blanco County, Colorado:
has been possible to develop chronologies                                                          Ute Rancherías and the Broken Blade Wickiup
for various study areas. The oldest is from                                                        Hamlet (5RB3182). Bureau of Land Manage-
                                                  Baker, Steven G.
A.D. 1044 to 2004 for the area of the Doug-                                                        ment, White River Field Office, and Colo-
                                                  1978a Historical Archaeology for Colorado
las Arch south of Rangely. Dead wood                                                               rado Historical Society, Chandler Douglas
                                                  and the Victorian Mining Frontier: Review,
samples are tree-ring dated by reference                                                           Creek Arch Report Series, No. 79, Meeker,
                                                  Discussion, and Suggestions. Southwestern
to these chronologies. Collection dates are                                                        CO.
                                                  Lore 44(3):11-31.
used as targeted archaeological events. It
                                                                                                   1999 The Railroad and the American Vic-
                                                  1978b Historical Archaeology for Colorado
                                                                                                   torian Cultural Horizon: An Archaeological
                                                  and the Victorian Mining Frontier: Review,
                                                                                                   Perspective from Colorado. Southwestern
                                                  Discussion, and Suggestions. In The Confer-
                                                                                                   Lore 65(3):1-10.
                                                  ence on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 1977,
                                                  Stanley South, editor, pp. 1-31. Institute of
                                                                                                   2000 State Historic Register Nomination for
                                                  Archaeology and Anthropology, Univer-
                                                                                                   the Chief Ouray Mountain House and Spring
                                                  sity of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.
                                                                                                   Waters (5OR965). Colorado Historical So-
                                                                                                   ciety, Office of Archaeology and Historic
                                                  1978c Operations Manual for Historical
                                                                                                   Preservation, Denver.
                                                  Archaeology: Field and Laboratory Proce-
                                                  dures of Centuries Research, Inc. Manu-
                                                                                                   2002a Colorado’s Most Endangered Places
                                                  script, Centuries Research, Inc., Montrose,
                                                                                                   Nomination for Native American Arboreal
                                                  CO.
                                                                                                   Wickiups and Tipi Sites. Manuscript, Colo-
FIGURE 35. Jeff Dean (left) and Ron Towner
                                                                                                   rado Preservation Inc., Denver.
(right) of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research   1983 The Railroad and the American Vic-
at the University of Arizona team up to           torian Cultural Horizon: An Archaeologi-
                                                                                                   2002b Historical Landscape Archaeology at the
obtain tree ring samples from an old piñon in     cal Perspective from Colorado. In Forgotten
                                                                                                   Ute/Ouray Memorial Park (5MN1841) Near
west-central Colorado. (Courtesy of UVUP,         Places and Things: Archaeological Perspectives
                                                                                                   Chief Ouray’s 1870’s Ranch (5MN847), Mon-
Centuries Research, Inc.)                         on American History, Albert E. Ward, editor,
                                                                                                   trose County, Colorado. Colorado Historical
                                                  pp. 239-249. Center for Anthropological
                                                                                                   Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic
                                                  Studies, Contributions to Anthropological
is then possible to compare the age of the                                                         Preservation, Uncompahgre Valley Ute
                                                  Studies, No. 3. Albuquerque, NM.
wood samples to the collection dates and                                                           Project, Report Series No. 4, Denver.
determine the magnitude of the old wood
                                                   1988 Historic Ute Culture Change in West-
problem.                                                                                           2003 Historic Ute Archaeology: Interpret-
                                                  Central Colorado. In Archaeology of the
    We now know that dead wood, which                                                              ing the Last Hour Wickiup (5RB3236).
                                                  Eastern Ute: A Symposium, Paul R. Nickens,
would have been easily gathered for fire-                                                          Southwestern Lore 69(4):1-34. (This is useful
                                                  editor, pp. 157-189. Colorado Council of
wood, would very commonly have been at                                                             for dating and interpreting the very ephem-
                                                  Professional Archaeologists, CCPA Occa-
least three hundred years old at the time it                                                       eral Ute stick architectural record.)
                                                  sional Paper No. 1. Denver.
was burned in hearths. Wood which had
been dead for four or five hundred years                                                           2004a 2002-2003 Old Agency Initiative of the
                                                  1991a Ephemeral Archaeology on the Moun-
would not have been uncommon and                                                                   Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project, Vol. 1, His-
                                                  tain of the Sorrel Deer. Bureau of Land Man-
wood which was five hundred or a thou-                                                             torical Archaeology Exploration and Assess-
                                                  agement, Colorado State Office, Colorado
sand years and older would also have been                                                          ment of the Second Los Pinos Indian Agency
                                                  BLM Cultural Resource Series No. 32. Lake-
present. At the very least, readily available                                                      on the Uncompahgre (5OR139). Colorado
                                                  wood, CO.
dead wood would thus routinely far sur-                                                            Historical Society, Office of Archaeology
pass the 14C two-sigma confidence ranges                                                           and Historic Preservation, Uncompahgre
                                                  1991b The Uncompahgre Valley Historic
and yield dates which are much older than                                                          Valley Ute Project, Report No. 5, Denver.
                                                  Ute Project: First Interim Report and Execu-
the targeted events.                                                                               (This is a major document which should
                                                  tive Summary with Preliminary Excavation
    The implications of these findings are                                                         be of particular use to historical archaeolo-
                                                  Reports on Chief Ouray’s Homes at Montrose
very substantial for regional prehistory                                                           gists. CD versions of both volumes of this
                                                  (5MN847) and Ouray (5OR965). Colorado
particularly as they relate to the demise of                                                       report are available for $60 + shipping and
                                                  Historical Society, State Historical Fund,
the Fremont and the advent of the Numic                                                            handling from Centuries Research, Inc.)
                                                  Uncompahgre Valley Historic Ute Project,
speakers such as the Ute. Minor corrections
                                                  Report Series No. 2, Denver.
of only a few hundred years seem to be                                                             2004b The 2003 Historical Archaeological As-
moving these events toward protohistoric                                                           sessment of the Chief Ouray Mountain House
                                                  1994 The Cross on the Cottonwood: The
or even early historic contexts. This proj-                                                        (5OR965), Ouray County, Colorado. Colorado
                                                  1765 Rivera Expedition into Western Colo-
ect will develop regional correction factors                                                       Historical Society, Office of Archaeology
                                                  rado, Part I--Travel Narrative and Ethno-
which will allow investigators to rely on                                                          and Historic Preservation, Uncompahgre
                                                  logical Notation. Manuscript, Centuries
hard empirical data and more appropriate-                                                          Valley Ute Project, Report No. 8, Denver.
                                                  Research, Inc., Montrose, CO.
ly interpret the radiocarbon record relative
to the effects of old wood. The final report                                                       2004c Final Archaeological Assessment of
                                                  1995 Archaeological Disenfranchisement
on this project will be available from the                                                         the Fort Crawford Military Post Cemetery
                                                  of the Colorado Utes. Southwestern Lore
Colorado Historical Society in 2008.                                                               (5MN848, Operation Area 2), Montrose Coun-
                                                  61(3):1-9.


         Volume 40: Number 4                                     Winter 2007                                                 Page 
ty, Colorado. Colorado Historical Society,     (5MN4117), Montrose County, Colorado. Col-         the Annual Meeting of the Colorado Coun-
Office of Archaeology and Historic Preser-     orado Historical Society, Office of Archae-        cil of Professional Archaeologists, Glen-
vation, Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project,        ology and Historic Preservation, Denver.           wood Springs, CO.
Report Series No. 7, Denver.
                                               2007b The Cross on the Cottonwood:                 Baker, Steven G., and Duane Nelson
2004d Final Assessment Report for the Rob-     Juan Rivera’s 1765 Journeys Among the Ute          1984 Computer Artifact Tracking and Ratio
ideau Canyon Rock Art Gallery (5MN5110),       Indians on the Teguayo Trail in Colorado.          Calculation Program for Artifacts from Vic-
Montrose County, Colorado, with Special Em-    Manuscript, Centuries Research, Inc., Mon-         torian American Sites. Manuscript on file,
phasis on the Ca. 1765 Juan Rivera Signature   trose, CO in conjunction with the Uncom-           Centuries Research, Inc., Montrose, CO.
Panel. Colorado Historical Society, Office     pahgre Valley Ute Project.
of Archaeology and Historic Preservation,                                                         Baker, Steven G., Duane A. Smith, and Mar-
Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project, Report         Baker, Steven G., Richard F. Carrillo, and         tha Sullenberger-Fry
No. 10, Denver.                                Carl D. Späth                                      2007 Victorian Mining Settlements. In Colo-
                                               2005 The Concept of Protohistory in Ar-            rado History: A Context for Historical Archae-
2005a 2002-2003 Old Agency Initiative of the   chaeology and Ethnology: A Missive for             ology, E. Steve Cassells, editor, pp. 153-168.
Uncompahgre Valley Ute in prep Project, Vol.   Colorado Archaeologists. Paper presented           Colorado Council of Professional Archae-
II, Late Contact Phase Ute Ethnohistory and    at the Annual Meeting of the Colorado              ologists, Denver.
Archaeology in Association with the Second     Council of Professional Archaeologists,
Los Pinos Indian Agency on the Uncompah-       Grand Junction, CO. Also available as an           Bartolini, J. D., and Steven G. Baker
gre (5OR139). Colorado Historical Society,     electronic document, <http://www.darg-             1977 An Artifact Cataloging System for the
Office of Archaeology and Historic Preser-     net.org/download/index.html>, accessed             American Victorian Period. Manuscript,
vation, Uncompahgre Valley Ute Project,        February 5, 2007.                                  Centuries Research, Inc., Montrose, CO.
Report No. 6, Denver. (This is a major docu-
ment which should be of particular use to      Baker, Steven G., Richard F. Carrillo, and         Blackburn, Fred M.
historical archaeologists. CD versions of      Carl D. Späth                                      2004 Final Report for the Recording of the Ro-
both volumes of this report are available      2007 Protohistoric and Historic Native             bideau Canyon Rock Art Gallery. Colorado
for $60 + shipping and handling from Cen-      Americans. In Colorado History: A Context          Historical Society, Office of Archaeology
turies Research, Inc.)                         for Historical Archaeology, E. Steve Cassells,     and Historic Preservation, Denver.
                                               editor, pp. 29-105. Colorado Council of Pro-
2005b Dear Bill, Dear Omer: What Should        fessional Archaeologists, Denver.                  Cassells, E. Steve (editor)
We Do Now? Notes on the Current State of                                                          2007 Colorado History: A Context for Histori-
Post-Contact Eastern Ute Archaeology. Pa-      Baker, Steven G., Jeffrey Dean, and Ronald         cal Archaeology. Colorado Council of Pro-
per presented at the Annual Meeting of the     Towner                                             fessional Archaeologists, Denver.
Colorado Council of Professional Archaeol-     2007 Rewriting the Prehistory of Western
ogists, Grand Junction, CO. Also available     Colorado? The Old Wood Calibration Proj-
as an electronic document, <http://www.        ect: A Progress Report from the Uncompah-
dargnet.org/download/index.html>, ac-          gre Valley Ute Project. Paper presented at
cessed December 4, 2006.

2005c Ethnographic Evidence of a Di-Hy-
brid Origin for the Aboriginal Inhabitants
of the Western U.S.: A Missive to Modern
Anthropologists from 17th and 18th Cen-
tury Spanish and French Observers. Paper
Presented at the 2005 Bi-Annual Meeting of
the Rocky Mountain Anthropological Con-
ference, Park City, UT.

2005d Historical Archaeological Assessment
of the 1870’s Reservation Period Ute/Mexi-
can Component at the Chief Ouray Ranch
(5MN847), Montrose County, Colorado. Colo-
rado Historical Society, Office of Archae-
ology and Historic Preservation, Uncom-
pahgre Valley Ute Project, Report No. 11,
Denver.

2006 Building an Historical Archaeology of
Colorado: Personal Reflections Regarding
Our Victorian Period Resource Base. South-
western Lore 72(4):1-26.                       FIGURE 36. Now that he has officially achieved senior-citizen status, Steve Baker finds it necessary
                                               to make a few adjustments in the pace of his research. Despite the need for a few more power naps
2007a The 2006 Historical Archaeological       and a bit more time with his electric trains, he does anticipate continuing on with his research for
Assessment of the Kallstrom Jacal Farmstead    the foreseeable future (Courtesy of UVUP, Centuries Research, Inc.).



        Volume 40: Number 4                                   Winter 2007                                                     Page 
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