Building a research legacy -- The Intermountain Station 1911-1997 by wuyunyi


									                                                                                                         Chapter          11.

         New Approaches, 1971-1990

A     s Deputy Chief for Research, Vern
      Harper had developed an organiza-
tion built around single-discipline
                                              had more political clout than those in
                                              the West because their States had larger
                                              Congressional delegations and more
                                                                                            Wellner was disappointed, but far
                                                                                         from defeated. Failing to get his ideas
                                                                                         considered at the national level, he
research work units. Silviculturists were     Congressmen in senior positions. The       merely went ahead to establish “ecosys-
in one unit, hydrologists in another, and     southern and eastern Station Directors     tem management research” on a smaller
engineers in another, although all could      were going outside the Forest Service      scale at the Station—20 years before
be housed in the same laboratory.             and administration’s budget process,       the Forest Service decided it was a great
    Along with the change to research         lobbying Congress directly or indirectly   idea!
work units, Division Chief jobs were          to build research programs. The western
abolished and Assistant Station Director      Station Directors weren’t averse to
slots were established. Initially, the for-   following the same practices, but their    Chuck Wellner—Forest
mer Division Chiefs filled the Assistant      Congressional delegations were much
Director positions. The Division              fewer in number and didn’t have as
                                                                                         Science Visionary
Chiefs had been technically oriented,         much political clout.
with personal research backgrounds               At a 1971 inspection with Wellner          Chuck Wellner was a far-sighted
in the subject matter of the area they        in charge, the Station proposed an orga-   champion of high-quality forestry for
supervised. The Assistant Directors           nization in which all disciplines would    more than 60 years. Over much of that
supervised all research units in a geo-       attack problems in a multidisciplinary     time, he was many years ahead of most
graphic area. It was impossible for them      approach. George Jemison, who had          of his colleagues in forest science.
to be technically competent in all the        succeeded Harper, wouldn’t let Wellner        Wellner started his career as a
disciplines represented. Thus, top-level      make a presentation to the Washington      member of a silvicultural field crew
supervision became more general and           Office research staffs on the proposed     at Priest River in 1932. A graduate
the Project Leaders assumed the techni-       change. Instead, Wellner reported that     of the University of Idaho, he earned
cal expert role.                              Jemison said the Washington Office         a M.S. degree in forestry at Yale
    Al Stage (interview, 2005) observed       was going to tell the Stations how to      University in 1938, Magna Cum Laude.
the changes during his 44-year career at      organize to “save” research.               Following 13 years of distinguished
the Moscow lab. He said that once none
of the former Division Chiefs remained
as Assistant Directors the approach had
changed from organized, long-term             Chuck Wellner tak-
research to a “self aggrandizement”           ing measurements
                                              in seedling survival
situation in which Project Leaders
                                              studies at Priest River
could decide what the research program        in 1932.
would be and channel studies to make
individual scientists in the unit look
good. During this era of transition, an
individual scientist’s research program
shifted from studies that were mainly
assigned by supervisors to personal
research that was mainly suggested by
scientists as being high priority.
    According to Chuck Wellner, Harper
wanted the disciplinary problem
orientation because the Washington
Office had lost control of the budget
process. Stations in the South and East

silvicultural research with the Northern     not already in practice because of your      • Larger units with fewer Project
Rocky Mountain Station, interrupted by       personal interaction with managers,            Leaders, producing savings
2 years in the U.S. Navy, he became an       it probably is not worth publishing”           in paperwork and travel.
administrator.                               (Stage, interview). Wellner saw publica-
                                                                                          • Limited funding and personnel
    From its inception in 1948 until         tions as documentation of something
                                                                                            focused more on problems of public
1958, Wellner was leader of the Inland       that already was tested and working.
                                                                                            resource management, and less on
Empire Research Center in Spokane.               When Wellner retired, Al Stage
                                                                                            personal disciplinary interests.
He then was Division Chief for Timber        assumed responsibility for the program.
Management and Forest Disease                It ran for 5 more years, until its charter      “Ecosystem research” in 1994
Research at the Intermountain Station.       expired and Station management chose         sounded a whole lot like what Chuck
In 1965 he became Assistant Station          not to renew it during a reorganization.     Wellner tried to present to Forest Service
Director for research programs in the        However, the inter-unit cooperation          leadership in 1971. And it sounded very
northern part of Station territory.          at Moscow continued for many years.          much like what he demonstrated to be
    Wellner left his Assistant Director      Years later, Stage said, “We came            effective at Moscow, starting in 1972.
post in 1972 to create and coordinate a      through with a product at exactly the        Ecosystem research was one of several
forest ecosystems research program for       time it was needed, something that           areas in which he proved to be visionary.
the Station at the Moscow lab. He re-        doesn’t always happen in research. The          Wellner was among the first to see
tired in 1973, but worked for the next 25    reason that happened was what Chuck          that greater losses were being caused by
years virtually full-time as a volunteer     Wellner started—the multi-project            forest insects and diseases than by fire.
with the Station and at the University       program.” (Stage 2003).                      He also recognized that these problems
of Idaho, where he was an Affiliate              Many of the program concepts,            were far from being adequately studied.
Professor of Forest Resources. Wellner       including the “core unit” idea, were         In 1939, he helped initiate cooperative
was author or coauthor of some 60            included in the Forest Residues R&D          research with the University of Idaho
scientific publications, most concerning     program launched at the Station in           on white pine blister rust, years before a
silviculture, protection, and management     1974 (see “Special Programs Bring            campaign to curtail blister rust became a
of Northern Rocky Mountain forests.          Special Problems and Achievements,”          national priority. Wellner was the prime
    Wellner made the ecosystem program       this chapter). Wellner’s influence was       organizer of many programs that inter-
at Moscow a practical demonstration          important there, and also in subsequent      locked Federal, State, university, and
of his vision of how Forest Service          R&D and RD&A programs in other               industry efforts on forest pest problems
research should be conducted. It             areas of the Station. He also influenced     (Lassen, personal communication).
was the Station’s first multi-project        the individual research units at Moscow,        Wellner was the first to recognize the
program (INTercom 5/12/77). Wellner          particularly the pathology unit, to move     value of Rexford Daubenmire’s habitat
established the research unit concerned      away from studies in narrow areas, such      typing classification system as a basis
with silviculture of cedar-hemlock-          as individual diseases, to considering       for forest management prescriptions
grand fir forests of the Northern Rocky      ecological problems.                         (Stage, personal communication).
Mountains as the program’s core unit.            Was Wellner’s program truly far          He was an enthusiastic supporter of
The silviculture unit’s mission included     ahead of its time? Two decades later,        habitat typing research throughout the
methods to inventory forest land and         in the 1990s, the Forest Service started     inland West, and it became one of the
timber resources. Its members also           a national effort to promote a strategic     Intermountain Station’s finest achieve-
sought better ways to measure, predict,      planning process at each Station to          ments (see next section).
and interpret effects of management          emphasize multi-disciplinary research           Research supported by Wellner got
practices on forest stands, and to apply     along with the more traditional “func-       done. He was a quiet, likeable gentle-
the information to forest management         tional” research (Hamre 2005). The           man, but he was persistent in pursuing
planning.                                    planning resulted in building research       his goals. Scientists who worked under
    The program combined efforts             work units with interdisciplinary teams      his direction were motivated by the
in forest insect, disease, watershed         of scientists focusing on multifaceted       example he set and his insightful way
management, and genetic improvement          problems facing resource managers.           of dealing with them. Wellner had
as they applied to intensive management      Each Station also established “ecosys-       tremendous dedication to quality work
of the ecosystem. This meant active          tem management” research specific to         in every detail. Al Stage learned about
participation by five different research     areas.                                       that early in their relationship when they
work units. Adding another dimension,            Rocky Mountain Station Director          shared a room on a business trip. He
the silviculture unit was one of the first   Denver Burns listed three advantages:        said Wellner was up at 3:30 or 4:00 a.m.,
in Forest Service Timber Management                                                       reviewing manuscripts, reading study
Research to fund studies of forest esthet-   • Synergy of scientists from different       plans and memos, and making notes. He
ics (Stage interview).                         disciplines, universities, and             was taking care of all the details before
    There was considerable participation       management attacking complex               the main business of the day got started.
by forest managers. Wellner had a pet          issues, rather than individuals            Stage said one of Wellner’s other virtues
saying about research results: “If it’s        looking at pieces of problems.             as Division Chief and Assistant Director

was that he “took care of all the junk”       Chuck Wellner in
that came down from higher levels,            1990 with The Nature
allowing the scientists to concentrate        Conservancy’s Susan
                                              Bernatas after ford-
on their work. “We never saw it,” Stage
                                              ing a stream in the
said. “ADs who followed him passed a          Pony Creek Research
lot of it along to us.”                       Natural Area in the
    Wellner consistently and effectively      Payette National
provided training for scientists and oth-     Forest.
ers on project staffs under his direction,
which greatly enhanced the effective-
ness of the people (Pechanec, personal
communication). He fostered creativ-
ity by allowing scientists to spend 20
percent of their time studying things of
particular interest to them. Entomologist
Mal Furniss said this policy helped him       Region 1—Tepee Creek on Priest Lake.         and which elements needed protection
get involved in applying knowledge of         In 1937 he prepared establishment            (Stolz 1986).
insects to research on shrubs (Furniss,       reports for the next three. The early            Wellner devoted the rest of his life to
personal communication). Furniss              work kindled a life-long passion for         the program as an organizer, leader, and
said he stretched the 20 percent limit        guaranteeing that pieces of land exist       field worker. He visited hundreds of sites
occasionally, but nobody seemed to            where researchers, natural resource          and wrote 120 establishment reports.
mind as long as the assigned work was         managers, and students can examine un-       Early in his work, Congress gave the
accomplished.                                 touched specimens of the ecosystem and       program a big boost. The 1976 National
    Often recognized by his peers as a        compare them to areas that were similar      Forest Management Act tied RNA
“forester’s forester,” Wellner carried his    before human activities intervened           establishment to forest planning (Tippets
interest in advanced training into the        (Stolz 1986).                                1990). By 1983, the Forest Service
formal education system. He worked               Through the years, the Forest Service     network of RNAs contained 148 areas
with several professors at the University     established a few Research Natural           representing more than 80 of 145 forest
of Idaho to establish the Continuing          Areas, the Bureau of Land Management         cover types recognized by the Society
Education in Forest Ecology and               recommended others, and the Nature           of American Foresters. Of those, 17 had
Silviculture program. Wellner served on       Conservancy set aside several nature         been established in the previous 4 years.
numerous graduate committees and led          preserves. Despite Wellner’s prodding,       The Station, working with Regions 1
instructional programs for silviculture       the efforts were sporadic and seldom         and 4 was responsible for establishing
students from across the Country              were people made available to do the         11, or 65 percent, of the new additions
(McMurray 2004).                              work. When Wellner retired in 1973           (INTercom 2/3/83). The two Regions
    The quiet little man could get excited,   he realized that many prime ecosystem        and the Station jointly funded a Program
especially when the topic was one of          examples would be lost unless RNA            Manager position, filled by Angela
his favorites. Long after Wellner retired,    designations were speeded up, and he         Evenden. She worked closely with
Station Director Lassen recalls visiting      started a crusade to accomplish that.        Wellner and the coordinating group and
him in his home (Lassen interview,               The first step was to arrange a gather-   progress accelerated.
2005). After Wellner made breakfast,          ing of some 60 experts and lay people in         A 2001 Rocky Mountain Station
they set off on a trail leading to a po-      Boise to discuss the need for RNAs. The      publication cataloging proposed or
tential Research Natural Area. Wellner        workshop was led by Station Director         established RNAs listed 226 areas on
thought the area had special importance       Roger Bay and John Ehrenreich, Dean          National Forest System lands in Idaho,
because it represented an ecosystem           of the University of Idaho College of        Montana, Nevada, Utah, and western
where a benchmark was needed to help          Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences.       Wyoming. Wellner had been instrumen-
settle a forest management controversy.       The participants formed the Idaho            tal in identifying and nominating more
After they viewed the area, Wellner           Natural Areas Coordinating Committee,        than 200 of them. The total was far and
walked backwards down the trail,              with Wellner as chairman.                    away the largest in the Forest Service for
waving his arms all the way, while he            The coordinating group set up six         any Station territory. The national total
lectured the Station Director on the          technical committees, led by experts in      was 450.
importance of Research Natural Areas in       aquatics, grasslands and shrublands, for-        Establishment of one area was
general, and the one they had just seen       ests, alpine habitat, rare and endangered    especially gratifying to Wellner, and
in particular.                                plants, and endangered animals. The          also an indication of his persistence. In
    Wellner’s interest in establishing        committees tackled the details of the        1937, Wellner wrote an establishment
Research Natural Areas started early in       RNA project, classifying the natural di-     report for a 982-acre tract in the Selkirk
his career. He contributed information        versity of Idaho, noting which elements      Mountains within the Priest River
in 1935 to the first RNA proposal in          reserved lands already encompassed,          Experimental Forest. Although the

                                               In 1989, Wellner was recognized with       and did not reflect the capability of the
                                            a Chevron Conservation Award present-         land to produce a variety of resources.
                                            ed at a banquet in Washington, DC. He             Daubenmire created his habitat
                                            was one of 10 “citizen conservationists”      typing system in the early 1950s, and
                                            recognized nationwide that year. The          after a lengthy period of development
                                            last sentence in a letter nominating him      and trials, used it to describe the forest
                                            for the award said, “His contributions        vegetation of northern Idaho and eastern
                                            will serve society forever.”                  Washington in a 1968 Washington State
                                               To ensure that his name would              University technical bulletin coauthored
                                            forever be associated with a Priest River     with Jean Daubenmire. The system
                                            ecosystem that was one of his favorites,      proved valuable, and it served as a
                                            the Rocky Mountain Station and Region         model for classification work throughout
                                            1 officially designated the Wellner Cliffs    western forests (Noble 1977).
                                            Research Natural Area in 2005. It was             Daubenmire had close ties to the
                                            the only RNA of the more than 100 in          Station. He worked at Priest River on
                                            Idaho to be named in remembrance of a         personal research in the 1950s and
                                            person (London 2005).                         participated in cooperative research with
Chuck Wellner admired an old-growth
spruce in a Research Natural Area in                                                      the Station from 1961 until 1975. In
central Idaho in 1991.                                                                    1968, he mapped habitat types for much
                                                                                          of the Priest River Experimental Forest,
                                            A Better Way to See the                       defining eight types and large areas of
report was approved by Stephen              Forest                                        ecotones between the types (Wellner
Wyckoff, Northern Rocky Mountain                                                          1976).
Station Director, and Regional Forester                                                       Habitat types are based on potential
Evan Kelley, it never reached the              The Station and Region 1 began a           climax tree and undergrowth vegetation
Chief’s desk for approval. Kelley did       cooperative study in 1971 to extend           for given sites. The system classifies
not submit the report, maintaining that     habitat typing concepts to Montana. This      sites using the entire plant community
RNAs didn’t need approval by the Chief      was the start of a large team effort to de-   as an indicator of environmental factors
(INTercom 5/15/86).                         velop ecological land classifications that    as they affect species reproduction,
   Wellner said he was unsuccessful in      was to command attention from many            competition, and plant community de-
establishing RNAs in Region 1 during        Station scientists and cooperators for the    velopment (Pfister 1976). Successional
Kelley’s tenure, because the “very prac-    next 15 years. The cumulative results of      trends toward climax vegetation can
tical minded Regional Forester didn’t       the work were a major contribution to         usually be identified even in rather
believe that RNAs were a high enough        improving scientific resource manage-         young stands. Thus, a given habitat
priority to bother the Chief about”         ment throughout the Station territory         type includes all land areas potentially
(Tippets 1990). Nevertheless, Wellner       and beyond.                                   capable of producing similar plant com-
got the job done eventually. In 1986, he       Rexford Daubenmire, a Washington           munities when the vegetation reaches
wrote a new establishment record for        State University botany professor,            climax, even though existing vegetation
the Selkirk Mountain area, saw that it      provided the concepts underlying the          might be dominated by successional
was properly forwarded, and obtained        team’s work. Chuck Wellner promoted           species.
approval from Forest Service Chief Max      the program. Bob Pfister, Project Leader          Pfister was a disciple of Daubenmire.
Peterson.                                   of the forest ecosystems research unit        He joined the Station in 1961 as a
   Wellner was honored frequently           at Missoula, served as a key participant      research forester at Moscow and in the
during his lengthy career with the Forest   and coach for many others. Some               mid-1960s was assigned to help solve
Service and as a volunteer. He received     of the more valuable team members             serious regeneration problems Region
USDA Superior Service Awards in             within the Station were Bob Steele and        4 was having with spruce stands in
1962 and 1972, a rare double honor. He      Kathy Geier-Hayes (Boise), Steve Arno         southern Utah. Pfister concluded that
was elected a trustee of the Northwest      (Missoula), and Walt Mueggler (Logan).        the spruce forests needed to be classified
Scientific Association in 1976. The            Wellner said that before Daubenmire        on an ecological basis. He developed
Society of American Foresters elected       the forest classification system in the       a habitat type classification of high-
him a Fellow in 1977. The Inland            Northern Rocky Mountains from an              elevation forests in Utah as his Ph.D.
Empire Section of the society named         ecological standpoint “was simply             dissertation, working under Daubenmire.
him forester of the year in 1979. The       chaos.” He pointed out that several           Wellner (1987) said of that work, “We
University of Idaho College of Forestry     existing classifications were largely to      were modestly on our way to developing
made him an honor alumnus in 1982.          regulate forests, help in planning timber     a habitat type classification for forests of
The Nature Conservancy gave him its         sales, and define the timber supply situ-     Utah.”
coveted “Oak Leaf Award” in 1984 for        ation (Wellner 1987). They were geared            The Montana habitat typing project
his RNA work.                               primarily to economic considerations,         was the first such classification based

on a large-scale reconnaissance study.
It illustrated the huge amount of data
                                                   A Modest Start for a “Best Seller”
gathering and analysis required to                                          A guide that started out very modestly in the late 1970s
produce classifications covering broad                                      became one of the Station’s most popular publications.
areas. More than 1,500 forest stands                                        Back then, Forester Jonalea Tonn (Moscow) copied plant
in 10 National Forests were sampled.                                        drawings from various manuals as handouts for summer
Developing the classification involved a                                    field crews who needed to make accurate identifications
progressive series of analyses by Pfister                                   of vegetation. After the northern Idaho habitat typing
and his associates and included 4 years                                     refinement project got under way, Patricia Patterson,
of field testing by land managers and                                       a forester with the Clearwater National Forest, was
researchers. Region 1 provided major fi-     Forester Jonalea Tonn          assigned major
nancial assistance, and the University of    (center) used plant draw-      responsibility
                                             ing copies for field crew      for developing a
Montana’s Forestry School and Botany
                                             training in northern Idaho     field guide.
Department provided administrative and       before Field Guide to
technical support (Noble 1977).              Forest Plants of Northern        Patterson,
    The team defined 64 habitat types.       Idaho was published.             Tonn, and
The 1977 Station publication, Forest                                          Ken Neiman,
Habitat Types of Montana, that sum-                                           Clearwater
marized the work included photographs        Forest ecologist who was co-leader of the
of examples and a key that allowed           habitat project, wrote Field Guide to Forest
                                             Plants of Northern Idaho. The guide was
foresters to identify types after minimal
                                             designed for use by people with minimal
training. The authors were Pfister,          botanical training. It described nearly 200
Bernard Kovalchik, who became a tim-         plant species having ecological indicator value
ber management planner for the Helena        in northern Idaho and included drawings and
National Forest, Arno, and Richard           identification keys.
Presby, later biotic planning specialist
for the Idaho Panhandle National             The guide was issued by the Station in April
Forests.                                     1985. Demand was heavy, and it was reprinted
                                             12 times for a total of more than 20,000 copies
    Properly trained personnel were
                                             up to 2001. That year it became available on
essential to the success of habitat typing   a disc (RMRS-GTR-118-CD) and no longer
projects. Early efforts used graduate        was in print. Users could print out sections of
students or survey workers with little       interest to take to the field, or view the guide   A “best seller” aided habitat typing
training to gather data. Resurveys of        on a lap-top screen if they were field-going       work.
plots in Montana showed only about 50        computer users.
percent were classified correctly. This
led to intensive training in the habitat

                                             type concept by university and Forest         The Mountain Pine Beetle in Lodgepole
                                             Service ecologists and the inclusion of       Pine Forests.
                                             habitat type classification in university        Bob Steele, silviculture Project
                                             courses (Wellner 1987).                       Leader at Boise, led work from 1972
                                                 Habitat typing gained general accep-      to 1979 on habitat typing for upland
                                             tance and spread throughout Regions           forests in central Idaho and eastern
                                             1 and 4. Areas in northern Idaho              Idaho-western Wyoming. Steele then
                                             originally typed by Daubenmire were           launched studies of succession and
                                             resurveyed to fill gaps and adjust some       management strategies for eight habitat
                                             descriptions.                                 types in central Idaho. He and Forester
                                                 Research Forester Art Roe and             Kathy Geier-Hayes wrote the reports.
                                             Entomologist Gene Amman were the              The work was recognized as a major
                                             first to base risk of mountain pine           contribution to the understanding of the
                                             beetle infestation on habitat type. They      ecology of upland forest ecosystems and
                                             surveyed many stands in the Teton and         how people have influenced them (Sloan
Bob Pfister conducted the first habitat
                                             Targhee National Forests in Wyoming           and others 1994).
typing in the Intermountain West that        and Idaho and found that the highest             By the late 1980s, an impressive
was based on a large-scale recon-            probability of infestation was in the         number of habitat type classifications
naissance. He oversaw expansion of           Abies lasiocarpa/Pachistima myrsinite         had been completed throughout the
ecosystem classifications throughout         habitat type. The research was docu-          western United States. Most parts of the
the Station territory for 15 years.          mented in a 1970 Station publication,         Station territory were covered, and the

                                              at the Missoula Forestry Sciences          described fire ecology based on habitat
                                              Lab, Roberts, and Pfister.                 types of northern Idaho.
                                                                                             In 1987, the Station lent support
                                           • Coniferous Forest Habitat
                                                                                         to habitat type use by cosponsoring
                                             Types of Central and Southern
                                                                                         with the University of Idaho a 3-day
                                             Utah, by Andrew Youngblood,
                                                                                         symposium, “Land Classifications
                                             Region 4 ecologist, and Mauk.
                                                                                         Based on Vegetation: Applications for
                                               By 1981, forest ecologists had            Resource Management.” Topics were
                                           been employed by every western                chosen to highlight practical applica-
                                           Forest Service Region, and they were          tions of ecosystem classifications as well
                                           carrying habitat typing work forward.         as theoretical concepts. Daubenmire
                                           Station management believed that the          was the keynote speaker. Wellner,
                                           research basis for habitat typing was         Pfister, Steele, and Arno were among
                                           well-established and enough National          those presenting papers. The Station
                                           Forest personnel had been trained to          published the proceedings, compiled by
Bob Steele, shown here identifying         continue with the application aspects of      Dennis Ferguson, research forester at the
unknown plants from habitat type
                                           the development.                              Moscow Lab; Penny Morgan, an assis-
classification plots, made major contri-
                                               Station Director Bay and Assistant        tant professor at the university; and Fred
butions to understanding the ecology
                                           Director Thadd Harrington wanted              Johnson, professor of forest ecology at
of forest ecosystems in central Idaho
                                           Pfister to move to Moscow to lead             the university.
and western Wyoming.
                                           silvicultural research there. Pfister             Speakers at the symposium described
                                           declined, and instead left the Station        uses of ecosystem classifications in
                                           and joined the University of Montana          evaluating wildlife habitat, rating
                                           faculty. He was named Director of the         livestock forage needs, fire management,
Station had issued publications describ-                                                 setting reforestation standards, determin-
ing key areas. These included:             Mission-Oriented Research Program.
                                           Pfister continued work on habitat typing,     ing optimum systems to harvest trees,
• Forest Habitat Types of Northern         and in 2005 was involved in leading new       managing forest pests, and predicting
   Idaho: A Second Approximation,          developments in forest classification         special watershed management needs.
   by Stephen Cooper, University of        systems at the national level. Bay said           How important was the develop-
   Montana; Ken Neiman, Clearwater         Pfister “was a good fit for the university.   ment of habitat typing? Ron Stoleson,
   National Forest; Steele; and David      He really did a fine job teaching and         retired Region 4 Director of Vegetation
   Roberts, Utah State University.         mentoring grad students in the forestry       Management, provided his thoughts in
                                           school.”                                      2004:
• Coniferous Forest Habitat Types of
  Northern Utah, by Ronald Mauk and            Pfister and other authors included
                                                                                            In the late 1960s, the Forest Service in
  Jan Henderson, Utah State University.    some management implications in                  Region 1 began utilizing habitat typing
                                           their classification summaries, but the          to categorize land that up until then
• Grassland and Shrubland Habitat          original intention was to carry this much        had been referred to on the basis of the
  Types of Western Montana, by Station     further with additional studies of plant         dominant tree vegetation (spruce-fir
  Ecologist Walt Mueggler and William      succession within the habitat types and          type, ponderosa pine type, etc.). I was a
  Stewart, a range conservationist.                                                         District Ranger at the time and thought
                                           more complete assessments of manage-             that this was a great step forward because
• Aspen Community Types of the             ment applications (Wellner 1987). This           its use required foresters to practice a
  Intermountain Region, by Mueggler.       was done to some extent by Station               lot of botany and to look at relationships
  This classification was based on         researchers after Pfister left, although         between the many components of
                                           Wellner said the program lost much of            the environment, not just trees…
  existing plant communities because
  of the ill-defined successional          the support needed to fully accomplish
                                                                                            Development of the habitat type concept
  status of communities within             those objectives.                                continued and it became an important
  the general aspen ecosystem.                 Steve Arno and Dennis Simmerman              tool, especially for silviculturists
                                           of the Fire Lab and Bob Keane, a                 who could use it for prescribing
• Forest Habitat Types of Central          cooperator at the time, wrote publica-           land treatments based on a more full
  Idaho, by Steele, Pfister, Russ          tions on succession in Montana forests.          knowledge of the ecological components
  Ryker, Project Leader of the                                                              with which they were dealing. Other
                                           Bill Fischer, Biologist Anne Bradley,            disciplines also found the concept helpful
  forest ecosystems unit at Boise          and Plant Ecologist Marilyn Crane, of            in making inferences about the suitability
  at the time, and Jay Kittams,            Systems for Environmental Management             of land for various uses such as wildlife
  forestry technician at Boise.            in Missoula, compiled reports describing         habitat and recreational potential.
• Forest Habitat Types of Eastern          fire ecology based on habitat types in
                                           Montana. Jane Kapler Smith, forest               I believe that the development
  Idaho-Western Wyoming, by Steele,                                                         and use of habitat typing has been
  Cooper, David Ondov, a technician        ecologist at the Fire Lab, and Fischer           one of the greatest professional

    accomplishments by the Forest
    Service during my 42 years of service
    (Stoleson, personal communication).

Dr. Stage Made the Right

   Forecasting the future condition of
anything as complex and dynamic as
a forest area is a difficult business. Al
Stage proved again and again that it was
a business he was very good at.
   Stage would tell you that the creation
and constant improvement of the
Prognosis Model for Stand Development       The Prognosis team in the mid-1980s (left to right) Dave Hamilton, Bill Wykoff,
was a teamwork operation. Members of        Nick Crookston, Bob Monserud, Dennis Ferguson, Al Stage, and Melinda Moeur.
the team who worked most closely with
him would tell you that Prognosis was
                                            “One of Al’s many contributions to the    at the University of Michigan 1951
his concept, and the continuing improve-
                                            success of the work unit is the feeling   and was hired by the Northern Rocky
ments in the scope and utility of the
                                            of teamwork and cooperation that he       Mountain Station as superintendent of
model were in large measure the result
                                            instilled in each of the members of the   the Priest River Experimental Forest.
of his leadership.
                                            project”(Quantitative Analysis Unit       The next year Stage completed a
   Bill Wykoff, who worked for nearly
                                            1995).                                    master’s program in Forest Ecology
30 years in the unit Stage led at the
                                               Stage built his own foundation for     at Michigan. Through military service
Moscow Lab, said “…Al’s vision, his
                                            work on the Prognosis Model through       during the Korean War, he got a taste
quiet but persuasive prodding and his
                                            a variety of experiences in forest        of measurement work as a member
firm grasp of biophysical, mathematical,
                                            management and research. He earned a      of a regiment making surveys in the
and statistical concepts have served
                                            bachelor’s degree in Forest Management    Philippines.
as a strong foundation for the system”
(Wykoff 2002). Others in the unit wrote,
                                            Well before por-
                                            table computing was
                                            possible, Al Stage
                                            developed the “Stage
                                            Gauge,” a circular
                                            slide device that aided                       After military service, Stage moved
                                            foresters in making
                                                                                      to the Station’s Inland Empire Research
                                            calculations in the
                                                                                      Center in Spokane where for 6 years he
                                                                                      was a one-scientist forest mensuration
                                                                                      project. He had an interest in measuring
                                                                                      just about everything that was related
                                                                                      to forest resources, and creating some-
                                                                                      times novel ways for others to make
                                                                                      measurements. One of Stage’s early
                                                                                      contributions was a method of calibrat-
                                                                                      ing and using one’s thumb as an angle
                                                                                      gauge. He also developed the “Stage
                                                                                      Gauge,” a circular slide rule that greatly
                                                                                      facilitated calculations of tree height,
                                                                                      marginal tree, and horizontal distance in
Al Stage’s long experience at Moscow                                                  the field. In the early 1960s, Stage was
and Priest River gave him knowledge                                                   instrumental in introducing point-
of many things, including the origins                                                 sampling methods to Forest Survey
of the Numbskull Club of America (see                                                 (Wykoff 2002).
chapter 13).

    Stage resumed his education at                Prognosis had many strong points.      a more advanced forecasting system
Michigan in the 1960s, earning a              It primarily used data acquired through    (Intermountain and Rocky Mountain
master’s in Mathematical Statistics and a     normal Forest Survey inventories. It       Stations 1995).
Ph.D. in Forest Mensuration. In 1962, he      used habitat types, based on climax veg-       Stage and his unit members worked
moved to the new Moscow Lab, gaining          etation, as a major area descriptor (See   with hundreds of colleagues and
access to the mainframe computer at the       “A Better Way to See the Forest,” this     cooperators in developing Prognosis.
nearby University of Washington. This         chapter). Several extensions represented   The Project Leader wrote more than
was crucial to the success of large-scale     insect/disease impacts, allowing manag-    75 research publications during his
forest measurement research and model         ers concerned with these problems to       career, 50 of them coauthored with
development (Quantitative Analysis            estimate benefits of selected treatments   fellow scientists, on a wide array of
Unit 1995).                                   (Noble 1982). Publications written by      topics. He presented papers before
    That year the Forest Service was          unit members described or provided         scientific audiences in many parts of the
engaged in a high-priority assessment         user guidelines for many extensions and    world. For his efforts, Stage received
of the Nation’s timber resources, and an      improvements in Prognosis. Some of         a Superior Service Honor Award from
important part of the effort was predict-     these were:                                the Secretary of Agriculture in 1983.
ing future timber supplies. Assistant         • User guides and reports by               He also was named a Fellow of the
Station Director Chuck Wellner learned            Research Analyst Nick Crookston        Society of American Foresters and a
that large amounts of data from growth            on spruce budworm modeling, an         Distinguished Alumnus by the School of
and yield research in the Northern                event monitor, parallel processing,    Natural Resources at the University of
Rocky Mountains were not being used,              and a fire and fuels extension.        Michigan.
and he dispatched Stage to Washington,                                                       In the early 1990s the Forest Service
DC, to find out why. Stage joined the         • User guides and discussions of           designated the Forest Vegetation
assessment team to get answers from             a regeneration establishment             Simulator (FVS) as its forecasting tool
first-hand experience. He found several         extension by Research                    to integrate scientific knowledge of
reasons why existing data were not              Forester Dennis Ferguson.                ecosystem components and describe
very useful for making forecasts. For         • Discussions of Prognosis variables       current and future forest conditions at
example, the yield tables developed             and multipliers and modeling             the same level of detail. The FVS is
by research applied only to even-aged           individual tree mortality by             based on the Prognosis Model (Teck
stands consisting of a single tree spe-         Research Forester Dave Hamilton.         and others 1996). All the basic concepts
cies, although most stands in the West                                                   outlined by Al Stage 20 years earlier
included a variety of species and ages.       • A user guide to shrub and tree           were incorporated into FVS.
    Stage conceived a new way to                canopy extensions by Research
forecast the future condition of                Forester Melinda Moeur.
forested areas. He published the              • A user guide to a combined Prognosis     Administrative Changes
framework in 1973 as a Station research         and tussock moth outbreak model
paper, Prognosis Model for Stand                and a programmer’s guide to an
Development. As Project Leader for              optimization model by Research               In 1971, Joe Pechanec retired as
the Quantitative Analysis Research              Forester Bob Monserud.                   Station Director and was replaced by
Work Unit at Moscow until 1995 when                                                      Robert Harris, also a former range
he retired, Stage recruited a cadre of        • User guides to two major updates         researcher, who transferred from
scientists who participated in making             of Prognosis in 1982 and 1986 by       his post as Assistant Director at the
the model more accurate, more versatile,          Research Forester Bill Wykoff.         Pacific Northwest Station. Harris
and more accessible as the years went             Along the way, modifications were      left the Intermountain Station for the
by, and it became a powerful tool for         made in Prognosis in reaction to sug-      Station Director position at the Pacific
forest managers and planners (Prouty          gestions by users, many of whom were       Southwest Station in 1974, and later
1987a).                                       trained in workshops conducted by          went to the Washington Office as an
    The unit was best known for its work      Stage and his associates. There were       Associate Deputy Chief for Research.
with Prognosis, but the mission was           many users. By 1985 Prognosis was be-          Keith Arnold succeeded Jemison as
broader. It included virtually all aspects    ing used in National Forest planning by    Deputy Chief for Research in 1973 and
of ways to acquire samples and compile        Regions 1, 4, and parts of 6 (INTercom     took a new approach to Station adminis-
and analyze data to improve forest            3/21/85). Ten years later, 14 variants     trative organization. The stated purposes
inventories. In the 1970s, the group          of the Prognosis Model were in use in      were to enhance outreach to research
became the core unit in the Station’s first   all regions of the United States, and      users, better coordinate research plan-
multi-project program, which combined         Monserud had worked with a colleague       ning, and improve technology
efforts in insect, disease, watershed, and    in Austria to produce “Prognaus,”          transfer.
genetic improvement research on mixed-        proving that the unit’s modeling               The new organization established an
species timber stands in the northern         approach could be used to replace          Associate Station Director (later called
Rockies (INTercom 5/12/77).                   traditional European yield tables with     Deputy Director) position, created a

                                                                                               The concept was that the Deputy
      An Extended Asian Adventure                                                          Director would serve as an alter ego to
What he thought would be a few trips to Taiwan in 1973 became a whole new way of
                                                                                           the Station Director, taking over some
life for Dave Born. Taiwan had not made an inventory of its substantial forest resources   of the day-to-day duties of Station
for 23 years, and Born was dispatched from Forest Survey to provide advice on how          management, which would allow the
to conduct a new inventory and assessment. The initial trips and the program that          Director more time for outside contacts.
developed were funded by a special Federal program.                                        The Planning and Applications AD
                                                                                           was to aid in budget planning, develop
It turned out that the                                                                     technology transfer efforts, and serve
Taiwanese wanted
                                                                                           as a liaison with the Chief’s Office on
their survey designed
from the bottom up.
                                                                                           program planning and development.
“I even wrote the                                                                              Locating the Research Program ADs
necessary cooperative                                                                      at field sites was supposed to foster
agreements for them,”                                                                      Station ties to cooperators, research
Born said (interview,                                                                      users, and the research projects. At the
2005). Born’s first                                                                        Intermountain Station, one program AD
advisory visits to the                                                                     remained at the Ogden headquarters be-
island blossomed into                                                                      cause the research sites in the southern
technical supervision                                                                      part of the Station territory were nearby,
of a big operation.                                                                        as was the Region 4 headquarters. The
The Taiwan Forestry
                                                                                           other position was moved to Missoula,
Bureau provided
40 workers, several
                           Research Forester Dave Born (center) shared a meal in the       where the AD had close contact with
university professors
                           1970s in Taiwan with staff leaders for the island’s forest      Region 1 headquarters, the Station’s
were involved, and
                           survey project.                                                 two labs there, and the University Of
the Taiwanese Air                                                                          Montana School Of Forestry.
Force supplied pilots for aerial reconnaissance.                                               A national in-house study led to
                                                                                           the changes. Station Directors were
Born’s program design and supervision work extended over 6 years, 1973-79. He              skeptical when the reorganization was
alternated his office location, spending 3 months in Taiwan and 3 months in Ogden.
                                                                                           proposed because research specialists
In the process he learned to speak Chinese, although he said later, “I can speak some
Chinese…not fluently, although I can cuss well.” Born said everything about his
                                                                                           would be reporting to generalists, but
contacts with Taiwanese culture was enjoyable, although spending half of each year         Arnold recommended the change. Chief
away from his family was not.                                                              John McGuire approved the recom-
                                                                                           mendations, but attached the condition
Born also coordinated work in Taiwan by Survey’s Gary Clendenen and John Kuilowski,        that Stations be given 4 years to comply.
Region 4 aerial photographer. Clendenen assisted with data collection procedures           Years later, some personnel continued
and computer programming. Kuilowski taught Taiwanese pilots how to maneuver                to express ill feelings about the changes
to maximize aerial photography results and showed other personnel how to use the
                                                                                           (Steen 1998).
photos. Sometimes coordination tasks got a bit complex and outside the usual expertise
of a research forester. The Taiwanese had no capability to process color and black-and-
                                                                                               Deputy Chief Arnold also devised
white aerial photos, so Born found a U.S. company that contracted to help them set up      a Research, Development, and
a lab. Then he arranged to ship the first equipment and supplies through the American      Applications (RD&A) Program concept
Embassy to speed up the process.                                                           designed to speed getting research
                                                                                           results into use, particularly in critical
Because of the steep terrain, Born and his associates developed a unique sampling          situations. Although the Station had
system and plot size scheme. The components had been described by university               some experience with special programs,
professors in the U.S. who Born knew, but had not been used before in a large-scale
                                                                                           the advent of RD&A’s had a major
survey. The innovations worked well in Taiwan. The project resulted in a Chinese-
language publication, which included the inventory results and other data Born had
                                                                                           impact on its operations.
summarized regarding forest characteristics and wood products.

                                                                                           Special Programs Bring
Planning and Applications Assistant           Services. The plan was to pilot test         Special Problems and
Director (AD) job, and converted the          the new organization at two Stations
Division Chiefs to Research Program           for several months; the Intermountain
AD’s and moved them to locations              Station was one of the pilot locations.
away from Station headquarters. The           However, the trials never were care-            For most of the 10-year pe-
position of Division Chief for Station        fully evaluated and the decision was         riod that started in 1972, three
Management was renamed Assistant              soon made to go ahead with the new           special programs—Fire in Multiple-Use
Station Director for Research Support         structure at all Stations.                   Management, Surface Environment

and Mining (SEAM), and Systems of            item for its operation. This proved to be       The program was given its mission
Timber Utilization for Environmental         both a blessing and a curse. The fire and    and goals by a policy panel that included
Management (STEM)—occupied                   STEM programs basically had to operate       research and National Forest administra-
prominent positions among Station            with regular Station funds—that was          tors. The goals were: (1) to define the
activities. They and their impacts on the    no blessing. No doubt there were hopes       role of fire in forest and range ecosys-
organization had several similarities, but   that successes would breed increased         tems and enhance the manager’s ability
there were substantial differences.          funding. There were successes, but no        to predict fire behavior and effects, (2)
    All were research and development        financial support materialized and these     to develop techniques to meet the fire
programs, but the fire and SEAM              programs were discontinued when their        management needs of land managers,
programs included “application” in           managers retired.                            and (3) to apply fire management plans
their designations. At the time, RD&A            One small difference was that the        in selected demonstration areas (Lotan
programs required national approval.         Fire in Multiple-Use Program, unlike         1979).
R&D programs such as STEM did not.           SEAM and STEM, did not have an                  The program emphasized applying
National approval of the RD&A pro-           acronym. This may have put it in an elite    existing knowledge, not conducting new
gram charters implied national control,      category of endeavors that somehow           research. There was heavy manager
and in fact such programs were subject       avoided becoming ingredients in the          involvement, and a network of scientists
to more inspection and guidance from         “alphabet soup” of special government        and managers outside the Forest Service
Washington than were elements of the         programs.                                    was established. Work on defining the
normal Station research program.                 The Fire in Multiple-Use                 program started in 1973 at the Fire Lab,
    All three programs were geared to        Management RD&A Program—The                  but Lotan was not assigned to lead it
Station strengths. Experience in integrat-   fire program took a completely different     until 1974, so one problem was that he
ing fire research results into planning      approach than that pursued in the old fire   led an effort he had not participated in
dated back to the 1930s when basic           control planning efforts. “Our approach      originating. Another was that it took
principles were established by Lloyd         assumes that fire management exists to       some time for the physical scientists at
Hornby at Priest River and the Northern      support land management programs,”           the Fire Lab to adjust to the blending of
Rocky Mountain Station. This type of         Program Manager Jim Lotan said. The          the physical and biological sciences and
work was carried on by Jack Barrows          idea was to improve the capability of        scientists that the program required.
and passed to others at the Fire Lab. The    managers to integrate fire management           The program had to “borrow” person-
SEAM program took advantage of a             into general land management plans and       nel from existing Station research units
lengthy history of scientific achievement    activities, considering fire as a way to     in almost all cases, a situation with built-
in range, watershed, and associated soils    meet objectives rather than a force to be    in difficulties. Despite the obstacles,
research at the Station; many of the         controlled (Noble 1978c).                    the program had some excellent achieve-
principles could be applied to mined-            Lotan was an expert in the lodgepole     ments and was successful in developing
area rehabilitation. The STEM program        pine-fire relationship, particularly         a greater appreciation for cooperative
tapped into engineering and forestry         through studies of lodgepole cone sero-      research among the various units at
studies that for 10 years had focused on     tiny (serotinous cones need fire to open     the Fire Lab and other units within and
ways to remove timber from steep, often      and disperse seeds) that earned him a        outside the Station.
fragile slopes with minimal negative         Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.          By mid-1976, so many activities were
environmental effects.                       He was Project Leader of the silvicul-       going on that Lotan started a newsletter
    In the previous decade, cooperative      tural unit at the Bozeman Lab before         to keep those concerned abreast of
research with universities and private       assuming the RD&A manager duties.            developments. The first went to about
organizations had expanded in most                                                        1,000 people in the international fire
parts of the Station program. With it                                                     community. Responses were good,
came experience in handling grants and                                                    and circulation ultimately expanded to
cooperative agreements, special person-                                                   nearly 2,000. “We want to inform our
nel matters, shared use of facilities, and                                                readers of the many activities of the
cooperative publishing arrangements.                                                      program, and to alert them of possible
This helped the Station accommodate                                                       ways that we can help them,” Lotan said
the special programs. The advent of the                                                   (INTercom 8/26/76). Two activities were
programs, however, introduced some                                                        somewhat unusual.
stresses and strains in administrative                                                       Wildlife Biologist George Gruell
units. Often, they had to absorb bigger                                                   joined the program in 1978 to plan and
workloads without parallel increases in                                                   conduct studies of wildlife management
personnel because Station funding in         The Fire in Multiple-Use Management
                                                                                          and fire ecology. His research, done
general had entered a period of decline.     RD&A Program had a logo, but did not         in a nontraditional way, resulted in
    The SEAM Program came with               have an acronym—perhaps putting it           publishing comparison photographs that
ample funding. It was authorized by          in a special category among Federal          showed graphically how fire influenced
Congress and had a specific budget           Government programs.                         vegetation on forest and range lands.

    Gruell’s first project was to compile                                                               Research Forester Alan
an extensive photographic record of                                                                     (Pete) Taylor oper-
changes to the land in the Bridger-Teton                                                                ated a multiple strip-chart
                                                                                                        analyzer in the Fire Lab’s
National Forest in Wyoming, where he
                                                                                                        meteorology laboratory in
had served on the staff. He complement-                                                                 about 1962. The analyzer
ed a collection of “then” photos with                                                                   aided transcription of field
“now” scenes and then selected 85 photo                                                                 data on lightning strikes.
pairs that spanned 103 years of vegeta-                                                                 A decade later, Taylor led
tion history. The result was a Station                                                                  development of FIREBASE,
Research Paper, Fire’s Influence on the                                                                 a program to aid managers
Wildlife Habitat on the Bridger-Teton                                                                   who wanted easy access
                                                                                                        to information about wild-
National Forest, Wyoming, a two-vol-
                                                                                                        land fire.
ume publication. The second volume
discussed management implications
of the vegetation changes (Kingsbury
    Gruell refined and expanded his
technique, and later authored Fire
and Vegetative Trends in the Northern         people knowledgeable about the subject.        objectives (see “Introducing
Rockies: Interpretations from 1871-1982       Unlike standard bibliographies of the          Friendly Fires,” chapter 10).
Photographs. The document was a               time, all information was retrievable by
                                                                                           • Creating guidelines for prescribed
popular Station publication, and was          computer and the system was dynamic.
                                                                                             burning on rangelands primarily
considered significant in influencing         Its database could be constantly updated
                                                                                             managed by the Bureau of Land
thinking about the historical role of fire.   and corrected. FIREBASE included
                                                                                             Management (BLM). This
Gruell also wrote several papers on the       unpublished, as well as published,
                                                                                             was facilitated in 1976 by the
influence of fires started by Indians in      information and specialized training
                                                                                             assignment of James Linne, a BLM
the Interior West, a practice much more       materials, some of them audio-visual
                                                                                             resource specialist, as one of the
widespread than many people thought.          items. When copyright or other regula-
                                                                                             three program team leaders. The
This work also increased understanding        tions permitted, users interested in the
                                                                                             guidelines were tested by the BLM
about the role of fire in years past.         original documents could receive copies
                                                                                             in the Great Basin and northern
    In 1994, some 15 years after Gruell’s     on microfilm.
                                                                                             and southern Great Plains.
photo comparison publications ap-                 To get services, users merely needed
peared, there was great renewed interest      to phone or write an access center,          • Design, development, and evaluation
in them that continued for several years      where an operator would search the             of a fire management decision
after The Forest Ecosystem Mangement          computer file and send the pertinent cita-     model. This work was headed
Assessment Team led by Jack Ward              tions and digests, usually within 3 days.      by Team Leader Dick Barney.
Thomas issued its report describing an        Access centers were set up at Berkeley,
                                                                                           • Through a contract with a
ecological, economic, and social assess-      Atlanta, Boise, and Washington, DC.
                                                                                             private research foundation,
ment of Pacific Northwest forests. The        International cooperation was handled
                                                                                             development of FORPLAN, a
report sparked intense interest in ecosys-    by a United Nations agency. Other major
                                                                                             user-oriented simulation language
tem management. Gruell’s documents            cooperators in developing the system
                                                                                             that enabled field managers to
finally were converted to electronic          were the Bureau of Land Management
                                                                                             access more complex computer
versions when demand eclipsed avail-          and Oak Ridge National Laboratories.
                                                                                             systems using relatively simple
able printing funds (Kingsbury, personal          After it was developed by Taylor
                                                                                             terms. The system was evaluated
communication).                               and others, FIREBASE was tested and
                                                                                             by Lewis and Clark National
    Assembling and publishing bibli-          evaluated for 2 years. It then attained
                                                                                             Forest personnel in Montana.
ographies were standard practices in          full use as an approved Forest Service
science, but the fire program took the        computer-assisted system with an opera-      • Production of state-of-the-art fire
concept further. Research Forester            tions center at the Boise Interagency          effects and prescribed fire guides.
Alan (Pete) Taylor led development            Fire Center (Taylor and Eckels 1977).          Complementary work was done
of FIREBASE, a system that provided               Some other significant program ac-         by Team Leader Bill Fischer, who
technical information from wildland fire      complishments were:                            described a new plan and report
literature quickly and in a very usable       • Participation in various                     format in a Station publication,
form to anyone in the international fire        demonstration projects that                  Planning and Evaluating Prescribed
community.                                      showed managers how prescribed               Fires…a Standard Procedure.
    Like an annotated bibliography, most        fire and tolerance of natural fire            Station Director Larry Lassen an-
FIREBASE entries included digests               under preplanned conditions                nounced termination of the program
of the base documents prepared by               could meet management                      in 1984. He noted that assignments in

the RD&A program charter had been           Research Forester Bill
satisfactorily completed. Lotan moved       Fischer (left) and Program
to the Forestry Sciences Lab in Missoula    Manager Ron Barger
                                            discussed fire and utiliza-
and took on a special task to write three
                                            tion studies conducted
national handbooks before he retired        by Station scientists at the
(INTercom 10/4/84).                         University of Montana’s
    The STEM R&D Program—The                Lubrecht Experimental
Systems of Timber Utilization for           Forest during an educator’s
Environmental Management program            tour in 1980.
was chartered in 1979, but its foundation
was laid 5 years earlier. In 1974, the
Station had started the Forest Logging
Residues R&D Program. Its objective
was to investigate alternative timber
harvesting practices that might produce
more intensive, environmentally com-        was renamed and rechartered and STEM        emphasis over several of the Station’s
patible timber utilization in coniferous    got under way, with Barger as Program       existing projects. It was never funded
forests.                                    Manager, and a quite different mission      or staffed as a separate entity (Close
    The residues program, with Ron          than the old program had.                   1988a). STEM had three core units—
Barger as manager, conducted research           The STEM program, headquartered         economics, with Erv Schuster as Project
in ecosystems common to the larch,          in Missoula, was charged with providing     Leader; utilization technology, led by
lodgepole pine, and Douglas-fir forests     managers with methods to use more of        Mick Gonsior; and engineering technol-
of Wyoming and Montana. Study sites         the under-utilized, small-diameter trees    ogy, headed by Ed Burroughs. Later,
were at the University of Montana’s         in the Northern Rocky Mountains, but        Barger assumed dual roles as Project
Lubrecht Experimental Forest, an area       with a major emphasis on environmental      Leader of the utilization unit in addition
in the Gros Ventre Ranger District of the   concerns. Watershed protection, wildlife    to his Program Manager duties. All the
Bridger-Teton National Forest, the Solo-    habitat improvement, maintenance of         work of the three units contributed to
Hemlock area in the Priest Lake Ranger      esthetics, and insect and disease control   STEM goals. In other areas, the program
District of the Idaho Panhandle National    were important to forest management,        served an integration function, combin-
Forests, and at the Station’s Coram         and STEM was to design specific timber      ing results by core unit researchers with
Experimental Forest (see “Learning          harvesting recommendations to achieve       those of cooperating projects.
about Larch,” chapter 6).                   nontimber goals. A dominant aspect of           Barger used the economics unit to
    Many disciplines and cooperators        STEM was selection and development          illustrate how STEM worked. “Take
were involved in the residue program        of field sites as demonstration areas,      for example the research in the Forest
work. Results were presented at a 1979      with each site representing a small-tim-    Economics project on below-cost timber
symposium in Missoula, “Environmental       ber management problem typical of the       sales,” he said. “Erv Schuster’s excellent
Consequences of Timber Harvesting in        forest in which it was located (INTercom    and widely publicized work is seldom
Rocky Mountain Coniferous Forests,”         1/17/80).                                   thought of as directly linked to STEM,
and made available in a Station publica-        The program was designed like a         but the below-cost sale issue is at the
tion with the same name. The program        research umbrella, providing a special      heart of the problem with small-stem
                                                                                        harvesting.” He also pointed out that
                                                                                        through the economics unit, the Bureau
                                                                                        of Business and Economic Research at
Branches and tops                                                                       the University of Montana produced
left after logging
                                                                                        several widely referenced works on
were chipped at
harvest sites in one                                                                    product uses and the costs and avail-
study sponsored                                                                         ability of forest residues that were useful
by the Forest                                                                           in meeting program objectives (Close
Logging Residues                                                                        1988a).
R&D Program in                                                                              The STEM program started out with
the early 1970s.                                                                        no species emphasis. All Inland West
                                                                                        areas that included trees considered
                                                                                        marginal, small-stem timber were
                                                                                        included. But during early problem
                                                                                        analysis, Forest Service managers in
                                                                                        Regions 1 and 4 emphasized that their
                                                                                        number one priority problem was clearly
                                                                                        management of small, overstocked

                                             one,” Barger said. “It just turned out      don’t get the chance to benefit fully from
                                             to be one of those instances where our      what we learned. That’s a problem with
                                             program needs and their research objec-     every R&D program trying to come to
                                             tives meshed.”                              an orderly conclusion. You may have
                                                 Managers got to see results at 25       arrived at the end, but the program is not
                                             field study sites in Montana, Utah, and     yet completed. If we could just do one
                                             Wyoming. The sites were selected to         iteration of our field studies, we would
                                             represent as wide an array as possible of   unquestionably come much closer to
                                             stand age, tree size, and density within    defining the most promising harvesting
                                             natural stands where trees were 3 to        systems and techniques” (Close 1988a).
                                             7 inches in diameter. National Forest           Barger retired in 1987, ending a
                                             personnel helped select the sites and       distinguished Forest Service career that
                                             arranged commercial logging opera-          began in 1948 when he was a lookout
                                             tions based on research specifications.     and firefighter in the Apache National
                                             That approach made the local foresters      Forest in Arizona. He immediately
                                             well-aware of what was going on and         started working as a visiting professor
                                             resulted in lots of visitors to the areas   at the University of Montana’s School
                                             on an informal basis, and also for field    of Forestry, where he was twice chosen
                                             days sponsored by the program and the       Outstanding Professor of the Year by
                                             forests.                                    students. He died in 1993 of a heart
Studies of skyline logging systems in            Involving the managers helped define    attack, and the University of Montana
the Flathead National Forest, Montana,       precisely what they wanted from the         Foundation established a scholarship
were part of the STEM program quest          studies. Using various harvest methods      fund in his name (INTercom June/93).
to find ways to harvest small-diameter       to achieve a combination of timber-             The SEAM RD&A Program—In
timber efficiently without creating
                                             oriented and nontimber objectives           the early 1970s there was a lot of inter-
unacceptable impacts on the forest
                                             raised economic questions of costs and      est in surface mining. More than 200
                                             benefits, at the time of harvest and in     million acres in the Interior West, much
                                             the future. STEM-sponsored research         of it public land, was underlain by coal,
                                             identified all objectives of concern and    phosphate, uranium, and oil shale depos-
lodgepole pine stands. This gave STEM        defined the costs and benefits associated   its. There were additional vast deposits
a focus, and Peter Koch’s arrival as a       with each. Barger was recognized in         of more than 80 other minerals that
staff member in 1983 brought needed          1976 with a USDA Superior Service           could be mined economically. Energy
wood technology expertise to attack the      Honor Award for his imaginative work        demand was rising throughout the U.S.
problem (see “Peter Koch—Superstar,”         in setting up the program to emphasize          Interest in the environmental effects
this chapter). “His work soon became         “technically, economically, and environ-    of “strip mining” was growing, and
almost 50 percent of what STEM was           mentally viable alternatives” useful to     although 60 percent of surface mining
about,” Barger said.                         managers.                                   was occurring in the East, the potential
   At the time the program started,              Like all formally chartered R&D         for expansion was much greater in the
foresters generally thought they had to      programs at the time, STEM had an           less developed western areas. There
clearcut lodgepole pine stands if they       expiration date. Although its original      was little doubt that many essentially
were to harvest them at all. But consid-     5-year limit was extended once, it came     agrarian communities in the West would
erations involving wildlife, recreation,     to an end in 1986. Results and outlines     experience both social and economic
watershed, and other uses often made         of work that might continue within          impacts as they changed from rural to
partial or intermediate harvesting meth-     other frameworks were presented at a        industrial cultures and the governors of
ods a better choice. Lodgepole had only      workshop attended by more than 100          western States were concerned about
recently emerged as a bona fide timber       scientists and managers at Fairmont Hot     that.
tree, so little information about alterna-   Springs, Montana. The Station published         The Forest Service had started a small
tive harvesting methods was available.       a summary document, Management              research program at the Northeastern
Barger said, “Managers needed more           of Small-Stem Stands of Lodgepole           Station in 1962 to develop methods of
alternatives, and STEM set out to find       Pine—Workshop Proceedings, compiled         reducing or preventing damage to the
them” (Close 1988).                          by Barger.                                  environment and forest resources during
   They found the right harvesting               Although the many technical             surface mining operations and to restore
prescriptions in the Station’s subalpine     publications that resulted from STEM        values after mining. Results had been
forest silviculture unit in Bozeman,         formed a foundation of knowledge to         used by States in developing reclama-
which became a principal collaborator        serve as a basis for future utilization     tion laws and regulations, and by the
(See “Willkommen to High-Elevation           work, Barger expressed regret about         mining industry, National Forests, and
Forestry,” this chapter). “This unit         the program’s demise. “Five or seven        the Tennessee Valley Authority to guide
should have been with STEM since day         years is just too short,” he said. “We      reclamation practices.

    Problems, especially in revegeta-
tion, were different in the West. So
in 1972 the Forest Service completed
planning for the Surface Environment
and Mining Program to coordinate
with many western research groups,
land managers, and State and local
government units. The goal was
to develop and apply information
to minimize environmental and
socio-economic impacts from surface
mining while providing needed energy
sources and minerals (Bay, personal
    At its inception, SEAM was managed
by the State and Private Forestry arm of
the Forest Service. A small administra-
tive staff was stationed in Billings,
Montana. Several Program Managers            Station researchers planted various seed mixtures and used different fertilizer,
supervised SEAM during its 9-year            irrigation, and mulch treatments on study plots located on graded spoils at the
existence. The first, Jean Hassel, later     Decker Coal Mine in southeastern Montana.
became Regional Forester of Region 3.
Research had a major role in SEAM,
and the Station’s watershed (later               In August 1975, the Station assumed          The Station added a new dimen-
renamed disturbed lands reclamation)         responsibility for SEAM. The Program         sion to the research part of SEAM in
unit at Logan was heavily involved from      Manager continued to reside in Billings,     1976 when Neil Frischknecht and Bob
the start.                                   but reported to the Station Director. The    Ferguson were assigned to work as a
    Project Leader Paul Packer wrote         program by then had active projects in       special team studying revegetation of oil
a Station publication issued in 1974         10 western States, and four reclamation      shale and coal spoils on semiarid lands.
that was to guide a large part of SEAM       demonstration areas were in operation,       Sites were established for oil shale
program work in Wyoming, Montana,            with two more planned. The work              studies near Grand Junction, Colorado,
and North and South Dakota, the              involved 10 universities, all the Forest     and southwest of Vernal, Utah. The pair
four States that contained most of the       Service western regions, State and           worked in cooperation with the Bureau
Nation’s federally owned coal deposits.      other Federal agencies, and the mining       of Land Management at the Alton Coal
Packer classified 3,000 square miles         industry (INTercom 8/21/75).                 Mine in Utah, one of three places in the
into “rehabilitation-response units.”            Although the Logan unit conducted        State where coal could be strip mined.
The areas included 22 surface coal           or arranged for the bulk of the research,    Ferguson summed up the research
mines. His work predicted rehabilita-        studies also were made by scientists         results shortly after the SEAM program
tion success by area based on many           at the Rocky Mountain and Pacific            ended with two Station publications,
factors. Rehabilitation Potentials and       Southwest Stations. The Agricultural         Revegetating Processed Oil Shale in the
Limitations of Surface-Mined Land in         Research Service, at Mandan, North           Upper Mountainbrush Zone of Colorado
the Northern Great Plains included de-       Dakota, conducted a SEAM-funded              and Reclamation on Utah’s Emery and
tailed maps showing his ratings for 146      study of the chemical properties of          Alton Coalfields: Techniques and Plant
areas in 36 counties with a description      overburden materials that affect water       Materials.
of pertinent ecosystems.                     quality, plant establishment, and suc-           Most western surface coal mines
    Another influential early publication    cessful reclamation.                         were in alkaline soils, and the acid waste
was Revegetation on the Decker Coal              Obtaining seed for native plants         problems associated with coal mining
Mine in Southeastern Montana by the          was a problem in the West, and SEAM          in the East did not exist, but there were
four scientists in the Station unit, Gene    personnel worked with nurseries              acid pollution problems associated with
Farmer, Ray Brown, Bland Richardson,         and Soil Conservation Service Plant          western mines producing metals in
and Packer. It gave early results of stud-   Materials Centers to set up mechanisms       certain areas (Bay personal communica-
ies at the Decker Mine, which developed      for obtaining plant materials. In 1976,      tion). Farmer addressed one aspect of
into one of the largest surface coal         more than 50,000 containerized native        the problem with a 1976 Station pub-
mines in the U.S. This research provided     shrubs were produced through this part       lication, Revegetation of Acid Mining
the knowledge necessary to establish         of the program and shipped to various        Wastes in Central Idaho.
rehabilitation demonstration areas open      reclamation sites in the West. Shrub Lab         Mining sites at high elevations had
to industry and the public at the State-     scientists at Provo provided expertise for   special problems, and Brown discussed
owned site (Klade 1975).                     this development.                            some of them in Revegetation of an

Station scientists established one of the SEAM demonstration projects at an abandoned gold mine in the Custer National
Forest in Montana. The spoils were shaped, covered with topsoil, and seeded with native plants. Rubber sheets, buried
under the surface, helped retain moisture and control acid drainage.

Alpine Mine Disturbance: Beartooth         (Beker Industries), and the Conda and        mining operations, including coal, heavy
Plateau, Montana, also issued in 1976.     Gay Mines (J.R. Simplot Co.).                metals, oil shale, and barite. By 1981,
This topic was to receive continuing           Two pressing, related problems had       more than 60 mines operating in the
attention from Brown and other Station     to be solved. One was erosion and mass       western United States had nearly 500
scientists after the SEAM program          instability caused by the steepness of       people involved in reclaiming waste
ended (see “Reclaiming the High            waste dump slopes and pockets saturated dumps (Kingsbury 1981a).
Country,” this chapter).                   by groundwater within the dumps. The             Shortly before Packer retired, he said,
    A large area in southeastern Idaho     other was how to revegetate the barren       “I would like to look at a hill and not
holds one of the world’s richest known     and nutrient-poor dump materials to re-      know whether it was mined or not.” That
phosphate reserves, with more than a       store wildlife habitat.
billion tons of recoverable minerals.      Farmer used nuclear
The same area is known for its excellent   measuring devices
wildlife habitat, especially for sage      and models to define
grouse, sandhill cranes, moose, elk, and   instability problems
cutthroat trout. Huge waste dumps result   and show miners how
from the surface mining that extracts      to properly construct
prosphate, and before the mid-1970s        waste dumps or re-
little was being done to reclaim mined     build existing dumps.
areas (Kingsbury 1981a).                   Richardson, working
    Station researchers began working      with Station scien-
with Caribou National Forest personnel     tists at the Provo Lab,
to develop reclamation technology in       demonstrated how to
1972, and the scope broadened under        apply revegetation
SEAM program sponsorship in 1974.          research to prepare
Phosphate mining firms were very inter-    sites and plant veg-
ested in the research, and were quick to   etation that would do
begin restoring waste dumps located on     well on the sites.
public land once advice on techniques          Studies at            During a review of the Station research program, a
                                                                     revegetation plot at the Maybe Canyon phosphate mine
became available. Major projects were      the phosphate
                                                                     in southeastern Idaho was checked by (left to right) a
at the Ballard Mine (Monsanto Chemical     mines resulted in         Caribou National Forest representative; Paul Packer,
Co.), where the Station research began,    recommendations           Project Leader of the mined-land rehabilitation research
the Wooley Valley Mine (Stauffer           for revegetation          unit; Bob Buckman, Deputy Chief of the Forest Service for
Mining Co.), the Maybe Canyon Mine         techniques at other       Research, Roger Bay, Station Director, and a representative
                                                                    of Beker Industries, the company mining the phosphate.

became possible at many sites where
the results of SEAM-sponsored research
                                                    The Most Popular Pub
were properly applied.                        The most popular serial publication in Intermountain Station history was a product of
    Starting in 1977, the focus of SEAM       the SEAM Program. General Technical Report 35, Anatomy of a Mine from Prospect to
application work shifted from setting         Production, was first issued in July 1977. It was reprinted nine times. A total of 34,500
up demonstration areas to developing          copies were produced, and a revised version remained in demand in 2004.
other ways to transfer knowledge to user
                                              Anatomy was first prepared in loose-leaf form
groups. One product was a computerized
                                              in 1975 as an aid to Forest Service managers
literature searching capability developed     and other administrators with mineral area
through a contract with a university.         responsibilities. The material summarized
Another was MOSAIC, a photomon-               legislation affecting mining, defined mining
tage system produced by Aerospace             terms, and discussed basics of mineral
Corporation in California to accurately       exploration, development, and operations in
portray how such things as power lines,       the West. The guide was financed through the
roads, and pipelines would look before        SEAM Program and prepared under direction of
                                              the Minerals Area Management Staff of Region
any development started (Colling 1977).
                                              4. It was written primarily by private mining
The system was used by landscape
                                              consultants James H. Bright and Anthony L.
architects in several types of project        Payne.
    With SEAM activity slowing in 1980,       The guide quickly became popular with land
the major thrusts became to package and       managers in many State and Federal agencies,
distribute results. A series of workshops     and was used often in training courses.
                                              Planners, environmentalists, and mining
were held in Denver where all program
                                              industry personnel sought copies. Educators
participants focused on relating the ma-      from elementary through college levels
jor SEAM areas of concern to planning.        requested copies for classroom use. In 1977, a revision was edited and published by
They provided material for user-oriented      the Intermountain Station, which had taken over responsibility for the SEAM Program.
handbooks published by the Station the        The document was updated again before a reprinting in 1983.
next year. The user guides were for veg-
                                              Several reprintings were funded by the Region 4 minerals staff. The 1995 edition was
etation, soils, hydrology, engineering,
                                              paid for by the Minerals and Geology Management Staff in the national office of the
and sociology and economics (Forestry         Forest Service. Throughout the publication’s history, combined efforts of Region 4
Research West Aug./80).                       and Intermountain Station personnel and consultants in other Forest Service Regions
    The entire Station research unit—         in reviewing and updating material resulted in bringing readers current minerals
Packer, Brown, Richardson, Farmer, and        management information (adapted from the Foreword of the 1995 revision).
technicians Bryan Williams and Michael
Collins—received a USDA Superior
Service Honor Award for the research          the national Forest Service office and the    consensus support for projects and
work. When SEAM ended, the remnants           Stations.                                     programs. Pressures grew to radically
of the research program were assigned                                                       change the workforce by hiring and
to the Logan unit.                                                                          advancing more women and ethnic
    SEAM had been unique among Station                                                      minorities.
special programs with Congressional           The Challenge of                                 The same pressures affected Forest
funding as a separate budget item. During     Managing Change                               Service research, and it also was hit
its first 2 years, the Program Manager                                                      with another serious problem. Research
reported to the Washington Office. There                                                    funding generally not only stopped
were advantages to that type of organiza-        In the early 1970s the flowering
                                                                                            growing, it began to shrink or hold level
tion, but also drawbacks. It was always       of the environmental and civil rights
                                                                                            as expenses rose. This turned out to be
a battle to get research funds sent to the    movements signaled big changes to
                                                                                            a long-term trend. The expansion era at
Forest Service units rather than to the       come throughout the Forest Service.           the Intermountain Station had ended and
various universities who wanted a piece       By the middle of the decade, change           “good times” for research had not reap-
of the action. Later, the visibility of the   was sweeping through the agency. The          peared by the close of the century.
separate budget item made the program         management arm started consolidating             The Station’s last new major facility
a target for Congressional cuts. Funds        Ranger Districts and National Forests         was opened in 1975 when the Shrub Lab
for SEAM gradually diminished and             in a search for greater efficiencies, more    was dedicated, despite the fact that some
were eliminated in 1981. The danger of        specialists in fields such as landscape       buildings still in use at several locations
exposing an individual research program       architecture and wildlife biology             were more than 40 years old. Over the
to specific Congressional cuts was a          were hired, and “public involvement”          next 3 decades, the only improvements
lesson somewhat painfully learned by          programs were begun in efforts to find        in Station facilities of any consequence

were an addition to the Moscow Lab                                                       next 10 years (Steen 1976). Most of the
opened in 1991, some changes in                                                          emphasis items involved some degree of
interior laboratory space at the Fire Lab,                                               change at the Stations. Adding in budget
construction of a greenhouse at Provo,                                                   and workforce adjustments meant a lot
and a bit of remodeling of the 1940s-era                                                 of change was going on.
Boise Lab buildings that was primarily                                                       Bay was a special assistant to
cosmetic. Several experimental areas                                                     the Deputy Chief for Research in
were closed out or had Station use                                                       Washington when named Station
sharply curtailed mainly because funds                                                   Director, and before that assignment
no longer were available to maintain                                                     was a Branch Chief in Watershed
them.                                                                                    Management Research. He had con-
   As elsewhere in the Forest Service,                                                   siderable early experience that perhaps
personnel costs were up and were                                                         gave him unusual insights useful in
continuing to rise. Federal employee                                                     coping with the changes going on at
salaries historically had been low in                                                    the Station. His research expertise was
comparison to private sector pay. When                                                   in watershed and soils, important areas
the Nixon administration came into                                                       in the Station program. He had experi-
office in 1968, reports were circulating                                                 ence in the northern part of the Station
that the gap was as much as 30 percent.                                                  territory as a forestry graduate of the
Veteran employees recalled that reim-                                                    University of Idaho. He knew about fire
bursements for travel expenses also were     Roger Bay responded to changing             from a summer as a smokejumper in
woefully inadequate.                         conditions in the 1970s with innova-        Missoula and also had worked on insect
   In the late 1960s, employees were         tive management activities and a style      survey crews while a student. His first
reimbursed a flat $16.00 per day for         that inspired confidence in subordi-        career job with the Forest Service was
                                             nates. Bay was the third consecutive
official travel expenses. Most people                                                    in timber sale administration with the
                                             University of Idaho graduate to head
required to visit the Washington Office      the Intermountain Station, following        Flathead National Forest.
stayed at the Franklin Park Hotel, where     Joe Pechanec and Bob Harris. The uni-           One later experience turned out to
the room rate was $13.00—the cheapest        versity’s College of Natural Resources      be a perfect fit for the Station situation.
lodging anywhere near Forest Service         named Bay 1994 Honor Alumnus for his        While serving in Washington, Bay was
Headquarters in the Department of            career achievements and service to the      appointed to represent USDA in an inter-
Agriculture complex. The Franklin Park,      school.                                     agency group that worked with western
a second-rate hotel later demolished,                                                    States on coal mining and power project
had two attractions. It served a hefty,                                                  development impacts. Coincidentally,
although somewhat greasy, breakfast          most employees, but the added costs         the Surface Environment and Mining
buffet for $1.00. A visitor could walk       of doing business posed a problem           Program was being developed to address
from the Franklin to headquarters,           for top administrators who had fewer        Montana and Wyoming concerns. The
although it was a pretty good hike. After    discretionary dollars to use in keeping     SEAM concept meshed with interests
eating as much as possible and hiking        programs running.                           of the group Bay was working with, and
to work, a traveler had the grand total         Thanks in part to Deputy Chief           he was able to help the new program
of $2.00 remaining for food during the       Arnold’s changes in Forest Service          get through the Washington approval
rest of the day and any miscellaneous        research Roger Bay faced plenty of          process. At the time he didn’t know he
expenses. Anything more came out of          challenges in 1974 when he succeeded        would be moving to the Intermountain
the employee’s personal pocket.              Bob Harris as Station Director. The top     Station and be given major responsibil-
   The Nixon administration had a            staff had not had time to fully adjust to   ity for SEAM in the field. Bay said the
policy of encouraging private sector         the new Deputy Director and Assistant       contacts he made with State officials
people to enter government service,          Director roles and the demise of the old    during the special Washington assign-
and to accomplish that it had to do          Division Chief system. RD&A and R&D         ment were helpful later when dealing
something about the compensation             programs were largely experimental, and     with Montana officials (Bay, personal
problem. Civil Service salaries gradually    the Station was involved in three major     communication).
were improved and so were expense            ones.                                           At the Station, Bay personally initiat-
reimbursements (the flat rate for room          At about the time Bay arrived in         ed some new approaches to management
and meals was increased to $25.00 per        Ogden, the Forest Service signaled its      and presided over others. He instituted
day in 1969). Annual salary adjustments      awareness of the growing environmental      a Director’s Advisory Committee of
exceeded the inflation rate for several      movement by producing a document            Scientists and Administrators, which
years, although most analysts believed       labeled the “Environmental Program for      included representatives from each lab
the gap between private and government       the Future.” The program described ac-      and changed its membership annually.
compensation was never fully closed.         tion and research programs, highlighting    The committee had dual roles. Members
The compensation news was good for           18 areas of research emphasis for the       were asked to advise Bay on specific

Station issues. It also was a mechanism      Regular employee orientation sessions        scientists. The Washington Office and
for employees to bring concerns to the       were instituted, and they helped create      Station Headquarters had very little
attention of the Director without having     understanding between scientific and         influence on research direction. The
to go through the traditional supervisory    administrative personnel. Bay credited       research work unit descriptions became
“chain of command.” The committee            Bev Holmes (see “Bev Holmes—Ace              meaningless.”
served as a communication link in            Administrator,” chapter 12) with getting         Bay’s style was his own but it had
another way. Meetings often included         these activities started, but he gave them   some features of “participatory manage-
briefings by headquarters personnel on       strong support (Bay interview, 2005).        ment,” “transactional analysis,” and
their areas of responsibility, information       Occasionally, Bay’s management           other tactics advocated by management
the committee members carried back to        style resulted in events probably not        gurus of the time. It also included ele-
their home units.                            seen before or since at the Station. For     ments of “Total Quality Management,”
    Bay also started holding occasional      example, after the retirement of George      which was widely heralded in govern-
staff retreats to help the Deputy and        Gruschow, long-time Assistant Director       ment and industry circles some years
Assistant Directors become comfortable       for Administration, Bay called a meeting     later. Asked how he would characterize
working together. These typically were       of the five Group Leaders who reported       his approach, he said, “I just thought it
2- or 3-day informal meetings away           to the AD for Administration. He read a      was important to involve a lot of people.
from Station Headquarters. There were        list of candidates to replace Gruschow,      We didn’t have a name for it, we just did
some formal reports and agenda items,        and asked each Group Leader what he          it.”
but most of the agenda called for open       knew about the person and if he would
discussion of whatever was of interest to    recommend the candidate for the job.
the participants.                            Giving people a voice in selecting their     The P&A Training Ground
    One significant question was how         own supervisor definitely was not stan-
the three Program Managers would fit         dard Forest Service procedure! Bay had
into the organization. Bay made them         a special knack for making subordinates          Four men—Otis Copeland, Ron
de facto Assistant Directors. They           at all levels feel they were important,      Lindmark, Jerry Sesco, and Keith
attended monthly staff meetings with         and exercises such as rating a future        Evans—served as the Planning and
the Assistant Directors and had much         boss certainly made the raters believe       Applications Assistant Director during
of the same responsibilities and author-     they were part of the management team.       Intermountain Station history. Although
ity within their program areas as the            Giving Station personnel a voice         the job was not formally designated as
ADs did for research units under their       in matters that directly affected them       a “stepping stone” to higher positions,
supervision.                                 was a Bay characteristic that often had      with one exception, all advanced to
    Bay said one major change he tried       very positive results. Long-time Project     more important administrative posts in
to bring about didn’t work out. Other        Leader Al Stage recalled one year when       Forest Service Research.
Stations had been successful in organiz-     a severe budget crunch threatened the            The exception was Copeland, the
ing “consortiums” to bring together          entire research program. Rather than         first of the P&A ADs, who was only
university and government research           dictate percentage or individual cuts        2 years from retirement when the job
expertise in coordinated programs. Bay       in research units, Bay called a special      was created in 1972. The principal
tried to organize this type of effort with   meeting of the Project Leaders and           reason P&A slots were established was
the Shrub Lab as a hub, but said the         merely laid what the total cut was likely    a mountain of new work required by
consortium idea just didn’t catch on.        to be, where the Station stood in the        the Renewable Resources Planning Act
    Although Bay failed to get a shrub       national picture, and what was needed to     and other Federal legislation mandating
consortium started, his promotion of         maintain a viable program. The Project       long-range natural resource planning.
the idea paid off. Less than a year after    Leaders returned home, thought it over,      The timing, however, coincided with
he left the Station the Provo Lab an-        and went out and raised funds from           the change from Division Chiefs to
nounced formation of a Shrub Research        outside sponsors. Enough “soft money”        Assistant Station Directors—Research
Consortium consisting of the Station,        was forthcoming to maintain the Station      at all Stations. The AD-Rs got more pay
Utah Division of Wildlife Resources,         program that year (Stage, interview).        than the P&A ADs, and supervised a
Brigham Young University, and Utah               This was not the first time direct       large number of personnel in research
State University to coordinate research      funding came to research work units          units. Evans called them “AD—Reals”
on improving shrubs and their use on         from sources other than annual appro-        (personal communication). P&A ADs
western rangelands.                          priations. The practice grew, however,       usually had only secretarial help, no
    During Bay’s tenure as Director,         as constraints on the “regular” research     supervisory authority, and basically
the Station formed a Civil Rights            budget continued. Retired Assistant          served as staff assistants to the Station
Committee whose members represented          Station Director Keith Evans said            Directors.
a cross-section of units and employ-         in 2005, “The amount and level of                Copeland, a watershed scientist,
ment levels. The committee helped set        ‘soft dollars’ coming into the Station       had been a Division Chief. The other
employment and training goals designed       would surprise many. In later years,         Division Chiefs got AD-R appointments.
to increase diversity in the workforce.      soft dollars set the priorities for the      He “drew the short straw,” and became

                                                                                       Station when Lindmark left for Ogden.
                                                                                       Some years later, after moving to the
                                                                                       Washington Office, his second post there
                                                                                       was following Lindmark as a staff as-
                                                                                       sistant to the Deputy Chief for Research.
                                                                                       Their appointments at the Intermountain
                                                                                       Station were no coincidence, however.
                                                                                       Station Director Roger Bay, who hired
                                                                                       both men, said their strong backgrounds
                                                                                       in economics were important to the
                                                                                       planning part of the job that was empha-
                                                                                       sized at the time, and he believed their
                                                                                       knowledge would put them in a good
                                                                                       position to advance into future positions
                                            Ron Lindmark (standing) was involved
                                            in 1976 in some intense study of a
                                                                                       that required planning skills.
                                            planning document with (left) Forest           Sesco served 3 years as P&A AD.
                                            Products Laboratory P&A AD Paul            Like Lindmark, he said most of his
                                            O’Connel and Professor Irv Holland of      time was spent on the “P” part of the
                                            the University of Illinois. The exercise   job—long-range planning and budget.
                                            was part of a national/regional research   “The application part of the job never
                                            planning program.                          received the emphasis it deserved,”
Otis Copeland was the first Planning                                                   he said. “However, INT was a leader
and Applications Assistant Director at
                                            and forestry schools. Lindmark said        in establishing and operating RD&A
the Intermountain Station.
                                            very little of his time was spent on work  programs, which were very successful.
                                            that could be considered “applications,”   It was our feeling that a long-range
                                            with perhaps the exception of arranging    cultural change needed to occur to
the P&A AD. He was not happy about
                                            educator’s tours.                          get scientists to build closer relation-
this turn of events, and wasn’t bashful
                                               When Lindmark moved to the              ships with users, especially National
about letting fellow employees know
                                            Washington Office in 1977 his first        Forest System managers” (personal
how he felt. Nevertheless, Copeland
                                            job was as an assistant to the Deputy      communication).
shared a trait common to all the
                                            Chief for Research, responsible for            Sesco moved from Washington
Intermountain Station P&A ADs. He
                                            planning. Later he served as research      to the Southeast Station as an AD-R
was an industrious person who got
                                            budget coordinator. After a stint work-    in 1984. He was appointed Station
things done. He strongly supported
                                            ing as a Congressional assistant to        Director in 1986. In 1988, he moved
the Station’s Surface Environment and
                                            Representative Ralph Regula of Ohio,       back to Washington as Associate Deputy
Mining Program when it was brand-new
and required a great deal of coordination   he became Staff Director
with Forest Service Regions and other       of Forest Environment
organizations. In 1975, the Utah Chapter    Research. Lindmark said
of the Soil Conservation Society of         the common expecta-
America gave him its Merit Award for        tion for people going to
his work with SEAM.                         Washington was that they
    Lindmark took over as liaison           would stay 2 years. “My
between the Station Director’s Office       2-year stay turned out to
and the SEAM Program when he moved          be 10,” he said. “A slow
to the P&A job in 1974 from a post as       learner, I guess.”
Project Leader of the marketing research       Lindmark apparently
unit at the North Central Station. He       learned well. In 1987 he
recalled that the P&A position still was    was appointed Director of
“relatively new and not well defined”       the North Central Station.
(personal communication). During his        He served in that position
tenure, Lindmark said two major activi-     until retirement.
ties consumed most of the P&A ADs              It was coincidental, but
time. Both were planning programs.          the next P&A AD followed Jerry Sesco (left) returned to the Station in 1993 as
One was responding to requirements of       right behind Lindmark           Deputy Chief for Research to review the program
the Resources Planning Act, the other       during part of his career.      and present awards, including one for Economics
to a national/regional research planning    Jerry Sesco became Project Project Leader Erv Schuster in recognition of
activity conducted in cooperation with      Leader of the marketing         Schuster’s work in assembling and analyzing rural
the Cooperative State Research Service      unit at the North Central       development data for a national program.

Chief for Research and after only 1                                                       ment to RPA was passed in 1976, titled
month was appointed to the highest                                                        the National Forest Management Act.
administrative position in Forest Service                                                 NFMA called for a comprehensive man-
Research—Deputy Chief.                                                                    agement plan for each National Forest.
   Evans was the third consecutive P&A                                                    RPA had an impact on the Stations,
AD to come from the North Central                                                         but the planning effort required at each
Station when he replaced Sesco in 1981.                                                   National Forest placed much greater
A wildlife biologist with a special inter-                                                demands on time and human resources.
est in ornithology, he was Project Leader                                                 To many Forest Service employees, and
for range and wildlife habitat research at                                                perhaps the public, RPA and NFMA
North Central’s unit in Columbia, MO.                                                     changed the Forest Service from a “do-
Planning continued to be an important                                                     ing” to a “planning” organization.
part of the P&A job, but there was                                                           The Resources Planning Act created
more balance as the national planning                                                     the original need for Planning and
programs got less emphasis. Evans was                                                     Applications Assistant Station Directors,
involved more in budget formulation                                                       and it created a lot more work for Forest
and technology transfer than his prede-                                                   Survey. The act broadened the inventory
cessors had been.                                                                         mandate to include not just commercial
   Evans said at some Stations there          Keith Evans supervised the original         timberlands, but all forest land. In the
were conflicts between the P&A AD and         wilderness research unit as part of his     Intermountain West this meant that vast
the Budget Officer, but that wasn’t true      job as an Assistant Station Director        areas of pinyon-juniper and other spe-
in Ogden. “Carlos Elwood (the Budget          for Research. When the Aldo Leopold         cies considered noncommercial had to
Officer) and I got along real well,” he       Wilderness Institute opened in 1993         be included in Statewide surveys.
said. “I always referred to my part as        Evans was on hand to present a com-            This task was difficult if not impos-
‘funny money’ and worked on budgets
                                              memorative T-shirt designed by the old      sible with existing technology. Pinyon
before the appropriations committee
                                              unit’s David Spildie to Dorothy Bradley,
                                                                                          and juniper trees tend to have multiple
                                              Aldo Leopold’s step-granddaughter.
passed their bill. As soon as the appro-                                                  stems and heavy branching. Traditional
priations bill was passed and the money                                                   measurement methods could not provide
crossed to the west over the Mississippi      Evans lived in four apartments, held        accurate estimates of the volume and
River, Carlos took over and did a great       three positions, and occupied seven         growth of these woodland types. The
job.” Elwood assumed the long-range           different offices (INTercom 11/9/89). He    Station’s survey unit, working in coop-
budgeting work when Evans went to the         got his reward in 1989 when he returned
Washington Office in 1985. The P&A            to the Station as an “AD—Real,” super-
position was not filled after Evans’ trans-   vising a large group of research units, a
fer (Evans, personal communication).          job he served in until retirement.
   In the technology transfer phase of            The P&A job at the Station proved
the job, Evans helped organize several        to be an excellent transition position
important symposia. He also spent con-        between scientist and research adminis-
siderable time coordinating a “Research       trator roles. The P&A AD was a member
Needs Response Program.” This was             of the Station’s executive team and
an effort to solicit ideas directly from      participated in all the meetings where
resource managers at all levels about         budgets, personnel, and other matters
what their most compelling problems           were discussed and decisions were
were and which ones research should           made.
work on. This program was not a great
success, and later was discontinued (see
“Getting the Word Out—the Station’s           A Lot More to Survey
Strong Suit,” this chapter).
   Evans went to Washington after
qualifying as a Congressional Fellow.            On the national scene, passage of
He worked for then Congressman Dick           the Forest and Rangeland Renewable
Cheney and later Senator Malcolm              Resources Planning Act (RPA) in 1974
Wallop, both of Wyoming. He also              had important effects on the Forest         Dave Born and Dave Chojnacky of
worked on the Forest Service Legislative      Service. RPA called for the Service to      Forest Survey wrote several publica-
Affairs Staff and served as a staff           make an assessment of natural resource      tions describing the segmentation
specialist in the Forest Environment          needs every 10 years, and to produce        technique for determining volume
Research office. Life in Washington           a plan every 5 years to address those       and growth of dryland trees and later
could be hectic. During 4 years there,        needs (West 1990). A significant amend-     refinements to the system.

eration with Region 3 (the Southwestern      described here to illustrate what could      about the study. Soon after that, for-
Region) and Station scientists at Reno,      happen.                                      est-wide programs to control mountain
solved this problem in the mid-1970s by          The Forest Service was embroiled         pine beetles with chemicals were
developing a procedure for measuring         in controversies in the 1970s. The           discontinued.
these trees that involved segmenting the     environmental movement had added                 Amman said Attorney Dean Gardner
stems and branches and then computing        a new dimension to conflicts between         of the USDA Office of the General
estimates of volume and growth (Van          people with differing viewpoints that are    Counsel told him of an unintended con-
Hooser, personal communication).             inherent in a multiple-use management        sequence of the study and publication.
   The procedures worked so well             program. The Forest Service was caught       The Targhee National Forest in Idaho
that the Pacific Northwest Survey            in the middle. Some criticism was lev-       made a lodgepole pine sale in an area of
Unit, based in Portland, used them for       eled at the use of chemicals in programs     beetle infestations to a timber operator
the inventory of the chaparral type in       to control insect pests or unwanted veg-     with the stated purpose of protecting
southern California and for the western      etation. A lot of criticism was directed     trees that would be left after the timber
juniper type in Oregon and Washington.       at the quantity and quality of timber        cutting. The operator didn’t complete
During the 1990s, the Forest Service’s       harvesting in the National Forests.          the harvest, and the Forest Service sued
International Forestry Staff exported        Chief Ed Cliff said he welcomed the          him. The logger used the Amman-Baker
the Intermountain Station segmentation       environmental movement but acknowl-          study results in his defense, and won the
procedures to Sudan and Somalia, where       edged that top Forest Service officials      case.
they were successfully used to measure       may have misjudged its power and                 Amman said, “That is the way with
and inventory shrubby vegetation in          effect…“The movement wasn’t new, but         science; some of it works for the Agency
those countries.                             it certainly gained momentum and grew        and some works against it.”
   The unit developed useful new             beyond all stretches of the imagination          By 1974 national controversies
technology again when it was time to         during the sixties” (Hartzer 1981).          over timber harvesting, particularly
do a Statewide survey in Arizona, where          One of the flaps in the early 70s        clearcutting, had escalated. It was just
mesquite is common. Mesquite was too         pitted a Station researcher and a            the right or wrong time (depending on
dense to allow foresters to extract cores    management specialist against several        one’s viewpoint) for the Intermountain
to measure growth, the usual method.         managers. Gene Amman, a research             Station to issue a timber supply situation
Survey researchers developed a model         entomologist stationed in Ogden, and         report. It happened to be the time when
to predict growth from other easily          Bruce Baker, an entomologist with            huge amounts of data gathered over a
measured variables. Results were used        the Timber Management Staff in the           10-year period for and by Forest Survey
to estimate wood volume growth for 1.2       Region 4 Regional Office, collaborated       in its nine-State area of responsibility
million acres of mesquite inventoried in     on a study of methods for controlling        had been assembled, analyzed, and
Arizona.                                     mountain pine beetles, including using       interpreted. The Station published the
   The growth model was incorporated         chemicals (one method was to spray tree      results in The Rocky Mountain Timber
into the University of Arizona’s larger      trunks with ethylene dibromide mixed         Situation, 1970, by Al Green and Ted
computer projection model for south-         into diesel oil). Amman and Baker con-       Setzer.
western woodlands. Model information         cluded that the chemical treatments did          Green was a veteran research forester
was requested by resource management         not stop the spread of infestations. They    who had multiple academic degrees,
agencies in Arizona, Nevada, New             wrote a paper intended for publication in    including one in economics. He had con-
Mexico, and Texas. Because Arizona’s         the Journal of Forestry, and the manu-       siderable experience in silviculture and
mesquite was one of 40 mesquite spe-         script went out for review by several        regeneration research and had worked
cies distributed worldwide, there was        scientists and managers. According to        for several years as Superintendent of
considerable international interest in the   Amman (personal communication), the          the Amana Experimental Forest in east-
model (INTercom Nov./92).                    review process stimulated stiff opposi-      ern Iowa. He was serving as Assistant
                                             tion from National Forest managers in        Project Leader for Forest Survey, and
                                             several Regions.                             in that capacity wrote or participated
Family Fights Erupt                              Amman visited Assistant Station          in writing many reports. Setzer had a
                                             Director Chuck Wellner and asked if          wealth of experience in research work
                                             Wellner thought the paper should be          on timber removals and inventory
   As pointed out earlier, over the years    withdrawn. The usually mild-mannered         planning and had been a forest manager
there sometimes were tensions within         Wellner got red in the face, banged his      and sawmill operator, also in the Amana
the Forest Service between Research and      fist on the desk top, and exclaimed, “It’s   Colonies.
National Forest System personnel. On         the truth and by damn we are going to            Green was good with words. He was
occasion, tensions escalated into clashes    publish it!” The paper was published by      considered one of the best writers in
over situations in which scientific find-    the journal in April 1972.                   the Station at the time. His writing was
ings were at variance with prevailing            Not long afterward, Amman got a          clear, usually interesting, and sometimes
management philosophy or actitivites.        call from the Office of Management           eloquent. Unfortunately, Green got a
Two examples of unusual situations are       and Budget seeking his comments              bit carried away in the situation report,

                                            copy had been sent to his office, the
                                            Regional representative was asked if
                                            anybody was upset. He chuckled and
                                            said, “Well, for one thing the Director of
                                            Timber Management is muttering some-
                                            thing about desolation and bouncing off
                                            his office walls like a ping pong ball.”
                                                That no doubt was an exaggeration,
                                            but official protests to Station Director
                                            Bay soon followed. He turned the ruckus
                                            into a positive situation by dispatching
                                            Green and Setzer to Montana to explain
                                            the statistics and their conclusions in
                                            several meetings with timber manage-
                                            ment specialists and Forest Supervisors.
                                            Reports were that the meetings went
                                            quite well and most participants wound
                                            up agreeing that the publication was
                                            accurate.                                     Project Leader Wyman Schmidt could
                                                Most of the time researchers and          dress the part as he hosted interna-
                                                                                          tional exchanges of knowledge on
                                            resource managers had excellent rela-
and the transgression slipped into print.   tions. Occasionally, there was a collision
                                                                                          subalpine tree species long neglected
                                                                                          in the United States.
Discussing the gap between timber           between researchers who believe they
cutting and reforestation, Green wrote,     must maintain scientific objectivity and
“If the current trend continues, the 2.7    managers who took justifiable pride
million acres (the acres that hadn’t been                                                 studies moved upward in elevation to
                                            in doing a difficult job well. The 1974       include more species and outward to
reforested after timber harvests) will      timber situation conflict illustrates one
blossom into more than 4 million acres                                                    include values beyond commercial use
                                            reason the Forest Service has maintained      for wood products. With the emphasis
of nonstocked land by 1980. To prevent      research as an independent branch with-
this kind of galloping desolation would                                                   on subalpine forestry they eventually
                                            in the organization since 1928. Had the       took on a decidedly international flavor.
take a regeneration program about           Station been subject to Regional Office
six times the magnitude of the 1970                                                           Wyman Schmidt’s career at the
                                            authority the forthright report probably
program.”                                                                                 Station spanned most of the changes.
                                            would not have been published. Even
    The statement was backed up by a                                                      Some of his first research after he joined
                                            if it had been issued, it almost certainly
lot of solid data and sound analysis in                                                   the silviculture unit in Missoula in 1960
                                            would not have been called to public
the report. Nevertheless, Station people                                                  was on methods of cultivating Douglas-
                                            attention by the Forest Service. Chief
soon learned that several National Forest                                                 fir Christmas trees, a forest product
                                            Cliff, incidentally, just before he retired
System officials thought “galloping                                                       important in Montana that was usually
                                            strongly endorsed the continued separa-
desolation” was a little bit extreme.                                                     grown at lower elevations. One of his
                                            tion of research and management in his
    The Station issued a news release as                                                  last major activities before retiring in
                                            final report to his boss, the Secretary of
it commonly did in those days when any                                                    1994 was hosting an international work-
                                            Agriculture (Hartzer 1981).
publication was thought to be of interest                                                 shop on ecosystems featuring subalpine
to the public. A copy of the publication                                                  stone pines—whitebark pine in North
was mailed with each release. This topic                                                  America and four similar species in Asia
indeed was of interest. The Denver Post     Willkommen to High-                           and Europe. Stone pines have little com-
carried the story under a major headline    Elevation Forestry                            mercial value for forest products, but
across the top of page one. The Salt                                                      are of great ecological importance in the
Lake Tribune, the Missoulian, and other                                                   high-elevation areas where they grow.
newspapers displayed it prominently.           Silvicultural research at the Station          In 1961, the Missoula unit added
Most of the backlog of unstocked acres      started at the lower elevations where         spruce to the lineup of tree species
was in Region 1, and a reaction came        the most valuable timber grew. At             studied, and included the role of fire as
quickly after the Missoulian hit the        Priest River, and later Deception Creek,      a forest process. Silvicultural research
streets.                                    studies of cutting methods and regrowth       came to Bozeman the same year with
    A Regional Information Office staff     centered on western white pine. In the        a new unit studying lodgepole pine.
man called Station Headquarters to find     Boise Basin and in Montana, researchers       The units were combined in 1972, and
out how the story got into the media.       were concerned almost exclusively with        about 4 years later added the spruce
After being informed about the news         ponderosa pine. As the supply situation       budworm-silviculture relationship as
release, and reminded that an advance       changed and demands grew, silviculture        an area of interest, following Schmidt’s

appointment as Project Leader (see            Dead or dying white-
“Integrating Insects with Management,”        bark pines signaled
next section). Ten years later non-com-       a problem in many
                                              high-elevation ecosys-
mercial values and resources other than
timber were being given more empha-
sis, and by the time Schmidt retired the
unit had been renamed Ecology and
Silviculture and included ecosystem
management, landscape-scale vegetation
modeling, and biocontrol of invasive
    Why did the original Montana
unit survive and continue to be an
important part of the Station research
program with all the changes in
organization and direction? Schmidt
believed it was because of the inte-          management. He said the Project Leader            Ray Hoff reported on work in
gral nature of silviculture. He said,         “did an outstanding job organizing, host-      identifying disease-resistant whiteback
“Silviculture is the science and art          ing, and compiling results of a number         pines for use in developing seedlings to
of managing forests to meet resource          of important regional and international        reforest burned or cutover areas. Ward
needs. No matter the resource or              symposia.” Four proceedings compiled           McCaughey and Schmidt described
management objective—be it esthetics,         by Schmidt were issued as important            studies on basic characteristics of white-
water, timber, wildlife, or recreation—       Station publications.                          bark pine ecology, including cone and
silvicultural practices are the driving          The first, Future Forests of the            seed development and several aspects
force, the means used to achieve the          Mountain West: a Stand Culture                 of natural and artificial regeneration.
desired end” (Prouty 1987).                   Symposium, assembled a vast amount             Steve Arno and Bob Keane gave papers
    Schmidt also believed in integrated       of technical information about young           describing whitebark ecology and fire
attacks on research problems, and that        forests that grew from the east slopes of      effects. Dale Bartos reported on the role
involved cooperation with other Station       the Sierra and Cascade Mountains to the        of mountain pine beetles in whitebark
units. Examples of silviculture unit          high plains of the mountain west. It was       areas. David Cole defined recreation
members working with fire effects,            published in 1988 following a gathering        impacts in high-elevation areas where
mountain pine beetle, watershed, wild-        in Missoula of 300 scientists and forest       whitebark was found.
life, and other researchers in many parts     managers at which 57 papers were                  Some of the Station research had
of Station territory appear throughout        presented.                                     a quick payoff when $300,000 was
this history. Key unit members during            Ecology and Management of Larix             raised in a campaign by Country Living
most of Schmidt’s tenure were Research        Forests: a Look Ahead showed the ex-           magazine and the Arbor Day Foundation
Forester Clint Carlson, Silviculturists       tension of the silviculture unit’s interests   to plant new forests in areas damaged
Ray Shearer and Dennis Cole, Research         into international forestry by including       by the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Many
Forester Ward McCaughey, Forester             many reports by scientists and managers        burned areas were whitebark ecosystems
Jack Schmidt, and Biological Technician       from Europe and Asia as well as North          and McCaughey helped prepare planting
Leon Theroux.                                 America (see “Learning About Larch,”           guidelines. The work improved planting
    With its members often working in         chapter 6).                                    success and reduced the cost of restoring
different places at different times, how         When considerable interest devel-           the whitebark pine forests (INTercom
did the unit stay focused on its mission?     oped in the decline of whitebark pine,         Jan./92).
“Each year we all gather to discuss the       Schmidt organized and hosted a 1989               Hoff and associates at the Moscow
general thrust of our work. During the        symposium focused on holistic manage-          Lab provided some good news in 1995.
rest of the year there’s constant com-        ment of high-mountain ecosystems in            They found a significant number of
munication among the group. We jointly        western North America where the pine           whitebark seedlings in the wild that
develop direction of our research, assign     was the predominant tree. The result           were resistant to blister rust. They
it to individuals, and then give them a lot   was Proceedings—Symposium on                   planned to create natural seed orchards,
of independence. I believe independence       Whitebark Pine Ecosystems: Ecology             a move that would substantially reduce
is essential to creativity, and that’s what   and Management of a High-Mountain              the time needed for whitebark pine to
research is all about,” Schmidt said          Resource. The presenters included              be restored to its role in high-elevation
(Prouty 1987).                                several Station scientists working on          ecosystems (Intermountain and Rocky
    McCaughey (personal communica-            various aspects of problems in the high-       Mountain Stations 1995).
tion) said he believed Schmidt’s              elevation ecosystems. For a variety of            Only one of the 52 presenters at the
management skills resulted in his great-      reasons, whitebark pines were declining        1989 symposium was from Europe,
est contributions to forest science and       in many areas.                                 but that one, Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier,

                                              Holtmeier and Schmidt set up an           fish. The national ban drove home the
                                           exchange program for students comple-        point that more effective and ecologi-
                                           menting their academic work with             cally sound approaches to pest control
                                           practical laboratory and field experience.   were needed.
                                           For example, Bettina Gerlemann, a                Station scientists had known that for
                                           landscape ecology major from Germany,        some time, and several veteran ento-
                                           completed her “practicum” at the Coram       mologists could base their knowledge
                                             Experimental Forest and the Bozeman        on personal experience with chemical
                                              Lab with guidance from members            spray programs. Among them were
                                               of the subalpine silviculture unit       Dave Fellin, Mal Furniss, and Walt
                                                 (INTercom Nov./90).                    Cole, all of whom had supervised or
                                                      The research by Schmidt and       participated in chemical control op-
                                                     his colleagues aimed at high-      erations (see “Beetles, Budworms, and
                                                       elevation forest problems        Bushes Get Lots of Attention,” chapter
                                                         was important because past     8). Statements such as the opening
                                                           management techniques        paragraph of the Station’s 1963 annual
                                                           were mostly borrowed         report’s section on insects showed the
                                                            from sites that had bet-    direction the program had taken:
The relationship of a small bird—Clark’s
                                                          ter growing conditions
nutcracker—whitebark pine forests,         and high sawtimber values. Schmidt              Studies of forest insect populations and
squirrels, and grizzly bears was           and his associates had a major role in          their behavior form the foundation of
described in reports presented in          developing more advanced concepts,              our research program on bark beetles,
two symposia organized by Wyman            which grew from a foundation based on           defoliators, and insects affecting
Schmidt. The nutcracker was a primary      natural processes. Ecosystem manage-            regeneration. These studies emphasize
                                                                                           the determination of factors that affect
disperser of whitebark seeds. Squirrels    ment in high-elevation forests combined         population changes. Development
stored the seeds, and grizzlies found      natural fire prescriptions with managed         of methods of control by biological,
the caches and used the seeds as food
                                           prescribed fire and carefully planned           cultural, chemical, or combinations of
sources. Research on this subject was
a specialty of Diana Tomback, a Station
                                           tree thinnings and harvests. The idea           these methods will depend upon greater
                                           was to give primary consideration to re-        knowledge of population dynamics.
cooperator who was an Associate
Professor at the University of Colorado    generating forest areas or to leave them
in the late 1980s.                         in a natural state when that was most            Knowledge of insect population
                                           appropriate (INTercom July/92).              dynamics was pursued by researchers
                                              The Montana Section of the Society        at Moscow, Missoula, and Ogden. That
                                           of American Foresters honored Schmidt        knowledge was one of the key needs
turned out to be a key associate in ven-   as “Forester of the Year” in 1989. The       when USDA announced with some
tures that took high-elevation forestry    national group elected him a SAF             fanfare in the 1970s that its agencies,
research to new levels of international    Fellow the next year. In 1992, The           including the Forest Service, would
cooperation.                               Department of Agriculture gave him its       henceforth practice “integrated pest
   Holtmeier was a professor at            highest recognition, an Honor Award for      management.” At first, quite a few
Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat in       Superior Service, for his leadership in      people weren’t sure what that meant.
Muenster, Germany. He and Schmidt          ecosystem management research.                   Thirty years later, the integrated ap-
developed a close professional rela-                                                    proach still had a variety of definitions,
tionship. One result was a gathering                                                    although nearly all natural resource
in Switzerland of 50 scientists from       Integrating Insects with                     management organizations said they
12 counties who exchanged find-                                                         practiced it and educational institutions
ings on the world’s five stone pine
                                           Management                                   universally advocated its use. Several
ecosystems. The stone pines occupy                                                      common threads run through the vari-
vast areas in the Northern Hemisphere         In 1972, the U.S. Environmental           ous definitions: (1) eradicating the pests
and protect important watersheds, are      Protection Agency announced that gen-        is an unrealistic goal; they are part of
prominent esthetic features, provide       eral use of the “miracle” pesticide DDT      the environment and the goal should
wood products in some places, and are      was no longer legal in the United States,    be to keep populations at acceptable
important to several wildlife species.     ending nearly three decades of reliance      levels; (2) knowledge of the pest and
The information exchange resulted in       on the chemical to control the spruce        its environment must be combined
a document compiled by Schmidt and         budworm and other forest defoliators         to determine which actions might be
Holtmeier, Proceedings—International       (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency        safe, effective, and economical; (3) all
Workshop on Subalpine Stone Pines and      1972). This action resulted primarily        possible control methods and combina-
Their Environment: the Status of our       from the discovery of harmful effects        tions of them should be considered;
Knowledge (INTercom Dec./94).              on nontarget species such as eagles and      and (4) long-term solutions should be

emphasized, especially for forest and
range lands.
                                               Witness for the Defense (or was that the Prosecution?)
    Station scientists played key roles in    Becoming known as an expert can get a scientist involved in some unusual situations.
the journey toward that type of thinking
from the days of the massive chemical         In 1983, Entomologist Dave Fellin published a detailed commentary on three decades
spray programs. When Fellen retired           of experience with attempts to control the spruce budworm with chemicals. He
in 1985 he said, “In the past we tried        concluded that, overall, the spray programs
                                              had not controlled the budworm, changed the
quick fixes with pesticides, now manag-
                                              course of a major regional outbreak, or made
ers recognize the need for long-term          any significant improvement in the budworm
management approaches. I’d like to            problem. The article also had a positive side,
think my work in the past 30 years has        describing and commenting favorably on
had something to do with this change in       efforts to manage stands on nearly a million
thinking” (INTercom 4/4/85).                  acres with long-term silvicultural treatments
    As Project Leader at Moscow,              (Fellin 1983).
Furniss conducted personal research and
                                              One result of the article’s appearance was an
supervised a unit that worked on new          assignment as an expert witness-consultant in
approaches to control a variety of insects    a lawsuit filed by Boise-Cascade Corporation
in diverse natural environments. He did       against the Forest Service. The suit alleged that
                                                                                                  Dave Fellin earned his reputation
extensive research and field testing on       the Forest Service did not spray lands adjacent
                                                                                                  as a spruce budworm expert partly
using pheromones to control insects.          to Boise-Cascade property that had been             because he took his studies to the
    Early in the discussions about            sprayed, and it should have done so to make         scene of the problems. Here he
integrated pest management, Cole was          the company’s operation successful. Fellin          examined insect-infested foliage
citing a “great need to integrate beetle      appeared in court in defense of the Forest          with a field microscope on the
                                              Service. The Forest Service won the case.
control strategies into forest manage-                                                            hood of his vehicle.
ment practices” in talks at workshops         In a lawsuit in Region 3 (Southwestern
and in publications (for example, Cole        Region), an environmental group sued the Forest Service because it did spray. Fellin
and Klade 1975). At the time, he and          got a subpoena to appear in Santa Fe to give a deposition. The issue was settled out of
colleagues had acquired basic knowl-          court. Had it gone to trial, Fellin (personal communication) said the same testimony
edge of beetle biology and developed          he offered in defense of the Forest Service in Idaho would have been used against it in
                                              New Mexico.
several new control strategies.
    Problems with research funding that       Fellin’s experience and expertise meant he also was in demand for less unusual
materialized in the 1970s at the national     assignments outside the Station’s basic territory. He was selected to serve on
level included the beginnings of large        several national task forces dealing with comprehensive programs of budworm
cuts for insect and disease studies. Partly   research throughout the United States (INTercom 2/23/86). He also made important
to counter this trend, the Forest Service     contributions as a member of a special team that recommended new management
Research staff developed the “Three Big       approaches for National Forests in Region 3.
Bug” programs (gypsy moth, southern
pine bark beetle, and tussock mouth)
as a way of focusing efforts on major            Fellin started working in coopera-          Forestry Sciences Lab. Included in the
insect pests. To gain political support,      tion with the CANUSA program at its            work was a face lift featuring a new
universities were brought in as partners,     inception as a Team Leader within              cedar-shingle roof and exterior siding.
along with USDA’s Cooperative State           the Station’s Silviculture of Subalpine        The small wood-frame structure be-
Research Service.                             Forests research unit. The team                came an attractive, functional research
    The “Three Big Bug” programs              included Research Forester Clint               building (INTercom 4/24/80). The
were successful in temporarily stem-          Carlson, Entomologist Chuck Tiernan,           1978 renovations and move cost about
ming the erosion of insect and disease        Forester Ward McCaughey, Biological            $50,000, a small amount to develop a
research funds, helping build a working       Technician Leon Theroux, and several           research facility. But by that time, the
alliance of researchers between the           temporary and work-study employees.            Station had very little money available
Forest Service and the universities, and         The team gained somewhat unusual            to devote to facility improvements, and
serving to improve the application of         laboratory-office space in 1980. What          innovative approaches were a necessity.
research results by forest managers.          had been known as “the old white                   The entomology-silviculture research
At the Station, budworm research was          matchbox” when it was built in 1957            integration at Missoula resulted in
enhanced through participation in the         for $3,550 as a warehouse and garage           new knowledge being translated into
Canada and U.S.A. (CANUSA) R&D                was renovated and expanded to include          silvicultural prescriptions that became
program. This program was unique in           an insectary in the 1960s. Starting in         cornerstones for integrated forest
that it involved several western Stations     1978 it was again renovated and then           management in many areas (INTercom
in addition to Canada.                        moved to a site next to the Missoula           July/92). The foundations for new

management recommendations were                                                          areas of willow in the Yukon River
laid by considerable research into the                                                   drainages.
budworm’s relationship to its environ-                                                       Furniss was a pioneer in making
ment (Reynolds 1989b). The work                                                          systematic studies of insects on wildland
included consideration of climate; tree                                                  shrubs in the Northwest and Alaska.
and stand vigor; stand composition,                                                      He was an author of a U.S. Fish and
density and structure; susceptibility to                                                 Wildlife Service publication on the defo-
the budworm with acreage changes; and                                                    liator of curlleaf mountain mahogany in
the historical role of fire.                                                             the Charles Sheldon Wildlife Refuge in
    CANUSA program interests in the                                                      Nevada. The publication was considered
budworm extended throughout most of                                                      a classic, incorporating taxonomy, biol-
Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and western                                                   ogy, and community ecology in a single
Montana. Results were issued in a series                                                 document.
of handbooks and other documents.                                                            In the course of his research, Furniss
One of the most comprehensive general                                                    collected and reared thousands of insects
publications was a national USDA hand-                                                   and associated organisms. Three organ-
book written by Carlson and William                                                      isms were named after him. After he
Wulf, Clearwater National Forest                                                         retired, Furniss was appointed visiting
silviculturist. It reviewed the results of                                               Research Professor of Entomology at the
traditional management, which excluded       Mal Furniss, shown here in 1976 exam-       University of Idaho. He presented semi-
fire, and discussed silvicultural systems    ining a willow for insects, had a long      nars, conducted workshops on insect
that could result in healthier ecosystems,   and productive career at the Station        photography and bark beetle identifica-
including using prescribed fires.            after being transferred from the Bureau     tion, and taught directed study courses.
    The Missoula team published many         of Entomology in 1954.                      He also chaired the history committee
reports more specific to Montana                                                         of the Western Forest Insect Work
and Idaho. One was a guide to rating                                                     conference and published six articles on
budworm hazards, issued by Region            by Douglas-fir beetles after mating.        early developments in American forest
1 (Reynolds 1989b). The researchers          The discoverer of the pheromone had         entomology. In 2002, Furniss published
also helped produce models predicting        thought it to be an attractant. Furniss     “A Field Guide to the Bark Beetles of
budworm impacts on future tree stands,       then conducted a cooperative 10-year        Idaho and Adjacent Regions,” the only
which were linked to the PROGNOSIS           research and development project            guide of its kind.
system developed at Moscow (Wykoff           that resulted in a controlled-release           During the 1970s, the other entomol-
2002). In a somewhat unusual approach,       formulation of the pheromone and the        ogists at Moscow retired (Washburn and
Carlson worked with Brigham Young            technology for applying it by helicopter    Denton) or transferred (Schmitz went
University professor Rex Cates on            to prevent populations of beetles from      to Ogden). The unit was discontinued
studies of interactions between tree foli-   developing in storm-damaged trees from      when Furniss retired in 1982. His de-
age chemistry and the budworm. They          which they generated outbreaks. Region      parture ended the continuous residence
found that several compounds inhibited       1 personnel conducted a pilot test of the   of a USDA forest research entomologist
feeding by the budworm (INTercom             method in 1982. It was registered for use   in Idaho that began in 1915 when Jim
Nov./92). Carlson, Fellin, Project Leader    by the Environmental Protection Agency      Evenden was assigned to work at Coeur
Wyman Schmidt, and other team mem-           in 1999.                                    d’Alene (Furniss, in preparation).
bers and cooperators appeared at many            In 1974 during a trip in the Sierra         The mountain pine beetle was truly
workshops and field tours to discuss         Madre Mountains of northern Mexico,         a “big bug” throughout Station territory
and recommend silvicultural methods to       Furniss found the Douglas-fir beetle, the   and beyond. It lives with lodgepole pine
control budworm infestations.                first documented case of its discovery in   on some 60 million acres, 13 million
    Although the budworm research            Mexico. Later, he described the popula-     in the U.S. and 47 million in Canada.
team registered many successes, they         tion as a subspecies, named after his       Periodic epidemics kill large numbers
were not sufficient to stop the erosion      Mexican guide.                              of lodgepole, and some ponderosa,
in forest insect program funding. When           Furniss made many trips to Alaska       pines. During epidemics, a single
Fellin retired in 1986, he was the last      and obtained numerous new records of        National Forest may lose more than
Intermountain Station entomologist           bark beetles from that State. He field-     a million trees per year. More than 3
to be located in the Northern Rocky          tested pheromones of the spruce beetle      million lodgepole pines were killed in
Mountains, ending staffing begun in          and larch beetle, and published the only    the Targhee National Forest in Idaho in
1909 by the Bureau of Entomology.            information known on the biology of         1976 (Noble 1983).
    Starting in 1972, Furniss field tested   the “willow bark beetle” and the “bo-           Although the way the beetle shapes
various bark beetle pheromones and           real spruce beetle.” He also published      forest environments can be beneficial in
proved the anti-aggregative effect           the biology of a previously unstudied       some cases, depending on a landowner’s
of methylcyclohexonone produced              leafblotch miner, which infested vast       desires, it is devastating when forest

product production and esthetic values                                                   eggs. After the beetles killed the trees
are primary interests. It was no wonder                                                  with thicker bark, the insect populations
that holding beetle populations to a level                                               declined (INTercom Jan./93). Amman
compatible with productive lodgepole                                                     related that discovery to the thickness of
pine stands was a priority research and                                                  phloem, a layer just beneath outer bark,
management problem throughout four                                                       and to the density of egg galleries. He
decades of Station history. Starting                                                     published a summary of the findings in a
in the early 1960s, the attack on the                                                    Station research paper in 1986. Amman
problems featured a strong cooperative                                                   was named Project Leader of the moun-
program conducted by the Station and                                                     tain pine beetle unit in 1984 after Cole
Regions 1, 2, and 4.                                                                     retired.
    In the laboratory and in the field,                                                      Dick Schmitz had studied the
entomologists and managers sprayed,                                                      biology of the pine engraver beetle at
trapped, counted, and reared the beetles,                                                Missoula, clarifying that it produced
and harvested some lodgepole stands to                                                   two generations annually, an important
learn how insect populations were af-                                                    consideration in formulating preven-
fected by various cutting schemes. After                                                 tive management practices. After he
sufficient knowledge was developed                                                       transferred to Moscow, he assisted
to recommend silvicultural treatments                                                    Furniss in pheromone studies involving
as control methods, the Station-                                                         the Douglas-fir beetle, and biological
Region partners established several                                                      control of the larch casebearer. Schmitz
demonstration areas to show the results                                                  transferred from Moscow to the Ogden
                                             Walt Cole, Project Leader for the
to managers, especially to convince          Ogden mountain pine beetle research         project in 1976. He conducted several
skeptics that partial cuts and thinnings     unit, used a bow to shoot a nylon line      studies of mountain pine beetles using
could be effective.                          over a lodgepole limb so that a passive     passive-barrier traps, which established
    Project Leader Cole was joined in        barrier (unbaited) trap could be hoisted    the height above ground that most
Ogden by Technician Lynn Rasmussen           into the tree to trap flying beetles.       beetles traveled when moving through
and Entomologist Gene Amman. The                                                         stands. Schmitz, McGregor, and Amman
trio worked together and with forest                                                     found that very few beetles traveling
pest management personnel for many           less than in unharvested blocks of          through thinned stands stopped to infest
years to develop cutting and thinning        timber (Noble 1983). Cole and Amman         trees, compared to those infesting trees
strategies to reduce tree losses to          published many findings over 15 years,      in unthinned stands. They theorized
beetles. Amman said an early study with      and wrote three summary documents in        that the openness of the thinned stands
Rasmussen and Bruce Baker, a Region          the 1980s that were considered landmark     interrupted pheromone communication
4 specialist, helped guide the work          publications. The three volumes issued      among the beetles.
toward silvicultural treatments. The trio    by the Station covered the course of
compared lodgepole stands in the Teton       infestations, beetle population dynamics,
and Targhee National Forests that had        and population sampling and monitoring
been treated with chemicals and stands       under the general title, Mountain Pine
without control measures. They found         Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine
that the control methods weren’t doing       Forests.
much good (see “Family Fights Erupt,”           Two pieces of research were instru-
this chapter).                               mental in establishing Amman as an
    That and other findings led the          eminent pine beetle scientist. In 1977
research unit to focus on the interaction    he and Region 1, 2, and 4 colleagues
of the beetles and lodgepole forests.        Mark McGregor, Don Cahill, and Bill
Ogden research unit personnel and their      Klein devised a Stand Hazard Rating
cooperators made many field trials of        System, which was used to assess
various levels of thinning as beetle con-    lodgepole stand susceptibility to beetle
trol measures. One partial cutting trial     infestations and substantial tree loss.
was made on 4,000 acres in Colorado          The other major accomplishment was
administered by the Bureau of Land           called a “serendipitous find” by Amman.
Management. Another took place in            He and Rasmussen were curious as to
the West Yellowstone area of Montana         why beetles tended to concentrate on
in 1974. A third test was made in the        larger diameter lodgepole trees, and
Shoshone National Forest in Wyoming.         wondered if it was a result of stress.      Gene Amman earned many honors
Cole found the results encouraging,          They discovered that the thicker bark       for his research on the mountain pine
with tree losses in the partial cuts far     was preferred by the beetles when laying    beetle and its role in forest ecosystems.

    Amman earned a USDA Superior                                                           life cycle (Chojnacky 1994). Bentz and
Service award in 1983 for his research.                                                    Logan alternated serving as Project
When he received the Utah Governor’s                                                       Leader during the 1990s, allowing the
Medal for Science and Technology in                                                        scientist who was “out of office” a pe-
1991, Station Director Larry Lassen                                                        riod of time to concentrate on personal
said, “Dr. Amman’s research on the                                                         research. Both researchers continued the
importance of tree age and development                                                     unit’s traditionally strong commitment
of thick inner bark tissues to beetle                                                      to technology transfer.
population dynamics resulted in a major
scientific breakthrough. It reversed
existing dogma that beetle epidemics
were brought on by drought.” Amman
                                                                                           Getting the Word Out—
also received the “Founders Award”                                                         The Station’s Strong Suit
from the Western Forest Insect Work
Conference in 1994 for “his outstanding
                                                                                               Perhaps it was seen as a duty based
contribution to forest entomology in
                                                                                           on tradition. Perhaps it was motivated by
the West.” Conference members were
                                                                                           the attitude of Station leaders. Perhaps
entomologists from western Canada,
                                                                                           it was because the Station territory
the western U.S., and Mexico. When
                                                                                           contained huge acreages of National
Jesse Logan took over as Project Leader
                                                                                           Forest and other public lands. Whatever
shortly before Amman retired in 1992,
                                                                                           the reason or combination of reasons,
he referred to Amman as “Mr. Pine
Beetle” (INTercom Oct./92).                                                                if one characteristic distinguished the
    Logan presided over two changes                                                        Intermountain Station from many other
in the research unit. The first was a
                                             Barbara Bentz scaled a ladder to collect      research organizations it was a strong
move from Ogden to the Logan Lab
                                             larvae and Jesse Logan recorded data          emphasis on applied studies and technol-
                                             in 1994 studies to learn how winter
(see “Co-locations,” chapter 12).                                                          ogy transfer.
                                             temperatures influence mountain pine
The second was a shift in philosophy         beetle development.                               The Priest River and Great Basin
from “protection ecology” to one of                                                        Experiment Stations from their begin-
“disturbance ecology,” which resulted                                                      nings served as places where scientists
in a change in emphasis from protecting      publication he authored in                    helped train managers by explaining
particular commodities, such as timber,      Environmental Entomology in 1988 that         their research results, giving demonstra-
to one of seeking more fundamental           discussed applying “expert systems” to        tions, and showing the consequences of
understanding of how mountain pine           development of pest simulation models.        management alternatives at experimental
beetles function within the ecosystem           Although the “big bug” approach            plots. The first Priest River training
(INTercom Oct./92). Logan was no             may have helped stem the decline in           school for Forest Rangers was held in
stranger to the unit or its work. He         insect research funding, it certainly         1915. In 1919, while the Station was
had been involved in modeling insect         did not stop it. When Barbara Bentz           under District 1 administration, W. C.
population dynamics and phenology,           qualified for a scientist position in 1992,   Lowdermilk, an Oxford scholar, was
the timing of various life stages of the     she was only the second new scientist         appointed liaison officer. His major
insect, for many years. Much of his          employed in the pine beetle unit in           responsibility was to interpret results of
work was conducted through coopera-          20 years (INTercom Jan./92). Bentz            research and put them into practice by
tive agreements with the Station. He         worked her way up to the scientist            working with land managers, making
spent 4 years as an associate professor      position, serving as a seasonal employee      him one of the first technology transfer
of entomology and forestry at Virginia       while completing academic work as a           specialists. Lowdermilk started the pub-
Polytechnic Institute and 10 years as a      cooperative education student. Along          lication, Applied Forestry Notes, which
senior scientist at the Natural Resource     the way to a doctorate, she gained            was issued for many years by District 1
Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State         academic distinction by being named to        (Wellner 1976).
University.                                  the National Deans List and appearing in          Great Basin served as a training site
    Logan also had strong interests in ap-   “Who’s Who in American Colleges and           for District 4 managers from the start.
plying advanced computer technology to       Universities.”                                Field days that began in the early 1920s
resource management. As leader of the           Bentz published on attack dynamics         expanded the audience to include land
pine beetle unit he emphasized integra-      of the mountain pine beetle, adding a         managers from a variety of State and
tion of complex ecological information       new dimension to the earlier work by          Federal agencies. Private individuals and
with advanced technologies such as           unit members on population dynamics.          companies were welcome throughout
computer models, remote sensing, and         She and Logan also conducted novel            Station history to come to both Priest
data base management systems. An             studies on the role of temperature as a       River and Great Basin to learn. Both
example of this type of work was a           key factor driving phases of the beetle’s     sites were visited many times by forestry

                                                                                              problems in the long run, but they rarely
                                                                                              had immediate application.
                                                                                                  Traditional research publications
                                                                                              were one way to transfer results, but
                                                                                              they were far from the only mechanism
                                                                                              used. At the Intermountain Station,
                                                                                              publications written for nonresearch
                                                                                              audiences, technology transfer special-
                                                                                              ists, what might be called “gadgets
                                                                                              and gizmos,” information retrieval and
                                                                                              circulation systems, and general public
                                                                                              educational media all played roles in
                                                                                              getting the word out.
                                                                                                  The Reporters—Station public af-
                                                                                              fairs specialists and editors often helped
                                                                                              bridge what could be a significant gap
                                                                                              between typical scientific writing and
                                                                                              more easily understandable accounts
The original purposes of Priest River and Great Basin included serving as train-              presenting research programs and find-
ing centers for District Rangers and other managers. Here Director C. L. Forsling             ings. When the information specialists
spoke to a group of Forest Supervisors at Great Basin in 1926.
                                                                                              authored such reports, they sent draft
                                                                                              articles to the scientists involved for
                                                                                              review to ensure accuracy. When the
and range management students over the           exceeded only by the Pacific Northwest       scientist was the author, the specialists
years.                                           Station, a much larger organization in       offered advice and criticism to help
   The bias of early leaders toward              both personnel and funding.                  get the material into formats that pub-
working to solve local managers’ prob-              Forest Service Research Stations          lications with broad readership would
lems continued in more contemporary              ranked by number of General Technical        accept.
times. Commenting on the value of                Reports produced, 1972-1997:                     One publication that featured
habitat typing research, retired Station                                                      popularized accounts of both research
                                                    Pacific Northwest        399
Director Roger Bay said:                                                                      programs and results was Forestry
                                                    Intermountain            373
                                                                                              Research West, which was produced for
    I always thought the project was one of         Rocky Mountain           299              25 years by the four western Stations.
    several INT research efforts that were          Northeastern             241
    outstanding examples of the primary                                                       The magazine first appeared in 1973 as
    mission of regional research stations—          North Central            194              Forestry Research: What’s New in the
    address the forestry problems within            Pacific Southwest        102              West. The shorter title was suggested
    our local regions (not necessarily Forest                                                 by Intermountain Station representa-
                                                    Southeastern              96
    Service regions). Sure, we had a few                                                      tives at a 1974 coordination meeting in
    research studies going that addressed           Southern                  93
                                                                                              Berkeley. The coordination meetings
    national or multi-regional problems
    too—like the Fire Lab, Forest Survey,            GTRs during the quarter century of       sometimes did not produce perfect har-
    Al Stage’s modeling (Prognosis), and         interest included three broad categories     mony. It took 5 years for the other three
    the recreation research program, but         of material—summaries of existing            Stations to agree to the change.
    the original concept of research stations    knowledge on a subject, also known               Publication ceased after the
    was to solve resource problems in their      as “state-of-the-art publications”;          September 1999 issue when the Pacific
    respective areas. Of course, knowledge
    is not bound by artificial boundaries,       proceedings of symposia and workshops;       Northwest Station decided to withdraw
    so it was an extra bonus to see some         and presentations of methods useful in       its support, leaving the Rocky Mountain
    research results being applied to national   solving management problems. They            and Pacific Southwest Stations as the
    problems (Bay, personal communication).      were not reports of results of individual    only participants. That caused the Rocky
                                                 research studies, which were published       Mountain Station to discontinue the
   Evidence of the emphasis on applied           in other types of Station publications       publication in favor of a new quarterly
research and technology transfer shows           or in journals. Although we have no          report, RMRScience (Fletcher, personal
up in publication records. In the 25 years       data for publishing in scientific journals   communication).
(1972-1997) that General Technical               over the same period, it is reasonable to        Forestry Research West was created
Reports (GTRs) were published before             assume that the Intermountain Station        by the Pacific Southwest Station, where
the Intermountain-Rocky Mountain                 would not rank well in that category,        early issues were edited, and prepared
merger, the Intermountain Station                which usually was reserved for reports of    for printing. In 1976, Rick Fletcher
ranked second among all Forest Service           basic research studies. These could be of    joined the Rocky Mountain Station staff
Stations. Its number of GTRs was                 great importance to solving management       as a Public Affairs Specialist and took

over as editor. Publishing duties also       fishery biologists. He had
were shifted to Fort Collins. Typical        for 20 years been a fishery
issues contained a feature article           biologist at the District,
highlighting a particular research area      Forest, and Regional levels
for each Station, plus a dozen or more       in Region 5 (the Pacific
announcements of publications thought        Southwest Region). His
to be of direct interest to managers. With   assignment at Boise was
few exceptions, material was written by      supposed to be short term.
public affairs specialists.                  The idea was to bring
   Copies were distributed by each           a management person
Station. The primary audience was            into the research unit
Forest Service managers, and cop-            temporarily and then have
ies went to every office west of the         him return to the National
Mississippi down to the Ranger District      Forest System to spread the
                                                                              Technology Transfer Specialist Kerry Overton had
level. Distributions also were made to       word. Overton proved to          a novel way to steer the conversation to fisheries
other Federal agencies, State agencies,      be so valuable at Boise that habitat questions during lunch hours. The “fish” he
universities, and private organizations.     the habitat unit kept him        carried was his lunch bucket.
Individuals who requested personal           permanently (McIntyre,
copies were added to mailing lists.          personal communication).
Circulation totaled about 8,000 copies           Like other TT specialists at the          Field Guide as a ready reference for
for most issues (Fletcher, personal          Station, Overton developed and                field personnel. The guide included
communication).                              maintained many personal contacts with Forest Service reclamation policy and
   A variety of other magazines and          resource specialists and managers. He         authorities, a logical sequence of events
newsletters were used to good effect         also wrote four GTRs on fish habitat          for managing the reclamation process,
to communicate research results and          conditions and inventory procedures           a summary of key principles, and a
management advice based on research.         (see “Aquatic Science Moves into the          checklist of technical information to be
Within the wildland fire community,          Mainstream,” this chapter). In 1993,          applied to a project (INTercom 1/7/88).
Fire Management Notes issued from            Region 4 gave Overton a special award             If there was a perfect background
Washington, DC was widely read by            “for his role as the overall coordinator”     for a TT specialist, Bob Mutch had it.
managers. Station scientists published       in providing exceptional assistance           He was one of the first employees when
frequently in it for many years,             to the Region’s anadromous fisheries          the Fire Lab opened in Missoula in
sometimes at the request of the editors.     program (INTercom May/93).                    1960. After several years in research,
Western Wildlands, produced by the               In at least one case, a TT process was he became the fire management officer
University of Montana, was a vehicle         developed that worked in reverse—the          for the Lolo National Forest, where
that covered a wide range of topics.         primary specialist was a National Forest      he served as a fire behavior officer on
Other favorites were Rangelands,             System employee and the Station par-          hot running fires and wrote several
American Forests, and the Journal of         ticipants worked through him. In 1985,        prescribed fire plans. He moved to the
Forestry, which became a semi-popular        the Station and Region 4 set up a system national office where he was assigned
magazine after Forest Science was cre-       to “put research results into the hands of to State and Private Forestry. There
ated to carry technical papers of interest   people who need them most” that later         he served as Program Manager of the
to members of the Society of American        was cited as a national model by the          Disaster Assistance Support Program
Foresters. Usually, Station scientists       Forest Service’s Director of Minerals         and helped a number of other nations
authored articles for these magazines,       and Geology (INTercom 5/16/85). The           prepare to respond to natural disasters.
although public affairs specialists some-    Region 4 mining reclamation specialist,       He also worked with others to help
times wrote submissions.                     Ben Albrechtsen, traveled throughout          Brazil establish a science-based program
   The TT Specialists—Commenting             the territory helping field personnel         to manage wildfire. Mutch returned
on technology transfer, retired Assistant    solve or mitigate problems. He kept a         to the Fire Lab in 1991 as Research
Station Director Keith Evans said, “We       list of projects requiring the expertise      Applications Leader to “provide
had some real good TT people—the             of Station scientists in the mined-land       national and international leadership in
best probably being Kerry Overton”           reclamation unit at Logan. The Region         transferring research results” (INTercom
(personal communication). Being              paid travel expenses for the researchers      June/91; Tippets 1994).
considered among the best was a high         when special consultation trips were              Mutch believed that the fire research
compliment—the Station had several           required to solve the problems.               TT process was unique because the
outstanding technology transfer people.          The partnership produced a document most important research information
   Overton joined the fishery habitat        useful throughout Region 4 and other          was rapidly transferred to users through
unit at Boise in 1990 to work on de-         areas of the West. Albrechtsen and            mandatory fire training courses. Often
veloping, evaluating, and transferring       Gene Farmer, a former researcher at           information was transferred and applied
technical tools to assist National Forest    Logan, compiled a regional Reclamation in the field by users before the first

publication appeared about the new           and size class distribution
knowledge. During much of Station his-       of the fuels and how to rate
tory, when a Fire Lab scientist was ready    potential fire behavior for
to introduce new information to the fire     them.
community the scientist did the initial          Fischer’s best achieve-
training personally, while also getting      ment, however, probably
comments on the research from students.      was his role in the design
Later the training role was shifted to       and development of the
others. Part of Mutch’s work before          user-friendly Fire Effects
he retired in 1994 was to serve as an        Information System. The
instructor, taking some of the pressure      system saved managers
off scientists who were in great demand      writing fire prescriptions
to participate in training.                  tremendous amounts of
    Bill Fischer said (INTercom June/91)     time (see “Introducing
that Mutch’s outgoing personality and        Friendly Fires,” chapter         Bill Fischer showed off the Home Fire Risk Meter
sincerity added to his qualifications.       10). Primarily for his           that helped him win a national award for technology
“The person he’s with at the time is the     work on the system and           transfer excellence (at left) in 1991.
most important thing he’s dealing with,”     bringing it into national
Fischer said.                                use, Fischer received the Forest Service
    Fischer did some impressive TT           Chief’s Award for Technology Transfer
work himself. A research forester at the     in 1991. A second reason for the award         photo of a TI-59 calculator, one of the
Fire Lab, he devoted most of his time to     was creation of the Wildland Home              machines that used the chip developed
transferring knowledge, an endeavor that     Fire Risk Meter, a device thought up           at the Fire Lab. Bay said he was pre-
often held few rewards for scientists.       by Forester Dennis Simmerman and               senting the shirts so that Peterson and
“You have to have a boss that will           Fischer. Unlike the high-tech fire effects     Liesz would have a tool to “calculate
encourage you to do it and still call you    system, the meter was a simple device          fire behavior wherever they may be”
a researcher,” Fischer said, crediting       with a wheel riveted to it. With it, any       (INTercom 8/14/80).
Project Leader Jim Brown for support-        homeowner could assess the risk to his             Bookmarks are used by many
ing his work (INTercom June/91).             or her forest dwelling should a wildfire       organizations to carry various messages.
    Like Mutch, Fischer had a back-          occur (INTercom June/91).                      But, a wilderness message? Personnel in
ground in resource management. He                The technology for the meter had           the wilderness research unit in Missoula
spent 10 years with the Boise National       been around for a long time according          and Public Affairs Specialist Liz Close
Forest as a forester, resource assistant,    to Fischer. He and Simmerman just put          came up with one in the 1980s that
and assistant fire staff officer. Mike       it in a package “a homeowner could             served three purposes. The bookmark
Hardy hired Fischer to work at the Fire      relate to.” The meter was one in a group       introduced recipients to the unit’s work
Lab in 1966, primarily because of his        of gadgets Station researchers dreamed         with a brief description of its mission.
experience and understanding of the          up over the years to relay information         It also listed actions that readers could
application of fire danger rating at the     outside the constraints of the traditional     take to protect Wilderness, several based
forest level (INTercom June/91). Fischer,    publishing system.                             on research by Station unit members.
however, made his mark later in the fire         Gadgets and Gizmos—Other sec-              The main purpose was as an incentive
effects unit.                                tions of this history display a number of      award to get people to complete research
    Some of Fischer’s most useful work       unusual creations by Station scientists        surveys in Region 1 and in Georgia,
was compiling three photo guides,            that conveyed useful knowledge. Harry          Texas, and Arkansas (Watson, personal
issued as Station GTRs, which allowed        Gisborne’s early fire danger meter, the        communication).
fire managers and specialists to ac-         “Stage Gauge,” air tanker performance              In 1989, the bookmark was one of
curately estimate the amount of downed       slide rules, and chips carrying fire           the items selected by those participating
woody material in Montana and other          behavior data into hand-held calculators       in the National Interagency Wilderness
Northern Rocky Mountain forests. The         were among them. Station leaders also          Management Forum in Minneapolis for
guides permitted an easy method to cal-      were quite willing to employ unusual           inclusion in a National Wilderness Time
culate fire potential, something that had    methods to call attention to results of the Capsule. The activity was part of a cel-
been difficult or impossible previously      research program.                              ebration of the 25th anniversary of the
where a variety of fuels were present            At a national meeting of Station           Wilderness Act. The capsule was turned
(Forestry Research West Mar./83). They       Directors and Regional Foresters,              over to the Forest History Society for
applied to all the forest cover types over   Director Roger Bay introduced the hand- safekeeping until the 50th anniversary of
a vast area. To help managers in other       held calculator concept in a light way.        the act (INTercom 10/12/89).
areas produce similar guides, Fischer        He presented t-shirts to Forest Service            The Knowledge Brokers—In the
wrote a Research Note describing the         Chief Max Peterson and Associate Chief early 1980s, the Intermountain Station
techniques used to determine the weight      Doug Liesz that were imprinted with a          operated an ambitious “Research Needs

Response” program patterned after            challenge of setting up the
similar programs at other Stations. The      new center.
idea was to have a formal mechanism              The first two services
through which resource managers              were up and running within
and specialists in the National Forest       6 months of the center’s
System (NFS) at all levels could define      inception. Monthly Alerts,
problems that required research. The         announcing new publica-
Research Needs Response system did           tions related to natural
not function well and was terminated         resources in the western
after several years.                         States, went to all profes-
    Keith Evans, who devoted consider-       sional employees and
able time to the system as the Planning      supervisors in the Station
and Applications Assistant Director          and Regions 1 and 4.
said he got a lot of “research needs”        Typical early issues
responses from all NFS levels. However,      announced about 200               Carol Ayer showed a resource manager how to
most of the “needs” were not research        items. Recipients mailed          access the FS INFO database at a 1990 Region 4 sym-
needs at all, but information needs (per-    back order forms and              posium in Saint George, Utah.
sonal communication). He also pointed        received loan or retention
out that the research program changed        copies. General Document
very slowly. If a manager identified a       Delivery allowed center users to order         to make presentations about center
new need, researchers would have had         all other published materials they             services at Ranger Districts and Forest
to start working on it 10 years earlier to   learned about in any manner. Document          Supervisor’s offices throughout Regions
be able to make an immediate response.       delivery was facilitated by a network          1 and 4.
Evans said that when the Station             of cooperating university libraries                The library network expanded
Library started working closely with         established by the centers over the years, nationally. Soon after its start, a
NFS and Bureau of Land Management            and by connections to national sources.        SOUTHFORNET Center was estab-
personnel on needs identification and        Customized literature searches were            lished. In 1985 the database, with
dissemination of appropriate informa-        added later at the Ogden center, enabling funding by the Washington Office,
tion, the transfer process was much more     clients to find documentation on almost        went national. The network was
successful.                                  any subject. Reference librarians also         renamed FS INFO. In 1987, Close
    The transformation of the library        made the center a place where almost           moved to the Station’s Public Affairs
from a small, traditional collection in      any question could be answered if the          Specialist job and Carol Ayer took over
Ogden mainly filling needs of scientists     answer existed in some retrievable form. supervision of what had become FS
that were not met at Labs to a technical         WESTFORNET was a big success.              INFO-Intermountain. Ayer had worked
information service with thousands of        A survey of activities at all centers after    in Juneau, Alaska, where she managed
resource managers and specialists as         less than 2 years of operation showed          the library that became FS INFO-Alaska
clients started in 1978. Acting on the       8,000 people used the services in 1980.        and later set up the FS INFO-Central
recommendation of a study team led           More than 100,000 requests were                office in Washington, DC. By that time,
by Alan (Pete) Taylor of the Fire Lab,       received for Monthly Alert items, and          the Ogden center had added to its ser-
the Station joined WESTFORNET                some 30,000 other documents were sup- vices by providing training to database
(the Western Forestry Information            plied. The centers made 1,600 literature       users and referrals to experts (INTercom
Network). WESTFORNET was a                   searches and handled more than 5,000           Mar./93).
geographic expansion of a network            reference questions (INTercom 2/5/81).             Despite continued high demand for
first operated at the Pacific Southwest      The survey showed that the information         services, the network came full circle
Station (CALFORNET) to provide               was heavily used for preparing environ-        with central office activities delegated
special library-based information to         mental impact statements, staff papers,        out of Washington and funding concerns
Forest Service employees and coopera-        and other “reports requiring research          causing myriad adjustments throughout
tors (INTercom 1/19/78). Centers were        information.”                                  the system. In 1994, central database
located at Berkeley, Seattle, and Fort           Demand for services from the Ogden         operations moved to Region 8 (the
Collins, in addition to Ogden.               center grew rapidly. All four centers          Southern Region), although the national
    The Ogden WESTFORNET center              kept statistics on their service levels.       office agreed to fund the operation.
was designed to serve the Station and        Over a 10-year period starting in the          Shortly after the Intermountain-Rocky
Regions 1 and 4. The Regions provided        mid-1980s, the Ogden operation led all         Mountain merger, Ayer was named
80 percent of the financing, and experi-     centers in every category of service. In a supervisor of the libraries and associated
ence soon revealed that they received        record year during this period, the center information center activities in both
about that percentage of the services or     provided 80,000 Monthly Alert items.           Ogden and Fort Collins. The national of-
more. Liz Close had become the Station       The leadership role no doubt was due           fice cancelled its funding for the Region
Librarian just in time to face the           in large measure to Close’s willingness        8 staff in 1999, resulting in closure of

the central processing unit and transfer                                                              I worked part-time for 15
of the database to the new Rocky                                                                      years. I could continue my
Mountain Research Station. Ayer in                                                                    career with opportunities
effect became the leader of the national                                                              for growth yet it allowed
library network.                                                                                      me additional time to spend
    The Educators—Many                                                                                with my young family.”
Intermountain Station employees                                                                           Waters’ demonstrations
were strong supporters of educational                                                                 included equipment used to
programs at all levels, evidenced by                                                                  collect tree data. She also
activities ranging from designing tour                                                                let students experience 3-D
routes and brochures for school-age                                                                   aerial photography, and
groups and the general public to numer-                                                               said this resulted in com-
ous teaching activities in classrooms                                                                 ments like “cool,” “totally
from grade schools to universities.                                                                   rad,”, and “awesome.”
Given their historic interest in using a                                                              The students located their
                                                                                                      school on maps and also
variety of TT methods, it’s no surprise       Shirley Waters used both “show and tell” and hands-
                                                                                                      got to observe bark beetle
that Fire Lab personnel came up with          on demonstrations to interest students in careers in
                                                                                                      specimens in different
some novel approaches to helping              science.
                                                                                                      stages of development
educators meet their goals.
                                                                                                      (INTercom Feb./92).
    While Bob Mutch was the technology
transfer leader at the Fire Lab, he and       wildland fire education in many geo-
Dave Tippets, Station Public Affairs          graphic areas.
Specialist, created a “Living with Fire”          The first version of the curriculum    INTercom Makes the
educational computer game for use in          was released in 1997. In 1998, Smith       Connection
the visitor center at the Aerial Fire Depot   and McMurray received the Forest
in Missoula. The game puts a player in        Service Chief’s Award for Conservation
the place of a fire manager. It was based     Education for developing FIREWORKS.            The Intermountain Station launched
on research and tools developed for               More general educational work by       an employee newsletter in 1975.
real-world fire management, and recom-        Station people was typified by Forest      Apparently, it was the only one
mended for people ages 10 and up. After       Survey Computer Programmer Shirley         published on a regular basis by the orga-
                                              Waters, who earned a special award in      nization or its predecessors. Newsletters
Wayne Cook took over TT duties at
                                              1992 during Public Service Recognition     were common within the Forest Service
the Lab he updated the exhibit material
                                              Week for her work in career education      and elsewhere; the Station’s was
and put it on the internet so it became
                                              programs. Waters gave more than 50         designed to be a little different. It was
accessible world-wide. “Living with
                                              presentations to some 1,500 students       brief—a single sheet of paper printed
Fire” also was made available on a disk
                                              ranging from first grade through high      on both sides. It appeared often—every
with other materials for FIREWORKS,
                                              school. Her goal was to expose the         two weeks, skipping one issue only in
another educational innovation based on                                                  December each year during the holiday
                                              youngsters to career options available
fire science.                                                                            season. Although the stated goal was “to
                                              in the Forest Service, with emphasis on
    FIREWORKS was designed by                                                            keep employees in nine far-flung loca-
                                              science and math.
Ecologist Jane Kapler Smith and                   Waters served as the Forest Service    tions up-to-date on news of the Station”
Biological Science Technician Nanka           representative for the “Expanding Your     (INTercom 1/9/75), the founders of the
McMurray. A program intended for              Horizons” career program, sponsored        newsletter hoped it also would help in
students in grades 1-12, it addressed         by the Utah Math and Science Network       getting research results to users.
five main themes: (1) fire behavior; (2)      for women. In addition to her own              The first issue went to all Station
characteristics that enable plant and         programs, she arranged and coordinated     employees and a few copies were sent
animal populations to survive fire; (3)       appearances by 10 other speakers. She      to each Forest Service Region and
forest history, especially related to fire;   also participated in the “Great American   Station. Soon, Regions 1 and 4 agreed
(4) change in forests over time; and (5)      Teach-in” sponsored by one of the local    to forward copies to Regional Office
human safety and fire management.             school districts, and in the American      staffs and Ranger Districts. Circulation
FIREWORKS featured ponderosa,                 Indian Math and Science Camp in            jumped from about 300 copies in 1975
lodgepole, and whitebark pine forests         Montana.                                   to nearly 700 in 1979, and it grew after
and was delivered in a trunk full of edu-         “I preface my presentations with my    that as other resource management
cational materials for hands-on learning.     feelings about being prepared for life     organizations were added to the mailing
The curriculum linked each activity           with additional education and career       list. In addition to the usual personnel
to national educational standards so it       options,” Waters said. “I let them know    news, INTercom carried announcements
could be used as a prototype for              that I had the best of both worlds when    of new Station publications, descriptions

                                             monthly magazine format. Pages were
                                             added, more photos were included, and
                                             issues often had a central theme. Toward
                                             the end of its life, INTercom sometimes
                                             ran as many as 16 pages. When Denver
                                             Burns became acting Station Director
                                             he chose to discontinue INTercom and
                                             replace its internal communication
                                             functions with Director’s Notes, an
                                             electronic newsletter produced in Fort
                                                 Delpha Noble was the first INTercom
                                             editor. The publication had five subse-
                                             quent editors—Mike Prouty, Liz Close,
                                             Fran Reynolds, Dave Tippets, and Dave
                                             Stalling—between the time Noble re-
                                             tired and its demise in 1995. Throughout
INTercom evolved from a single-sheet,        this period, Louise Kingsbury was a
chatty newsletter to a magazine-style        major contributor of articles and she        Retired from Station employment,
publication with a central theme for         also served as editor at times when          but still on the job conducting writing
each issue.
                                             the public information job was vacant.       workshops, Delpha Noble returned to
                                             Design and layout became increasingly        the Station in 1993 as a volunteer to de-
of new studies and special programs,         sophisticated; Deborah Renteria and          scribe her days as a ranger’s wife during
and, when space permitted, small feature     Joyce Stoddard handled those chores.         a Women’s History Month celebration.
stories about Station administrators and         In 1993 while Tippets was serving
researchers. These items were intended       as editor, INTercom was one of two           interview (Alexander 1987), he recalled
to acquaint managers with the work of        newsletters in the Forest Service to         Delpha’s role as an unpaid “official
the Station on a continuing basis. Phone     win the “Associate Chief’s Award for         collaborator” for the District and later
calls and notes from resource managers       Outstanding Internal Communications.”        at the Malta Ranger District, Minidoka
and staff people were evidence that this     Twenty-five newsletters were entered in      National Forest, from 1950 to 1955.
approach was somewhat successful             the competition. As a prize, Associate       “If you couldn’t type and your wife
(Noble, personal communication).             Chief George Leonard granted $5,000          couldn’t type, you were in trouble,” he
    The earliest issues appeared with a      to the Intermountain Station to be used      said. Wives were “classed as collabora-
temporary title, “INT News.” The first       by the publishing staff for “any official    tors, which entitled them to no pay, but
issue announced a contest to “select         work relating to your ongoing employee       since they did have regular appointment
a permanent, sprightlier name.” The          communications work.” (Leonard, per-         papers they could get a license so they
prize, a dinner for two, was paid for with   sonal communication). Even considering       could drive the government equipment.”
personal funds donated by the Research       inflation, it was a pretty good return on    Delpha, Ed said, “would run the District,
Information staff. The response to the       investment for the staff that put up $30     answer the phone and the radio,” while
contest was good, including a surprise,      of their own money in 1975 to help get       he was out on week-long pack trips. If
long-distance entry from an employee         INTercom started.                            a fire broke out, she would “get some
of the Pacific Southwest Station in                                                       people to go fight the fire.”
Berkeley. The April edition announced                                                         Delpha Noble confirmed her
that Renee Ingram, who worked in                                                          husband’s recollections some years later
                                             50 Years of Noble Service                    (personal communication). “After I
Administrative Services at Station
Headquarters, had won the contest with                                                    passed the required government driving
her suggestion, INTercom. Pete Taylor            Delpha Noble never missed a              test I could go with Ed into the field,
at the Fire Lab submitted 22 entries, and    deadline in the 10 years she held the        pulling the horse and trailer, to a site on
the contest judges decided he deserved a     INTercom editor post. That remarkable        the District where he would establish
reward for effort. They gave a $10 prize     record is a reflection of the dedication     a base camp. He would then take 3 or
to Taylor.                                   and perseverance Noble displayed             4 days riding ‘Old Red’ to places inac-
    INTercom lived for 21 years. The         during a career that, with a few interrup-   cessible by vehicles. Later in the week
final issue was in December 1995.            tions, spanned 50 years.                     I would drive the truck to his campsite
The content evolved, partly because              Ed Noble, Delpha’s husband who           and pick up him and ‘Old Red’ to drive
the editors periodically asked readers       retired as branch chief of watershed         back to the Ranger Station. I also did
what they wanted to have included. In        management in Region 4, was District         most of his clerical work; I was a much
mid-1990 a radical change was made           Ranger at Leadore in the Salmon (Idaho)      better typist than he. Because he was in
when the newsletter was converted to a       National Forest in 1948. In a 1985           the field so much during the summer, I

got acquainted with many ranchers and         on the new job when Noble was reading         unpaid assignment to occasionally “run
others who would come to the office           proofs with Editorial Assistant Ruth          the District” for the Forest Service.
for permits or information while he was       Reed said, “Oh, you can spell.”
gone.”                                            Five years later Noble reached the
    “My collaborator duties continued         GS-5 level she probably should have           Major Program Shifts
during our 4 years at Malta,” Noble said.     started at. About that time the Station
“After our first child was born Ed would      established a Public Information
switch tasks with me. I would work in         Specialist position targeted as a GS-11           The Station moved aggressively
the office, typing allotment plans and        under a relatively new program known          in the 1970s to change the research
reports, while he stayed in the house         as “Upward Mobility.” People in those         program in several important areas.
taking care of our daughter. I enjoyed        types of jobs could get periodic promo-       Some adjustments were motivated by
my ‘unpaid’ duties. The designation           tions provided they performed well            declines in funding in traditional parts
gave me the opportunity to be included        at each succeeding level of difficulty        of the program. Other changes began
in Ed’s work and to learn more about the      as more responsibilities were added.          moving the Station in the direction of
Forest Service as well.”                      Noble applied for the job and got it. She     ecosystem work that was to become the
    Noble switched from a “no pay”            progressed on schedule to the GS-7 and        new standard for Forest Service research
Forest Service collaborator to a “low         GS-9 levels, but her advancement stalled in the 1990s. Among significant changes
pay” regular employee in 1969. Her ex-        for months when the normal time came          were those in pathology and engineering
periences illustrate the obstacles in those   for the promotion to GS-11. She finally       units, and throughout the Station in
days to a woman getting employment            decided to practice the assertiveness she     traditional range research.
and moving up the career ladder. Noble        preached as the Station’s first Federal           Emphasis shifts occurred in the
brushed up on her secretarial skills, and     Woman’s Program Coordinator. She              Moscow forest pathology unit in the
carried her manual typewriter to the          went to an Assistant Station Director         1970s and 1980s. The movement away
State Employment Office to take the           and complained. She soon got the              from studying individual problems such
required test. After the test, the supervi-   promotion.                                    as white pine blister rust organisms
sor told Noble she was the first person           The Federal Woman’s Program               toward situations as well as organisms
ever to get 100 percent on the spelling       task was an “other duty as assigned.”         was significant. Of the shift to address-
segment, and her typing accuracy was          Working with coordinators in Regions          ing ecological problems instead of
very high.                                    1 and 4, Noble planned and conducted          singular “bad guys,” Project Leader Al
    “She then proceeded to tell me I          programs in Ogden and Missoula. “I            Harvey said, “Up to the mid-1970s, if
would have a hard time getting a job          stressed that women should prepare            you had suggested controlling root rot of
because of my age,” Noble said. “For          themselves for any opportunities that         Douglas-fir by aggressive management,
heavens sake, I was only 46.” The             might come up,” she said. If ever a           you’d have been laughed out of the
test supervisor also said employment          philosophy was based on experience,           room.”
was unlikely unless Nobel “knew               this one was.                                     The Organic Team—Harvey and a
somebody.”                                        Noble retired briefly in 1984. A few      group of Moscow Lab researchers and
    Noble couldn’t work in the Regional       months later, a Region
Office in Ogden, because Ed was em-           4 representative phoned
ployed there and the Forest Service had       and asked if she would be
iron-clad rules against spouses working       interested in conducting
in the same organization. But she did         some writing workshops.
“know somebody,” so she went to see           “Some” turned into 46
George Gruschow, Assistant Station            sessions during the next 14
Director for Research Support Services,       years, several as far away
who took her to the publishing unit           as Oregon and Washington
where clerical help was needed. She was       State. Noble was asked to
hired on a part-time basis, which was         expand the standard course
fine with her because she could be home       curriculum furnished
in the late afternoons when her children      by the Forest Service’s
got back from school. She was eligible        Washington Office. She
for a GS-5 appointment according to           developed material, includ-
her test results, but the Station offered     ing a workbook, which
only a GS-3 at the lowest salary step.        added a full day to the
A few years later, Noble said she asked       workshops. Noble retired
Grant Mortensen, the head of Personnel        again when she adjourned
Management, why that was done. “Well,         the last workshop in 1998.       Project Leader Al Harvey (left) guided the pathology
                                                                               research unit in Moscow to an ecosystem approach
Delpha,” he said, “We didn’t know what        It was almost exactly a          that showed how forest management practices
you could do.” And during the first day       half century after her first     could combat tree diseases.

                                          Lab; Michael Larsen from the Forest
                                          Products Lab; and Martin Jurgensen of
                                          Michigan Technological University. The
                                          interdisciplinary group demonstrated
                                          the importance of keeping large woody
                                          material on the forest floor to preserve
                                          habitat for mycorrhizae and maintain
                                          healthy microbial processes in for-
                                          est ecosystems. Their work showed
                                          the importance of soil microbes to
                                          forest productivity and sustainability
                                          (INTercom May/92).
                                              The research monitored effects on
                                          soil quality of timber harvesting, differ-
                                          ent wood utilization levels, and different
                                          fire intensities. During summers, many
                                          graduate students from Michigan Tech
                                          were involved, taking soil samples,
                                          analyzing the layers, and counting mi-
                                          croscopic fungal root tips in thousands
                                          of cores (Graham 2004).
                                              It was a radical break from traditional
Research Forester Terrie Jain took soil
samples as part of interdisciplinary      forestry when the team’s research results     Surrounded by Petri dishes, Plant
research by the “Organic Team.”           convinced foresters to leave 10 to 15         Pathologist Geral McDonald showed
                                          tons of slash on the ground after log-        the growth of Amillaria isolates.
                                          ging. The team’s guidelines for slash
cooperators dubbed “The Organic Team” disposal were incorporated into almost
started taking an ecological approach in  all forest plans in Regions 1 and 4, and         One action was to gather information
1973, and nobody was laughing by the      began to appear in forest plans in other      on the occurrence and effects of the
mid-1980s when their work had become western regions by the early 1990s.                fungus. This resulted in an extension
widely accepted and applied.                  Because of the diversity of Rocky         of the “Prognosis Model” developed
   The team included Russ Graham,         Mountain forest ecosystems, the amount        by mensurationists at the Moscow Lab.
Deborah Page-Dumroese, Jonalea Tonn, of organic debris needed for forest                That gave managers a way to predict the
and Terrie Jain, all of the Moscow        health varied greatly. The team refined       probability of infection in different types
                                                         its studies, and in the        of stands under different management
                                                         mid-1990s provided guide-      strategies.
                                                         lines tailored to specific        The broader problem required
                                                         ecosystems. For example,       considerable basic research. Pathologist
                                                         in ponderosa pine forests of   Geral McDonald said of Amillaria, “We
                                                         Arizona they recommended       thought we knew more about it than we
                                                         leaving 5 to 13 tons per       do.” He devoted much of his work to
                                                         acre, in contrast to 25 tons   better understanding the characteristics
                                                         recommended for hemlock        of the organism. McDonald succeeded
                                                         forests of northern Idaho to   in isolating four species active in the
                                                         feed the soil (Intermountain   Inland West, including two suspected
                                                         and Rocky Mountain             of being the chief damage agents. The
                                                         Stations 1995).                goal was to produce new knowledge of
                                                             Plant pathologists at      ecosystem patterns and responses and
                                                         Moscow took a different        integrate it into broad-based models
                                                         tack in attempting to          that could guide forest management
                                                         find ways to mitigate          (Close 1988b).
                                                         detrimental activities of         Engineers Seek Stability—For 15
                                                         Armillaria, a fungus that      years the Station’s engineering research
                                                         attacked roots and killed      unit at Bozeman had featured logging
Research Forester Russ Graham inspected a study
                                                         many trees in the Northern     equipment evaluations and studies of
plot where coarse woody debris was left after tim-       Rocky Mountains. In some       timber harvesting systems in steep ter-
ber harvesting to ensure long-term productivity and      places the problem was a       rain. That changed in a fundamental way
the health of the soil.                                  full-blown epidemic.           early in 1976. Ed Burroughs was named

                                            wrote a 100-page technical bulletin,          was a problem and logging and associ-
                                            Slope Stability in Road Construction,         ated roadbuilding were major activities.
                                            which presented guidelines for location          Forest road-building goals and
                                            and construction of stable roads in forest-   methods had changed by the 1980s in re-
                                            ed areas of western Oregon and northern       sponse to cost and environmental impact
                                            California (INTercom 10/21/76).               concerns. Low-impact roads that fit the
                                               Personnel in the engineering technol-      terrain, minimized resource damage, and
                                            ogy unit worked in three broad areas:         kept construction costs down were the
                                            (1) Developing techniques to reduce           new standard. The lower standard roads
                                            costs and environmental impacts of            were being built with backhoes rather
                                            road construction; (2) devising methods       than bulldozers, but the Forest Service
                                            to estimate road surface erosion and          system for estimating costs was still
                                            ways to deal with the problem; and            based on production rates for the larger
                                            (3) developing a planning framework           road-building equipment. The Station
                                            to evaluate landslide hazards (Prouty         researchers made new production stud-
                                            1986). Cooperators included the civil         ies and devised new cost equations for
                                            engineering and geology departments at        Regions 1 and 4. The equations allowed
                                            the Universities of Idaho and Montana,        National Forest engineers to more ac-
                                            the Nezperce National Forest, the             curately estimate road costs during the
                                            Region 1 engineering staff, and the           timber sale planning process. The new
Project Leader Ed Burroughs searched
                                            Station’s watershed research unit at          cost information was computerized and
for a fire-induced hydrophobic soil         Boise.                                        made available service-wide through the
layer in 1991 in one of the many types         Burroughs strongly believed that           standard system used at the time, and
of research the engineering technology      the unit mission was focused on urgent        later on widely available minicomputers
unit conducted.                             road engineering problems affecting the       and programmable calculators (Noble
                                            National Forests, but was concerned           1993).
                                            that Bozeman was not close to areas              Predicting sediment production from
Project Leader of a new work unit oper-     most in need of the research findings.        surface erosion was facilitated by using
ating at Bozeman and Logan concerned        In response to this concern, the unit         a “rainulator” to simulate rainfall. The
with alleviating physical and hydrologic    was moved to Moscow in 1985. It then          “rainulator” was a complicated sprinkler
impacts of surface mining activities. The   was closer to road and slope stability        system that allowed scientists to quickly
old unit was deactivated a few months       problems related to the granitic soils of     compare the effect of a known amount
later (INTercom 1/29/76).                   Idaho forests and also closer to Pacific      of precipitation at a known intensity on
    Funds for surface mining research       Northwest forests where slope stability       a variety of road surfaces and designs.
soon began to diminish, however, and
the engineering unit shifted its program
to focus on slope stability problems,
forest road construction techniques, and
related watershed research. It became
the only one of five engineering research
units in the Forest Service not
studying timber harvesting equipment
and systems (Prouty 1986).
    Burroughs’ unusual background
related directly to the new research mis-
sion. He had a forestry degree from the
University of Montana and also earned
bachelors and masters degrees in civil
engineering at Montana State University.
After working as a research engineer
at Missoula, Moscow, and Oxford,
Mississippi, he completed a Ph.D.
program at Colorado State University
in watershed management. Burroughs
then worked for the Bureau of Land
Management in Oregon for 4 years as
a hydrologist in the State Office. While    Station research engineers collected sediment washed off a burned hillside plot
with the BLM, he and two associates         by an artificial rain simulator in 1995 as part of a study in the Boise River drainage.

Data from it and studies of road seg-        of Soil Erosion on Forest Roads, by              During his tenure in Moscow,
ments where instruments were installed       Burroughs and Jack King of the Boise         Burroughs advocated construction of an
to measure natural precipitation led to      watershed research unit. The researchers     indoor rainfall simulator. A simulator
computer programs that displayed ef-         used national and local study results to     eventually was built at the Moscow
fectiveness and costs of various erosion     provide recommendations for improve-         site. It was completed in 1994, and has
control methods (Prouty 1986).               ments in guides developed earlier to         provided research support for National
   Research Engineer Rod Prellwitz,          predict sediment yields in Regions 1         Forest System and timber industry
Geologist Carol Hammond, and                 and 4.                                       personnel as well as Station scientists.
University of Idaho cooperators devel-           In 1990, Burroughs and other mem-        To recognize Burroughs’ enthusiasm for
oped systems to identify and predict the     bers of the WEPP core team received          his work and the simulator facility, the
stability of soil for use in planning. The   a USDA Superior Service award.               building was named the E. R. Burroughs
concept was to avoid landslides that         Burroughs was honored for providing          Engineering Laboratory and dedicated
often occurred when forest roads were        a family of models that estimated sedi-      during 40th anniversary ceremonies
incorrectly located. Prellwitz trained       ment production from disturbed forest        for the Moscow Lab in 2003 (Elliot,
engineers, soils scientists, and hy-         sites. Burroughs died unexpectedly in        personal communication).
drologists in Forest Service Regions         November 1991 of a heart attack while            In 1996, engineering unit personnel
1, 2, 5, and 6; the Federal Highway          visiting the Logan Lab. He was replaced      made a major contribution to another
Administration; State agencies; the          as Project Leader of the engineering         national project when they teamed up
BLM; and private firms in use of             research unit by Bill Elliot, who            with a long list of National Forest and
the system to rate slope stability and       continued the alliance of engineering        Regional geotechnical engineers to
landslide hazards. He was nominated for      and watershed researchers and the work       produce three giant reference works
a national technology transfer award for     within the WEPP framework.                   for geologists and engineers trying to
his efforts (INTercom 6/21/90).                  A 2-year study on roads in the           answer difficult questions about slope
   In the mid-1980s, the engineer-           Willamette National Forest in Oregon         stability. The reference works, published
ing technology unit became heavily           by Research Engineer Randy Foltz,            by the Forest Service’s Washington
involved in the national Water Erosion       Hydrologist Ben Kopyscianski,                Office Engineering Staff, were divided
Prediction Project (WEPP). This rela-        Engineering Technician Serita Barrietua      into sections for those who needed
tionship was to continue throughout the      and several cooperators produced one of      theoretical background and managers
balance of Intermountain Station history     the more novel results to be introduced      who were working on specific problems
and beyond. WEPP was conceived by            into WEPP models. The researchers            (Tippets 1996b).
Agricultural Research Service and Soil       measured sedimentation generated by              The national WEPP model was
Conservation Service scientists who          logging trucks on four road segments         subject to constant improvement through
wanted to develop a large database that      when the trucks had normal and reduced       introductions of new data. By the late
would enable them to model hydrologic        tire pressures.                              1990s more than 200 scientists had par-
response, sediment detachment, and               Foltz said that trucks with reduced      ticipated in its development. Elliot and
sediment transport for a wide range of       tire pressure created only about half        Computer Programmer/Analyst David
conditions. The Forest Service and BLM       as much runoff and sediment as those         Hall of the Moscow unit provided up-to-
joined the program as cooperators, and       with normal pressure. This information       date forest user information in 1997 in a
Burroughs was the first Forest Service       could be used for any truck with a           Station publication titled Water Erosion
Research representative to serve on the      Central Tire Inflation system, which         Prediction Project (WEPP) Forest
program’s core team.                         allowed tire pressure adjustments from       Applications. They told potential users
   Being a part of WEPP allowed the          inside the cab. It was particularly          how to obtain the model, run various
Forest Service to provide technology         useful where managers could specify          versions, and make modifications to
for estimating runoff and sediment           pressure in areas where sediment             describe local situations. The authors
yield from forest road-building, timber      runoff could have significant impacts        acknowledged research contributions
harvesting, and wildfire areas to the        on stream quality and related fisheries      by Foltz, Research Engineer Pete
national system and also was an op-          (INTercom May/93).                           Robichaud, and Research Hydrologist
portunity to have the Soil Conservation          The Central Tire Inflation technology    Charles Luce (Boise) to determining
Service perform all lab work associated      was not widely adopted because of costs      forest soil erosion processes and soil
with characterizing soils. Data were col-    and complexity. The reasons for the          erodibility.
lected nationwide by the Moscow unit         reduced erosion, however, led to a new           Validations Prove Invalid—The
and other WEPP participants, and the         understanding of road erosion processes.     early 1970s saw USDA pushing pro-
Federal agencies made results available      Reduced tire pressures led to less rut-      grams of expanded red meat production,
to all (INTercom 3/5/87).                    ting. This finding led to the conclusion     a short time before health groups began
   Working within a national framework       that any practice to minimize rutting will   advocating less red meat consumption to
could produce benefits for local National    reduce road erosion, including the use of    reduce incidences of heart disease. The
Forest managers. One was documented          high-quality gravel, frequent blading, or    Forest Service, trying to be responsive
in a 1989 Station publication, Reduction     seasonal road closures.                      to USDA, produced a report under the

leadership of Bob Rummel, director of         studies became a secondary emphasis          research emphasized plant-soil-water
range in the Washington Office, entitled,     item at the Provo Lab.                       relations and reclamation of disturbed
Range Resources—A Forest- Range                                                            alpine areas.
Environment Study. It was commonly                                                             The availability of water and its
known as the FRES report (Forest-             Reclaiming the High                          movement through soil and plants
Range Task Force 1972).                       Country                                      obviously was important in arid and
   FRES used a linear program model                                                        semi-arid western areas at lower eleva-
of all grazing resources of the U.S.,                                                      tions. It was equally important in alpine
including management procedures,                  The Surface Environment and Mining       areas where landscapes featured sparse
outputs, and where money could be             Program (SEAM) expired in 1981, but          and stunted vegetation and persistent,
spent to increase forage for cattle while     disturbed land reclamation research          strong winds dried the soil and plants.
maintaining environmental quality. Tests      continued as an important part of the        Brown’s early research in the use and
or “validations” were to be held in east-     research program for the remainder of        design of thermocouple psychrometers,
ern Oregon, the South, and in the Great       Station history. The research component      devices for measuring soil and plant
Basin part of the Intermountain Station       of SEAM was assigned to the Mine             water potential, made him an expert on
territory. The Station badly needed           Spoil Reclamation unit in Logan, whose       this type of equipment. Psychrometers
an infusion of funds into its range           members had conducted the bulk of            that included modifications proposed
management research program. Units            SEAM research since the special pro-         by Brown were widely used in the
were being consolidated and missions          gram began in 1972.                          environmental sciences and adopted by
changed. Project Leader Walt Mueggler             Under the SEAM umbrella, the             several private firms for commercial
moved from Bozeman to Logan in 1973           Logan unit had been a team operation         use. There were plenty of places to use
to head a new research unit focusing on       (see “Special Programs Bring Special         the devices.
mountain herb, brush, and aspen ranges.       Problems and Achievements,” this                 About 7.5 million acres, or 12
This signaled the end of range research       chapter). It continued to be. However,       percent, of the alpine tundra in the
in Bozeman.                                   the personnel changed, the teams were        West had been disturbed by 1970.
   Station management requested               smaller, and the work focused increas-       Disturbances ranged from obvious scars
the transfer of Warren Clary, a range         ingly on high-elevation areas. Plant         left by mining operations to the effects
scientist at the Southern Station, to plan    Physiologist Ray Brown was a member          of domestic sheep trailing to summer
how the Station could contribute to the       of almost all the teams, served as Project   ranges. Disturbances caused by hikers
“validation” effort in the Great Basin.       Leader for many years, and continued         and campers were becoming a growing
In 1977, about $8 million was suppos-         his involvement as a volunteer after         concern. Keeping the alpine ecosystems
edly available on the national scene,         retirement. From the start, Brown’s          healthy is important. The high
and Station Director Bay thought the
Intermountain Station could get about
$2.2 million of the total. The money
never materialized, however, and the
proposal faded away. Clary, who was
supposed to become assistant program
manager for the validation work, instead
replaced Ralph Holmgren as Project
Leader of the salt-desert shrub research
unit at Provo after Holmgren retired.
   Clary made plans to shift work from
salt-desert shrub studies to bolster the
Great Basin FRES “validation,” for
which there were no funds. Region 4 did
have some money available, however,
and was willing to assist. That led to
work in the Fishlake National Forest
at Oak Creek, Utah, to “validate” the
effect of pinyon-juniper removal on
forage production for livestock and deer.
However, two fairly large range fires
caused the Oak Creek work to change
into a fire rehabilitation and revegetation   The McLaren mine provided a good place for Station scientists to locate a large
study. Initiation of the “validation” work    reclamation demonstration area and reference areas in the New World Mining
marked the time when salt-desert range        District in southern Montana near the corner of Yellowstone National Park. This
                                              photo was taken looking northward toward Fisher Mountain (10,300-ft elevation).

mountains trap and store water for                                                         undisturbed communities. She meticu-
thousands of lowland farmers and city                                                      lously followed the life history of each
dwellers. When alpine watersheds                                                           individual plant found in a series of plots
deteriorate, the whole hydrologic                                                          and recorded how each plant responded
system below them can come unraveled                                                       to a variety of treatments (Intercom
(Tippets 1991b).                                                                           5/28/87)
    Rehabilitation posed difficult                                                             Chambers was seeking ways manag-
problems. The alpine areas have short                                                      ers could create “safe spots” for seed
growing seasons and rocky and shallow                                                      germination and how they could boost
soils. They experience low temperatures                                                    the chances of seedling survival. She
and high ultra-violet radiation, in ad-                                                    found several. Mulching was critical and
dition to high winds. Reestablishing                                                       fertilization was needed on extreme dis-
vegetation takes relatively long periods                                                   turbances where all the native soil was
of time. However, Brown and associates                                                     lost (Tippets 1991b). Fall planting at the
in the SEAM program observed early                                                         same time natural seeding occurred also
in their work that there was no evidence                                                   was necessary.
that alpine environments were hostile to                                                       Where motorized equipment could be
organisms that had adapted to them.                                                        used, recommended planting operations
    The Beartooth Plateau near the north-                                                  and treatments were relatively easy to
eastern corner of Yellowstone National                                                     accomplish. In remote places, such as
Park in Montana was an excellent place                                                     Wilderness, reclaiming disturbed areas
to study alpine disturbances and recla-       Jeanne Chambers demonstrated during          was another matter. However, Logan
                                              a 1990 tour that plants would grow well
mation methods. There, past exploration                                                    unit personnel tried several techniques,
                                              on disturbed alpine sites when mulch
and surface and underground operations        and fertilizer were used in the estab-
                                                                                           and their work proved that successful
in the New World Mining District              lishment process.                            revegetation can be accomplished on
had created numerous disturbed sites.                                                      small scales entirely with local materials
Disturbances included road construction                                                    and hand labor.
areas, drilling sites, exploration holes,     23 papers reporting results of her work          At many abandoned sites, mining
trenches, mining camp sites, and aban-        and was a co-author with Brown and           wastes containing toxic chemicals have
doned copper, silver, and gold mines.         other individuals of 10 more.                been exposed to weathering, creating
    As part of the SEAM program,                 Chambers’ studies combined labora-        material bearing little resemblance to
Brown and his associates in 1976 started      tory experiments with field work on the      natural soils. Such material often is
a long-term study at the McLaren Mine,        Beartooth Plateau. She used a growth         concentrated in the form of spoils and
an abandoned gold, copper, and silver         chamber, cold room, and greenhouse to        tailings. Erosion from these areas can
mine. Surface operations had removed          determine germination requirements and       result in acid, metal, or other chemical
all vegetation and topsoil from about 35      responses to fertilizers of alpine plants.   contamination of down-slope plant
acres. Also planned as a demonstration        At the demonstration site, Chambers          communities and aquatic ecosystems.
area, the research site was relatively        compared the biology of plants found on      Analysis skills were needed. Mike
large. At the time, most knowledge            the disturbed areas to those growing in      Amacher joined the Logan unit to
about revegetation and surface reclama-
tion of high-elevation mines was based
on small-scale research plot studies.
                                              Project Leader Ray
Both relatively undisturbed areas and
                                              Brown (left) and Gallatin
piles of mine spoils were nearby.             National Forest Geologist
    The scientists studied effects of         Sherm Sollid held a
shaping and contouring, mine spoil            chart showing proposed
amendments, seeding, mulching, trans-         new mining activity and
planting, fertilization, and various repeat   reclamation plans near
treatments. All were compared to refer-       the McLaren mine in
ence areas. In the 1970s and early 80s,       the New World Mining
Brown worked closely with Hydrologist         District. Taking his turn
                                              as a presenter to repre-
Bob Johnston. They were first and
                                              sentatives of industrial
second authors of 15 papers reporting         firms, environmental
progress in the study or presenting           groups, and interested
results from parts of it. Range Scientist     individual citizens was
Jeanne Chambers joined the Logan unit         Allan Kirk, Noranda
in 1982 and concentrated on studies of        Exploration Company
vegetation establishment. She published       geologist.

provide them. Specially designed, solar-     were the AD’s (personal communica-           As the opportunities arose, the Southern
powered instrument systems were used         tion). After about a year, the Station       Station AD’s were relocated to Station
to collect materials for analysis.           Director was assigned to a national sys-     headquarters, and the former Deputy slot
    Throughout the 22 years of research      tems review team, which required long        was filled by a third program AD.
at the New World Mining District site,       periods of travel away from the Station.        When Lassen came to the
Brown, Johnston, Chambers, and other         Lassen then took care of the day-to-day      Intermountain Station as Director in
Logan personnel hosted hundreds of           Station business for nearly a year.          1983 he brought along his beliefs about
visitors to show results of the techniques      When Lassen became Director of the        how to organize Station administra-
they tested and describe conclusions         Southern Station in 1976, he thought         tion for maximum effectiveness, but
reached in the various individual studies.   three program AD’s would be a better         he encountered a different situation.
After Brown retired, he, Amacher, Walt       use of manpower than two program             The Intermountain Station had a
Mueggler, and Janice Kotuby-Amacher,         AD’s and a Deputy Director. He               Deputy, Carter Gibbs; a Planning and
director of the Soil Testing Laboratory      presented this plan to the Washington        Applications AD, Keith Evans; and a
at Utah State University, wrote a Rocky      Office, and it was approved. Lassen          program AD, Duane Lloyd; located at
Mountain Station publication (Brown          also thought locating the AD’s away          headquarters. Program AD Dick Krebill
and others 2003) that documented what        from Station Headquarters diminished         was in Missoula, as were Program
the visitors had been shown and told for     opportunities to fully use them for staff    Managers Ron Barger and Jim Lotan.
many years.                                  work. He observed, for example, that         Barger and Lotan had responsibilities for
    The general conclusion was that only     a monthly staff meeting with the AD’s        their operations similar to those of pro-
by restoring natural ecosystem form          often used up the better part of three       gram AD’s and also attended monthly
and functioning could disturbed alpine       days with travel time and information        and other staff meetings.
sites be successfully reclaimed. The         sharing. Lassen reasoned that if the AD’s       Lassen found that he and Gibbs
authors provided 10 principles to guide      were located at headquarters travel time     worked well together, so no effort was
alpine area restoration based primarily      for monthly meetings would be nil and        made to eliminate the Deputy position.
on research at New World, but said they      each AD would be more aware of events        The two special programs were designed
believed them to be equally applicable       throughout the Station, so little briefing   to have limited lives. Their major objec-
to similar disturbances throughout the       time would be needed at each meeting.        tives had been achieved by the time
West where managers want to restore             Lassen was convinced that staff           Barger and Lotan retired, so the manager
natural plant communities.                   meeting time could be reduced to a few       jobs were abolished and the remaining
    Although the New World site              hours and focused on decision making.        work was transferred to the program
received major attention from the Logan      He also believed that locating the AD’s      AD areas. Krebill was asked to move to
scientists for more than two decades,        away from headquarters diminished            Ogden at a time of his choosing, and he
they worked in many other places. In         flexibility in assigning research units to   did.
1988, Chambers published a report            them and fostered a parochial interest in       Later, Evans left for a Congressional
on native plant establishment at an oil      portions of the total research program.      Fellowship in Washington and Gibbs
drilling pad site in the Uintah Mountains                                                 took over the Planning the Application
in Utah. Brown and Johnston provided                                                      AD assignments in addition to his
guidelines for revegetating disturbed al-                                                 regular duties until he retired in 1988.
pine rangelands. From 1972 until 1997,                                                    Lassen did not move to fill the Deputy
Logan unit personnel conducted studies                                                    position, but let the vacancy stay in
at 36 surface mining sites in the West, at                                                the approved organizational structure.
high and low elevations. All the studies                                                  This was fortunate because a short time
ultimately resulted in specific guidance                                                  later AD Lloyd suffered a serious back
for managers who sought ways to re-                                                       injury from a fall and his ability to travel
store healthy plant communities to areas                                                  was limited. He was appointed Deputy
where human or natural disturbances                                                       Director, a role that required little travel
had upset the normal environmental                                                        and one he fulfilled very well. About
balance.                                                                                  the same time, Evans finished his fel-
                                                                                          lowship and subsequent assignments
                                                                                          with Legislative Affairs and the Forest
Revising the Revision                                                                     Environment staffs in Washington and
                                                                                          returned to Ogden to take Lloyd’s place
                                                                                          as a program AD. When Lloyd retired in
    When Larry Lassen went to the            Deputy Directors often filled in for the
                                                                                          1991, Lassen abolished the Deputy posi-
Southern Station in New Orleans as its       Station Director, as Carter Gibbs (right)    tion in favor of a third program AD slot.
first Associate (Deputy) Director in 1974    did as he entertained Forest Service         The job was filled by Dean Knighton.
under the new administrative system, he      Chief Dale Robertson during a visit by          In retrospect it sounds much like mu-
wasn’t sure how to operate and neither       the Chief to Station Headquarters.           sical chairs, but not long before Lassen

retired in 1992 he finally had the Station     sawmill, owned a consulting engineering         In 1972, Koch wrote Agricultural
management arrangement he had sought           firm, and served as an associate profes-     Handbook 420, Utilization of Southern
first at the Southern Station, and then at     sor at Michigan State University.            Pines, which became a widely used
the Intermountain Station.                        In the South, good growing condi-         reference for foresters, industrial devel-
                                               tions, level terrain, changes in land use,   opers, and wood technology students.
                                               and closeness to newly developing mar-       The text and illustrations covered 1,675
Peter Koch—Superstar                           kets plus technological advances have        pages in two volumes.
                                               made this region home to a large seg-           Before leaving the Southern Station
                                               ment of the lumber and pulp and paper        for the Intermountain Station in 1982,
    All the notable scientists in Station      industries. This was not always the case.    Koch repeated his southern pine publish-
history made their mark through lengthy,       While structurally strong, southern pine     ing feat by writing the manuscript for
productive careers in the Great Basin          lumber was prone to warp and was more        Utilization of Handwoods Growing on
or Northern Rocky Mountain areas or            difficult to nail than western softwoods.    Southern Pine Sites. The landmark pub-
by early work at the Station that led to       Gluing problems prevented its use as         lication was printed as an Agricultural
bigger things elsewhere. All but one.          structural plywood, and the lack of a        Handbook in 1984 and later reproduced
Peter Koch established himself as a            good pulping process limited its use for     by the Government Printing Office. It
research all-star in the South and came        paper and hardboard.                         consisted of three volumes and was sold
to the Station only in the last years of his      Following World War II, many saw          by the GPO for $75 a set.
Forest Service career.                         the potential for forest industry expan-        Because Koch was hired to start
    Koch was a Montana native reared           sion in the South. Large corporations        a utilization research program from
in a Missoula family of over-achievers.        such as Georgia-Pacific, Weyerhaeuser,       scratch at the Southern Station, he had
His father, Elers Koch, was a pioneer          and International Paper were acquiring       the opportunity to chart his own course
forester. Elers first worked as one            major forest land holdings there. New        in a way seldom available to a Forest
of Gifford Pinchot’s “young men,”              processing plants didn’t appear over-        Service scientist. His was one of a hand-
mapping boundaries for what became             night, however. One of the drawbacks to      ful of “pioneer units” in Forest Service
National Forests in California and the         industrial development was a paucity of      Research. Establishment of these units
Interior West. Later, he designed new          knowledge and processing technology          was initiated by Deputy Chief Vern
fire-control strategies and equipment. He      for the southern tree species. Powerful      Harper to develop whole programs to
served the last 20 years of an illustrious     southern Congressional leaders, includ-      support the efforts of a single outstand-
career as Assistant Regional Forester          ing Senator Ellender of Louisiana, took      ing scientist who worked essentially
for Timber Management for Region               note of that and channeled money to          without supervision (Steen 1998). Koch
1, and took great pride in his role in         the Southern Station to start a Forest       designed the laboratory, acquired
establishing the Savenac Nursery and           Products Utilization Unit.                   the exact equipment he wanted, and
many tree plantations on burned areas             Enter Peter Koch. In 19 years of          handpicked the staff. His location at the
(Koch 1998).                                   Forest Service research work in the          Alexandria Forestry Center in Louisiana
    Was Peter as great an achiever as          South he wrote three major reference         put him in a good position to coordinate
his father? Yes, according to Jack Ward        books, published 175 technical papers,       activities with managers. The Kisatchee
Thomas, writing in the foreword to Elers       and invented several processes widely        National Forest and Southeastern Area
Koch’s book about his life:                    used by the forest products industry. He     of State and Private Forestry also
                                               became known as the leading authority        had offices there. His experience as a
   I spent some thirty years as a research     on processing southern woods.                sawmill manager provided him with
   scientist for the Forest Service before
   becoming chief of the agency. During
   those years my ambition was to become
   as good as our top scientist, a goal I      Peter Koch at the
   never achieved. That scientist was Dr.      Forestry Sciences
   Peter Koch, son of Elers Koch. Elers        Lab in Missoula with
   Koch’s legacy was not limited to his own
                                               his manuscript on
   achievements in progressive natural-
   resource management but included            southern hardwoods
   those of Peter Koch as well. It would       utilization boxed
   be difficult to do better in either case.   and ready to ship to
                                               Washington for print-
                                               ing. The boxes held
    Peter graduated from Montana State
                                               7,000 typed pages and
College at Bozeman in 1942 with a B.S.         1,500 illustrations,
degree in mechanical engineering. He           which in printed form
later earned a Ph.D. in wood utilization       became 4,000 pages in
at the University of Washington. Before        three volumes.
starting his Forest Service research
career, Koch managed a New England

valuable insights that facilitated commu-                                              for the utilization program to continue
nication and cooperation with industry                                                 under a cooperative agreement with
people.                                                                                the University of Montana School
    Koch’s personal characteristics, not                                               of Forestry. He also launched a new
favorable circumstances, were what led                                                 enterprise as President of Wood Science
to his success. He was totally focused                                                 Laboratory, Inc. in Corvallis, Montana.
and dedicated to his work. Koch single-                                                    In 1996 the utilization program paid
mindedly moved his various projects                                                    dividends just as Koch had envisioned
forward, and he thought everyone else                                                  when he returned to Montana. The
should move Koch projects ahead of                                                     Forest Products Society published
others. He hung elaborately crafted                                                    Lodgepole Pine in North America (Koch
wooden signs from the laboratory ceil-                                                 1996), a three-volume reference describ-
ing inscribed with the mission statement    Two years after he retired Peter Koch      ing the species’ characteristics, forest
as constant reminders to all employees      was trying to interest western Montana     values, processes to convert logs to
of what they were there to do.              wood products firms in a new concept       products, and major potential products.
    When he finished his voluminous         to use small-diameter lodgepole pine           Koch received many honors for his
southern pine utilization manuscript        in combination with flakeboard to pro-     work. One was an honorary doctorate
Koch built special wood boxes to hold       duce I-beam joists. Testing was done       conferred by the University of Maine.
                                            on this machine at the University of
it, put them in a pickup truck, and drove                                              He got a USDA Superior Service Award
to Washington, DC to deliver the manu-                                                 in 1968, and the research unit he headed
script to the Forest Service publications                                              at the Southern Station received another
office. And a short time later when he      cutters and small mills making low-        one in 1973. He was elected president
learned the unopened boxes were still       quality studs or shaping timbers for log   of the Forest Products Research Society,
in a Washington hallway, he phoned          buildings.                                 serving in 1972 and 1973. In 1974 he
the Station Director to see if pressure        Koch set out to determine whether       was named a Fellow of the International
could be exerted to “get those people       lodgepole pine had other industrial        Academy of Wood Science, and later
moving.”                                    potential, including chip and fiber pro-   was made a Fellow of the Society of
    In the 1970s Forest Service Research    duction and as a major energy source.      American Foresters. The University of
adopted new approaches for compensat-       He launched a 10-year cooperative          Idaho designated him a Distinguished
ing outstanding scientists. The idea was    research study with the Canadian           Affiliate Professor.
to provide premium pay for individual       government to characterize the physical,
scientific achievement rather than limit-   mechanical, and chemical properties
ing the top salary grades to those who      of lodgepole. The species has a broad      High Hopes Come
supervised organizations. Researchers       range, and Koch sampled trees from
could draw higher salaries than their                                                  Crashing Down
                                            northern California into the Yukon
Project Leaders. A very few scientists      Territory to discover whether lodgepole
were awarded “super grades.” Peter          characteristics change with latitude           In the early 1980s the Station engi-
Koch was among the elite. He was            or elevation, and with tree diameter       neering unit at Bozeman played a role
awarded a grade equal to the Station        (INTercom 1/10/85).                        in plans for use of an airship that looked
Director. Before he left the Southern          He ran out of time to complete his      like something right out of a science
Station he received another increase and    lodgepole studies as a Forest Service      fiction movie.
was drawing more pay than any Station       employee, deciding to retire on the            The research engineers entered into
Director in the Forest Service.             last day of 1984, but he didn’t run        a cooperative agreement with Montana
    At the Intermountain Station, Koch      out of energy. Before leaving Federal      State University to conduct pretests
was assigned to the STEM (Systems of        service he helped make arrangements        for log transport operations by the
Timber Utilization for Environmental
Management) R& D Program at the
Missoula Forestry Sciences Lab. He
                                            The Heli-Stat dur-
began working to do for lodgepole
                                            ing a hover test at
pine what he had done for the southern      Lakehurst, New
pines. Lodgepole grows on hundreds          Jersey. It crashed
of thousands of high-elevation acres        there on July 1, 1986
in the northern Rockies, far from com-      after completing a
mercial markets. Many of the stands         series of tests.
are stagnated or infested with mountain
pine beetles. Access often is difficult
and management options are limited
when the trees attract mainly firewood

Heli-Stat, the world’s first full-sized,      No contract was issued for another
heavy-load, vertical-lift aircraft. The       prototype.
Station-University agreement provided            Although the Heli-Stat was lost,
for as much pretesting as possible so that    the research was not. Engineers at the
evaluation trials of the Heli-Stat could      Pacific Northwest Station used the
be run efficiently (INTercom 8/6/81).         Intermountain results in a cooperative
The pretests focused on efficient meth-       program with two Forest Service
ods of collecting and bunching logs in        Regions, three universities, and an aero-
rugged terrain for pickup and transport       space firm to develop a computer model
by the airship. They involved creation        useful in analyzing other aerial logging
of computer models and programs for           systems, primarily helicopter logging.
simulating and selecting appropriate          The work considered log weights, sizes,
prebunching activities.                       landing areas, access for workers, and
    The Heli-Stat prototype was built         many other factors (Forestry Research
for the Forest Service under a U.S.           West Apr./87).
Navy contract. It was assembled from a
surplus Navy dirigible and four surplus
helicopters. The concept was to combine
the buoyancy of the dirigible with the
                                              Chemists Formulate New
dynamic lift ability of the helicopters       Fire Analyses                                  Electronics Engineer Ron Babbit ad-
into a single hybrid airship that could                                                      justed instruments used to measure
                                                                                             combustion products in 1989.
move heavy loads of logs from steep
slopes in fragile, inaccessible areas to          Chemists played important roles in
yarding sites with minimum environ-           fire science at the Station, but for many
mental impact and relatively low costs.       years they were few in number and              information on combustion and emis-
    The dirigible, when inflated with he-     worked in units dominated by other             sions” (INTercom 9/3/87).
lium to its full 1-million-cubic-foot size,   disciplines. Charlie Philpot did the first        Employees affected by the
was 343 feet long, making it the largest      chemistry work, followed by coopera-           reorganization were given directed
aircraft in the world at the time. The        tive studies led by Fred Shafizadeh of         reassignments. Thirteen were transferred
famous Hughes “Spruce Goose” flying           the University of Montana faculty (J.          to Missoula—nine from Macon, two
boat wingspan was 320 feet (Piasecki          Brown, personal communication). In             from Lansing, Michigan, and two from
Corporation 2005). The builder said           1985, there were only two chemists at          Flagstaff, Arizona. Unfortunately,
even bigger versions of the Heli-Stat         the Fire Lab—Ron Susott in the fire            only two scientists accepted the reas-
might be produced in the future to carry      behavior unit and Cecilia Johnson in the       signments and neither one stayed in
payloads ranging from 60 to 200 tons, if      suppression unit. That changed dramati-        Missoula for long. So the Station had
the prototype performed well in trials.       cally over the next 2 years.                   a new unit with ambitious plans, but
    The trouble was it didn’t perform             The Forest Service announced a ma-         almost no personnel to carry them out.
well; it crashed.                             jor consolidation and redirection of the          The staffing problem was resolved
    According to the National                 Forest Fire and Atmospheric Sciences           rather quickly. Susott transferred into
Transportation Safety Board (report           Research program. For the Fire Lab,            the new unit, Electronics Engineer Ron
NYC86FHD01), the Heli-Stat had just           the new arrangement meant much more            Babbitt moved from the Bozeman Lab,
completed a hover test flight success-        emphasis would be put on chemistry.            and recruiting began to fill other
fully at Lakehurst, New Jersey, on July       The plan was to close down fire research       positions. Darold Ward was named
1, 1986 when disaster struck. The tests       at Macon, Georgia, and redistribute            Project Leader early in 1988. Ward was
were ended that day when a power loss         programs and personnel (INTercom               a scientist with the Pacific Northwest
was noted in one of the helicopters. A        7/24/86).                                      Station in Seattle who had worked in fire
shift in the wind threw the airship out           The Fire Lab established a new             research for 20 years. He had degrees in
of control as it was about to moor after      Fire Chemistry Research Work Unit.             forestry from the University of Montana
landing, and the pilot tried to lift off. A   Assistant Station Director Dick Krebill        and was awarded a Ph.D. in fire science
shimmy developed. The four helicopters        said, “Members of the Fire Chemistry           by the University of Washington in
broke off and fell to the ground. The         RWU will be conducting fundamental             1979.
Heli-Stat was destroyed. One pilot was        research aimed at determining chemi-              Ward led an aggressive program
killed, three were seriously injured, and     cal characteristics of wildland fuels,         that featured working on large-scale
one received minor injuries.                  clarifying the chemical processes of           experiments with many cooperators,
    The safety board determined the           combustion, and predicting byproducts          often internationally, and focusing on
probable causes of the accident were          emitted under various types of combus-         major public issues such as deforestation
inadequacies in the design and perfor-        tion. Our goal is for the unit to serve as a   and air pollution. Babbitt and Susott
mance of several pieces of equipment.         national center for fundamental                played important roles in designing new

hardware and software used in field                                                           Five fixed-wing aircraft and four
work as well as at the Fire Lab.                                                          helicopters were involved in the studies.
    One of the first important interna-                                                   “There was so much going on that we
tional ventures had Ward traveling 7,000                                                  had to be careful about coordinating
miles in 3 weeks while working with                                                       flight patterns,” Ward said. Following
the Brazilian government to collect                                                       the experiments, the Station hosted a fire
smoke samples from deforestation                                                          review to discuss results of the many
burning in the Amazon River Basin. The                                                    tests. The participants assembled later to
research was prompted by a presentation                                                   prepare a composite report.
given by Ward at the National Center                                                          Two complex problem areas—fire-
for Atmospheric Research. It inter-                                                       fighter and community health and safety
ested a National Aeronautics and Space                                                    related to wildfires—drew the attention
Administration (NASA) scientist, and                                                      of the fire chemists in the early 1900s
the two developed a pilot study to mea-                                                   and continued to do so for many years.
sure particles and gases released during                                                      Injuries and illnesses among
burning in the Amazon (INTercom                                                           wildland firefighters were a significant
10/12/89).                                                                                problem. During the 1988 Yellowstone
    The study involved collecting sam-                                                    fires, more than 30,000 medical visits
ples by flying an aircraft through smoke                                                  were made by firefighters, of which
plumes downwind of individual fire ar-                                                    12,000 involved respiratory conditions.
eas. Ward later had the samples analyzed      Instruments mounted on 40-foot tow-         More than 600 of the firefighters
at the Oregon Graduate Research Center.       ers were activated by heat sensors and      with respiratory problems required
Results were included in several publi-       measured gases during three phases of       subsequent medical care. The long-term
cations by Ward and others after review       combustion in large-scale cooperative       health effects were not known and the
at a workshop sponsored by NASA and           fire chemistry research in Canada.          relationship between smoke content and
the Environmental Protection Agency.                                                      health-related problems had not been
    Ward had brought the sampling                                                         identified. A Congressional committee
equipment from the Fire Lab in 11             interest were the mechanisms involved       called for action, and one result was
pieces of luggage. It took 3 days to get it   in creating fire-induced winds. The U.S.    a research plan prepared by Johns
through Brazilian customs. He installed       Defense Nuclear Agency was interested       Hopkins University and the Station
the instruments in a Brazilian govern-        in the studies, and funded American         chemistry unit. Results of the studies
ment plane. Samples were taken at fires       participation. The agency wanted to         were made available to help fire manag-
in a gold mining area and agricultural        better understand the potential for         ers position personnel for maximum
settlement areas where deforestation was      “nuclear winter,” which could be created    safety (Tippets interview, 2005).
proceeding “on a tremendous scale” and        by emissions in a nuclear war. Ward’s           During the historic 1994 fire season,
in a savanna area that was being burned.      unit coordinated work by the American       chemistry unit personnel installed instru-
    “Basically,” Ward said, “there was        scientists participating in the project     ments in an aircraft that allowed them to
smoke everywhere…there were smoke             (INTercom 10/26/89).                        measure smoke emissions from several
plumes all over the place.” By the start          Babbitt and Susott spent weeks          different fires, the impact of smoke on
of the rainy season, which ended the          designing and building instruments          local communities, and dispersion of the
burning, he had collected 80 canisters of     to measure and analyze the products         smoke in the atmosphere. The system
gas and “background air” samples.             of combustion, including gases and          was based on the one used by Ward in
    In the summer of 1989, the still-small    particulates. They transported the equip-   Brazil.
fire chemistry unit and members of the        ment in boxes by van to Canada, where           Ward, Babbitt, and Chemist
fire behavior unit embarked on a study        they mounted their devices on 40-foot       Lynn Weger made measurements in
that required extensive preparation,          towers in the study area. Meteorologist     Montana’s Bitterroot Valley, on the
coordination, and data analysis. Ward         Don Latham installed anemometers to         Idaho-Montana border, and in northern
and others at the Fire Lab had worked         measure the velocity of the convection      California. The airborne system was
with a team of Canadian scientists for        column that would result from the fire.     used for many fires in Montana, Idaho,
several years to plan the “International      He also measured differences in electri-    and Oregon. One result was the knowl-
Crown Fire Experiment” to take place in       cal charges between the earth’s surface     edge that, although emissions from
the Northwest Territories.                    and the clouds created by the fire. The     wildfires had characteristics similar to
    More than 30 Canadian and                 massive fires, ignited over 2 days,         those from prescribed fires, the emission
American scientists studied massive fire      spread rapidly. The intense heat created    concentrations were much higher in
characteristics at a large prescribed burn    cumulous clouds and Latham recorded         wildfire smoke. This was important,
near Chapleau, Canada. Both groups            six lightning discharges from one fire,     considering later emphasis on the
wanted to study large-fire dynamics and       which caused 2 inches of rain to fall       tradeoffs involved in increasing planned
the resulting smoke emissions. Also of        downwind.                                   fires to decrease fuels that contributed

                                             Station’s fire chemistry unit after Ward        “We’ll also continue sheep grazing
                                             retired.                                    at the DER to demonstrate the effects
                                                                                         of different grazing treatments,” Lloyd
                                                                                         said. The DER historically played an im-
                                                                                         portant role as a demonstration area for
                                             Long-Term Desert Range                      ranchers, land managers, and students.
                                             Work Completed                              Established in 1933, the DER served
                                                                                         as a central study site to help solve the
                                                                                         problems of misuse and damage from
                                                 After 50 years of continuous research
                                                                                         grazing that were occurring on millions
                                             at the Desert Experimental Range
                                                                                         of acres of salt-desert shrub rangelands
                                             (DER), Station management announced         in the Intermountain West (INTercom
                                             in 1984 that a primary part of the work     9/20/84.
                                             at the southwestern Utah site was               In 1972, the southern end of the DER
                                             completed.                                  was designated as a Research Natural
                                                 “We’ve succeeded in our search          Area. And in 1977, the UNESCO Man
                                             for the proper use of the salt-desert       and the Biosphere Program picked the
                                             shrubs by sheep on winter ranges,” said     DER as a Biosphere Reserve, joining it
                                             Assistant Station Director Duane Lloyd.     to a worldwide network of specialized
                                             “Now we have the opportunity to shift       ecosystems set aside for conservation,
                                             emphasis from there to other high-prior-    research, and education. It was the only
                                             ity research such as studies of riparian    cold-desert Biosphere Reserve in the
Chemist Lynn Weger checked an instru-        habitats.”                                  Western Hemisphere.
ment Station scientists used to sample           The 87-square-mile DER continued
gas and particulate emissions from
                                             to be maintained as a scientific preserve
prescribed fires.
                                             and was made available for future           Controversies Inspire
                                             studies, including work by qualified re-
                                             searchers from the academic community.      Riparian Research
to large wildfires (Intermountain and        Research conducted at the Desert Range
Rocky Mountain Stations 1995).               included studies of disturbance and            Interest and controversy regarding
    Wei Min Hao, a chemistry professor       successional processes, rodent ecology,     riparian areas (land adjacent to streams,
at the University of Montana, was a fre-     pronghorn biology and management,           lakes, seeps, and springs) with respect to
quent cooperator with the fire chemistry     soil crust ecology, and bird and mammal     water quality, fisheries, wildlife habitat,
unit before he accepted a position with      population dynamics.                        and livestock grazing had been building
the unit. He worked in three interrelated
areas: (1) health impacts of smoke emis-
sions from biomass fumes, (2) regional
air pollution from forest and grassland
fires, and (3) global effects of emissions
from biomass burning. Hao’s involve-
ment in global emissions research
started in 1986 when he worked at the
Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
in Germany. He majored in chemistry
in college in Taiwan, but switched to
environmental chemistry for master’s
and Ph.D. degrees at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
    To earn his Ph.D., Hao worked on
fossil fuel combustion in power plants.
He said most plants used the same type
of boiler, so similar gases were pro-
duced. With biomass fires the situation
                                               What Project Leader Warren Clary called the “unofficial dedication” of the
was much more complicated. A complex
                                               Desert Range as a Biosphere Reserve was attended by (l. to r.) Gale Wolters,
array of fuels and meteorological and          Washington Office; John Kinney, Superintendent of the Desert Range; Duane
environmental conditions determine the         Lloyd, Assistant Station Director, and Clary. Kinney built the monument to
emissions levels (INTercom 2/16/05).           hold the bronze plaque received from UNESCO that commemorates the
Hao became Project Leader of the               biosphere designation.

for years in the Intermountain West.          fishery responses to grazing and other     Statistician Gordon Booth and Botanist
Controversies started to develop in the       disturbances. Others worked in the         Steve Monsen, issued a refinement in
1960s in Arizona at lower elevation sites     riparian unit at intervals until most of   the methodology work, Methods for
where bird populations in riparian areas      it was absorbed in the mid-1990s into      Evaluating Riparian Habitats with
were diminishing. Within the Station’s        a large integrated unit concerned with     Applications to Management.
territory, the conflicts were strongest       watershed processes and aquatic ecology        Density and Biomass of Trout and
in Idaho, primarily involving livestock       (Clary, personal communication).           Char in Western Streams, published by
interests and environmental advocacy              The fisheries research built on a      the Station in 1988, presented the first
groups, but anglers concerned with            foundation laid by 10 years of studies     compilation of trout population char-
stream water quality had also entered the     by Platts in the Salmon River Drainage     acteristics in the western United States
debate.                                       in Idaho. After establishing plots in      (Forestry Research West, Sept./88).
    Not much scientific knowledge about       Nevada, Idaho, and Utah, he studied        Platts and Biological Technician Mike
riparian areas was available, although        what happened to fish populations when     McHenry assembled and analyzed fish
management and use conflicts in them          riparian areas were damaged. His work      census data from 313 streams in six
were of critical importance. Although ri-     provided hard evidence that livestock      ecoregions of the West. The data showed
parian areas and their associated streams     grazing, road construction, timber         significant differences among regions.
made up less than 2 percent of the            harvests, and mining in riparian areas         There also were significant differ-
western landscape, they were a valuable       often reduced the capacity of streams      ences in the vegetation in riparian areas.
segment of lands, particularly public         to produce fish. Of special concern        No two were the same. Shaw used her
lands, in the Interior West. The areas        were sites within the headwaters of the    botanical training to help develop new
provided important habitat elements           Columbia River system that were critical   information on sensitive riparian plant
for 70 percent of the wildlife, including     spawning and rearing areas for salmon      species. She developed techniques for
more than 50 percent of the neotropical       and steelhead (Prouty 1987). Platts and    handling and planting woody plants such
migrant birds. The associated streams,        coworkers started studies at 10 such       as willow, cottonwood, and alder that
totaling 283,000 miles on National            sites in 1977 in the Boise and Sawtooth    could help rehabilitate damaged riparian
Forest and Bureau of Land Management          National Forests. The areas were           areas (Prouty 1987c).
lands, provided immense recreational          characteristic of meadow ecosystems in         Revegetation techniques proposed
resources.                                    the Idaho Batholith (Forestry Research     by unit members were designed to help
    Grazing conflicts with other values       West, Oct./77). One result was a 1978      stabilize streambanks, to provide shade
in riparian areas had escalated into a        Station publication, Rearing of Chinook    and shelter for wildlife, and to furnish
hot topic by 1984. Assistant Director         Salmon in Tributaries of the South Fork    desirable amounts of organic matter to
Duane Lloyd thought the Station could         Salmon River, Idaho, by Platts and Fred    the streams. Shaw summed up her work
introduce some science-based knowl-           Partridge, a biological technician.        and the situation in the west in a pro-
edge into what was becoming a debate              Another early result of Platts’        ceedings paper published in 2000, Plant
based more on emotion than fact. This         research was development of a method       Materials for Western Riparian Areas.
led to the move of Warren Clary, Dean         to integrate streams and their fisheries       Economist Fred Wagstaff worked
Medin, and John Kinney from Provo to          into the Land Systems Inventory, at the    part-time in the riparian unit. He pro-
the Boise Lab. Their previous assign-         time a major tool for planning and de-     vided an economic focus to the problem
ments had been tied to salt-desert range      cisionmaking for National Forest lands     of sorting out competing uses. Wagstaff
research, most of which the Station had       (Forestry Research West May/80). The       studied the cost effectiveness of various
concluded at the Desert Experimental          method could be applied to most streams    management practices and techniques.
Range.                                        in large areas of the west. Details were   He addressed such questions as, “How
    A new unit at Boise, with Clary           presented by Platts in a 1979 Station      many added recreation days of fishing
as Project Leader, was formed to              publication, Including the Fishery         justify the expense of fencing a stream?”
conduct studies on stream and riparian        System in Land Planning.                   (Prouty 1987c).
ecosystems. Emphasis was given to                 In 1983, Platts, Hydrologist Walt          Medin’s studies with the riparian
studying the response of riparian areas       Megahan, and Wayne Minshall, a             unit concentrated on nongame bird and
to grazing, the structure of riparian plant   professor of zoology at Idaho State        small mammal populations and ecology.
communities, and wildlife relationships       University, made an important              He published Station research papers
to riparian areas.                            contribution to improving accuracy in      on populations in grazed and ungrazed
    Clary concentrated his work on graz-      evaluating stream habitats when they       areas in Idaho and northeastern Nevada
ing issues and management. Wildlife           published Methods for Evaluating           (Forestry Research West/Dec./90; Nov.
Biologist Medin made studies of small         Stream, Riparian, and Biotic Conditions,   91).
birds and mammals. Botanist Nancy             a Station technical report. Before that,       In 1991, Medin and Clary introduced
Shaw soon transferred to the new unit         most methods in use had not been           a new focus to the riparian work when
to conduct research on ecology of             tested to determine their validity in      they published Bird Populations in and
sensitive plants, and Fisheries Biologist     describing conditions. In 1987, Platts     Adjacent to a Beaver Pond Ecosystem
Bill Platts joined the unit for studies of    and 11 other authors, including Station    in Idaho, a Station paper. The study

showed that beaver pond ecosystems
with willows provided habitat for
three times the number of birds that
were found in nearby riparian areas
without willows. Bird diversity also was
much higher (Forestry Research West,
Apr./91). They followed up with another
report showing similar differences for
small mammals.
   Wildlife Biologist Victoria Saab
added another dimension to the riparian
studies when she joined the unit in 1989.
Her specialty was neotropical birds, and
her work was conducted in both riparian
areas and burned pine-fir forests. For
reasons not fully understood, a third of
Idaho’s migratory land birds were expe-
riencing declining populations (Tippets
   Habitat along the South Fork of the
Snake River provided a good outdoor
laboratory for Saab to study both           Scientists in the riparian research unit used time-lapse photography to study
grazing and recreational effects on neo-    concentrations of cattle in five parts of this meadow that had different types of
tropical birds. Some large patches had      vegetation.
no grazing and little recreational im-
pact. Other sites were heavily grazed,
and some near the river were heavily        responses to different fire conditions       other initial riparian grazing research in
used by recreationists. Saab also stud-     in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests.       a major Station publication, Managing
ied the impact of grazing intensities       Saab and fellow biologist Jon Dudley         Grazing of Riparian Areas in the
on the birds in their winter homes in       summarized the findings in 1999 in a         Intermountain Region, issued in 1989.
Belize, Central America. In 1992 she        Rocky Mountain Station publication.          It provided guidance for planning graz-
published five scientific papers on the        In riparian areas, the kinds and          ing of riparian areas to reduce stream
results of the work, and co-authored        amounts of various activities often were     pollution and other impacts. Many of
two others.                                 in dispute and long-term monitoring          the recommendations were applicable
   The research in burned forest            was required to clear up the mysteries.      beyond the Intermountain Region
areas got started in a big way in 1994      Clary and John Kinney used time-lapse        (Forestry Research West Jan./90).
when the Station and Boise National         photography to show where livestock              In the foreword to the publication,
Forest began long-term studies on bird      were spending their time (Fletcher           Region 4 Regional Forester Stan Tixier
                                            1999a). One of the key studies was           said, “The application of these basic
                                            made along Stanley Creek in the              concepts along with riparian standards
                                            Sawtooth National Recreation Area in         and guidelines in a Forest Plan will
                                            Idaho.                                       achieve the desired objective of healthy
                                               Clary said, “We used time-lapse           riparian systems.”
                                            photography to document the positions
                                            of cattle within several pastures. A total
                                            of 10 to 23 days of picture sequences        Range Scientists Round
                                            were obtained per pasture.” He said
                                            measures typically used in range             Up the Knowledge
                                            management would not have deter-
                                            mined the proportions of time spent             In the early 1980s, Station ad-
                                            by the cattle on one site compared to        ministrators and representatives of
                                            the others. Kinney and Clary wrote a         cooperating universities, stockmen’s
                                            Rocky Mountain Station research note,        associations, and range management
                                            published in 1998, that described the        agencies stepped on the accelerator
Wildlife Biologist Victoria Saab released   techniques in detail.                        of four vehicles designed to speed up
a yellow warbler caught and banded             Clary and Bert Webster, a Sawtooth        application of the results of decades of
in a riparian forest area along Idaho’s     National Forest staff officer, summed        range research. Three took off almost
Snake River.                                up results of the photo studies and          immediately. The fourth required many

years to design and build, but it was a         Because of the large number of             earned a bachelor’s degree in range
first-class product once completed.         sagebrush species and plant associations management at Utah State University,
    The task was to round up                involved, no attempt was made to create a master’s at the University of
research findings scattered through         individual management prescriptions for Idaho, and a Ph.D. in plant ecology
myriad scientific journal articles          each. Instead, general guides and sourc-       at the University of Minnesota. He
and publications and to summarize           es of detailed information were given,         became Assistant Station Director for
the information in formats readily          so managers could use the knowledge            Continuing Research in 1972 and served
usable by western ranchers and land         to plan improvement or maintenance             in Ogden until his retirement. In that
managers. Comprehensive publications        of conditions in local situations. The         position he supervised Station research
were planned for (1) sagebrush-grass        publication concluded with 41 summary at Logan, Ogden, Provo, Reno, and
ranges, (2) salt-desert shrub ranges, (3)   statements.                                    Boise and was the principal liaison with
vegetation and livestock studies at the         Managing Intermountain                     Region 4 managers.
Benmore experimental area, and (4)          Rangelands—Salt-Desert Shrub Ranges                The third management guide was
range improvement and use of shrubs         appeared as a Station publication in           issued in December 1984 (Astroth and
(INTercom 1/7/82).                          spring 1984, following the same general Frischknecht). See “The Beef Was at
    Fortunately, the Station was able to    format but with more specific advice           Benmore,” chapter 10, for an account
get special funding for the project from    because the nature of the lands covered        of the research history and study
the Four Corners Regional Commission,       made that possible. It was written by          results summarized in the publication.
one of five Federal commissions formed      Blaisdell and Range Scientist Ralph            Preparation of this guide and a comple-
to aid regional development in economi-     Holmgren, and was based largely on a           mentary program to extend the results
cally distressed areas. The commission      half-century of research at the Desert         to a broad array of users was directed
wanted to enhance agricultural and natu-    Experimental Range. The authors con-           by Kendall Johnson of the Utah State
ral resource values in parts of Arizona,    cluded that although desert ecosystems         University Range Science Department.
Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah where        are fragile and easily disrupted by                The fourth publication evolved into
the results of work by Station scientists   improper use, “under good management something quite different from the three
and cooperators were most applicable.       deterioration can be reversed, condi-          summary management guides. To say
    Station Project Leaders Warren Clary    tions can improve, and areas in good           it took a little longer to produce would
and Art Tiedemann (Provo) coordi-           condition can remain so under grazing          be one of the great understatements in
nated the work, but it was a cooperative    use.”                                          Station history. It missed the publication
venture. The Utah Department of                 This guide, with current mate-             target date by 22 years.
Agriculture, Utah Division of Wildlife      rial added, replaced two out-of-print              At first glance the plan appeared
Resources, Utah State University, and       manuals written by Selar Hutchings and         to be to produce a replacement for
various Station units made contribu-        George Stewart in 1953 and Hutchings           Restoring Big Game Range in Utah,
tions. The target was to complete all       in 1954 that had been useful to managers which had been the guide for range
four manuscripts by May 1982 and            for three decades. Hutchings conducted         reclamation since it appeared in 1968
publish them by December of the same        some of the first
year. That proved doable for one, almost    research at the Desert
practical for two others, and enormously    Range at the start
optimistic for the fourth.                  of what became a
    The first product, a Station publica-   45-year career in
tion issued in October 1982, reflected      range research and
the amount of information that was          management.
distilled into the management guides.           Blaisdell also
The authors of Managing Intermountain       had a lengthy career,
Rangelands—Sagebrush-Grass Ranges           most of it at the
based their document partly on a bibli-     Station. During his
ography published some years earlier by     35 years with Forest
the Station. The bibliography included      Service research
1,250 publication citations. The manage-    he participated in
ment guide was written by Jim Blaisdell,    and managed range
who had recently retired as an Assistant    research programs
Station Director, Bob Murray, a range       that included studies
scientist for many years with the Station   in all the land and        Sheep thrived on well-managed salt-desert lands at the
and later the Agricultural Research         vegetation types           Desert Experimental Range. So did the livestock owners.
Service, and Durant McArthur, a plant       included in the ac-        On lands managed as Station researchers recommended,
geneticist at Provo who later became        celerated application      net profit per ewe was twice as high as when traditional
                                                                       practices were followed. Results were similar when cattle
Project Leader for shrub improvement        project. An Idaho
                                                                       began to outnumber sheep as the principal domestic
research.                                   native, Blaisdell          livestock on this type of rangeland.

                                             Improvement of Range and Wildlife             so did the nicknames. After several years
                                             Habitats.                                     of delivery promises, McArthur and the
                                                 When Restoring Western Ranges             editors decided the value had increased
                                             and Wildlands finally appeared as a           enough to rename it the “Platinum
                                             Rocky Mountain Station publication            Book,” and around l995 it became the
                                             (Monsen and others 2004) it presented         “Iridium Book.”
                                             the technical subject matter in detail            At first, the publishing people were
                                             with many illustrations and included          worried that the researchers preparing
                                             general descriptions of rangelands in         the manuscript might be offended if they
                                             the Intermountain West, the history of        heard about the nicknames. But by the
                                             range and wildlife habitat restoration        time Nancy Shaw arrived in Ogden in
                                             efforts, and pertinent research history. It   2004 to put the finishing touches on the
                                             was an encyclopedia of range restoration      Iridium Book everybody involved, in
                                             knowledge rather than a condensed             the Labs and in the publishing unit, was
                                             management guide, although specific           calling it that. Did it turn out to be that
                                             management guidelines were included.          valuable? Some knowledgeable people
                                             Fifteen authors prepared 29 chapters.         thought so. It won the Rocky Mountain
                                             The printing bill, a cost shared by           Station award as the Best Technology
                                             several sponsors, was $67,000.                Transfer Publication of 2004. It also was
                                                 Development of the publication took       a hit with the managers it was designed
                                             a long time for a number of reasons.          to serve. As soon as the publication was
                                             McArthur recounted the major ones in          announced orders flowed in from all
The range restoration reference              a foreword. The compilers doubled as          over the West.
compiled by Steve Monsen, Richard            authors of major sections and they had            Shaw recalled a string of nights and
Stevens, and Nancy Shaw contained a          many other demands on their time. A           weekends spent working to finalize
wealth of information on useful spe-         shift in revegetation philosophy toward       the document. Its publication was one
cies, such as the perennial small burnet
                                             holistic landscape management required        of several major achievements during
being inspected by Monsen in a deer
                                             much new writing and rewriting. The re-       her career. In 1989, she was the first
winter range improvement area above
                                             vegetation emphasis changed completely        woman and first Station employee
Sanpete Valley in Utah.
                                             from heavy reliance on exotic plants to       to serve as president of the Idaho
                                             using native species, demanding more          Section of the Society for Range
(see “Mr. Plummer’s Opus,” chapter           reworking throughout the text. Monsen         Management. She received a national
10). However, the concept from the start     and Stevens both retired before the work      SRM Outstanding Achievement Award
was to create a document with broader        was finalized, leaving it to Shaw to          in 2000 for “significant contributions
scope. What emerged was a massive            handle compiler duties near the end of        to the science of range management as
reference work. Station Botanist Steve       the work.                                     it relates to seed biology and seedling
Monsen (Provo) and Richard Stevens,              An army of people were involved in        establishment of important desert and
wildlife biologist with the Utah Division    the production. In addition to the chapter    wetland plants.”
of Wildlife Resources, were team lead-       authors, McArthur named 36 individuals            McArthur, a scientist not given to
ers for the compilation effort. Later,       who researched information, compiled          dispensing undeserved accolades, said,
Botanist Nancy Shaw (Boise) became           and processed data, reviewed draft mate-      “I believe that the materials presented
the third compiler.                          rial, and edited, designed, and laid out
   When the work started in 1982,            the document.
Stevens said, “We expect to bring                Throughout the process it often
together all the data on range restoration   seemed that publication was imminent,
and improvement research that has            but then a new development extended
been done in the past 30 years, and          the time frame. Research Information
incorporate it in the report.” Ultimately,   editors began to be told as early as 1985
this goal was met.                           that a completed manuscript would be in
   As a starting point and to provide an     their hands “very soon.” McArthur had
interim document, the Station, Region        christened the work the “Gold Book,”
4, and the Bureau of Land Management         to distinguish it from Plummer’s work,
sponsored two symposia, one at Twin          which had a green cover. So many de-
Falls, Idaho, and another at Elko,           livery promises were made, that one day
Nevada. The combined proceedings             someone in the publishing unit observed       Botanist Nancy Shaw, who finalized the
was compiled by Monsen and Shaw              that if the manuscript ever arrived it        “Iridium Book” manuscript, checked
and published by the Station in 1983 as      probably would be gold plated. As the         forb seedlings in an experimental plant-
Managing Intermountain Rangelands—           size and scope of the document evolved,       ing at Lucky Peak Nursery near Boise.

in a ‘how to, what with, and why’ man-     Rocky Mountain Station Headquarters,         goal, even though environmental con-
ner will be timely and relevant for land   included the latest available information    cerns got more consideration. Most of the
managers and students in rehabilitation    to provide state-of-knowledge manage-        range research at the Station supported
and restoration of degraded western        ment guidelines. Knowledge gaps also         forage production objectives.
wildlands for years into the future.”      were indicated so that the document             Station Director Joe Pechanec partici-
    Preparation of another landmark        could serve as a foundation for needed       pated in some of the first formal research
reference work in which Station people     new research.                                on effects of burning on sagebrush (see
played an important part also occurred        The push in the 1980s to analyze          Appendix A) and was senior author of a
in the mid-1980s. It was not part          and consolidate results from years of        summary of knowledge titled Sagebrush
of the application acceleration plan       range research by hundreds of scientists     Control on Rangelands, which was
funded partially by the Four Corners       throughout the Interior West resulted        published by USDA in 1965. Perry
Commission, but it served the same         in five documents that provided a            Plummer, long-time leader of Station
purpose for a fifth large segment          sound scientific basis for rangeland         research on shrubs was the second
of rangeland in the Interior West.         improvement and management on                author. The opening paragraph of the
Aspen: Ecology and Management in           many millions of acres of public and         publication said:
the Western United States, issued by       private land.
the Rocky Mountain Station in 1985,                                                        Sagebrush control brings about major
summed up decades of research results                                                      increases in grass production on millions
                                                                                           of acres of western range. Getting rid
by Intermountain and Rocky Mountain        The Sages of Sagebrush                          of competing sagebrush and restoring
scientists and many cooperators.                                                           a good stand of forage plants through
    The research resulted from a 10-                                                       natural or artificial seeding enables
year cooperative endeavor by the two           Sagebrush commanded the attention           ranges to supply forage for more sheep
Stations. Norb Debyle, an ecologist        of several generations of Intermountain         and cattle, and is helpful in improving
                                                                                           watersheds. In effect, new range is
at the Logan Lab, was senior editor.       Station scientists. In 14 States and parts      created on large areas, making possible
Twenty-one authors contributed mate-       of Mexico and Canada, sagebrush grows           a superior plant cover on adjoining
rial; most were with the two Stations.     on more land than any other plant.              ranges by better grazing management.
    The publication was the first          West of the 100th meridian, sagebrush
comprehensive document of its type to      constitutes the single most common type          But the thinking began to change. In
focus exclusively on aspen in the west-    of ecosystem.                                1975, Plummer said, “It is interesting
ern United States (Forestry Research           Regarding the shrub, especially big      to note that for decades farmers have
West Mar./86). DeByle and Bob              sagebrush, as a rival of the grass that      considered sagebrush and many other
Winokur, the junior editor located at      fattened their livestock, westerners spent   shrubs as a nuisance to be cleared off the
                                           most of a century plowing, chopping,         land so grass could be planted. We now
                                           chaining, spraying and burning it with a     know that many of these are much more
                                           vengeance (Tippets 1992). Despite the        nutritious than grass. The time may
                                           best efforts of many people, sagebrush       soon come when farmers will plow the
                                           refused to be eradicated. However, much      grass under to plant sagebrush” (Noble
                                           of what was said to be an 800-mile sea       1978d).
                                           of sagebrush that the pioneers encoun-           In the early 1970s, scientists who
                                           tered was fragmented into relatively         soon were to occupy the new Shrub
                                           small patches by human developments          Sciences Lab in Provo started to collect
                                           and changes in its environment brought       seed from what appeared to be geneti-
                                           on mainly by human activities (Welch         cally superior sagebrush parent plants.
                                           2005).                                       The seeds produced plants grown in a
                                               Through about two-thirds of Station      uniform garden to allow the researchers
                                           history, the Forest Service was oriented     to identify real genetic variations among
                                           toward commodity production. In both         the 23 different species. A major goal
                                           World War I and II, the marching orders      was to develop a “super sagebrush” that
                                           were to do everything possible to help       might help combat the invasion of west-
                                           ranchers and farmers produce beef and        ern ranges by undesirable cheatgrass.
                                           wool to support the war efforts. That        The genetics program also had other
Ecologist Norb DeByle inspected aspen      meant replacing “brush” with more desir-     goals, depending on which desirable
sprouts in 1991at the Manning Basin        able forage wherever possible. Although      characteristics, such as palatability to
study site in Wyoming 10 years after a
                                           research was severely curtailed during       big game animals and livestock, needed
prescribed burn designed to regener-
ate the species. DeByle was senior         war years, Station scientists did what       to be developed or enhanced (Tippets
editor of a major reference work on as-    they could to support that approach. At      1992).
pen published by the Rocky Mountain        other times up to the 1970s, maximum             Station scientists became strong
Station in 1985.                           production of livestock forage was a         advocates of the idea that sagebrush

had great value in western ecosystems,         Meyer’s research on seed collection      as Range Manager of the Year at a joint
although its characteristics could be      and germination for native plants was        Idaho-Utah meeting of members of
improved. Durant McArthur became a         geared to solving some fundamental           the Society for Range Management.
leading proponent of that view when        problems in restoring healthy plant          McArthur, who had become Project
he joined the Station in 1972. Other       diversity to large plant communities. “A     Leader by then, said, “Steve advises
key members of the Shrubland Biology       lot can go wrong when you’re seeding         resource managers, departments, mining
and Restoration unit for many years        native plants,” she said. “The seeds are     companies, government and commercial
were Botanist Stan Kitchen, Ecologist      generally collected by hand from wild        nurseries, engineering firms, and others
Susan Meyer, Geneticist Stewart            plants, so quality is inconsistent even      working in related fields. He can solve
Sanderson, Plant Physiologist Bruce        though the cost is relatively high. Seeds    many rehabilitation questions with a
Welch, Plant Pathologist David Nelson,     may or may not germinate, may or may         phone call or two” (INTercom 1/18/90).
Ecologists Burton and Rosemary             not become established” (Reynolds                Speaking at a national Society for
Pendleton, Botanist Nancy Shaw, and        1990).                                       Range Management meeting, a BLM
Botanist Steve Monsen. Shaw worked             Meyer found differences in germina-      manager paid tribute to Monsen’s tech-
at the Boise Lab throughout her career;    tion patterns within shrub species that      nology transfer abilities in an unusual
Monsen spent 13 years at Boise and 20      account for the success of some seedings     way. Somewhat to the surprise of the
in Provo.                                  and the failure of others under similar      audience, the manager was extolling the
    The scientists saw beauty as well as   circumstances. Such understanding            virtues of a complex computer simula-
utility in sagebrush and other shrubs      makes it possible to select seeds for a      tion program that was supposed to help
and had no qualms about making their       planting site that have the best chance of   him make management decisions. He
views known. “I’m a sagebrush hugger       producing healthy plants. Her work may       concluded with, “If I could hire Steve
myself. I love sagebrush,” McArthur        have great importance in developing          Monsen, this program would be worth-
told a reporter (Siegel 1996). Welch       ecosystems that will resist invasion by      less. However, they keep sending me
espoused the value of sagebrush as         cheatgrass (Tippets interview 2005).         range conservationists from Delaware
shelter and food for wildlife, including       Monsen had an unusual combination        and New Jersey” (Evans, personal
the sage grouse, smaller birds, and a      of ecological insights, knowledge of         communication).
variety of mammals. In a summary of        plant materials, and the ability to be           What the plant improvement work
his views developed during a 36-year       involved in the nitty gritty of range        in the Provo unit could mean can be
career, Welch (2005) said that many        rehabilitation. In 1990 he was honored       illustrated by development of ‘Hobble
range management practices applied to                                                   Creek’ big sagebrush. The geneti-
big sagebrush ecosystems over the years                                                 cally improved low-elevation mountain
had not been based on sound science.                                                    sagebrush was released in 1987 for com-
A good part of the shrubland research                                                   mercial use after 15 years of research
unit’s mission was devoted to providing                                                 and evaluation. Some 186 selections of
managers with a better understanding                                                    big sagebrush were tested in coopera-
of sagebrush ecosystems so they could                                                   tion with the Utah Division of Wildlife
make better-informed ecosystem man-                                                     Resources before ‘Hobble Creek’ was
agement decisions.                                                                      found to be most preferred by wintering
                                                                                        mule deer, while also ranking high in
                                                                                        preference by wintering domestic sheep.
                                                                                        It exceeded typical winter forage values
                                                                                        in several important respects (Forestry
                                                                                        Research West Apr./87). Using ‘Hobble
                                                                                        Creek’ to replace existing vegetation
                                                                                        could convert sagebrush ecosystems
                                                                                        from perceived liabilities to assets at
                                                                                        many sites.
                                                                                            The shrub improvement work
                                                                                        required cooperation with the Soil
                                                                                        Conservation Service (later the Natural
                                                                                        Resources Conservation Service) and
                                                                                        often universities, as well as work with
                                                                                        State wildlife agencies. The NRCS
                                                                                        could test proposed new varieties at
                                           Ecologist Susan Meyer recovered sage-
Bruce Welch participated in pioneering                                                  several locations, as could the universi-
work at the Shrub Lab to test improved     brush seeds from a study plot in 1990.
                                           Her research aimed to solve fundamen-        ties. Once release was completed,
forms of sagebrush for areas where
they benefitted wildlife and the range     tal problems in using native plant seeds     breeder plants and foundation seeds
ecosystem.                                 to create healthy range ecosystems.          were maintained at the NRCS Plant

Materials Center at Aberdeen, Idaho.               Creek’ at a wide range of sites with low
Seed usually was made available                    precipitation (Forestry Research West
through NRCS Districts, university                 May/93).
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and                  McArthur led the genetics research.
crop improvement associations. Thus,               Long-time colleague Shaw said in 2005
when ‘Hobble Creek’ was ready for                  (personal communication), “His greatest
wide use, mechanisms were available to             contributions have been in increasing
make that possible.                                our understanding of the landscape-
    In 1986, at least part of Plummer’s            dominating subgenus Tridentatae
forecast a decade earlier about the future         of Artemisia (the sagebrushes), but
of sagebrush came true. The Bureau of              he has also done extensive work
Land Management plowed some land                   with Chenopods and members of the
where grass (the undesirable cheatgrass)           Rosaceae family (other important west-
was dominant and planted ‘Hobble                   ern shrubs). His recent efforts include
Creek’ sagebrush as a way to replace               studies of hybrid zone theory and native
the highly flammable grass. At about the           forb genetics. Little was known about all
same time, seed of improved sagebrush              of this before Durant came along.”
began to be included in seed mixtures                  The geneticist produced a three-part
used to revegetate rangelands.                     series of Station publications in the
    Showing that the work of geneticists           1970s that reviewed and synthesized
is never done, however, scientists                 available knowledge about the charac-              Durant McArthur compiled an impres-
at Provo later discovered a type of                teristics and hybridization in shrubby             sive list of achievements during a long
Wyoming big sagebrush, known as                    species of the chenopod (saltbush),                career at the Station that continued af-
‘Gordon Creek,’ that contained genetic             rose, and sunflower families. The docu-            ter the Intermountain-Rocky Mountain
material making it superior to ‘Hobble             ments immediately were in demand by                merger.

                                                                                                      scientists and managers throughout the
       The Least Among Us                                                                             West. Also early in his career at the
                                                                                                      Station, McArthur completed classic
The desert tortoise isn’t graceful, it isn’t pretty, and it isn’t particularly lovable, but it is a   studies of the cytogenetics, hybridiza-
part of our world. In the 1990s it was in danger of leaving us.                                       tion, evolution and distribution of
                                                                                                      several other shrub species (INTercom
The tortoise was threatened because of increasing human use of its limited habitat.
Scientists at the Shrub Lab helped out in cooperative efforts to find what was needed to
preserve the tortoise. They analyzed plants and soil at three Mojave Desert sites that are               By 2005, McArthur had authored or
tortoise habitat to get baseline data on foods necessary to the animal’s survival (Forestry           co-authored more than 400 publications,
Research West Sept/94). Project Leader Durant McArthur, Geneticist Stewart Sanderson,                 the most known to have been produced
and Bruce Webb of Brigham Young University, described the research and presented                      by any Intermountain-Rocky Mountain
their findings in a 1994 Station publication, Nutritive Quality and Mineral Content of                Station researcher. His huge body of
Potential Desert Tortoise Food Plants.                                                                work may have made him the most pro-
                                                                                                      ductive scientist in the history of Forest
                                             Major work by Station cooperators went into
                                             reviewing all existing knowledge about the
                                                                                                      Service Research (he was continuing to
                                             tortoise. The Station published the results              make contributions when this history
                                             in 1995 in a reference work. Desert tortoise             was written).
                                             (Gopherus agassizii): Status-of-Knowledge                   The depth and scope of McArthur’s
                                             Outline with References was easy to use and              work was as impressive as the number
                                             included recommendations to land managers.               of documents. He published frequently
                                             This knowledge and the considerable                      in well-regarded scientific journals,
                                             experience at the Station in restoring depleted          assembled numerous proceedings and
                                             rangelands were combined to help guide                   contributed papers to them, wrote
                                             vegetation restoration projects by the Bureau of         accounts of the history and meaning of
                                             Land Management where tortoise habitat had
The threatened desert tortoise                                                                        rangeland research, produced “state-
                                             been destroyed or seriously altered (INTercom
stayed in our world with some
                                                                                                      of-the-art” documents, and created
help from Station scientists (Photo                                                                   chapters in books (Hild and Shaw 2004).
by Todd Esque, U.S. Geological               The research covered every aspect of how to              Some of his publications were abstracts
Survey, Biological Resources                 maintain and enhance homes for one of the                co-authored with novice scientists who
Discipline).                                 creatures among us that could not continue to            needed a helping hand in becoming
                                             exist without our help.                                  established.

    McArthur was named Project Leader                                                                to pursue her passion for
of the shrub research unit in 1983,                                                                  sports activities (INTercom
replacing Art Tiedemann who moved to                                                                 7/7/83).
the Pacific Northwest Station. Shortly                                                                   “We’re not tradi-
before that, Tiedemann announced for-                                                                tional…nothing is set in
mation of a Shrub Research Consortium                                                                stone,” Ecologist Burton
consisting of the Station, Utah Division                                                             Pendleton said when he
of Wildlife Resources, Brigham Young                                                                 joined Ecologist Rosemary
University, and Utah State University.                                                               Pendleton as a permanent
Consortium activities were described                                                                 part-time scientist at the
as (1) improvement and development                                                                   Provo Shrub Lab in 1989.
of shrub plant materials; (2) methods of                                                             The Pendletons had been
seeding, planting, culture, and manage-                                                              working as a family team
ment of shrubs in natural settings; and                                                              for a dozen years.
(3) assisting with publishing and dis-                                                                   Rosemary earned her
seminating research results (INTercom                                                                Ph.D. first because she had
9/15/83).                                   Not often seen in each other’s company, Char             an opportunity to enter
                                            Houska (left) and Maureen Meisner did get together a cooperative education
    Tiedemann was replaced as consor-
tium chairman by McArthur. In 20 years
                                            occasionally to compare notes. They capably shared
                                                                                                     arrangement and get a good
                                            a job at the Fire Lab in 1983.
under McArthur’s guidance, membership                                                                job with the Station. Her
expanded to include 24 Federal, State,                                                               research emphasis was
university and private research organiza-   Two (Happy) People, One                     on the genus Grayia in the chenopod
tions operating in all areas of the West.                                               family of desert shrubs. Burton followed
Research results had been summarized in
                                            Paycheck                                    with a Ph. D. dissertation on Atriplex, a
12 comprehensive symposium proceed-                                                     different genus in the same plant family.
ings published by the Intermountain             Far more experiments fail than suc-     Along the way son Brian and daughter
and Rocky Mountain Stations, one was        ceed in research, but the Station scored    Caitlin joined the Pendleton family.
being processed, and a 14th was planned.    100 percent on the success meter with          The Pendletons did not share the
McArthur and other members of the           workplace arrangements in the 1980s         same job, but they shared the equivalent
shrub unit were involved in planning and    that were well ahead of their time.         of a single paycheck. Rosemary worked
compiling all of them.                          In a first for the Station, Char Houska 48 hours in an 80-hour pay period
    McArthur received many honors           and Maureen Meisner shared a single         and Burton worked 32. They devoted
for his work. They included Superior        job as secretary/typist for the fire
Scientist and Distinguished Scientist       effects research unit at the Fire Lab. One
awards from USDA, the Rocky                 worked Monday and Tuesday of one
Mountain Station’s Eminent Scientist        week and Wednesday through Friday the
Publication Award, an Outstanding           following week, and then they switched
Achievement Award from the Society          the schedule. So each put in 40 hours
for Range Management, and a                 during a 2-week pay period, and the
Distinguished Service Award presented       office always had a secretary.
by members of the Shrub Research               The arrangement, which was called
Consortium. The article describing the      “highly productive” and “successful
consortium award said he “served an         beyond my expectations” by Project
inspirational role for many young scien-    Leader Jim Brown, started in 1983 when
tists”…and had been one “who devoted        Houska said she wanted to spend more
endless hours to interagency cooperation    time with her 19-month-old daughter,
and is always willing to consult with       and proposed she share the job with
managers on specific shrubland manage-      another person. Brown said, “Why not?”
ment issues” (Hild and Shaw 2004).          A job share arrangement was a some-
    McArthur and others who labored         what revolutionary idea, but Personnel
in the shrub biology and restoration        Management found a way and Meisner
unit shared a larger honor. They could      was chosen from an employment roster
travel widely and see that they had         to be the other half of the workplace
                                                                                         Rosemary Pendleton showed colleague
played a part in retaining and improving    duo.                                         Burton Pendleton evidence of hetero-
ecosystems in the West that by nature’s        Both women were enthused about            dichogamy in a species of hopsage.
rules were shrublands, and that of all      job sharing and committed to making it       She discovered the rare and significant
the shrubs, sagebrush was king (Tippets     work. Houska had more time to be with        reproduction phenomenon during her
1992b).                                     her child and Meisner was better able        research at Provo.

most of their time to separate research       until 1971 had
studies, with only occasional overlap.        been the scene of
Burton said one benefit of the arrange-       numerous studies
ment was the time he could spend with         that revealed the
the children at home, forming a close         best ways to harvest
relationship few fathers who worked           and regenerate
full-time could enjoy.                        ponderosa pine.
    When asked if there was a problem         The research results
taking the job home at night and “talk-       formed the basis
ing shop,” both Pendletons expressed          for management of
surprise at the question. “It’s nice to       the most important
collaborate,” Burton said.                    commercial timber
    “We enjoy bouncing ideas off each         species in central
other,” Rosemary said, describing how         Idaho.
fellow scientists had family members              Apparently, the
who often volunteered to work at the          belief developed that
Provo Lab without pay, and considered         little new informa-
                                                                          Acting Project Leader Warren Clary (left) and Research
it a benefit rather than a problem to be      tion was likely to
                                                                          Forester John Sloan discussed a lightning scar on an old-
able to integrate family and professional     be generated and no         growth ponderosa pine in the Bannock Creek Research
lives (INTercom July/90).                     new studies were            Natural Area, which is within the largest of three units in
                                              started after 1971,         the Boise Basin Experimental Forest.
                                              although data
Boise Basin Research                          continued to be taken
                                              from some study plots. In the late 1980s, follow-up and new research was estab-
Regenerated, Briefly                          with emphasis on ecosystem research            lished; the work was closely coordinated
                                              growing throughout Station territory,          with the Idaho City Ranger District.
  The Boise Basin Experimental                there was a realization that more could            The emphasis was on studies of how
Forest from its establishment in 1933         be learned at Boise Basin. A blend of          various shade densities affect planted
                                                                                             tree seedlings on harsh sites, histori-
                                                                                             cal changes in tree stands, continued
      Smart Seeding                                                                          monitoring of 1933 transects, and
                                                                                             creating demonstration areas related
                                            In the early 1990s, studies by scientists at
                                            the conifer ecology and regeneration unit        to ecosystem management and forest
                                            and others at Boise dispelled some old           health. Many field tours of the
                                            myths and showed how to reduce the high          demonstration areas were given to vari-
                                            costs of applying grass seed to large burned     ous interest groups (Sloan and Steele
                                            areas.                                           1996).
                                                                                                 Research Foresters John Sloan and
                                            Catastrophic, stand-destroying fires had
                                                                                             Kathy Geier-Hayes designed studies and
                                            been common for decades in ponderosa
                                                                                             Ranger District personnel administered
                                            pine-Douglas-fir forests and seeding exotic
                                            grasses to stabilize soils became common         timber sales and other actions. It proved
                                            practice. The Station scientists showed          to be a good partnership. Sloan said
                                            that native shrubs and grasses were well-        several studies required thinning or
                                            adapted to surviving wildfire and would          harvesting so they helped the District’s
                                            out-perform the exotics in providing             timber sale program. The experimental
                                            vegetative cover where seeding was               forest had good access, and administra-
                                            needed. Thus, seeding should be limited to       tors liked working in the area. The
                                            areas where native vegetation was sparse         District silviculturist said, “We like
                                            before the fire.                                 being close to the research.”
                                            The researchers advised managers that                Acting Project Leader Warren Clary
Applying grass seed by helicopter           routine aerial photographs could be used to      said, “The Forest Service went through
to help stabilize burned areas              show where seeding was needed (Intercom          a phase of trying to divest itself of
became common practice in the               Nov./92). Because it had become a                experimental forests. But now in these
early 1990s. Station scientists made        common practice in rehabilitation projects       days of ecosystem management and
recommendations to make the                 to apply the seed by helicopter, which was       global warming concerns…we need
practice more beneficial and cost-          efficient but expensive, reductions in the       the continuity in data” (INTercom
effective.                                  amount of flying time required were big          Oct./94).

   The experimental forest survived, but       been dramatic. Yet the publishing staff
the silvicultural research unit did not.       by 1993 had broken their own record for
A year after Clary’s statement, Station        turnaround times nine times and bettered
management closed the silviculture unit        the production record seven times. It’s
at Boise. Sloan and Geier-Hayes found          possible other Stations were doing as
employment in the National Forest              well and merely didn’t keep records,
System. Scientific supervision of the          so the Intermountain Station may not
forest was assigned to Research Forester       really have been “first” in publishing ef-
Russ Graham at Moscow, who also was            ficiency. But it could claim several other
in charge of research at Priest River and      indisputable publishing firsts.
Deception Creek.                                   Going Video—Video cameras were
                                               a fairly new development in the 1980s.
                                               The Forest Service was among those
Publishing Firsts                              organizations that envisioned a variety
                                               of uses for the new audio-visual tool.
                                               Many units, especially National Forest
    This history has reported complaints       Supervisors Offices, were soon equipped
                                                                                              Bland Richardson was the first to pro-
through the years that it took too much        with video players, although few
                                                                                              duce a video at the Station to transfer
time for research results to get from          acquired equipment to make tapes for           technology. He also showed revegation
scientists to users. The publication           several more years.                            research results at field demonstration
process was usually said to be the main            Before the advent of video, Regional       sites, such as this one at the Decker
culprit. A lot of barriers to speed are        Offices, Stations, National Forests, and       Coal Mine in Montana, established in
involved in scientific publishing—vari-        research labs had more or less (mostly         the 1970s.
able efficiency of the authors, review         less) elaborate libraries of motion
times that are difficult to control, editing   picture films having to do with natural
and manuscript processing delays, and          resources. Some were produced by the           to treat it just as they would a paper
printing firms whose policies require          Forest Service. Each library usually had       publication—advertise its availability as
premium pay to get priority service.           only one or a small number of copies of        widely as possible and get a copy to any-
The many human factors involved make           each film. They most often were loaned         one who ordered it. The video was listed
setting productivity standards difficult.      to employees, but the Regional Offices         in the normal quarterly announcement of
Nevertheless, attempts have been from          and some other units filled orders from        new publications, which had a mailing
time to time to define satisfactory time       the general public. Most units did little      list of about 7,000 people interested in a
frames for editing and production work.        or nothing to publicize the availability of    wide variety of research results. It also
    The Intermountain Station engaged          films. When video tapes became avail-          was announced in INTercom.
in such an exercise in the mid-1980s.          able they were added to the existing film          The announcements offered copies
The publications staff defined “turn-          libraries.                                     on loan. Orders were handled by the
around times” for the total time it                Research Forester Bland Richardson,        publications distribution clerk. With
took to process manuscripts and also           who worked at the Logan Lab in the             each tape was a note advising the recipi-
“production times” for page layout,            mined lands reclamation unit, showed           ent that the item was public information
typesetting, proofing, and printing when       up at Station Headquarters in 1984 with        and they were encouraged to duplicate
those operations were required (Destito        a video tape consisting of scenes he           it and keep and use the copy. The first
1989). In 1983, average turnaround was         had filmed. It was a 15-minute color           dozen “loaners” went out quickly. The
16 months and production time was              production titled Before a Single Grain        Station simply ordered more. People
10 months. By 1988 the average times           of Dirt is Removed. Focusing on sites          generally were good about returning the
had been drastically reduced and staff         in the Bridger-Teton National Forest as        loan copies, usually within 2 weeks, and
representatives went to a national meet-       examples, the narrative described five         if one wasn’t returned a replacement
ing of Station information people and          surface mining reclamation principles          was ordered. Thus, seldom was anyone
asked if anyone had times better than 5.3      that applied to all sites. It also discussed   put on a waiting list, and if they were it
months for turnaround and 2.7 months           differences between the “watershed             wasn’t for long.
for production. No one spoke up.               protection” and “native plant” schools             This was the first known instance of
    So the Station people proclaimed           of thought on the best ways to reclaim         a Station advertising an audio-visual
themselves holders of the record for           mined lands.                                   production as a publication. The practice
publishing efficiency within Forest                Richardson was a good photographer,        continued at the Station and several
Service Research. No one who saw the           and there were no problems with the            video tapes served as important com-
figures or heard explanations of the           quality of his video. The question was         munication devices.
definitions ever disputed that claim.          how to get copies to mine developers               Audio-Visual Specialist Gene
Record or not, the improvement in ef-          and land managers. The Station informa-        Colling joined the Station in about 1986,
ficiency at the Intermountain Station had      tion people decided the best way was           providing in-house production skills for

videos. Colling created The Horse Creek   that aspen stands were being
Study, which featured an interview with   replaced in western landscapes
Station scientist Jack King. King’s re-   and giving recommendations
marks were targeted to forest engineers,  on what could be done about
hydrologists, and managers involved in    it. Most of the information
road planning. The recommendations        came from Dale Bartos, Project
were designed to foster construction      Leader of the Restoration of
practices that minimize erosion.          Disturbed Ecosystems research
   In 1988, the Station advertised        unit at the Logan Lab. Bartos
Stalking a Forest Killer, also produced   sponsored the production.
by Colling. It showed how research        Although several cooperators
develops new knowledge to combat          also supplied information, most
mountain pine beetle epidemics, pest      of the video’s content was based
management specialists test and transfer  on research done in the Station’s
techniques, and managers apply control    aspen research unit, which was
strategies. Colling relied heavily on     discontinued in 1984.
                                                                                 Visual Information Specialist Deborah
information from entomologists Walt           Fading Gold won a presti-
                                                                                 Renteria (seated) showed features of the
Cole and Gene Amman. Technology           gious award in 2000. It took first     Station’s first “desktop publishing” system to
had advanced once again, and the 1988     place in the Video/Public Affairs      Station Director Larry Lassen (front), Deputy
video was made available in the old       Section of a competition spon-         Director Carter Gibbs, and Ruth Hyland.
three-quarter-inch style and also in      sored by the National Association
the quarter-inch format that was com-     of Government Communicators.
ing into vogue and soon became the        Bartos traveled to Denver to accept the        computer “wizard” at Missoula, and
standard.                                 award. Videos on tape now are rapidly          Grant Mortensen, an avid home com-
   Colling moved on and eventually        being replaced by compact disks (CDs           puter user who was Operations Group
joined the Region 1 information staff.    and DVDs) as technology races ahead.           Leader at Station Headquarters, the
But his association with the Station      Will future readers of this history ask,       staff had acquired a Macintosh com-
was renewed when he produced Fading       “What the heck was a CD?”                      puter that could be hooked up to the
Gold—The Decline of Aspen in the West,        Going Electronic—In January                only laser printer at the headquarters.
a 12-minute video showing the extent      1987, the Intermountain Station scored         Mortensen connected the equipment
                                                        another first in Forest          and the publishing production people
                                                        Service Research when it         made a few trials of creating type and
                                                        issued an electronically         doing crude layout work, but nobody
                                                        produced publication (a          felt ready to produce even a small
                                                        so-called “desktop publica- publication with the new processes.
                                                        tion”). It was a modest          Those processes became commonplace;
                                                        effort, a two-page research      publishers and individuals used them
                                                        note written by Jack Lyon        world-wide and new technology
                                                        (Lyon 1987), but it was the      provided capabilities undreamed of in
                                                        first formal report created      the 1980s.
                                                        by computer at a Station             The conversion process speeded up at
                                                        or in the national research      the Station for what should be acknowl-
                                                        office. The subject matter       edged as a wrong reason. Vince Dong,
                                                        was appropriate because          long-time editor at the Pacific Southwest
                                                        Lyon’s note discussed how        Station (PSW) in Berkeley visited
                                                        to use a personal computer       Ogden to compare notes about publish-
                                                        to evaluate elk cover. That      ing systems with the Intermountain
                                                        coincidence was purely           Station people. In the midst of the
                                                        accidental. The publishing       discussions, Dong casually mentioned
                                                        “first” was not.                 that PSW was gearing up to issue an
                                                            The Station publishing       electronically generated publication,
                                                        unit had been getting            and it probably would be the first in the
                                                        ready to “go electronic”         Forest Service research community.
Dale Bartos (foreground) used video as only one         for several months.              After he left, the Intermountain Station
tool to transfer knowledge about aspen ecosystem        Without much computer            people decided that if someone was go-
management. Here he was participating in a field        expertise of their own,          ing to be first it might as well be them.
training session on the Montpelier Ranger District      but armed with advice            The Lyon note appeared several months
of the Caribou National Forest.                         from Wally Deschene, a           before the PSW publication.

    There apparently were no hard feel-     ahead. By the end of 2005, the Rocky        of sagebrush-grass rangelands in the
ings at PSW. Dong remained a valued         Mountain Research Station had more          northern third of the State. This work
colleague and friend for many years.        than 500 publications available online      probably consisted of administrative
And a short time after the publishing       through its home page, including some       studies by District 4 (later Region 4)
“first,” a computer specialist at PSW       produced by the Intermountain and           personnel. The Station apparently as-
told the Intermountain Station people       Rocky Mountain Stations before their        sumed responsibility for this research
how to solve a vexing problem in            1997 merger. The Station also joined        in the 1930s, but the work was later
translating material generated by the       others in making some reports avail-        discontinued and the experimental areas
computer system most widely used            able as CDs only, or as CD versions of      were returned to National Forest ad-
in the Forest Service to the Station’s      printed copies that also were available.    ministration (see “Experimental Ranges
publishing equipment. That was a                The on-line documents, videos, and      Created,” chapter 7). The Station had no
breakthrough, and acquisition of a          CDs were frowned on by some in re-          units in Nevada during World War II and
better laser printer was another because    search, according to Kingsbury, because     for a dozen years thereafter.
some quality had been sacrificed in         paper publication was the “tradition.”          When Station research returned to
Station publications when the change        She and her supervisor, Assistant Station   Nevada in 1957, the emphasis was on
to computer production first was            Director Dean Knighton, proposed to         watershed studies as well as range man-
made. The change to creating type by        the Station Director and the other ADs      agement work. Harold Haupt led the
computer instead of contracting with        that these “nontraditional” forms should    watershed work. In 1959 and 1960 the
commercial typesetters as had been          be considered publications and should       unit concentrated on studying effects
standard practice saved the Station         even be given equal weight with paper       of rain-on-snow floods along the east
about $30,000 annually (Destito 1989).      documents by promotion panels and           side of the Sierra Nevada. Small runoff
    Being first can carry penalties. For    in annual Station attainment reports.       plots were installed at Dog Valley,
some 2 years after they got into elec-      Top management was amenable, and            California. Haupt, with help from Ralph
tronic publishing the Station people had    by about 1995 the unconventional            Holmgren, used a modification of the
to devote considerable time to briefing     “publications” were recognized for those    infiltrometer developed earlier by Paul
visitors about the process and giving       purposes.                                   Packer for research in the Boise Basin
presentations at meetings in various            The nontraditional formats became       to simulate rainfall during winter. The
places. So much time was devoted to         so well accepted that some publications     studies showed how runoff changed
teaching that the regular publishing        appeared solely on the Internet or as       rapidly from clear to muddy water
work suffered. This was temporary           CDs, yet were assigned publication          when the cushioning effect of snow
and worthwhile “for the good of the         series numbers. Kingsbury observed          was gone, and how good vegetative
Service,” however, and perhaps it was       that because of budget cuts dating from     cover reduced soil loss (Haupt, personal
only a fitting penance for the somewhat     the mid-1990s those were the only ways      communication).
unprofessional “one-upmanship” that         some research units could afford to             When Haupt left Reno, the two
took place in 1987.                         publish some reports. “I see the 1980s      emphasis areas were handled by one
    Going Online—The Station scored a       ‘forefathers’ as having paved the way       unit. A single unit at Reno was the norm
first for the Forest Service in 1994 when   for the acceptability of alternatives in    until the 1990s, and during much of that
it made a publication available to read-    the research and user communities that      time it was headed by Project Leader
ers online. Mann Gulch Fire: A Race         ultimately have led to wider audiences      Dick Meeuwig. Meeuwig retired in 1983
That Couldn’t Be Won (Rothermel 1993)       throughout the world at a fraction of the   after 34 years of Federal service, but
was the first formal Forest Service pub-    cost,” she said.                            continued his career with the University
lication that an Internet user could read                                               of Nevada-Reno.
on his or her computer screen. Editor                                                       Although the staff at Reno was
Bert Lindler handled the technical work     Exploring the Past to See                   small through the years, the research
and made arrangements to make the                                                       problems were many and complex.
document available through the Forest
                                            the Future                                  The work came to be focused on the
Service’s national home page. Stations                                                  pinyon-juniper type, because it was
and Regions did not yet have their own          Forest Service research in Nevada       poorly understood, inadequately defined,
home pages. The announcement also           has a lengthy history, but it always was    and often misused. Pinyon and juniper
told those who wanted a “hard copy” of      a small presence in a huge Great Basin      grew on more than 11 million of the 17
the publication how to get one.             land area. The focus changed from           million acres of the Great Basin. Studies
    Group Leader Louise Kingsbury said      ways to increase forage production,         in cooperation with the University of
there was some opposition within the        to range management and watershed           Nevada sought a useful classification
Station when Lindler proposed creating      studies, to considering multiple uses of    of pinyon-juniper lands, which did
the on-line document. The criticism was     pinyon-juniper woodlands, and finally to    not lend themselves to habitat type
that time shouldn’t be wasted on new        ecosystem approaches.                       classifications. There was no method
technology that probably was “just a            The first known mention of Nevada       to measure the biomass of pinyon and
passing fancy.” She told Lindler to go      research is a 1912 reference to studies     juniper. Working with the Station’s

Forest Survey unit, the Reno scientists                                                at what was thought of as a climax stage
helped develop one (see “A Lot More to                                                 of succession. The continual change
Survey,” this chapter).                                                                idea challenged a concept that had been
    The Reno unit worked with many                                                     central to range ecology for nearly a
cooperators on a wide range of problems.                                               century.
University of Nevada-Reno scientists                                                       Tausch said, “We need to be manag-
were major collaborators, but studies                                                  ing for a successional process on a
also were conducted with researchers                                                   landscape basis that will sustain the
at Utah State, Oregon State, Brigham                                                   ecosystem.” He explained that resource
Young, Colorado State, and New Mexico                                                  managers needed to continue to monitor
universities, the Rocky Mountain                                                       ecosystems locally, but their data should
Station, the Agricultural Research                                                     be interpreted over both time and space
Service, and land management agencies                                                  on a regional basis. Scientists needed
(Miracle 1985). Meeuwig and associates,                                                to help managers by learning how to
including Range Scientist Bob Ferguson,                                                fit climate change into the equation
started much of the cooperative work. It                                               (Tippets 1993a).
was expanded when Rich Everett took                                                        The research showed that changes
over as Project Leader in 1983.                                                        in Great Basin plant species within
    In 1986, existing scientific and                                                   communities reflected past changes in
management information and viewpoints      Project Leader Robin Tausch processed       climate. Each species responded differ-
were brought together at a West-wide       DNA from juniper fossils to gain new        ently to environmental change. Some
pinyon-juniper conference in Reno          knowledge about how plant communi-          plants migrated more than 3,000 feet in
sponsored by the University of Nevada,     ties adapted to 30,000 years of climate     elevation and 50 miles in distance, while
the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain       change in the Great Basin.                  others remained in the same location for
Stations, and the Bureau of Land                                                       the entire 30,000-year period studied.
Management. Everett was the steering                                                   This history suggested to managers
committee chairman and compiled a          Tausch was appointed Project Leader.        that the vegetation was better able to
proceedings published by the Station       Tausch, a paleobotanist, brought a new      adapt to change than had been assumed
early the next year. The document          emphasis to the unit. He had been a         (INTercom Nov./92). The ultimate goal
included comprehensive information         cooperator with the Station researchers     of the unit was to devise meaningful
on paleobotany, inventory and clas-        as an assistant professor of range ecol-
sification, synecology, silviculture,      ogy at the University of Nevada-Reno,
fire responses, economics, plant-water     so paleobotany was not a new subject
relations, woodland conversion, range      area for the unit, but it assumed more
management, wildlife habitat, hydrol-      prominence in the program. Fascinating
ogy, and nutrient cycling (Forestry        research that unlocked secrets of climate
Research West Dec./87)                     and vegetation changes going back
    The conference proceedings and         30,000 years in time became a center-
other sources served as a basis for a      piece of the work at Reno.
state-of-the-art Station publication          Tausch and Biologist Cheryl Nowack
in 1988 that presented principles to       devoted major amounts of time to
help resource agency personnel more        analyzing fossilized material in woodrat
fully understand and better manage         middens (materials preserved by wastes
the pinyon-juniper woodlands. The          at nest sites). The middens preserved
author, Ray Evans, was a long-time         a record of ecological history because
cooperator who had just retired from       the woodrats, also known as packrats,
the Agricultural Research Service after    collected all sorts of items including
a 32-year career as an ecologist and       bits of vegetation that could be dated
range scientist. Management of Pinyon-     and analyzed by advanced laboratory
Juniper Woodlands was used as source       techniques (Tippets 1993a).
material for several workshops held to        What seemed to be such fundamental
provide managers and specialists with an   and pure science had potentially
intensive update on the art and science    revolutionary implications for resource
of land management in the extensive        management. The records assembled           Project Leader Robin Tausch and
woodland type (Forestry Research West      by the scientists at Reno showed that       Biologist Cheryl Nowack visited a
Nov./88).                                  plant communities in the Great Basin        woodrat midden that contained thou-
    Everett moved to the Pacific           were constantly changing to adapt to        sands of years of ecological history
Northwest Station in 1989, and Robin       changing climate, and never stabilized      preserved in one rock chimney.

methods to restore and manage Great           Technician Rodger Nelson. The goal            new opportunities to study fish and their
Basin ecosystems and watersheds that          was to investigate the characteristics of     habitats, and personnel in the new unit
had often been abused in the past.            fish habitats and define techniques for       used many of them and added a few
    Research geared toward meeting            improving them. McIntyre emphasized           innovations of their own.
the same general goal, but with a new         the need to learn about ecological                The researchers used direct under-
emphasis on ecosystems principally            relationships and habitat fragmentation       water observation (snorkeling) to count
influenced by streams, began in 1993          (INTercom 6/7/90).                            populations and tagged fish with radio
when the Station established the Great            McIntyre had 26 years of research ex-     transmitters that could be remotely
Basin Ecosystem Management Project at         perience in fish population biology and       tracked with transceivers. They also
Reno with Ecologist Jeanne Chambers           aquatic ecology. After completing Ph.D.       used freeze-core sampling of spawning
as Team Leader. The project took an           requirements at Oregon State University,      habitats to determine their physical
interdisciplinary research and manage-        he went to work with the U.S. Fish            makeup, and used video cameras to de-
ment approach to gathering information        and Wildlife Service. Before joining          fine riparian environments and describe
on the underlying processes that are the      the Station, he served as leader of the       damaged areas.
foundation of watershed and riparian          Population Ecology Research Section of            In the “videography” work, crews
ecosystems to provide approaches for          the National Fishery Research Center in       made photo measurements of stream
their management and restoration. It was      Seattle.                                      width and depth, bank stability, and
unique in including time scales dating            Thurow had spent 13 years with the        vegetation at predetermined points.
back 8,000 years, back to 1860 settle-        Idaho Department of Fish and Game and         They produced records for streamside
ment days, and back to 1994.                  2 years with the Washington Department        zones where livestock grazing or other
    The research was conducted in             of Fisheries, studying salmonid ecology       activities were present, and also in
cooperation with the Humboldt-Toiyabe         with emphasis on salmon, native trout,        zones where the activities were not
National Forest. It included develop-         and steelhead. Nelson had been with the       taking place. The process resulted in
ment of a demonstration area by Station       Station for 12 years, working primarily       stream profiles—scientific descriptions
researchers that showed responses to          with Bill Platts on livestock and fish        of the streams based on factors such as
large-scale burning in pinyon-juniper         habitat relationships as part of the soil     bank stability and width-to-depth ratios
ecosystems that were used to guide fuels      and watershed research group. The unit’s      (Jensen 1993).
and fire management work in Great             first studies were of habitat relationships       Technology Transfer Specialist
Basin woodlands (Rocky Mountain               for native trout, char, and salmon species    Kerry Overton (see “Getting the Word
Research Station 2005).                       that were showing alarming population         Out—the Station’s Strong Suit,” this
    These and other results of the first 10   declines and were listed as threatened or     chapter) joined the unit a few months
years of the ecosystem research were          endangered.                                   after it was formed. He saw videography
included in a 320-page book edited by             Scientific information was sparse on      as an effective tool to transfer compli-
Chambers and colleague Jerry Miller           the requirements of many of these spe-        cated information to policy makers in an
that was published in 2003. Great             cies and population estimates were not        understandable form. Overton reasoned
Basin Riparian Ecosystems: Ecology,           very precise. One of the reasons for this     that the film records allowed natural
Management, and Restoration won the           lack of knowledge was the complexity          resource managers to see what the scien-
Rocky Mountain Station’s annual Best          and diversity of habitats that migratory      tists were trying to explain, helping them
Scientific Publication Award.                 salmonids used during their life cycles,      set policies that would have beneficial
                                              making compiling data about them              effects and be scientifically defensible.
                                              time-consuming and challenging (Jensen            One important innovation by the
Aquatic Science Moves                         1993). Technological advances provided        scientists at Boise was development,

into the Mainstream
                                              Fish habitat studies
                                              using “videogra-
    The 1990 establishment of a new
                                              phy” recorded the
fisheries research unit at Boise was the      main elements of
start of increased emphasis on aquatic        a stream environ-
science, an emphasis that continued           ment—stream depth,
through the balance of Intermountain          width, and bank
Station history and beyond. Previously,       condition—at pre-
fish research had been part of the work       determined sample
of the riparian research unit.                points in the Salmon
    The new unit, titled Enhancing            River drainage.
Fish Habitats, initially was staffed by
Project Leader Jack McIntyre, Fisheries
Biologist Russ Thurow, and Biological

                                                   sometimes small differences in       started in 1992. Every member of the
                                                   fish habitat quality caused by       fisheries unit received a special award
                                                   management activities.               from Region 4 in 1993 for “providing
                                                       Results were transferred to      crucial technical and logistical support
                                                   biologists through numerous          for the development and implementation
                                                   presentations, training ses-         of fish habitat inventory methodology
                                                   sions, and personal contacts         and Desired Future Condition values
                                                   (INTercom Nov./92). Refined          for anadromous streams” (INTercom
                                                   procedures were summarized           May/93).
                                                   in a 1997 Station publication,           Ecologist Danny Lee came to work
                                                   R1/R4 (Northern/Intermountain        with the unit in 1991 from Resources for
                                                   Regions) Fish and Fish Habitat       the Future. He helped broaden the pro-
                                                   Standard Inventory Procedures        gram to include pursuit of useful models
                                                   Handbook. Authors were               for assessing probabilities of extinction,
                                                   Overton, fellow Station biologists   quantitative methods for assessing
                                                   Sherry Wollrab and Mike Radko,       impacts of land use on important habitat,
                                                   and Bruce Roberts, who coor-         and tools to facilitate environmental
                                                   dinated inventory work for the       decision making.
Fisheries Biologist Russ Thurow used tele-         two Regions. The research and            Unlike anadromous fish, bull trout
metry equipment to pick up signals from a
                                                   transfer efforts were continued by   spend their lifecycle in fresh water. But
radio tag implanted in a trout during a demon-
stration of the technique.
                                                   the Rocky Mountain Station until     like many anadromous species, the trout
                                                   2004, when a national inven-         was of concern to managers. It was
                                                   tory procedures database was         considered a “sensitive” species by the
in collaboration with Station physical     developed. It contained the procedures       Forest Service—at risk and a candidate
scientists and Agricultural Research       developed by the Boise researchers           for special protection (Chojnacky 1995).
Service workers, of the “Salmonid          (Overton, personal communication).           Fisheries Biologist Bruce Rieman
Spawning Analysis” computer model              Unit personnel also developed            emphasized bull trout studies when
in 1992. It linked with other models       Desired Future Condition (DFC) values        he joined the Boise unit in 1992 after
created by the Corps of Engineers and      for streams. This research defined what      17 years of management and research
the Fish and Wildlife Service to provide   fish habitat natural conditions would be     experience with the Idaho Department
a more complete understanding of en-       so that biologists and managers would        of Fish and Game and the Oregon
vironmental factors in the nests (redds)   have a catalog of reference conditions.      Department of Fish and Wildlife.
where salmonids deposit their eggs.        During the DFC research, personnel               Rieman played a lead role in gather-
    Integrated research by fisheries and   from the Station and two Regions             ing and analyzing existing knowledge
physical scientists (Jack King and Jim     completed surveys of more than 80            about the bull trout and worked with
Clayton) confirmed that the salmonids      streams that had not been substantially      Thurow and several university research
remove fine sediment from redds when       influenced by human use (Intermountain       teams to develop new information. In
they construct their nests, but fine       and Rocky Mountain Stations 1995).           1993, he and McIntyre wrote a Station
sediments may accumulate again while           The DFC information was presented        publication, Demographic and Habitat
eggs are developing, reducing oxygen       in a Station publication by Overton,         Requirements for Conservation of the
available to the eggs. The computer pro- McIntyre (in retirement as an Emeritus         Bull Trout, which summarized the
gram, installed in the Forest Service’s    Scientist: see—”The Volunteers,” this        most important knowledge about the
national system, helped biologists and     chapter), and three other members of the     species and analyzed it using the latest
managers estimate how much sediment        fisheries unit—Robyn Armstrong, Shari        principles of conservation biology and
is detrimental to fish survival (Forestry  Whitwell, and Kelly Duncan. Users            metapopulation dynamics available
Research West Nov./92).                    Guide to Fish Habitat: Descriptions          at the time. The scientists outlined
    Although considerable work had         that Represent Natural Conditions in         concepts needed to develop strategies
been done earlier in efforts to standard-  the Salmon River Basin, Idaho was still      that would minimize the risk of bull
ize fishery inventory procedures, a new    in use 10 years after it was issued in       trout extinction (Forestry Research West
“Columbia River Basin Anadromous           1995 to set baselines for good habitat       Apr./94).
Fish Habitat Management Policy             conditions used in planning and making           The researchers used radio telemetry
and Implementation Guide” required         environmental assessments (Overton,          to study bull trout habitat use, move-
much more. Overton and his staff           personal communication).                     ment patterns, and mortality. They
responded to the challenge with studies        Although the methodology and DFC         also assessed population distribution
to develop and evaluate a standard core    handbooks were developed over several        in fragmented habitats. Unit personnel
set of inventory procedures usable by      years, the research was put to use almost    made extensive use of snorkeling as a
Ranger District and National Forest        immediately. Training for biologists and     technique to nondestructively sample
biologists and sensitive enough to detect field crews in the inventory procedures       salmonid populations, including the bull

                                                                Fisheries research-      and used to define the implications for
                                                                ers extracted a          management across the basin.
                                                                sample of gravels            Initial analysis work was completed
                                                                within a redd using
                                                                                         in 1996, and a series of publications
                                                                a tri-tube “freeze
                                                                coring” technique.       documenting the work was issued that
                                                                The study helped         year and in 1997. The task turned to
                                                                determine the rela-      helping managers define alternatives
                                                                tionship of sediment     and measure the consequences. The
                                                                to fish survival.        scientists provided data and analysis
                                                                                         that created a framework for analyzing
                                                                                         alternatives presented in Environmental
                                                                                         Impact Statements issued in 1998-99.
                                                                                             The association of biologists and
                                                                                         physical scientists (hydrologists and
                                                                                         geomorphologists) in the consolidated
                                                                                         Boise unit turned out to be its future.
                                                                                         McIntyre retired in 1994. Following
                                                                                         retirements in other units, Warren Clary
trout, as they developed and tested meth-   Land Management. The basin covers            served as Acting Project Leader for a
ods for monitoring at-risk species.         an area in Washington, Oregon, Idaho,        combined unit that included the old
    Thurow wrote a Station publication      western Montana, and northern Nevada         riparian project, the watershed project,
issued in 1994, Underwater Methods for      that is about the size of France. Two        and the fisheries project at Boise. After
Study of Salmonids in the Intermountain     questions were posed: (1) What are the       Clary retired in 2000, a combination of
West, which outlined procedures for esti-   ecological and socioeconomic trends          major elements of the units was formal-
mating salmonid abundance and habitat       and conditions in the basin? and (2)         ized and Soil Scientist Jim Clayton
use and provided criteria for identifying   What land management strategy would          served as Project Leader until he retired
and estimating the size of fish under wa-   most effectively improve the trends          in 2002. Rieman then was appointed
ter. Thurow encouraged development and      and conditions? The first question was       Project Leader of a consolidated unit
use of standardized procedures to survey    assigned to a Science Integration Team.      that included personnel from the old fish
trout and salmon populations in the         It included hundreds of scientists and       habitat and soil and watershed units. The
Intermountain West (Chojnacky 1995).        specialists from Federal agencies and        emphasis on aquatic science was formal-
    That year, Thurow, Biologist John       the larger science community (Cole and       ized in 2004, when the Rocky Mountain
Guzevich, and other Station scientists      Quigley 1997).                               Station renamed the Boise facility the
started new studies to compare the              Rieman, Lee, and Thurow were             Aquatic Sciences Laboratory.
efficiencies of day snorkeling, night       assigned to the Aquatic Science Team
snorkeling, and electrofishing in making    with lead responsibility for evaluating
censuses of salmonid populations. The       the status of fishes across the entire       A New Experimental
goal was to develop sampling protocols      Columbia River Basin. Lee became             Forest (Finally)
that could be applied to determine          a co-leader with Jim Sedell from the
what method to use and the sampling         Pacific Northwest Station for the entire
effort required to achieve desired levels   aquatic effort. Members of the Boise             Every old cowboy knows it takes
of accuracy. The unit also began to         unit worked with hundreds of biolo-          time to properly break in a tenderfoot,
emphasize research in which the biolo-      gists to collect data, then summarized       but Tenderfoot Creek took longer
gists worked with physical scientists in    and analyzed it. The results were the        than most. In 1961 it became the last
attempting to link watershed features       most comprehensive assessment of             experimental area in the Station territory
to the location of critical fish habitats   fishes ever attempted for the interior       formally dedicated to research. Then it
(Chojnacky 1995).                           Columbia River basin or anywhere             didn’t even start its training period for
    The new research thrust played a part   in the National Forest System. The           30 years.
in an ambitious inter-agency program        efforts contributed new insight into the         When the Tenderfoot Creek
that dominated work by the Station unit     processes structuring fish populations at    Experimental Forest, 9,125 acres
from 1994 to 1999. The Columbia Basin       very large scales.                           within the Lewis and Clark National
Ecosystem Management Project was                The work included a novel collabora-     Forest near Great Falls, Montana, was
launched by a presidential directive.       tion with ecologists who specialized         established as a site for forest watershed
Several Federal agencies teamed up to       in wildlife research. Important areas        research there were big plans for its use.
develop an ecologically sound, scientifi-   of convergence and divergence in the         However, in the early 1960s after build-
cally based strategy for managing 75        conditions of terrestrial and aquatic eco-   ing roads to potential stream monitoring
million acres of land administered          systems were shown. From this, a series      sites in the experimental forest, the
by the Forest Service and Bureau of         of management themes were developed          Station diverted watershed research

                                                              “We’re trying to see
                                                          what Mother Nature has
                                                          given us” Schmidt said in
                                                          1993 during an ecosystem
                                                          management tour. He said
                                                          it would take several years
                                                          to understand the existing
                                                          natural ecosystem well
                                                          enough to experiment with
                                                          alterations. Part of the
                                                          understanding was work
                                                          by U.S. Geological Survey
                                                          scientist Mitchell Reynolds,
                                                          who mapped the geology of
                                                          the area and described the     Phil Farnes explained water monitoring
                                                          drainage pattern.              stations for Station Research Forester
funding to the Idaho Batholith where           Thanks to various cooperators,            Mike Cole (right) and others during
erosion from unstable granitic soils was    Tenderfoot Creek became a state-of-          a 1993 field day at Tenderfoot Creek
                                                                                         Experimental Forest.
threatening valuable salmon spawning        the-art watershed monitoring area. Phil
areas.                                      Farnes, a retired Soil Conservation
    A few surveys were completed            Service snow survey supervisor, joined       rainfall data (McCaughey 1996). Three
at Tenderfoot Creek, but no formal          the project through an agreement with        flumes were installed in 1996, bringing
research studies were established. The      Professor Kathy Hansen of Montana            the number of data collection locations
situation changed in the early 1990s.       State University. Farnes spent two           to 10 permanent flumes and one chan-
In 1991 the headwaters of Tenderfoot        summers installing monitoring equip-         nel gauge.
Creek, a pristine watershed featuring       ment and supervising installation                Baseline data gathering at Tenderfoot
even-aged lodgepole pine, proved to be      of flumes, precipitation gauges, and         Creek involved work by other Station
an ideal location to launch new research    recording stations. Two snow telemetry       units and several cooperators. Working
on ecosystem processes and functions        (SNOTEL) stations, installed by the          with McCaughey, crews assigned by
(Forestry Research West Oct./93).           Natural Resources Conservation Service       Hydrologist Jack King (Boise) collected
    The experimental forest included        in 2001, were designed for satellite         data on stream channel characteristics.
small areas of wet meadows and grassy       communication, so in winter months           Fisheries Biologist Jack McIntyre, also
slopes scattered throughout expansive       researchers at Bozeman and Missoula          located at Boise, had crews collect
lodgepole forests at 6,000- to 8,000-foot   could record climate data without leav-      baseline data on fish habitats.
elevations. Tenderfoot Creek drains         ing the laboratory.                              Additional baseline data included in-
into the Smith River (a tributary of the       Field research facilities included        formation from vegetation classifications
Missouri River), a well-known blue-rib-     SNOTEL weather stations at a high-           and surveys, soil surveys, a 400-year
bon trout stream also used extensively by   elevation site in the Onion Park             fire history survey, stream sediment
recreationists for floating (McCaughey      Research Natural Area and at a               and water quality analyses, migratory
1996). The forest provided high-qual-       low-elevation site at Stringer Creek,        bird surveys, and a census of fish in
ity elk habitat, and easy access from       and eight sites for collecting snow and      Tenderfoot Creek conducted by the
Great Falls made it a popular hunting
area. Tenderfoot Creek was the only
experimental forest on the east slope of    Research Forester
the northern Rockies.                       Ward McCaughey
    The Station’s subalpine silviculture    worked on an
unit located at Bozeman and Missoula        electronic recorder
was made responsible for research           for a weather sta-
supervision in the 1980s. The small         tion installed in
                                            the Onion Park
research unit had many other respon-
                                            Research Natural
sibilities, but Project Leader Wyman        Area at Tenderfoot
Schmidt and Research Forester Ward          Creek.
McCaughey, who was appointed man-
ager of Tenderfoot Creek in 1988, began
the process of installing hydrologic and
climatic instrumentation, starting eco-
logical studies, and gathering baseline
data in the early 1990s.

Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife                                                      in horseshoes against all comers,
and Parks.                                                                                including his students at the University
   When sufficient baseline data                                                          of California, and was said to be able
were assembled so the scientists were                                                     to hold his own right up to his death at
confident that experimental forest man-                                                   age 82.
agement practices could begin, Kings                                                          When not competing, Sampson was
Hill Ranger District personnel became                                                     an avid sports fan. While on his hon-
partners in testing ecological impacts                                                    eymoon, he left his bride with a former
of various management tactics. Special                                                    student and rushed to the nearest radio
care was given to detect any ecosystem                                                    in Globe, Arizona, to spend the evening
changes that would have unacceptable                                                      listening to the broadcast of a World
impacts on the Smith River (INTercom                                                      Championship heavyweight boxing
Oct./93).                                                                                 match.
   The primary management practices                                                                          ù
were thinning and prescribed burning.
                                                                                             During Bob Marshall’s time as a
Studies determined effects on the
                                                                                          scientist at Priest River in the 1920s he
reproduction of understory vegetation,
                                                                                          was known as the “Rocky Mountain
growth of non-thinned trees, snow accu-
                                                                                          Greyhound” for his rapid and lengthy
mulation, forest fuels, water production,
                                                                                          hikes through the back country of
sedimentation, water quality, stream
                                                                                          Montana and northern Idaho. He had
channel characteristics, fish habitats, and
                                                                                          developed a fast hiking pace as a youth
also on insect populations and behavior.
                                                                                          in sprints to the top of Adirondack peaks
Other research measured effects of
                                                                                          in his summer home area in New York,
prescribed fire and establishment of nox-
                                                                                          showing an early flair for scientific study
ious weeds within burned and unburned
                                                                                          by meticulously recording his times and
areas (Rocky Mountain Research Station
                                                                                          the distances covered (Glover 1986).
2004).                                        Arthur Sampson stepped into the ring
                                                                                             The steeper Rocky Mountains failed
   Because Tenderfoot Creek was               against local boxers as “The Utah Kid.”
                                                                                          to slow Marshall’s gait, even when he
representative of vast areas of forests on
                                                                                          was carrying 70 pounds of equipment.
the eastern slopes of the Northern Rocky
                                                                                          His normal recreation on Sundays after
Mountains, research there was expected        as a long-distance runner, and also         a week of field work was a 40-mile hike.
to build the foundation for ecosystem         earned letters in track as a sprinter. He
management over a large area.                 won gold medals in the 440, 880 and
                                              mile relay track events for Nebraska
                                              in 1904, 1905, and 1906. After gradu-
Tough Guys (and Gals) Do                      ation, Sampson won gold in races at
                                              the Walla Walla (Washington) County
Research                                      Fair in 1908, George Washington
                                              University in 1909, and Johns Hopkins
   Certainly, a few tenderfeet showed up      and Georgetown Universities in 1910
now and then on the rolls of employees,       (Parker 1967).
but if anyone thought the majority of             Sampson also boxed and wrestled,
the Station’s population consisted of         and once broke the record time for
bookish, timid souls they were thinking       sprinting to the top of Pike’s Peak in
about some other research organiza-           Colorado. While at Great Basin he
tion. The Intermountain Station and its       wrestled professionally at county fairs
predecessor organizations counted many        and often entered boxing rings as “The
tough guys in the ranks of researchers,       Utah Kid.” In his 10 years at Great
administrators, and support people. And       Basin one part of his daily exercise
once the gals got a chance to do field        routine was reported to be tossing a
work they proved to be tough enough to        heavy medicine ball over the headquar-
handle any jobs the men could do.             ters’ flagpole. The flagpole was 70 feet
   Early-day Athletes—Arthur                  high. The medicine ball, on display         Bob Marshall’s idea of a vacation was to
Sampson, the first director of the Great      at the Great Basin Environmental            fill the days with long hikes carrying a
Basin Station was a first-rate, and very      Education Center museum, weighs 15          heavy pack, like the one he was toting
versatile, athlete. At the University of      pounds and is 35 inches in circumfer-       here in 1937 on a visit to the Boundary
Nebraska in the early 1900s he trained        ence. In later years Sampson competed       Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota.

Those who have enjoyed the traditional                                                  Evenden, pioneer entomologist in the
20-mile hike during basic training in the                                               Northern Rocky Mountains, captained
U.S. Army know that it took a full day                                                  the Oregon State University football
and left the participants with just enough                                              team in 1914.
energy to pitch a tent and go to bed.                                                       The Toughest Guys—It’s said that
   While located at Priest River,                                                       most smokejumpers volunteer for the
Marshall devoted as much spare time                                                     job because of the adventure and excite-
as possible to exploring remote areas,                                                  ment inherent in parachuting out of
always at his customary rapid pace.                                                     elderly aircraft into steep, rocky country
Glover (1986) published a state-                                                        often featuring dense stands of trees that
ment by a Bitterroot National Forest                                                    are not ideal landing spots. That could
employee recounting how Forest                                                          be the easy part. Putting out wildfires
Service personnel observed Marshall’s                                                   with only the tools you carried to the
expeditions. The phone was ringing                                                      site is hard physical labor, and being
frequently at the West Fork Ranger                                                      faced with a long mountain hike to get
Station, but the weather was clear and                                                  back for another jumping assignment
calm so apparently the calls weren’t                                                    probably detracts a bit from the thrill of
related to fires or fire danger. The puz-                                               the experience.
zled visitor asked the Forest Ranger                                                        Nevertheless, there usually are long
what was going on, and he said, “Oh,                                                    waiting lists to sign up for smokejump-
                                             Before starting his research career at
these telephone calls are coming in                                                     ing and many jumpers come back year
                                             Great Basin, Ray Price was one of the
from lookouts and other people in the        all-time great football players at the     after year. As a group, the smokejumpers
forest who have made a wager on the          University of Utah. He also earned let-    form a subculture within the Forest
time which Bob Marshall will be get-         ters for three years as a center on the    Service. They keep track of each other
ting in from a 40-mile hike which he         basketball team.                           through their own national organization,
started early this morning. He is due                                                   show up in large numbers for reunions,
here…some time around dark.” The                                                        and, much like the U.S. Marines,
story doesn’t say who won the bet.                                                      exhibit a special pride in having shared
                                             the frosh as “sparing partners.” Later,
                   ù                                                                    a rigorous experience. Joining a research
                                             Coach Ike Armstrong said, “The varsity
                                                                                        organization might not seem to be a typ-
   Ray Price started his career as a field   bounced the freshman about, but when
                                                                                        ical smokejumper goal, but a half dozen
assistant at Great Basin in 1931, and        Ray Price came, he bounced the varsity
                                                                                        of them worked at the Intermountain
later served many years as Director          about!”
of the Rocky Mountain Station.                   Price bounced a lot of people around
                                                                                            Bob Mutch, who served as research
Subordinates and colleagues probably         as a halfback-fullback and kicker on
                                                                                        applications leader at the Fire Lab from
were reluctant to start any serious argu-    Utah varsity teams that were undefeated
                                                                                        1991 until he retired on 1994, was in
ments with Price. He was a member            in 1929 and again in 1930, when he
                                                                                        the first rookie class of smokejumpers
of the University of Utah All-Century        was captain. Playing both offense and
                                                                                        to train at Missoula’s Aerial Fire Depot
Football Team, who was a very tough          defense, he was all-conference both
guy and looked the part.                     years and was an honorable
   Price warmed up for his athletic          mention All-American in
career at Utah with a year at Weber          1930, at a time when the
College (now Weber State University) in      national honor squad was
Ogden. There he led an undefeated foot-      dominated by easterners.
ball team as a blocking halfback, punter,    The 1930 team outscored
and place kicker. He also was the center     eight opponents by a
on the basketball team and threw the         combined point total of 350
discus and javelin and “did a little high    to 20.
jumping” in track. Because baseball was          Ed Cliff, who was to be-
not a collegiate sport at the time, Price    come Price’s boss as Chief
went off-campus to play third base in the    of the Forest Service, was
local Commercial League.                     an opponent in Price’s last
   On Price’s first day at the University    football game (see “Hail
of Utah in 1928, he encountered a            to the Chiefs,” chapter 7).
husky classmate sporting a black eye.        Cliff played guard for the
Price learned that the young man was a       Utah State team. Price’s        Bob Mutch celebrated his smokejumper back-
member of the freshman football team,        team won, 41-0. Years           ground when he returned to the Station in 1991
and the varsity players customarily used     before that game, Jim           by posing with a Ford Trimotor, the same kind of
                                                                           airplane from which he made his first jump in 1954.

in 1954. His squad leader was Martin
Onishuk, who later became a technical
publications editor at the Station.
    At Onishuk’s retirement party, Mutch
told a humorous story about how the
editor “saved my life” by preventing an
ill-advised leap from the plane during
a smokejumper flight. Despite Mutch’s
light approach to telling the tale, it was a
true story.
    For obvious safety reasons, standard
policy was to dispatch no less than two
jumpers to a fire. In the fall of 1953
many small fires erupted in Montana.
Most were started by campfires
abandoned by hunters. There was a
shortage of jumpers because many had
returned to school. Smokejumper Frank
Fowler wrote an account of his surprise
at being assigned to jump alone on a
backcountry fire (Fowler 1995). He
noted that Martin Onishuk made a solo
                                                                                           The wife of an early Station researcher
jump the same day.                                                                         sighted in a rifle at Great Basin in 1915,
    After Mutch retired in 1994, his slot                                                  probably in preparation for a hunting
at the Fire Lab was filled by Wayne                                                        trip.
Cook, who may hold the record for lon-         Roger Bay became a smokejumper
gevity as a smokejumper among those            in 1952 and Intermountain Station
who worked at the Station. Technology          Director in 1974.                           and also were known to take on such
Transfer Specialist Cook was a jumper                                                      tasks as tending livestock and serving as
for 19 seasons, from 1977 through 1995.                                                    the second person on a survey chain.
When asked why he stuck with the ardu-         University. Parry became a high school          Women were not late in entering
ous job so long, Cook laughed and said,        teacher, but left teaching in 1961 and      traditionally male natural resource oc-
“Guess I’m just a slow learner.”               on a visit to Missoula said he would be     cupations because of a lack of interest.
    Bill Carver, business manager for          getting a year-round job and would have     Many were involved in the conservation
Station operations in Missoula for             to give up smokejumping because he no       movements during the early 1900s
many years, also had several seasons of        longer would have summers free. To his      that led to the formation of the Forest
experience as a smokejumper. Former            surprise, he was offered a year-round       Service, but they primarily stuck to
Station Director Roger Bay said Carver         job as a squad leader. He then served       traditional social activities. The lack of
once told him that the 1949 fire season        as a smokejumper foreman in 1962 and        voting rights limited women and frus-
included a close call. Carver was on           1963.                                       trated them greatly in political matters
the jump list and ready to board the               Parry had about “30 seconds of          (INTercom Mar./93). All of that changed
plane headed for the Mann Gulch Fire           fame” while a jumper. He made a cameo       in American society, and it changed at
when he was pulled out to help pack            appearance in a film, “A Fire Called        the Intermountain Station.
parachutes (Bay interview). Twelve of          Jeremiah,” which was shown several              As a group, Forest Survey (later
the 15 jumpers who made the flight died        times on “The Wonderful World of            Forest Inventory and Analysis [FIA])
in the flames at Mann Gulch or of burns        Disney,” a popular television program       field crews were the Station’s “tough
shortly after the fire.                        in the 1960s. “It took them about half a    guys.” Survey crew members shared the
    Bay, who was Station Director for          day to get me on for about 30 seconds,”     joys, and the aches and pains, of climb-
9 years starting in 1974, was himself          Parry said of his experience as a televi-   ing mountains in Idaho, wading through
among the elite firefighters. He spent the     sion star.                                  spruce bogs in Montana, and hiking
summer of 1952 while a student at the              The Tough Gals—There were plenty        in the shimmering heat of Arizona
University of Idaho as a smokejumper           of strong women in the early days of        deserts—and avoiding rattlesnakes,
based in Missoula.                             Station history, but they were relegated    scorpions, and bears along the way.
    Ross Parry, a computer specialist at       to supporting roles. Many lived with        Some plots were so remote it took a full
Station Headquarters in Ogden in the           their researcher husbands in forest         day to get to them.
early 1980s, spent six summers as a            settings such as Priest River and Great         At the end of what was often a long
smokejumper. He started at Missoula            Basin. They raised families, a physically   day, crews returned to camp for a meal,
in 1958 while a student at Utah State          demanding job in itself in those days,      limited recreation opportunities such as

tossing Frisbees, and a night in a 25-foot     lar Survey crew assignment. After her
travel trailer shared by two people.           start as a crew member, O’Brien con-
Every few weeks the crews moved the            tinued her education to earn a master’s
camp to a different location (Reynolds         degree, and advanced to become lead
1992). No doubt influenced by tradi-           ecologist with FIA.
tional Forest Service culture and perhaps          Other women soon joined field
believing that women would not tolerate        crews and several advanced into
the working and living conditions, the         important research positions. Gretchen
Station’s Forest Survey unit did not           Moisen started working in the field,
assign a woman to a field crew for the         later earned a Ph.D., and became head
first 40 years of its existence. When it       of the FIA Techniques Research and
finally did, the assignment was treated        Development Team. Moisen gained a
as a joke.                                     reputation as an expert in geospatial
    Shirley Waters, a computer program-        science and gave many presentations
mer at Survey headquarters, became             worldwide. Tracey Frescino worked
the first female crew member in the            on the team led by Moisen after start-
early 1970s. She said she had been             ing with field work while earning a
“jokingly accusing” her supervisors of         master’s degree. A forester, Frescino
discrimination because no women were           made significant contributions to the       Andrea and Michael Wilson spent their
in field jobs. A crew member working in        Forest Service’s national fire manage-      honeymoon in a Forest Survey trailer in
South Dakota left for another job shortly      ment program.                               1985; they joined an inventory crew in
                                                                                           Arizona 3 days after they were married.
before the end of the field season, so             The pioneering female crew members
Survey sent Waters to fill in for 2 weeks      started a trend that continued through
because the supervisor didn’t want to          the remainder of Station history. In
hire a new person that late in the year.       a 1982 photograph 25 percent of the         to the top job—Program Manager. He
Waters was given a hard hat covered            crew members were women. By 1997            later was named an Assistant Director at
with flower stickers and told that Survey      when FIA became a Rocky Mountain            the Rocky Mountain Station.
management expected to hear “no more           Research Station unit through the               And Many Others—Many Station
talk about discrimination.”                    Intermountain-Rocky Mountain Station        people had physical jobs, from climbing
    “It was all in fun, and I really enjoyed   merger, about 35 percent of field work-     lofty trees to collect samples to snorkel-
the experience and learned a lot,” the         ers were women. In 2004 the gender          ing in mountain streams to survey
substitute crew member said (Waters,           ratio was 50-50.                            aquatic conditions. Others whose work
personal communication).                           It was a 50-50 deal for Michael and     was done in an office or laboratory
    It wasn’t long before women no             Andrea Wilson when they both started        setting had backgrounds as athletes or
longer had to chide Survey management          careers with Forest Survey in 1985          engaged in demanding sports in their
about discrimination; they became part         as crew members. The Wilsons had            free time. Some examples are given
of management. Renee O’Brien, in               just graduated from Northern Arizona        here.
1978, was the first woman to get a regu-       University with degrees in forestry                            ù
                                               when they landed a job working on the
                                                                                               Entomologist Dave Fellin ran 40 to
                                               Arizona statewide inventory. They were
                                                                                           50 miles every week in his spare time
                                               newlyweds, and spent their honeymoon
                                                                                           just to stay in shape. He was a frequent
                                               in the luxurious confines of a Forest
                                                                                           competitor in races in the Missoula area
                                               Survey trailer. Both started as GS-4
                                                                                           and finished first in various age classes
                                               temporary employees.
                                                                                           over many years. Nineteen years after
                                                   The Wilsons worked on surveys in
                                                                                           Fellin retired he continued to work out
                                               Arizona, Montana, Idaho, and Utah.
                                                                                           at the fitness center at the University Of
                                               Michael was promoted to a Supervisory
                                                                                           Montana nearly every day.
                                               Forester position in charge of scheduling
                                               and coordinating the work of all crews.                        ù
                                               Andrea advanced to a quality-control           Range Scientist Walt Mueggler’s
                                               job with responsibilities for training      entire family (his wife and six children)
                                               crew members, ensuring information          were athletic and competitive. Daughter
                                               accuracy, and writing and editing field     Laura was the top U.S. finisher in the
                                               manuals (Reynolds 1992). In 2001            15K cross-country ski race in the Winter
                                               Andrea was one of the top analysts in       Olympic Games held in Lillehammer,
Renee O’Brien became the first woman
                                               FIA, but left the Station because of        Norway. She got her early training
to be a full-time Forest Survey crew
                                               nepotism rules when Michael advanced        skiing through canyons with Walt. As
member in 1978, more than 40 years
after Survey began operations.

part of a family tradition, the Olympian        After climbing for 13 days, Assistant                       ù
issued a challenge to Walt to climb the      Station Director for Research-North            Sometimes Station people were
Grand Teton, tallest peak in the range.      Ralph Klawitter also reached the sum-       forced to “tough it out” by unusual
Walt met the challenge, taking the tech-     mit of Mount McKinley. He made the          circumstances. In the 1990s, retired
nical route to the top, at the tender age    ascent on July 13, 1979. By that time,      entomologist Mal Furniss was working
of 65 (INTercom Jan./Feb./1994).             some 500 men and women were trying          as a contractor studying willow insects
                   ù                         to conquer the mountain each year.          throughout a vast area of Alaska. He
                                             About half made it to the top.              awoke one morning while camped
   Research Forester Clint Carlson
                                                Entomologist Walt Cole was a             beside the Niukluk River to discover a
(Missoula) ran the Boston Marathon in
                                             member of a mountain climbers search        grizzly 200 feet away looking at him and
1986 in 3 hours and 5 minutes, good
                                             and rescue unit while studying for an       poised to come across the river and see
enough to earn an invitation to compete
                                             advanced degree in Colorado. He scaled      what suited his taste.
again the following year.
                                             many of Colorado’s 53 peaks that have          Furniss decided his best course of
                   ù                         more that 14,000 feet of elevation.         action was to pretend the bear was a
    Plant Geneticist Durant McArthur                            ù                        spooky horse that he needed to settle
was said to be such a fierce competitor
                                                Dave Stalling served the Station as      down with a low, steady, constant voice.
that a few employees declined to play
                                             a public affairs specialist in Ogden,       He said, “It went on quite a while
in informal basketball games held after
                                             but he also served as a sergeant in the     and I don’t remember much of the
hours at Project Leader meetings in the
                                             U.S. Marine Corps. He was a reservist       conversation except that I told him he
early 1980s. They were concerned about
                                             during his time working at Station          was a good boy and should just stay
injury if forced to battle McArthur for
                                             Headquarters, but he had seen plenty of     there. He apparently didn’t know what
a rebound. At the age of 64, McArthur
                                             rugged action earlier. While on active      to make of it and I gradually got my
was still playing basketball in a church
                                             duty with the Marines, Stalling took part   stuff aboard my raft, never stopping
league in Provo.
                                             in special missions in remote parts of      talking in reassuring tones, and paddled
                   ù                         the world as a member of a Force Recon      away downstream like you know what”
    Range Scientist Roy Harniss was          unit, including serving during the first    (personal communication).
one of several Station people who pur-       Gulf War. Before becoming a photo-                             ù
sued mountain climbing for recreation.       journalist, he had been a dishwasher,           It was pretty common for field-going
Harniss climbed most of the major            ditch-digger, tree surgeon, and lifeguard   Station people to battle the elements in
peaks in Washington State, includ-           (INTercom Oct./92)                          their work, but Research Forester Russ
ing several trips up Mount Rainier.
                                                                                         Graham did something uncommon. He
Over many years, he climbed in the
                                                                                         lived with a crippling disease, multiple
Teton and Wind River Mountains of
                                                                                         sclerosis, throughout most of his career.
Wyoming, and in Idaho, Oregon, Utah,
                                                                                         Despite gradually diminishing physical
and Canada. In 1960 Harniss scaled
                                                                                         abilities, he blossomed as a forestry
Mount McKinley, the highest peak in
                                                                                         scientist. In this battle, Graham was the
North America, in a party of eight. The
                                                                                         clear winner over MS.
climb took 14 days. Another eight days
                                                                                             Graham started with the Forest
were needed to get off the mountain be-
                                                                                         Service fighting fires and working on
cause of storms. At the time, less than
                                                                                         vegetation survey crews. He became a
300 climbers had reached the summit
                                                                                         researcher in 1975 at age 26. The next
of McKinley.
                                                                                         year he experienced the first MS symp-
    Harniss served as a National Ski
                                                                                         toms, slight pain in his eyes and blurred
Patrol volunteer for 35 years at Taylor
                                                                                         vision. Two years later the symptoms
Mountain in Idaho, Beaver Mountain
                                                                                         came back with more severity. His doc-
in Utah, and Hurricane Ridge in
                                                                                         tor thought MS was probably the cause,
Washington. In 1990, he joined the
                                                                                         but counseled that a full, active life
Clallam County fire department in
                                                                                         might be possible. It was for 10 years.
Sequim, Washington, as a volunteer fire-
                                                                                         Graham completed a Ph.D. program,
fighter/emergency medical technician.
                                                                                         made business trips throughout the U.S.
Harniss also served as a volunteer for
                                                                                         and Canada, learned to fly, skied for
the American Red Cross during national
                                             Public Affairs Specialist Dave Stalling     recreation, and jogged daily with friends
and local disasters. The duties took him
                                             didn’t actually attack bears with knives,   and coworkers.
to Florida in the aftermath of hurricanes,   but he performed some pretty tough              He noticed in 1988 that one leg was
to Iowa following tornados, and to           duties with the U.S. Marines. This          tiring faster than the rest of his body
Louisiana and Washington to help deal        photo was part of a class project for       during his usual 4- to 5-mile daily runs.
with problems in flooded areas.              Stalling at the University of Montana
                                                                                         This time, MS was the official diagnosis.
                                             School of Journalism.

                                                     and open the door for me….            A New Role for Great
                                                     Instead of being a leader and
                                                     teacher in the woods I had to stay    Basin
                                                     on the road and watch.”
                                                         Graham had to depend on               The Great Basin Experiment
                                                     a co-worker to be his eyes and        Station headquarters site was reborn
                                                     hands in much of his work.            in 1993, with a new name and a new
                                                     He found this discouraging in         environmental education mission for the
                                                     many ways, but it also made           future directly linked to its conservation
                                                     his working relationships with        purpose of the past.
                                                     others much stronger. He became           Station and National Forest System
                                                     a better communicator and             officials, educators, cooperators, and
                                                     more creative in finding ways to      Utah Senator Orrin Hatch combined
                                                     participate in field activities. By   forces at an August dedication ceremony
                                                     1998 he was using an all-terrain      to christen the new operation high in the
                                                     vehicle and arm crutches to get       mountains east of Ephraim as the Great
Still going strong a quarter century after he        around in the forest. Two years       Basin Environmental Education Center.
experienced the first symptoms of multiple           later he even went hunting with       The 10 old buildings, some dating back
sclerosis, Research Forester Russ Graham,            a friend in Canada’s Northwest        to the origins of the Intermountain
with Rocky Mountain Station Director Marcia          Territories.                          Station in 1912, would once again hear
Patton-Mallory, briefed Congressman Mark                 After a problem getting           the echoes of youthful voices.
Udall (right) and Pike-San Isabel National
                                                     through Denver International              Years earlier, generations of scien-
Forest Fire Management Officer Ted Moore
at the Manitou Experimental Forest on results
                                                     Airport alone in 2000, Graham         tists and their families lived at Great
of the Hayman Fire Study. Graham led a team          began to use a wheel chair or         Basin, forming the foundation of what
of 60 scientists and resource managers from          a motorized scooter, and he           became the science of range manage-
throughout the U.S. that examined how the            found his independence was            ment. All told, nearly 50 scientists
largest wildfire in Colorado history behaved         restored. He could no longer do       worked at the location, compiling data
and what its effects were on the natural and         some things, but his working          and comparing their research results
social environments.                                 life became even busier. With a       with those of the researchers who
                                                     four-wheeler, he could get into       preceded them. Some 200 publications
                                                     forests for tours, especially at      emerged. Resource managers and re-
His jogging activity slowed, and finally     Priest River where he served as scien-        searchers from around the world came
stopped. He often tripped and experi-        tist-in-charge. He chaired numerous           to study, changing the way people ev-
enced loss of balance. He spent most         committees and spent more time                erywhere viewed rangelands. Globally
of the 1990s learning to adapt to MS,        producing research documents.                 focused scientists found that 80 years of
although his career with the Station was     Graham’s goal was to produce more             data assembled at Great Basin provided
in full swing throughout the decade.         than 200 publications by the time he          a rare source of material for assessing
    As Graham’s strength and balance         retired.                                      effects of global warming (Kingsbury
diminished, he acquired a variety of             “Life can take you through rough          1997).
canes. One was a collapsible model           times,” he said, “but adapting and having         Snow College manages GBEEC.
that fit in a suitcase for traveling. He     a positive attitude can make it all worth-    That arrangement had its beginnings
fashioned another out of sections of         while” (Graham, unpublished paper).           in 1989 with an agreement between
plastic pipe. Its threaded sections could
be changed so he could walk on forest
slopes and sidehills. By the mid 1990s,      The voices of youth
he needed a cane for all activities, and     once again were
had dress canes, party canes, work           heard at Great
canes, and novelty canes. He also had        Basin.
to give up driving vehicles with manual
transmissions, but found sports cars with
automatic transmissions just as much
    Adjustments were more than physi-
cal. “I was no longer able to do the male
thing,” Graham said. “That is lift that
box, cut firewood, or even mow the
lawn. I needed to ask people to lift my
suitcase from the turnstile at the airport

                                                            variety of conservation          created a video tape, which he donated
                                                            organizations wanting to         to the GBEEC. Dr. Price, who lived at
                                                            hold meetings there.             Great Basin as an infant and was a range
                                                               The Station and Snow          aid there in 1953, maintained the family
                                                            College worked together to connection in other ways. He provided
                                                            create a museum in the old       GBEEC with a number of artifacts, pho-
                                                            office and laboratory build- tos, books, and papers from his father,
                                                            ing. The museum featured         and also made financial contributions to
                                                            a restoration of what the        the center (personal communication).
                                                            office probably looked like          The video is a delight for anyone
                                                            during the 1920s, when the       interested in Great Basin history. It
                                                            occupant was Arthur W.           shows CCC men in Bavarian costumes
                                                            Sampson, first Great Basin       dancing with young ladies (probably
                                                            Director.                        from Ephraim) on the tennis court. The
                                                               The museum pro-               cook is seen vigorously ringing the din-
                                                            vided a look at the lives        ner bell that still calls guests to meals.
                                                            of researchers of the            Scientists and their families, dressed in
                                                            past, a slice of Forest          their “Sunday best” are shown at a social
                                                            Service history seen in          gathering, and a few scenes show the
                                                            no other location in the         families using the site as a base camp
                                                            United States (Kingsbury         for hunting expeditions in the late fall,
Veteran Station and Region 4 personnel and friends
turned out at the GBEEC dedication to help Snow             1997). Sampson’s desk is         probably after they had moved their
College and the Forest Service decide what history          on display. In one corner        households to Ogden for the winter. The
should be captured in the museum. Outside the               are skis that a technician       gallery of scientists shown in the 1937
museum building were (top, left to right) Larry             used in the 1930s to reach       film is impressive. Perry Plummer (see
Lassen, Interpretive Specialist Phil Johnson, Public        a nearby creek to measure        “Mr. Plummer’s Opus,” chapter 10)
Information Specialist Dick Pine, Mont Lewis, (bot-         snow. There also is a            lived in the old “Director’s House” at
tom, left to right) Blanche (Mrs. Perry) Plummer,           special vegetation map-          the time. Several of his children are said
Albert Antrei, Jim Blaisdell, and Hap Johnson.              ping instrument called a         to have become expert tennis players
                                                            pantograph. The museum           through hours of practice on the Great
the college and the Forest Service to        proved to be a favorite place for visitors, Basin court (Tippets, interview 2004).
convert the Great Basin buildings into       especially groups of school-age children. Station Director Reed Bailey appears in
an education facility. A formal, greatly     Outside was another favorite place, a           several scenes. Noted Forest Ecologist
expanded, partnership went into effect       trail leading to a weather station, a series George Stewart was present with his
3 years later. It included the college, the  of active beaver ponds, and a tennis            family. Ray Price and his family lived in
Utah Division of State History, Ephraim      court used by Civilian Conservation             the “West House.”
City, Sanpete County, the Intermountain      Corps men for recreation while they                 Price’s scientific achievements
Station, and the Manti-LaSal National        lived in tents and constructed the newer        provide an example of the importance
Forest. There also were informal part-       Great Basin buildings in
ners, including the Society for Range        the 1930s.
Management and the Utah Division of              Visiting groups could
Wildlife Resources, whose researchers        arrange to get a first-hand
at Ephraim had long worked closely           view of life at Great Basin
with scientists at Great Basin. The old      in the 1930s and see some
buildings needed plenty of rehabilita-       legendary range scientists
tion, and work on them went ahead in         as young men with their
tandem with development of the educa-        families. Ray Price started
tion program.                                working at Great Basin in
   Great Basin always was a popular          1931 as a field assistant.
place to visit, and nothing had changed.     He rapidly rose up the
The first small group of students moved      scientific ranks and be-
in and completed course work for col-        came Director of the Great
lege credit before the dedication took       Basin Station by 1935.
place, and even before the new paint         Price made home movies.           Biologist Richard Stevens, Utah Division of Wildlife
                                                                               Resources scientist, tried out Arthur Sampson’s
had dried on the old headquarters. Well      His son, Dr. Richard R.
                                                                               desk and phone in the new museum at the Great
before the site was ready for heavy          Price of Salt Lake City,          Basin Environmental Education Center. Stevens
concentrations of visitors, Snow College edited the old black and              participated for many years in cooperative research
was turning down requests from a             white 8 mm films and              with Station scientists.

of the early work at Great Basin. With      two Stations, spanning the time from
Stewart and R. H. Walker, he authored       1908 until 1975 (Price 1976).
a national Department of Agriculture            At Great Basin, the historic buildings
Bulletin on procedures for reseeding        occupied by Price and his colleagues
intermountain range lands. It appeared      came to the end of their service as
in 1939. Sampson had started pioneer-       Station facilities in 1989. In announcing
ing studies in attempts to correlate        the closure of the facilities, Deputy
plant growth with season, climate, and      Station Director Duane Lloyd said, “In
other variables. With fellow ecologist      the early days researchers needed to live
Edward McCarty, head of the Botany          at the Great Basin Station during sum-
Department at Riverside (California)        mers to gather data. Since then, research
Junior College and a summer employee        programs have changed, and much of
of the Station, Price continued the         our work is conducted in other parts         The End House, built by the Civilian
research and they published results         of the Station territory. Also, scientists   Conservation Corps in 1933, was re-
documenting carbohydrate and growth         today have better transportation, so the     stored to its original appearance for use
characteristics of range plants in 1942.    buildings are not needed for present or      in Great Basin Environmental Education
                                                                                         Center activities.
Part of this work was done in the labora-   anticipated research (INTercom 6/22/89).
tory at Great Basin.                            Regarding the structures, Lloyd said,
    David Costello and Price in 1939        “Unfortunately, these are old buildings
                                            that do not meet health and safety           South House—needed quick attention
published results of long-term studies
                                            standards. It would take a lot of money      so teachers and students could begin
that provided an answer to one of the
                                            (the estimate was $750,000) to make          their environmental studies as soon as
persistent questions of the time: When
                                            the facilities suitable for occupancy, and   possible. The South House, a small Cape
is range ready for early season grazing?
                                            current budgets are better used for con-     Cod building, became a dining hall for
They confirmed several of Sampson’s
                                            ducting active research.” Lloyd voiced       large groups with a kitchen, an upstairs
earlier conclusions, but added a sig-
                                            hopes that a partnership could be formed     dormitory, and handicap-accessible
nificant discovery on the importance of
                                            with an organization able to restore,        bathrooms. Renovation went smoothly
the date of snowmelt to range readiness
                                            preserve, and manage the facilities. That    until Snow College officials proposed
for early grazing (Keck 1972). The
                                            came about perhaps sooner than Lloyd         attaching a large redwood deck to the
scientists found that given a 10-year
                                            envisioned as Snow College became            back, about the same size of the South
average date for snow disappearance and                                                  House itself. Historians urged a smaller,
                                            the lead organization. Renovating the
the current year’s deviation from that                                                   more compatible deck or detached patio.
                                            buildings was not an easy task, but the
date, one can predict with surprising ac-                                                The deck finally went up, with the his-
                                            college was able to use its own crews
curacy the dates when plant growth and                                                   torically minded saying, “Well, at least
                                            for considerable work and was in a
important development will start. This      better position than the Forest Service      it can’t be seen when you’re standing in
and other indicators of range readiness     to arrange for low-cost work by city and     front of the building.”
developed at Great Basin were subject to    county departments.                              Converting the Palmer House
error, but they were great improvements         “The biggest headaches came in try-      from a three-car garage into usable
over rule-of-thumb estimates used previ-    ing to meet Forest Service engineering       lecture space posed the problem of
ously. Before the importance of range       specifications, Federal preservation         how to maintain the exterior door and
readiness to maintaining range health       guidelines, and a tight construction         appearance of a garage while securing
was established, livestock followed the     schedule,” said Steve Peterson, a Snow       the inside of the building against the
receding snowbanks to the top of the        College professor who was the first          weather. This and other problems
Wasatch Plateau, seriously damaging the     director of the new GBEEC (Kingsbury         eventually were solved. As the improved
vegetation.                                 1997).                                       facilities became available, Snow
    Price went on to enjoy success as a         Among the challenges were finding        College was able to grant requests for
research administrator. He moved from       the right paint color for roof shingles,     their use. Up to 1997, gatherings were
Great Basin to the Washington Office,       replacing worn-out fixtures, rewiring,       held at GBEEC by the Utah Division
where he was a Senior Forest Ecologist      insulating, installing new plumbing,         of Wildlife Resources, a six-county
in the Division of Range Research.          and stabilizing the buildings’ main          economic development group, the State
He then was appointed Director of           structural elements. Renovation was one      Board of Education, Forest Supervisors
the Southwestern Station in 1942, and       thing; incorporating some fundamental        of the National Forests in Utah, the Salt
became Director of a greatly enlarged       changes to meet the needs of the site’s      Lake Astronomical Society, Manti High
Rocky Mountain Station in 1953 when         new education purpose was another.           School, the Utah Audubon Council, the
it and the Southwestern Station were            Three main buildings—the Lodge,          Utah Native Plant Society, and many
combined. Price held that position until    the Palmer House (named after a plush        other groups.
he retired in 1971. As a volunteer in       Chicago hotel by summer employees                Research by Station scientists and
retirement he wrote a history of those      who stayed there years earlier), and the     cooperators did not stop at Great Basin,

                                                                Moving heavy logs         and meaning of the research. The infor-
                                                                for exclosures at         mation was authentic. Perry Plummer,
                                                                Great Basin required      one of the leading authorities on re-
                                                                teamwork. Station
                                                                                          search on the experimental range, wrote
                                                                Director Larry Lassen
                                                                                          the text. The guide was produced for the
                                                                (second from left)
                                                                carried his share of      60th anniversary of Great Basin in 1972
                                                                the load.                 (McArthur, personal communication).
                                                                                             Albert Antrei was another authority
                                                                                          on early events at Great Basin. He also
                                                                                          came to be recognized for his work as
                                                                                          an historian in Ephraim and Sanpete
                                                                                          County. Antrei graduated from Colorado
                                                                                          State University in forestry and went
                                                                                          to work at Great Basin in the 1930s.
                                                                                          He fell in love with a Sanpete girl, and
                                                                                          when the Forest Service tried to transfer
only the headquarters buildings changed      standing to keep livestock out. Neither      him against his will he rebelled, married
in name and use. The 4,600 acres of          the Manti-LaSal National Forest nor the      the girl, and started another career as a
experimental range land surrounding          Station had funds to replace the fences.     teacher. He retired as Superintendent of
the building compound included many          So Monsen and Joel Frandsen, president       Schools in nearby Manti. At the GBEEC
active research sites.                       of the Utah Section of the Society for       dedication he commented on the nonsci-
    Some historic sites were saved in        Range Management conspired to rebuild        entific aspects of the presence of Great
1990 when a team of 109 volunteers           the oldest exclosures with volunteer         Basin in Ephraim Canyon:
from the Manti-LaSal National Forest,        forces.
the Society for Range Management, the           After two days of concentrated labor         From the very beginning of the
Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, the     five exclosures stood completed, ready          establishment of the Station it was to
                                                                                             become clear that not all the effects of
Bureau of Land Management, the Soil          to defend the research sites from the
                                                                                             locating a scientific research site near
Conservation Service, Brigham Young          onslaught of thousands of domestic              Ephraim were going to be scientific.
University, and the Station combined         sheep already trailing toward their high        If you have a certain number of
forces at the Great Basin Experimental       summer range (INTercom July/90).                healthy young men on one side of a
Range to preserve some of the oldest            Visitors to Great Basin could learn          forest boundary, and there is an equal
                                                                                             number of healthy young women on
range research sites in the world. The       about some of the more significant
                                                                                             the other, you have the makings of
first exclosures dated back to 1912.         research and the ecology of the area            what has to be acknowledged in casual
    Chain saws roared and the chips flew     without entering a building, or even ven-       gobbledygook, ‘a basic social situation.’
as the volunteers sawed and chopped          turing into the headquarters compound.
the notches to fit logs together into new    A well-signed auto tour up Ephraim              The Station’s young men were all inept at
grazing exclosure fences, replacing old      Canyon introduced the vegetation zones          cooking and bottle-washing, and to take
                                                                                             care of such chores, as well as to perform
structures designed to protect study sites   at different elevations and described
                                                                                             the art of a little mothering-at-large, in
from sheep and cattle. After the heavy       key research sites. A tour guidebook            1936 there was Annie Bartholomew (the
logs fit properly, sledge hammer-swing-      provided additional details of the history      Great Basin cook) to advise the field
ing scientists, college professors, and                                                      technicians on matters of social conduct
engineers pinned them in place with                                                          and who the girls were in Ephraim.
                                                                                             More complete rundowns of such social
huge spikes, using the same primitive
                                                                                             weight were also available from the
skills and tools used to construct the                                                       State’s road grader, Lew Christensen.
original protective barriers 78 years
earlier.                                                                                      Antrei closed his speech at the
    Botanist Steve Monsen, who orga-                                                      GBEEC dedication with a tribute to two
nized the project, described the value of                                                 friends, one who worked there so many
the long-term study data collected over                                                   years he might have been considered
70 years with the aid of the exclosures.                                                  a local citizen, and one who definitely
“What better place to learn about the                                                     was:
potential of vegetation changes resulting
from global climate change?”                                                                 I wish at least two more people were here
    By 1989 the old log-and-block                                                            today to share with us the significance
exclosure fences were so rotten and
                                             Visitors to the Great Basin area were           of this optimistic event. I wish Perry
                                             invited to take a self-guided tour to see       Plummer were here to flavor this
dilapidated it became obvious that           how ecological studies provide valu-            moment, for of all the natural scientists
after one more winter’s snow load            able information for management of              who have contributed to the knowledge
some would not have enough fence left        lands in various elevation zones.               revealed here Perry contributed almost 20

                                                                                             to be done. Volunteers were needed
       A Lifetime of Service                                                                 more than ever before, and they were
Paul Hansen worked at Great Basin full-time and later on a part-time and contract basis
                                                                                             welcomed not only by the Station, but
for 44 years. When he finished his career as an employee, he promptly signed up as a         throughout the Forest Service.
volunteer to continue taking care of the research site he loved.                                 Some asked to help, and some were
                                                                                             asked to help. Some did great things,
Richard Stevens, Wildlife Biologist with the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources,            and some did small things. But all were
worked with Hansen for many years. He said Hansen’s great love was the Great Basin           valuable. Several outstanding examples
Station, and he “did it all” as a tireless worker                                            of volunteer work were noted earlier in
(Stevens 1994). Hansen’s work included opening
                                                                                             this history. This section describes some
and closing the Station in spring and fall, building
catchment basins for the famous watersheds A and
                                                                                             additional activities of volunteers to
B, repairing fences, collecting data, cooking, going                                         provide an idea of what they did and the
to town for supplies, and helping to establish study                                         spirit with which they did it.
plots. Hansen was said to know where every study                                                 Some volunteers came from afar
plot was located, when it was established, where the                                         to help. In 1978, Rigoberto Romero, a
data and maps were stored, and who worked on the                                             native of Honduras, spent 3 months as
study.                                                                                       a volunteer at Boise gathering data on
                                                                                             erosion and sedimentation in the Idaho
Hansen “retired” in 1972. For the next 10 years
he worked full time at Great Basin, 6 to 9 months
                                                                                             Batholith. He applied the knowledge
a year for Utah Wildlife Resources and the rest of                                           on returning to his native land, were
the year as a part-time or contract employee of the                                          he was responsible for directing a
Intermountain Station. His volunteer agreement                                               program of erosion and sedimentation
covering the next 3 years allowed him to open and                                            control on mountain slopes (INTercom
close the Great Basin facilities as he had done most                                         11/9/78). The Station enlisted 12 young
of his adult life and to care for experimental areas                                         men and women in the summer of
without compensation.                                                                        1982 as part of a national program for
Stevens said, “Everyone wanted to work with Paul. If
                                                                                             volunteers in various Forest Service
the assignments for the day were to clean toilets with                                       fields. Two, Bob Rhoads and Melanie
Paul or collect plants with someone else, all of us
                                                            Technician Paul Hansen was       Foran, both from New York State,
young students hoped we could be assigned to work
                                                            tall, strong, ready to work,     were featured in an INTercom article
with Paul.”
                                                            and full of good humor in        (10/28/82). They worked with Bureau
                                                            1936, 8 years after starting
                                                                                             of Land Management personnel in a
                                                            his career at Great Basin and
Great Basin played a part in almost all of Hansen’s
                                                            nearly 40 years before he        cooperative inventory of pinyon-juniper
life. His father worked there as a technician when
                                                            completed it as a volunteer.     woodlands in Utah and Nevada. Dwane
Arthur Sampson was the first director. In 1991, his
granddaughter, assisted by Station Ecologist Susan
                                                                                             Van Hooser, Project Leader for Forest
Meyer, completed a high school science fair project with data collected at Great Basin.      Survey, estimated a cost savings of at
Hansen died in 1993 at 84. He was buried in his 1950s’ Forest Service dress uniform          least $40,000 from their work.
with a juniper stem pinned to his lapel.

    percent of the publications in his 33 years   The Volunteers
    as Director, or Project Leader, of the
    Station. I also wish Paul E. Hansen were
    here. Paul was not a university trained
                                                      Although the large number of
    man; Paul was a graduate of Ephraim
    High School. He opened and closed the         volunteers working on a single project
    Station with the seasons and was the one      when the Great Basin exclosures were
    who came up in the winters to shovel          rejuvenated was unusual, volunteer work
    the tons of snow off the Station roofs,       at the Station was not. From the very
    repair winter breakage, and incidentally
                                                  earliest days when employees donated
    record such winter data as was needed on
    snow depths and snow water contents.          money to help erect the buildings at
    Between Paul and the Station a kind of        Priest River, volunteerism was a part
    special relationship developed, some          of life at the Intermountain Station and
    kind of alpha and omega, beginning            its predecessor organizations. When        Volunteer Brian Parks spent his sum-
    and end. Let me say out loud and just
                                                  research program expansion slowed or       mer vacation helping Station scientists
    for Paul: ‘Everything’s okay, Paul!’                                                     collect data in the Bob Marshall
                                                  stopped and funding started to dry up in
                                                                                             Wilderness. In this case, “tree hugging”
                                                  the 1970s, more than program redirec-      served the purpose of providing a very
                                                  tion and new cooperative approaches        approximate measurement of the diam-
                                                  were required to do the jobs that needed   eter of a large whitebark pine.

   The Station’s work with Regions 1                                                     at little or no cost. That changed slightly
and 4 in designating Research Natural                                                    for a select group in 1994. Mueggler and
Areas was widely acclaimed. Much of                                                      Wyman Schmidt were named the first
the progress was attributed to a huge                                                    Emeritus Scientists at the Intermountain
amount of volunteer work by Chuck                                                        Station (INTercom Oct./94). Mueggler
Wellner, but he was not alone in donat-                                                  had been working for several years in re-
ing considerable time to the RNA cause.                                                  tirement as a volunteer in the Disturbed
“The truth of the matter is, our program                                                 Land Reclamation Project. Schmidt
would be going nowhere if it wasn’t for                                                  had recently retired as Project Leader
the tireless efforts of National Forest                                                  of the Subalpine Silviculture Project at
System volunteers and personnel from                                                     Bozeman and Missoula.
The Nature Conservancy,” said Assistant                                                      The honorary “emeritus” title
Station Director Duane Lloyd (INTercom                                                   was granted at or after retirement to
4/16/87).                                                                                scientists who had given significant
   Volunteers ranged from the very                                                       service and agreed to continue with a
young to seasoned veterans. Among                                                        line of research that would benefit the
the youngest was Tim Murray, whose                                                       Station. Emeritus appointments, usually
mother, Nancy, worked in Operations                                                      for 2 years, enabled retirees to complete
at Station Headquarters. At age 14,                                                      and publish specified research, mentor
Tim had donated 184 hours over two                                                       or advise other scientists, enhance the
summers as a volunteer working in the      Retired Project Leader Walt Mueggler
                                                                                         continuity of long-term studies, and
mailroom and the library and publica-      contributed more than 40,000 hours of         support formal and informal cooperation
tions sections of Research Information.    volunteer time at the Logan Lab.              with other scientists and institutions
He once even helped out in the Federal                                                   outside the Station. The Station agreed
Building snack bar by running the cash                                                   to provide a specified level of funding,
register (INTercom Oct./94). In 1986,         that could be used to regenerate           support services, and office and labora-
the Station had 20 formal volunteer           forests decimated by blister rust.         tory facilities. In special situations, the
agreements with spouses and children of                                                  Station Director could extend the term
                                           • Mont Lewis, who retired as a                of an emeritus agreement. However,
present or former employees (INTercom
                                             range staff officer in Region 4,            many of the scientists stayed on the job
                                             worked every day for a quarter of a         as unpaid volunteers for years after their
   Important volunteer work by veteran
                                             century as a volunteer maintaining          agreements expired.
personnel was carried out in many
                                             the Station herbarium in Ogden                  Individuals in addition to Mueggler
program areas:
                                             or collecting plants in the field           and Schmidt listed as Emeritus
• Ray Boyd continued to                      (Mitchell and others 2005).
  work completing vegetation                                                             Scientists in Station records from the
                                               It would be difficult to choose among     start of the program through 2004 were
  management studies at Moscow
                                           Wellner, Lewis, and Walt Mueggler             Warren Clary, Boise; Jim Clayton,
  for several years after he retired
                                           in any contest to name an all-time            Boise; Jack King, Boise; Jack Lyon,
  as a research silviculturist.
                                           volunteer champion. Fifteen years after       Missoula; Geral McDonald, Moscow;
• Retired after 30 years as an             his official retirement date Mueggler         Jack McIntyre, Boise; Jerry Rehfeldt,
  entomologist, Dave Fellin continued      still worked a few hours most days at         Moscow; Ray Shearer, Missoula; Al
  to work at the Missoula Forestry         the Logan Lab. After “retirement,” he         Stage, Moscow; and Bill Wykoff,
  Sciences Lab, winding up several         authored or coauthored nine publications      Moscow.
  long-standing projects and studies.      and reviewed or edited many manu-
                                           scripts for others. In 2004, the Rocky
• At Provo, Ralph Holmgren, Perry
                                           Mountain Station honored Mueggler for         The Ecosystem Approach
  Plummer, and Neil Frischknecht
                                           contributing more than 40,000 hours           Comes to Lick Creek
  periodically volunteered their time
                                           of volunteer time. Mueggler (personal
  and expertise in range management
                                           communication) said of his volunteer
  research at the Shrub Sciences Lab,
                                           work, “At 78, I am beginning to think            In 1993 the Forest Service was
  Great Basin, the Desert Experimental
                                           seriously about giving it up.” However,       looking for places to start ecosystem
  Range, and the Benmore
                                           a year later he was still on the job.         management and research projects, and
  Experimental Area after they retired.
                                               All volunteers earned the same            Lick Creek was a natural. Changes in
• Following 33 years of service, retiree   pay—none. They could be reimbursed            the 3,500-acre area northwest of Darby,
  Ray Hoff (Moscow) continued to           for travel expenses if their supervisor au-   Montana, had been monitored since
  work as a volunteer identifying          thorized travel as a necessary part of the    1909. An experienced and talented
  disease-resistant whitebark pines        task at hand. Thus the Station often ben-     multi-disciplinary team was available to
  in a program to develop seedlings        efited from the efforts of talented people    develop and demonstrate management

                                                             Research Foresters Clint Carlson (left) and Steve Arno showed
                                                             a group of journalists a cross section of a ponderosa pine from
                                                             the Lick Creek area. The large fire scar at the base of the tree
                                                             revealed a 300-year history of frequent, light surface fires that
                                                             maintained a community of open, park-like timber with a grassy

approaches that would consider a whole,     proposal featuring the Lick Creek area.          The publication was an update of an
natural system, how it functioned and       The plan went to the national office for     earlier report (Gruell and others 1982)
how human activities would affect it and    consideration in a competitive grants        in which the authors concluded that
be influenced by its condition.             program. It was rated the best of many       trends in Lick Creek vegetation were
   Just a year earlier, the team had        proposals, and resulted in funding to        increasing the chances of severe wild-
won a “New Perspectives” award              support the cooperative management-          fires, changing the composition of the
from the Chief of the Forest Service        research program in the Bitterroot           forest from ponderosa pine to Douglas-
for noteworthy performance in land          National Forest that was to continue         fir, and causing declines in wildlife
stewardship and collaboration among         through the balance of Station history       habitat. To reverse these trends, the au-
managers, researchers, and educators.       (Lyon, personal communication).              thors recommended periodic prescribed
The team included members from the              In addition to Lyon and Carlson, key     fires of low intensity in conjunction
Station, University of Montana, and the     Station participants in the planning and     with partial cutting and thinning. To
Bitterroot National Forest. Station per-    early conduct of the program included        evaluate the recommendations, Station
sonnel were from Bozeman, Missoula,         Steve Arno and Mick Harrington of the        and National Forest personnel made
and Moscow. (INTercom May/93). “New         fire effects unit, Wyman Schmidt of the      a series of carefully designed studies
Perspectives” was a fuzzily defined         subalpine silviculture unit, Russ Graham     of various cutting and underburning
Forest Service initiative. Although it      of the silviculture and genetics unit, and   methods applied at different times of
seemed to imply significant change,         retiree Bob Benson. Others joined the        the year and under different moisture
the concept was never fully understood      team later.                                  conditions.
inside or outside the Service, and most         The researchers had a lot of back-           The goal was to determine how best
of the activities consisted of meetings     ground information to work with. The         to return the tree stands to structures that
and attempts at planning that failed to     first timber sale was made at Lick Creek     were sustainable and consistent with
result in concrete action (Lyon, personal   in 1906. It was the first large ponderosa    historical fire occurrence in the Lick
communication). The initiative faded        pine sale in Region 1, and is said to have   Creek area. Results were expected to
away and died about 2 years after it was    been given personal direction by Forest      define cutting methods combined with
launched.                                   Service Chief Gifford Pinchot. Photos        prescribed burning that would maintain
   At the Station, however, “new            were taken in 1909 at 13 points in and       healthy multi-aged stands of ponderosa
perspectives” activities did serve to       near the sale area. The photopoints were     pine and set an example for management
set the stage for a successful move         located and permanently marked in the        of millions of acres of similar forests
into the broad concept of ecosystem         1920s and photos were taken thereafter       elsewhere in the western U.S.
management and research. Wildlife           during each decade. Results of 88 years          The task was not easy. Arno said
research unit Project Leader Jack Lyon      of change were displayed and analyzed        at the time the studies started, “Fuels
and Research Forester Clint Carlson         in a Station publication (Smith and Arno     have accumulated, trees may be
wrote an “ecosystem management”             1999).                                       experiencing growth stagnation related

                                              management goal at Lick Creek was             plan and develop ecosystem manage-
                                              to return the area to conditions that         ment in the 39,400-acre Stevensville
                                              reflected presettlement times (INTercom       West Central Analysis Area of the
                                              August/1993).                                 Bitterroot National Forest. New research
                                                  The studies were so successful in         was started there to determine area-wide
                                              developing information to help under-         habitat needs of fauna such as cavity
                                              stand the consequences of management          nesting owls, small mammals, small
                                              strategies that the original 5-year charter   carnivores, migratory birds, and aquatic
                                              of the Ecosystem Management/Research          organisms. Scientists from the Fire Lab
                                              Demonstration Area project was ex-            started studies to probe deeper into un-
                                              tended several times and expanded into        derstanding fire-dependent plant ecology
                                              new areas of the Bitterroot Forest. Arno      (Intermountain and Rocky Mountain
                                              said he believed small-scale, ecosystem-      Stations 1995).
                                              based projects conducted over several             The Station also added economic
                                              years fit Forest Service capabilities well    analyses and computer modeling to the
                                              and would be acceptable to the public.        research mix. Studies by Station econo-
                                                  “However,” Arno said, “the scale of       mists and colleagues at the University of
                                              treatment needs to be greatly expanded        Montana showed that the combination
                                              to restore and maintain any substantial       of thinning and prescribed fire would
                                              part of the ponderosa pine forest….           add considerably to the value of wood
Research Forester Mick Harrington
                                              There is a real need for large-scale res-     products in the future. The computer
collected samples of duff, twigs, and
vegetation at Lick Creek to monitor           toration treatments, including prescribed     modeling produced a prototype showing
moisture contents at various stages be-       burning.” He cautioned that, because of       managers what was likely to happen to
fore, during, and after burning the area.     excessive stocking of mid-sized trees         vital streamside areas if improvement
The information helped determine the          in ecosystems like Lick Creek, simply         treatments were applied. The public
effects of fire on the vegetation.            returning fire without preparatory tree       communication part of the project
                                              cutting would either be ineffective or too    was carried out through field trips,
to overstocking and lack of sufficient        destructive (Fletcher 1999b).                 workshops, written reports, and informa-
nutrient cycling, and fine roots may              The ecosystem area actitivy expanded      tion on an internet site (Solorzano and
be growing close to the soil surface          in 1995 when Station scientists launched      Kapler Smith 1998).
and thus be vulnerable to fire damage.        an interdisciplinary and multi-functional         A summary of the concepts used in
Invasive non-native plants are estab-         cooperative effort with local partners to     the Bitterroot Ecosystem Management
lished and likely to increase with any                                                      Research Project, ecological changes
disturbance.”                                                                               that had taken place, and some of the
    Despite the problems, the ecosystem-                                                    initial findings was included in a 1996
based management methods applied at                                                         Station publication, The Use of Fire in
Lick Creek produced an array of mostly                                                      Forest Restoration. The document, ed-
positive changes. Some of the negatives,                                                    ited by Colin Hardy and Arno, reported
such as declines in esthetic quality and                                                    on a technical section of the annual
some bird species shortly after the treat-                                                  meeting of the Society for Ecological
ments, were thought to be temporary                                                         Restoration. It quickly became one of
(Fletcher 1999b).                                                                           the top five most-requested research
    All the evidence indicated that before                                                  publications in Station history (Rocky
the 1900s forests in the Lick Creek area                                                    Mountain Research Station 2005).
consisted of open park-like ponderosa                                                           Hardy became Project Leader of the
pine with a grassy understory containing                                                    Station’s fire effects unit. Arno, a prolific
scattered shrubs and occasional thickets                                                    writer on fire effects during his 30-year
of Douglas-fir. The forests were main-                                                      career at the Station, continued to carry
tained by low-intensity, slow-burning                                                       the banner of “restoration forestry” after
wildfires—either caused by lightning or                                                     his retirement. He wrote two books.
ignited by Indians who wanted healthy                                                       The first, Flames in Our Forest with
habitat for the game they hunted. The                                                       Steven Allison-Bunnell, was a look at
fires killed most new, small trees but                                                      the historic role of wildfires in western
                                              Roger Hungerford, research forester
caused little damage to the old-growth        with the fire effects unit, placed a ther-
                                                                                            forests. Mimicking Nature’s Fire, with
ponderosa pine. The absence of fire           mocouple near a bitterbrush plant at          Carl Fiedler, a forestry professor at the
created stands of dense, stagnant trees       Lick Creek. Thermocouples monitored           University of Montana, discussed how
susceptible to insects, disease, and large,   temperatures around and within the            “restoration forestry” could emulate natu-
intense destructive fires. The research-      root crowns of plants during burning.         ral forces to improve forest structures.

The Leopold Wilderness                             In 1999 the five Federal agencies        of new knowledge to management and
                                               established the Interagency Wilderness       policy makers.
Institute                                      Policy Council, composed of senior               Parsons’ appointment reflected the
                                               managers from each agency, to improve        interagency sponsorship of the Institute.
    “The richest values of wilderness lie      coordination and management of the           He had been a research biologist for
not in the days of Daniel Boone, nor           National Wilderness Preservation             more than 20 years with the National
even in the present, but rather in the         System. The Leopold Institute provided       Park Service. If there was any suspicion
future,” said Aldo Leopold, namesake of        support to the council, including brief-     that the Institute would be dominated
                                               ings and updates on research activities.     by the Forest Service, it was dispelled.
the organization established in Missoula
                                               Research representatives of the Forest       Parsons had a broad background in
in 1993 to develop and apply knowledge
                                               Service and Geological Survey serve on       wilderness science, including work
needed to improve management of
                                               the council.                                 on visitor impacts, fire ecology, forest
wilderness and other natural areas for
                                                   The Leopold Institute went through       ecology, and air pollution effects.
the benefit of future generations.
                                               a process of development and matura-         He also had experience coordinating
    The Leopold Institute was formed           tion to become a true interagency unit       interdisciplinary teams of scientists and
from the Station’s Wilderness                  addressing the full breadth of social and    managers, which would prove useful in
Management Research Work Unit,                 natural science issues to provide the ba-    directing an interagency operation.
which had provided national leadership         sis for wilderness stewardship across the        Aldo Leopold was a prime mover
in wilderness research since its forma-        50 States. Director David Parsons said       in the designation of the first Forest
tion in 1967. The Institute occupied the       significant events in the process included   Service wilderness in 1924, and a
building used for many years by Station        stationing a Geological Survey scientist     champion of the national movement to
administrative people in Missoula, next        at the Institute and arranging annual        preserve areas with important natural
door to the Forestry Sciences Lab where        transfers of funds from the Bureau of        qualities regardless of ownership or
the predecessor wilderness unit had been       Land Management and Fish and Wildlife        agency management responsibility. He
housed.                                        Service in 1996 (personal communica-         no doubt would have applauded the
    The old wilderness unit had done           tion). Since then, the Institute added       Leopold Institute’s mission: “To provide
a great deal of cooperative work with          a fire ecologist to the staff and hired a    scientific leadership in developing and
other agencies and organizations and           Research Application Program Leader          using the knowledge needed to sustain
was not limited to research in the local       to focus on the delivery and application     wilderness ecosystems and values.”
area, but the Institute took the concepts
of cooperation and national mission to a
higher and more formal level. A year af-
ter the Chief of the Forest Service signed
the charter authorizing the Institute, an
agreement was signed by the Forest
Service, Bureau of Land Management,
Fish and Wildlife Service, National
Park Service, and National Biological
Survey (later incorporated into the U.S.
Geological Survey) to cooperate in “the
development and implementation of the
Institute.” The five agencies also estab-
lished a Wilderness Steering Committee
to identify research needs, set priorities,
pursue funding, and serve as a liaison
group between the agencies.
    At first, operation of the Institute
was directed by the Washington Office
of the Forest Service with the Station
responsible for administrative sup-                    The Aldo Leopold Institute was dedicated in 1993 in true inter-
port only. In 1996, the Forest Service                 agency fashion. Observing as Dorothy Bradley, Aldo Leopold’s
transferred responsibility for all Institute           step-granddaughter, cut the ribbon in front of the building on the
                                                       University of Montana campus were (left to right) Park Service
operations to the Intermountain Station,
                                                       Rocky Mountain Region Director Robert Baker, Forest Service
and this responsibility passed to the new              Deputy Chief for Research Jerry Sesco, Forest Service Chief Dale
Rocky Mountain Research Station when                   Robertson, Bureau of Land Management Director of Recreation
the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain                   and Wilderness Frank Shnell, and Fish and Wildlife Service
Stations merged the next year.                         Assistant Director for Refuges and Wildlife David Olsen.


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