PROFESSIONAL VOCATIONAL PERSPECTIVIES I
UNIT I- DEVELOPING LEARNING SKILLS FOR CRITICAL THINKING 15 Hours
Lesson I Orientation to the Program 4 Hours
Lesson II The Adult Learner 2 Hours
Lesson III Personal Learning Style Preference 2 Hours
Lesson IV For the Organizationally Challenged 2 Hours
Lesson V Learning and Retaining Information 2 Hours
Lesson VI Learning Resources for Students/Graduates 1 Hour
Lesson VII Critical Thinking for Clinical Competence 2 Hours
UNIT II – BUILDING BLOCKS FOR YOUR CAREER 7 HOURS
Lesson I How Practical/Vocational Nursing Evolved 2 Hours
Lesson II Nursing Process Your Role 2 Hours
Lesson III Straightforward Communication 1 Hours
Lesson IV Personal Health Promotion 2 Hours
UNIT III- PATIENTS AND CO-WORKERS 3 HOURS
Lesson I Health Care Team 1 Hours
Lesson II Cultural Uniqueness, Sensitivity and Competence 1 Hours
Lesson III Spiritual Needs, Spiritual Caring, and Religious Difference 1 Hours
UNIT IV – HEALTH CARE ENVIRONMENT: BASIC ELEMENTS – 7 hours
Lesson I Health Care Settings 1 Hours
Lesson II Health Care System: Financing, Issues and Trends 2 Hours
Lesson III Ethics Applied to Nursing 2 Hours
Lesson IV Nursing and the Law 2 Hours
TOTAL HOURS 32 Hours
Updated 11/04, 03/06
VOCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES II
UNIT V- LEADING AND MANAGING OTHERS – 6 HOURS
Lesson I Assertiveness: You’re Responsibility 2 Hours
Lesson II Leadership Skills 2 Hours
Lesson III LPN/LVN Charge Nurse Skills 2 Hours
UNIT VI – END AND A NEW BEGINNING – 6 HOURS
Lesson I Finding a Job 2 Hours
Lesson II NCLEX-PN Examination 2 Hours
Lesson III How to Make Your Career Grow 2 Hours
TOTAL HOURS 12 Hours
Combined Total Hours for 1st Quarter and 4th Quarter 44 Hours
Updated 3/06, 11/04, 03/04
FAYETTE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL NURSING
Vocational Perspectives I & II
Time: 44 Hours
Placement: Professional Vocational Relationships I- 32 Hours and Professional
Vocational Relationship II-12 Hours. Courses are taught once to all students. PVR1-1st
Quarter, PVR II-4th Quarter.
Instructor: Cynthia Sundstrom, R.N.C., M.S.
Textbooks: Hill, Howlett, Success in Practical Vocational Nursing, From Student to
Fayette Plateau Vocational Technical Center, School of Practical Nursing,
Scope of Practice – “ Purple Book”. West Virginia State board of
Examiners for Practical Nurse’s.
Reference: Anderson, To Be A Nurse, 1st Edition, F. A. Davis, 2000.
Professional Vocational Relationships will assist the student in making professional and
personal adjustments necessary for successful nursing practice. The course will provide
the student with positive suggestions to utilize during the adjustment periods, a history of
nursing, current trends, and entry into practice.
1. Identify methods of adjusting to student life.
2. Implement the accepted behavior of the professional community.
3. Utilize continuing education as a means to remain abreast of current nursing trends.
4. Identify factors to consider when entering practice.
Information gleaned from Vocational Perspectives will be utilized in all clinical
environments as a guide for responsible conduct and safe execution of patient care.
Unit I- Developing Learning Skills for Critical Thinking 15 Hours
Unit II-Building Blocks for Your Career 7 Hours
Unit III- Patients and Co-Workers 3 Hours
Unit IV- Health Care Environment: Basic Elements 7 Hours
Unit V – Leading and Managing Others 6 Hours
Unit VI – End and a New Beginning 6 Hours
Total Hours 44 Hours
Instructor Activities: Student Activities:
1. Lecture according to course outlines. 1. Read assignments.
2. Guide class discussions. 2. Take notes.
3. Show audiovisuals. 3. Participate in group activities.
4. Plan activities to stimulate learning. 4. Participate in class discussions.
5. Administer/score quizzes & exams. 5. Use objectives as a study guide.
6. View audiovisual aids.
7. Write quizzes and exams.
Theory grade will be determined as follows:
Final Exam 20%
Must maintain an 80% overall average to pass this section of the curriculum.
UNIT I: DEVELOPING LEARNING SKILLS FOR CRITICAL THINKING- 15
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 1-6.
Lesson I- Orientation to the Program- 4 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read “Student Policy Manual”, “Safety Manual.”,
Scope of Practice – “ Purple Book”. West Virginia State board of
Examiners for Practical Nurse’s.
A. Philosophy of Nursing
D. Basic Skills
E. Learning Strategies
F. Critical Thinking
G. Test Taking Skills
H. Scope of Practice/Delegation
1. Discuss FIT School of Practical Nursing philosophy of Nursing.
2. Review and discuss FIT School of Practical Nursing policies/procedures.
3. Define attitude.
4. Define the basic skills needed to succeed in the FIT School of Practical Nursing.
5. List at least 3 strategies to enhance learning.
6. Define Critical Thinking.
7. Discuss student rights versus responsibilities.
8. Discuss steps in the chain of command and in filing a grievance.
9. Discuss various test taking tips.
10. Discuss fire safety; locate extinguishers, and procedure for fire alarm.
11. Define scope of practice.
1. Read and Sign acceptance of policy/procedure manual, safety manual, clinical manual.
2. Discuss an experience in which you did not feel safe.
3. Discuss other jobs you have held and your chain of command.
4. Group activity: Share “My Attitude is What I Make It” strategies.
5. Do study questions and critical thinking exercises at the end of the chapter.
6. Pass quiz with score of 80% or better.
Lesson II- The Adult Learner - 2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 1
A. Adult Learner Defined B. Liabilities, Pitfalls and Hidden Dangers
C. Rights and Responsibilities of Learners
1. Identify yourself as a traditional adult learner, returning adult learners, or recycled
2. Identify personal areas of strength that will help you ensure success in the
practical/vocational nursing program.
3. Identify personal areas that could interfere with your success in the
practical/vocational nursing program.
4. Explain in you own words three rights of learners.
5. Discuss personal responsibility for learning and active participation in the
learning process as learner responsibilities.
6. Identify the purpose of evaluation in the practical/vocational nursing program.
7. Discuss 10 learner responsibilities.
1. List one of your strong areas that you have identified as a new practical/vocational
2. List one area needing improvement that you have identified as a practical/vocational
3. Keep a journal (directions will be given by instructor).
4 Write a plan that will help you eliminate your personal pitfall that needs improvement.
5. Pass the written exam with an 80% or above.
Lesson III- Personal Learning Style Preference – 2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Anderson, Chapter 3.
A. Self evaluation of major learning preference
B. Specific categories of learning preferences
C. Brain Development and Learning
D. Undependable memory and learning system
E. Barriers to learning
1. List two differences in the development of the male and female brain.
2. Explain what learning preference means.
3. Discuss three major learning preferences.
4. Describe four secondary learning categories.
5. Identify your personal learning preferences.
6. Describe five characteristics of an undependable memory and learning system.
7. Explain how racial bias in textbooks influences your perception of the topic you
8. Identify the stages of learning how to read and how they are related to illiteracy.
1. Participate in class discussion or transition.
2. Continue journal.
3. Small group discussions of one or more of the seven learning preferences. Handout of
secondary learning characteristics will be provided. Students must list the characteristics
for the category assigned.
4. Divide the class into small groups. Assign a scenario to each group to identify the
stages of learning and how to read and how they are related to illiteracy.
5. Pass quiz with an 80% or better.
Lesson IV: For the Organizationally Challenged-2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 3.
A. Why can’t I get Organized
B. Self-Test of Time Management
C. Benefits of Time Management
D. Review of Personal Goals
E. Getting Organized with the Nursing Process
1. Discuss three benefits of time management for an adult student.
2. Using the four phases of the nursing process as a guide, develop a personal time-
management plan to be used as a student practical/vocational nurse.
a. List your daily roles
b. Arrange the list of various roles according to priority
c. Keep at least 1 day activity log to determine the present use of your time
d. Devise a semester schedule and a weekly schedule to reflect present
e. Make a daily “to do” list.
f. Carry out weekly and daily schedules for 2 weeks.
g. Evaluate the effectiveness of your personal time-management plan and
modify it, if necessary.
3. Identify right-brain techniques to use in time management.
1. Homework-write a 2 page typed # 14 font double spaced paper on “ Reasons that
2. Class discussion of the following scenario:
A student in a practical nursing program is a single mother of two school- aged
children. She feels overwhelmed by her home and school responsibilities and believes
that she will not be able to complete the program. What can she do to make the situation
3. Create a phone list (voluntarily), for study support.
7. Pass quiz with an 80% or better.
Lesson V- Learning and Retaining Information for Critical Thinking-2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 4
A. General Hints for Learners
B. How to Understand Information
C. Remembering and Forgetting
D. Hints for Successful Test Taking
1. Use techniques in learning situations that will:
a. Increase your degree of concentration
b. Improve your listening skills
c. Enhance your comprehension of information needed for critical thinking
as a practical/vocational nurse.
i. Use each step in the PQRST method of textbook study.
ii. Use visual strategies
d. Develop your ability to store information in long-term memory
i. Form neural traces to store information for recall.
2. Use hints for successful test taking when taking tests in the practical/vocational
nursing program and NCLEX-PN exam.
Divide the class into small groups and assign each group one of the following
topics: Listening skills, memory skills, and concentration skills. Have student’s research
exercises, methods and techniques that can be used to enhance their assigned learning
2. Class discussion on what factors could interfere with the learning process and what are
the characteristics of an effective and active listener.
3. Discuss the PQRST method of textbook study.
4. Pass test on Unit I with 80% or better.
Lesson VI: Learning Resources for Students and Graduates – 1 hour
Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 5
A. Your schools resources
B. Classroom Learning Strategies
C. Other Learning Resources
D. Staying current in Practical/ Vocational Nursing
1. Class discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of each of the three
2. Divide the class into 5 groups and assign each group a different common Internet
domain, such as.com, .gov., .edu., .org, .net. Using classroom internet
connections each group should locate LPN nursing issues from each source and
share its findings with the class. Discuss which courses provide the most useful
information for a student in a nursing program.
Lesson IV: Critical Thinking for Clinical Competence - 2 Hours
Read: Hill, Howlett, Chapter 6
A. Overview of Critical Thinking
B. Ways of Thinking
C. Critical Thinking and Practical/Vocational Nursing
D. Critical Thinking and NCLEX – PN
E. Reading with Understanding
F. Factors that Influence Critical Thinking
G. Additional Factors That Influence Critical Thinking
H. Making it Work for You
1. Discuss the difference between nonfocused and directed thinking.
2. Explain what makes critical thinking an advanced way of thinking.
3. Use techniques that enhance the understanding of information needed to be a
4. Differentiate between the terms knowledge, comprehension, application and
5. Evaluate your personal need for help in comprehending information.
6. Identify two new suggestions for increasing reading effectiveness that you will
begin to apply immediately.
7. Develop a plan using critical thinking to increase your ability to think critically.
1. Homework-complete the survey of your current level of Critical Thinking on page
70. Complete the review items on page 78.
2. Class discussion:
a. What are the cognitive levels of the NCLEX-PN exam?
b. How could a nursing student use critical thinking to improve his or her
3. Discuss the definition of critical thinking and apply it.
4. Divide the class into 4 groups and assign each a different personal and situational
factor: upbringing and culture, motivation, attitude. Have each group discuss it
factor and present to the class examples of how it could negatively and positively
affect critical thinking. Group 4 should discuss how different scores on the
Learning Exercise-Attitude Evaluation, reflect the development of critical
thinking. ( page 75)
UNIT II: BUILDING BLOCKS FOR YOUR CAREER – 7 HOURS
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 7,8,9,10.
Lesson I: How Practical/Vocational Nursing Evolved-2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 7.
A. Self-proclaimed Nurse
B. Early Practical Nurse Training Programs
C. Modern Practical Nurses
D. Why Learn About Nursing History
E. Early Western Cultures
F. Age of Industrialization
G. First School of Nursing
H. Florence Nightingale
I. Civil War
J. Formal Training
K. 20th Century
L. You’ve Come a Long Way Baby!
1. Describe the role of self-defined practical nurses throughout history.
2. Discuss four major events that influenced changes in practical nursing.
3. Identify the year in which the first school of practical nursing was founded
4. Name the year in which licensing for practical nursing first began.
5. Present the rationale for your personal stand on entry into nursing practice.
1. Homework: Divide the class into groups and have each group research and present in
class the areas in which self-proclaimed nurses worked and what roles they played.
This will be presented in class the next day. Discuss: How were self-proclaimed nurses
viewed? Did they hurt or help the development of nursing?
2. Discuss how LPN programs compare to early nursing schools?
3. Discuss does West Virginia have mandatory licensure? What year did it begin?
4. Review the Nightingale pledge does it apply to 21st century nursing?
6. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
Lesson II: Nursing Process: Your Role-2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 8
A. Nursing Process:1950s
B. Nursing Process:1970s-1990s
C. Nursing Process: 2000 and Beyond
D. What differentiates your role from the RN role?
E. Developing your plan of care
F. Phases of the Nursing Process
G. Where are we now in the Nursing Process?
1. Discuss how the Nursing Process has changed from the 1950’s until now.
2. Define your role in the nursing process according to the nurse practice act of your
state, territory, or county.
3. Describe assisting with the four phases of the nursing process for the practical
a. Phase 1: Data Collection
b. Phase 2: Planning
c. Phase 3: Implementation
d. Phase 4: Evaluation
4. Describe nursing diagnosis as the exclusive domain of the registered nurse (RN).
5. Explain why the nursing process and critical thinking are part of the practical
nursing program curriculum.
1. Homework: a 3 page type written paper # 14 font on the following:
a. Research Nursing in the 1950’s. Explain in detail why the nursing process
was developed and what benefits it offers to the nursing profession.
2. Divide the class into teams and have them discuss the advantages and
disadvantages associated with use of the nursing process. Have each student five
an example of how the nursing process can be used when caring for the following
a. A 67 year old female patient with a metastatic tumor in the left breast.
b. A 78 year old male patient with a pleural effusion and congestive heart
c. An 82 year old female patient with diabetic ketoacidosis
d. A 23 year old male patient with paraplegia following a motorcycle
3. Divide the class into small groups. Ask each group to choose a component of the
nursing process and present information in class about conducting their assigned
phase of the nursing process for the following case:
a. A 50 year old male is admitted to the telemetry unit complaining of chest
pain. He has a history of smoking and occasional alcohol use.
List the most important factors for each phase of the nursing process. Outline
information that needs to be communicated to the RN.
Lesson III: Straightforward Communication-1 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 9
A. Communication Process
B. Types of Communication
C. Communication Strategies
D. Blocks to Communication
E. Male/Female Differences
F. Cultural Differences
G. Communicating with instructors and staff
H. Electronic Communication
1. Explain the sender-receiver process in:
a. One-way communication
b. Two-way communication
2. Discuss how nonverbal and affective communication can support or cancel the
meaning of verbal communication.
3. Provide an example of how you use communication strategies in nursing.
4. Give an example of blocking therapeutic communication
5. List two common differences in male/female communication that have biological
6. Give an example of a cultural communication difference in the area in which you
7. List two common factors related to role change for a hospitalized patient that can
8. Identify a communication difference for patients in two separate age groups
9. Explain how common characteristics apply to straightforward communication
with all people.
1. Homework - complete the review questions on page 125.
2. Discuss what is therapeutic communication? What does using this type of
3. Discuss several different techniques that enhance communication? How is each
4. Ask for student volunteers to demonstrate these behaviors:
a. A crying, disheveled teen, sitting bent over with her head in her hands, says
she is just fine and tells the nurse to go away.
b. An older woman keeps walking back and forth to the emergency room door,
mumbling to herself, opening and closing her fingers on her handbag and shaking
c. A young mad burst into the lobby from the delivery room grinning, clapping
his hands, talking t o strangers, and jumping up and down.
Divide the class into three groups. Ask one group to observe for nonverbal and affective
communication. Ask the second group to observe for communications that support the
meaning of verbal communication. Ask the third group to note when nonverbal and
affective communication cancelled the meaning of the verbal communication. Discuss
the groups’ observations as a class.
5. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
Lesson IV: Personal Health Promotion-2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 10.
A. New Look at Nutrition and Health
B. Making Time for Flex and Strength
C. Back Injuries in Nursing: What we did not know
D. Fingernails: An Issue of Safety for the Patient and Nurse
E. Burnout: It does not have to happen
F. Secondary Traumatic Stress
G. Chemically Dependant Nurses
H. Codependency: A pathological need
I. Dealing with Negative Stress: Some ideas
1. Explain why all foods in a classification are not found on the same level of the
new health eating pyramids.
2. Give an example of a fruit or vegetable in each of the 7 color code groups.
3. Provide three examples of chronic symptoms and diseases related to obesity and
lack of exercise.
4. Discuss the importance of taking time to flex and stretch before, during and after
5. List three to four moderate activities that will fit your lifestyle.
6. Explain why proper body mechanics does not prevent all back injuries
7. Differentiate between empathy and sympathy.
8. Discuss resources available at school to assist students in dealing with
9. Identify possible clues that may indicate a nurse is chemically impaired by
alcohol and/or other drugs while on duty.
10. Explain the difference between codependency and conscientious nursing.
11. Discuss the difference between recreation and relaxation
12. Provide a brief description of : meditation, progressive relaxation, brief relaxation
1. Divide the class into 3 groups and assign them one of the following critical thinking
questions to discuss and answer. The groups will present their findings to the class.
A. A nurse who is 5’2” tall and weighs 173 pounds must bathe and change the
bed linens for a 5’11” quadriplegic male patient, who weighs 190 pounds. What
is the main risk for this nurse? What factors can contribute to injury? How can
the nurse prevent personal injury?
B. A nurse working in a critical care unit suspects when is starting to experience
caregiver burnout. What are some early waning signs? Why might this nurse be
susceptible to burnout? What could she do to improve her situation?
C. A nurse working on a Med-Surg unit in a small community hospital has been
coming in early and working late. She/He works extra shifts to “help” co-
workers. The past week has been very hectic and she/he has already worked 38
hours and is starting their a.m. shift on Thursday. She/He appears angry,
unappreciated, and used. These are signs of what? Why is codependency a risk
in the nursing profession? What are the potential consequences for patients?
Compare and contrast the characteristics of codependence and conscientious
nursing. How can a nurse recognize the signs in him or herself? In a colleague?
What should a nurse do if codependence becomes a problem?
2. Practice relaxation exercises of imagery.
3. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
UNIT III: PATIENTS AND COWORKERS - 3 HOURS
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapters 11, 12, 13.
Lesson I: Health Care Team - 1 Hour
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 11.
A. Who is responsible for Mrs. Browns discharge?
B. Health Care Team
C. Delivery of Nursing Care in Acute Care Setting
D. Nursing Shortage
1. Explain in your own words the goal of the health care team.
2. List 10 members of the health care team. All levels of nurses count for one
3. Identify the nursing personnel who are part of the health care team, according to
the following criteria:
b. Role and responsibilities
c. Licensing, and
d. Sites of employment
4. Define nursing
5. Describe in your own words the following methods used to deliver nursing
a. Case method
b. Functional method
c. Team method
d. Primary care
e. Case management method and
f. Patient-focused care.
6. Describe the practical/vocational nurse’s role in the methods used to deliver the
nursing services listed in objective #5.
1. Homework: Each student will be assigned a health care setting to research the focus
of each department and type of staff needed. Be prepared to discuss and present to class.
C. acute care,
D. Long-term care
2. Discuss at least 5 different definitions of prominent nursing theorist (Orem, Rogers,
3. Discuss the education requirements for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and
post graduate educational opportunities.
4. Discuss the following critical thinking question:
A 65 year old man is admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a diagnosis of
acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. He requires hourly blood work and
intravenous medication every two hours. The unit manager has assigned on nurse to this
patient. What nursing method is the unit manager using and why?
5. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
Lesson II: Cultural Uniqueness, Sensitivity and Competence- 1 Hour
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 12
A. Define culture
B. Danger ethnocentrism, prejudice and discrimination
C. Knowing yourself
D. Knowing others: Cultural Diversity
E. Developing cultural competence
F. Care Planning for culturally divers patient in your service area
1. Define in your own words the key terms.
2. Explain in your own word nine basic daily needs of all persons.
3. Describe your culture in the area of:
d. Educational background
e. Economic level
f. Wellness, illness, birth and death beliefs and practices.
4. Identify how all persons are unique and similar
5. Explain in your own words the philosophy of individual worth as it applies to
6. Describe specific differences among cultural groups frequently served in our area.
7. Explain the importance of increasing awareness of your own cultural self and
obtaining knowledge about culturally divers groups.
1. Discuss the daily essential needs of all people.
2. Discuss how a nursing student could gain cultural sensitivity in order to deliver
effective nursing care.
3. Review/discuss the definitions.
4. Homework: Write a 2 page typed paper in a number 14 font on a cultural or ethnic
group that you are assigned. Research the culture’s health practices and beliefs. You
will present your findings to the class explaining how the identified cultural beliefs could
affect nursing care.
5. Discuss the specific differences among cultural groups frequently served in your
geographical area that may have importance in patient care situations.
6. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
Lesson III: Spiritual Needs, Spiritual Caring and Religious Differences 1-Hour
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 13
A. Spirituality and Religion
B. Spiritual versus emotional dimension of the individual
C. Importance of spiritual care
D. Who needs spiritual care?
E. How the patient meets spiritual needs
F. Who is the religious American?
G. Western religions in the United States
H. Eastern religions in the United States
I. Nursing interventions for Eastern religions
1. Differentiate between spirituality and religion.
2. Identify the difference between the spiritual and emotional dimensions of
3. Discuss the practical nurse’s role in providing spiritual care to the patient
and the family. Discuss nursing interventions that can be used to meet the
spiritual needs of patients.
4. List members of the health care team who can help provide spiritual care
5. Discuss personal religious and/or spiritual beliefs or the absence of them
and how this influences your nursing practice.
6. Describe nursing interventions considerations of patient of various
1. Discuss how a nurse who is unfamiliar with a patient’s religious background or beliefs
could become familiar them. What questions should be asked to determine religious
2. Discuss how a nurse could help patients meet their spiritual needs.
3. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
UNIT IV – HEALTH CARE ENVIRONMENT; BASIC ELEMENTS – 7 HOURS
Lesson I – Health Care Settings- 1 Hour
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 17.
A. Public versus private health care agencies
B. Examples of voluntary health care agencies
C. Types of Hospitals
D. Ambulatory Services
E. Rehabilitation Services
F. Long-Term Care Facilities
G. Community Nursing Services
H. Adult Day Care Centers
I. Wellness Centers
J. Hospice Care
1. Compare public and private health care agencies.
2. Differentiate between official and voluntary agencies.
3. Give an example of a government public health care agency in our area, state,
4. List six agencies that makeup the US public health service.
5. Describe the responsibility of the World Health Organization.
6. Explain the difference between proprietary and nonprofit health care agencies.
7. Explain the purpose of Hospice.
1. Discuss the difference between local, state and federal governmental health care
2. Discuss what Hospice Care is.
3. Discuss the variety of health care settings available for licensed practical nurse
4. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
Lesson II: Health Care System: Financing, Issues and Trends- 2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 18.
A. Basic Health Insurance Terms
B. Health Care System Rankings
C. Financing of Health Care Cost
D. How Your Patient Pay for Health Care Services
E. Issues and Trends in Health Care Financing
F. Cost of Lack of Health Insurance
G. Uncompensated Care
H. Repairing the Health Care System
I. Restructuring the Health Care System
J. Quality Improvement
K. Dealing with Change
1. Describe two general methods of financing health care costs.
2. Explain the following methods of payment options for patient of health care.
3. Identify sources of funding for government health programs and private
4. Give examples of comprehensive and incremental changes in health care.
5. Discuss the effect of the restructuring of the health care system on health care and
employment opportunities for licensed practical nurses.
6. Explain how a licensed practical nurse participates in quality improvement.
7. Identify your reaction to changes involving your nursing career and personal life.
1. Homework: write a 3 page paper, typed, number 14 font on “The Changes in Health
Care That Have Occurred Since 2003”. Research what changes have occurred at the
federal level, here in West Virginia, and in other states. Topics include: Changes to
Medicare and Medicaid, free care laws or policies guaranteed coverage, universal
insurance, and prescription drugs. How these changes affect patient care and the practice
2. Discuss the two types of government-sponsored health insurance plans and who is
covered by each plan.
3. Discuss how problems arise with quality, service, and cost in health care.
4. Discuss the following critical thinking question:
A community extended-care nursing facility that prides itself on high-quality
patient care anticipates a staffing shortage. What can the facility do to avoid the
anticipated shortage and maintain its high standards of service?
5. Past Test with 80% or better.
Lesson III – Ethics Applied to Nursing – 2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 19. West Virginia State Board of
Practical Nursing “Purple Book”, Guidelines for Practice.
A. Description and scope of Ethics
B. Nursing Ethics
C. Your Personal Code of Ethics
D. Roots of Nursing Ethics
E. Ethical Decisions in Health Care
F. Ethical Responsibilities of Nurses
G. Principals of Ethics
1. List four current ethical issues of concern in twenty-first century health
2. Explain the differences among ethics, morals and values.
3. Explain nursing ethics.
4. Identify ethical elements in your state’s Nurse Practice Act.
5. Describe how the role of nursing has changed since the introduction of the
nursing process and critical thinking into nursing curricula.
6. Differentiate between beneficence and paternal beneficence.
7. Discuss how nonmaleficence is more complex that the definition of “do no
8. Explain the steps for an autonomous decision
9. Describe how fidelity affects nursing care.
10. Discuss how a nurse applies the principle of justice to nursing.
11. Discuss the role of beneficent paternalism
12. Differentiate between ethical and legal responsibility in nursing.
1. Class activity: Divide the class into small groups and assign each group one of the
following ethical issues below:
In vitro fertilization
Research, discuss and identify some of the key characteristics of each ethical issue and
how nurses may be affected. Present your findings to the class.
2. Discuss what issues are involved if a nurse’s replacement does not arrive to relive the
nurse at the end of a shift.
3. Discuss fidelity and how it might be breached either knowingly or unknowingly.
4. Discuss the relationship between ethics, values and justice and how one might
influence the other.
5. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
Lesson IV- Nursing and the Law -2 Hours
Pre-class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 20.
A. Nurse Practice Act
B. State Board of Nursing (or Nurse Regulatory Board)
C. Disciplinary Process and Action
D. Nursing Standard of Care
E. How the Law Affects LPN’s
F. Criminal Versus Civil Action
I. Steps for Bringing Legal Action
J. General Guidelines for Charting
L. Specific Patient Issues
M. End-of-Life Issues
N. Practical application of Ethics and the Law in Difficult Situations
O. Situations and Documentation
1. Discuss the content of your state’s Nurse Practice Act
2. Describe the responsibilities of your state’s board of nursing(or nursing regulatory
3. Explain the limits of nursing licensure within your stat.
4. Define the nursing standard of care.
5. Differentiate between common law and statutory law.
6. Explain the difference between intentional and unintentional torts.
7. Explain the difference between criminal and civil action
8. List four elements needed for negligence.
9. Review the steps for brining legal action.
10. Differentiate between practical nursing student and instructor liability in
preventing a lawsuit.
11. Summarize patient rights mandated in the Patient bill of Rights, HIPAA Privacy
rules and JCAHO Patient Safety Goals.
12. Discuss the differences among general consent, informed consent,, and authorized
13. Differentiate between the living will and durable power of attorney.
14. Describe the difference between active and passive euthanasia.
A. Obtain information about the function and services provided by the West
Virginia State Board of Nursing. Include the following – information about
disciplinary action, resources available and the best way to access the resources.
B. Research key points of nursing licensure in the state and surrounding states,
Kentucky, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland. This is to include cost, reciprocity,
disciplinary practices, examinations and so forth.
C. Research malpractice insurance applicable to nursing practice in West
Virginia and the cost of this insurance. What are the pros and cons of obtaining
the insurance? What could the consequences be if an LPN did not have
BE PREPARED TO PRESENT TO THE CLASS.
3. Pass quiz with 80% or better.
VOCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES II
UNIT V – LEADING AND MANAGING OTHERS – 6 HOURS
Assignment: Read Hill, Howlett, Chapter 14, 15, 16
Lesson I – Assertiveness: Your Responsibility – 2 hours
Pre-class assignment: Read Hill, Howlett Chapter 14
A. Nonassertive (Passive) Behavior
B. Aggressive Behavior
C. Assertive Behavior
D. Negative Interactions: Using Coping Mechanisms
E. Guideline for Moving Toward Assertiveness
F. Cultural Differences Manipulation
G. Aggressiveness and Work-Related Issues
1. Explain why assertiveness is a nursing responsibility.
2. Differentiate among assertive, aggressive and non assertive (passive) behavior.
3. Describe three negative interactions in which nurses can get involved.
4. Maintain a daily journal that reflects your personal interactions and responses.
5. Develop a personal plan for change toward assertive behavior.
6. Discuss positive manipulation as a cultural choice.
7. Discuss the prevalence of physical assault against nurses in the workplace.
8. List 2 to 3 behavioral changes in an individual that may clue you in to possible
9. Identify steps your can personally take to make the place you work a happier and
10. Discuss dealing with sexual harassment in nursing.
1. Discuss how a nurse can demonstrate honesty and assertiveness.
2. Discuss inappropriate coping mechanisms, and effective ways of responding to
3. Discuss how unresolved issues between nurse and patient can result in a cycle of
worry, rage, anger and fear.
4. Discuss how the steps of the problem-solving process can be applied to problem
situations with a nurse coworker or manager.
5. Discuss the warning signs of workplace violence.
6. Discuss how nurses can contribute to preventing workplace violence.
7. Video on “Sexual Harassment- Everyone’s Problem”
8. Pass test on with 80% or better.
Lesson II: Leadership Skills – 2 hours
Assignment: Read Chapter 15
A. Practical-Vocational Nurse as First-line Leader
B. Organizational Chart
C. Expanded Role of Practical/Vocational Nursing
D. How you are already preparing for a Leadership and Management Role
E. Difference Between Management and Leadership
F. What Kind of Leader Are You?
G. Leadership Styles
H. Using Leadership Continuum as a Guide
I. Core Knowledge and Skills Needed for Leadership
J. Specific Knowledge and Skills Needed for Leadership
1. Describe the expanded role of the Practical Nurse, as describe in your state’s
Nurse Practice Act.
2. Identify the location of the Practical charge nurse on the organizational chart of a
long-term care facility.
3. Explain the difference between leadership and management.
4. Identify your personal leadership style.
5. Explain at least three leadership styles in your own words.
6. Identify ways to attain competency in the following five core areas, in which
knowledge and skills are needed to be an effective first-line leader.
7. Identify ways to obtain competency in the following three specific areas, in
which knowledge and skills are needed to be an effective first-line leader.
8. Describe how the Howlett Hierarchy of work motivators can help the practical
nurse leader influence nursing assistants to motivate themselves.
9. Identify the importance of documenting objective and not subjective charting
entries in long-term care.
10. Read the mission statement of your current area of clinical assignment.
11. Using the suggestions in this chapter write a plan that could be used to build a
team to work on a unit in long-term care.
12. Develop a plan for personal growth as a practical charge nurse.
1. Discuss some ways a newly graduated nurse can assess his or her leadership
styles and skills in order to provide leadership to the staff?
2. Discuss staffing issues and personality clashes can result in a dysfunctional
nursing unit. What are some ways a nurse manager could build cohesiveness?
3. Complete the leadership activity on pager 234, Examining organizational Charts.
4. Discuss as a class how Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be applied to the
following leadership core competency areas:
b. Assertive Communication
c. Problem Solving
d. Team Orientation
e. Stress Management
5. Discuss the Leadership Hint Decision Tree for Problem Solving page 243 with the
class. Divide the Class into small groups and assign each group one of the
following situations to apply the decision making tree:
a. A nursing assistant is responsible for stocking all patient rooms. The
charge nurse receives a report that linen is consistently missing.
b. An LPN frequently arrives 15 minutes late for work and leaves early, even
if the assigned tasks are not completed.
c. The charge nurse is overheard shouting in a patient’s room, “You always
leave the patient’s bedside when the side-rail is down!”
Ask a volunteer from each group to make a brief presentation to the class. What
is a desired outcome for each situation? As a class compare and contrast the
approaches to problem solving.
6. Discuss how to identify signs of stress.
7. Discuss irrational thinking and how irrational thinking might hinder their ability
to become good managers and good leaders.
8. Discuss leadership hint page 253 and discuss how to provide feedback to nursing
Lesson III – LPN Charge Nurse Skills
Pre-Class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter 16. pages 259 – 283
A. Where to Begin? A Job Description for a Charge Nurse.
B. How Lone Will It Take Me To Prepare To Be a Charge Nurse?
C. A Checklist of Policies, Regulations and Routines for the LPN Charge Nurse.
D. Collecting Data As A Charge Nurse
E. Common Problems of LPN Charge Nurse
F. Assignment and Delegation: Using the Nursing Process
G. Putting It All Together
H. Reporting At the End of Your Shift
1. Using the West Virginia Nurse Practice Act, identify the following as they apply
to the charge nurse position for practical nurses:
a. Requirements before assuming the licensed practical charge nurse
b. Site of employment
c. Scope of Practice
2. Review charge nurse job descriptions
3. Identify specific institutional policies, regulations, and routines that the practical
nurse needs to clarify when assuming a charge nurse position.
4. collect a list of data that are needed before reporting a change of condition in a
resident to a physician.
5. Discuss strategies for handling the following common LPN charge nurse
a. When nursing assistants bring problems from home.
b. Encouraging nursing assistants to be accountable for learning skills.
c. Dealing with demanding complaining family.
6. Describe elements that need to be focused on when receiving and giving a
change-of-shift report as charge nurse in the long-term care facility.
7. Discuss the assignment of tasks versus the delegation of duties with regard to the
a. West Virginia’s laws regarding the role of the Practical Nurse and the
delegation of duties in the charge nurse position.
b. Differences between assigning nursing tasks and delegating nursing
c. Legal aspects of assigning nursing tasks and delegating nursing duties
d. The following criteria that need to be considered when assigning nursing
tasks and delegating nursing duties:
1) Right task
2) Right person
3) Right circumstance
4) Right Direction/communication
5) Right Supervision, feedback and evaluation
1. Discuss what the responsibility of the LPN charge nurse is when a nursing
assistant cannot perform a task that is listed in the nursing assistant’s job
2. Discuss what the difference between assignment and delegation means for the
LPN charge nurse.
3. Handout copies of local facilities job descriptions of Practical Nurse Charge
Nurse responsibilities and discuss how they might vary from institution to
4. Using the West Virginia Practical Nursing Nurse Practice Act discuss the above
5. Lead a class discussion of the differences between assignment and delegation.
UNIT VI – END AND A NEW BEGINNING – 6 HOURS
Pre-Class Assignment: Read Chapters 21, 22, 23
Lesson I – Finding a Job – 2 Hours
Pre-Class Assignment: Hill and Howlett, Chapter 21
1. List employment opportunities available to licensed practical nurses.
2. Determine interpersonal styles and how to use them to achieve interpersonal
3. Describe and utilize individuals within your job search network.
4. Effectively participate in an informational interview.
5. Discuss how and were to best target job leads.
6. Role-play interviews as set up by instructors.
7. Develop resumes that will get an employers attention.
8. Convey positive nonverbal messages at the interview.
9. Have insight into the cultural and age differences of the interviewer.
10. Discuss the importance of employer follow-up both at the time of application and
after the interview.
11. Anticipate a successful pre-employment physical examination and drug screening.
12. Write an effective resignation letter with style.
1. Graduation: Closer than you think.
2. What do I want to do?
3. Using Interpersonal Styles to your benefit.
4. Networking your way to success: References and Jobs.
5. Informational interviews to create future expectation.
6. References: A timeless Treasure.
7. Resumes: The Contributions You Will Make
8. Cover Letters: Tailored to Fit the Job You Want
9. Proactive Follow-up Today
10. Answers to Application Questions
11. Preparing for the Interview.
12. Interview Questions and Answers: A Challenging Opportunity
13. Making a Lasting Impression
14. Pre-employment Physical Examinations, Drug Screenings, Background Checks.
15. Discussing Pregnancy Issues
16. Resignation with Style
17. Pass exam on Lesson I with 80% or better.
Lesson II – NCLEX-PN Examination – 2 hours
Pre-Class Assignment: Read Hill and Howlett, Chapter, 22
1. Explain the purpose of the NCLEX-PN examination.
2. Discuss computerized adaptive testing (CAT) as it relates to the NCLEX-PN
3. Describe how CAT determines whether you pass or fail the NCLEX-PN
4. Research the requirements of West Virginia State Board of nursing for eligibility
to take the NCLEX-PN examination.
5. Explain the process of endorsement.
6. Differentiate between a temporary work permit and licensure.
7. Discuss the proven way of preparing for the NCLEX-PN examination.
1. Discuss endorsement and the value of this process to individual nurses and to the
2. Discuss how to apply for licensure.
3. Use classroom computer lab to access PN reviews for NCLEX-PN.
4. Discuss test taking strategies to avoid running out of time while taking the
5. Invite a speaker who has expertise in test taking strategies and anxiety-reducing
exercises to assist the students in preparing for the licensure examination.
Lesson III – How to Make Your Career Grow – 2 hours
Pre-Class Assignment: Read, Hill and Howlett, Chapter 23.
1. Identify areas of licensed practical nursing employment opportunities currently
available in our community.
2. Discuss three advantages of belonging to an LPN related professional
3. Investigate opportunities available to you for continuing education.
4. Contact the state board of nursing to find out which certifications are accepted in
the state in which you plan to seek employment.
5. Describe postgraduate career goals.
6. Discuss Performance Evaluations.
1. In small groups have students conduct research to identify areas of employment
for LPNs in our community using the internet, job websites, want ads and nursing
employment resources. Students should bring findings to class and present their
2. Invite an LPN representative of West Virginia State Board of Nursing to discuss
with the class the accepted certifications for licensed practical nurses.
COURSE GRADE FOR VOCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES, UNIT II:
Grades will be assigned to Personal Resume’, Letter of Application for a position, Letter
of Resignation from a position. These will be graded on overall appearance, form
punctuation, grammar, and content. Other assignments will not be graded, but failure to
turn them in or failure to attend class will decrease the course grade by one letter grade
(program evaluation, personal evaluation.) Minimum passing score 80%.
Theory grade will be determined as follows :
Final Exam 20%
Hours: 44 hours
Theory/Lab: 3 hour interview role play