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					The Roaring Life of the 1920s

Americans confront
changes in society as
women enter new roles
and the mass media gains
a growing audience. The
Harlem Renaissance
signals the flourishing of
African-American culture.

                             Duke Ellington, U.S. musician and
     Chapter 21 Objectives

• Understand such issues as Prohibition,
  the changing role of women, and the
  influence of the Harlem Renaissance.
The Roaring Life of the 1920s

  SECTION 1   Changing Ways of Life

  SECTION 2   The Twenties Woman

  SECTION 3   Education and Popular Culture

  SECTION 4   The Harlem Renaissance

Section 1
Changing Ways of Life
Americans experience cultural conflicts as customs
and values change in the 1920s.

       Chapter 21 Section 1
• Explain how urbanization created a
  new way of life that often clashed with
  the values of traditional rural society.
• Describe the controversy over the role
  of science and religion in American
  education and society in the 1920s.
              7.3 – P:1
• Students must know that although the 1920s are often
  thought of as a care-free boom time, American
  society was divided by the trauma of change and not
  everyone experienced prosperity.
• The social changes were the result of
  industrialization, immigration and urbanization.
• By 1920, more than half of the American population
  lived in cities.
• The increasing emphasis on science and the experiences
  of the war years also contributed to social change.
• The result of these changes was often social conflict
  between traditional American conservatism and
  modern scientific liberalism.

  1       Changing Ways of Life

 Rural and Urban Differences
 The New Urban Scene
 • 1920 census: 51.2% of Americans in communities
   of 2,500 or more
 • 1922–1929, nearly 2 million people leave farms,             Chart
   towns each year
 • Largest cities are New York, Chicago, Philadelphia
   - 65 other cities with 100,000 people or more
 • In 1920s, people caught between rural, urban
   - close ties, hard work, strict morals of small
   - anonymous crowds, moneymaking, pleasure
   seeking of cities
                                                  Continued . . .


               continued   Rural and Urban Differences

           The Prohibition Experiment
           • 18th Amendment launches Prohibition era
             - supported by progressive reformers                            Chart

             - religious groups
             - Anti – Saloon League
             - Women’s Christian Temperance Union
             - rural South, West
             - native born Protestants
           • Prohibition—production, sale, transportation of alcohol illegal
           • Government does not budget enough money to enforce
             the law (understaffed and overwhelmed)
Speakeasies and Bootleggers
• Speakeasies (hidden saloons, nightclubs) become fashionable
• People distill liquor, buy prescription alcohol, sacramental wine
• Bootleggers smuggle alcohol from surrounding countries Continued . . .
                  7.3 – P:5
• As a result of anti-German sentiment and grain shortages
  during the war years, the temperance movement, which had been
  advocating prohibition in order to preserve American culture in
  the face of immigration since the 1830s, was finally successful on
  a national scale.
• The 18th amendment prohibited the sale and distribution of
  alcohol, but not its consumption.
• Compliance was often a matter of class, ethnic background and
  religious affiliation. Soon illegal sources were filling the demand
  and speakeasies proliferated in cities and ethnic communities.
• Neither the federal nor the local governments had the
  manpower to stop this illegal trade or the organized crime that
  grew as a result of the bootlegging business.
• The 21st amendment passed in 1933 repealed the 18th
  amendment and ended prohibition.


 continued   Rural and Urban Differences

 Organized Crime
 • Prohibition contributes to organized crime in     Image
   major cities
 • Al Capone controls Chicago liquor business by
   killing competitors
 • By mid-1920s, only 19% support Prohibition
 • Many liberals, conservatives, immigrants, and
   intellectuals opposed Prohibition on the
   grounds they did not want the government
   meddling in their lives
 • People were tired of sacrificing and wanted to
   enjoy life
 • 18th Amendment in force until 1933; repealed by
   21st Amendment
 • Prohibition was worse than the problem it was
   supposed to fix                                           NEXT
Al Capone


 Science and Religion Clash
 American Fundamentalism
 • Fundamentalism—movement based on literal
   interpretation of Bible
 • Fundamentalists skeptical of some scientific
   discoveries, theories
   - reject theory of evolution
 • Believe all important knowledge can be found in Bible
 • Fundamentalist preachers lead religious revivals in         Image

   South, West
   - Billy Sunday holds emotional meetings
   - Aimee Semple McPherson uses showmanship while
   preaching on radio

                                                  Continued . . .


 continued   Science and Religion Clash
 The Scopes Trial
 • 1925, Tennessee passes law making it a crime to
   teach evolution
 • American Civil Liberties Union backs John T.
   Scopes challenge of law
 • Clarence Darrow, most famous trial lawyer of
   day, defends Scopes,
 • Supports scientific thinking and Darwin's
   theory of evolution
 • Fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan is special
 • Scopes trial—debates evolution, role of science,
   religion in school
 • Belief in the literal interpretation of the Bible
   - national sensation; thousands attend
 • Bryan admits Bible open to interpretation; Scopes
   found guilty – verdict was later overturned                 NEXT
                7.3 – P:6
• Conflict between traditional religious beliefs and science also
  caused anxiety in the 1920s.
• A revival movement at the beginning of the century led to the
  development of religious fundamentalism which believed in
  the literal truth of the Bible.
• Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution challenged that belief.
• The Scopes Trial, also known as the Monkey Trial, was the
  result of a Tennessee state law that forbade the teaching of
  evolution in public schools.
• A young biology teacher purposefully defied the law in order
  to bring a test case, was arrested and defended by the
  American Civil Liberties Union.
• The clash of two famous lawyers, Clarence Darrow for the
  defense and William Jennings Bryan for the state, resolved
• Although the teacher was fined, both sides believed that they
  had won the argument that continues to this day.
           7.3 – P:7
• The conflict between social
  conservatives who advocate conformity
  to a traditional moral code and liberals
  who advocate individual rights took
  place in the 1920s and continues today.
• Students should understand the
  positions of both conservatives and
  liberals in the 1920s.
Section 2
The Twenties Woman
American women pursue new lifestyles and
assume new jobs and different roles in society
during the 1920s.

       Chapter 21 Section 2
• Explain how the image of the flapper
  embodied the changing values and
  attitudes of young women in the 1920s.
• Identify the causes and results of the
  changing roles of women in the 1920s.

                 2       The Twenties Woman

                Young Women Change the Rules
                The Flapper
                • Flapper—emancipated young woman, adopts
                  new fashions, attitudes, bright colors, short
                  dresses, skin toned stockings, kiss proof
                  lipstick, boyish jet black short hair, pumps
                • Many young women want equal status with men,
                  become assertive, rebellious,independent
                • Middle-class men, women begin to see
                  marriage as equal partnership
                  - housework, child-rearing still woman’s job
The Double Standard
•   Elders disapprove new behavior and its promotion by periodicals, ads
•   Casual dating begins to replace formal courtship
•   Smoking and drinking in public, dancing with abandon
•   Women subject to double standard (less sexual freedom than men)
    - must observe stricter standards of behavior                                  NEXT
          7.1 – P:3
• Although the flapper is an icon of the
  1920s and her freedom helped to
  change attitudes towards the role of
  women, most women continued the
  traditional roles as wife and mother.
• This traditional role was reinforced
  by advertising.


 Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work
 New Work Opportunities
 • After war, employers replace female workers
   with men
 • Female college graduates become teachers,
   nurses, librarians
 • Many women become clerical workers as
   demand rises
 • Some become sales clerks, factory workers
 • Few become managers; always paid less than

                                            Continued . . .
                  7.3 – P:2
•   The role of women changed somewhat during the 1920s.
•   Women had taken new jobs while men were fighting, but many
    gave them up as soon as the soldiers returned.
•   Having advocated for suffrage since the Seneca Falls convention of
    1848 and winning it in many states (particularly in the West), women
    finally won the right to vote throughout the United States with the
    passage of the 19th amendment.
•   However, women did not significantly make politics more moral as
    they had promised to do in their campaign for suffrage (Students do not
    generally understand the word suffrage, confusing it with suffering) and
    women most often voted as their husbands did.
•   Women did not win new opportunities in the workplace and
    continued to be concentrated in the few occupations in which they had
    made inroads since the Civil War, as teachers, nurses, telephone
    operators and secretaries.
•   They also continued to be employed as domestic servants, factory
    workers and sweatshop laborers.
•   Working women made less money than their male counterparts.
•   Movement to the cities during the war nurtured new sexual attitudes
    and aroused public anxiety about the decline of moral values.
•   The iconic image of the flapper represented this change but posed
    little threat to the traditional roles of wife and mother.


 continued   Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work

 The Changing Family
 • Birthrate drops partly due to more birth-
   control information
 • Manufactured products, public services give          Image

   homemakers freedom
 • Housewives can focus more on families,
   pastimes, not housework
 • Marriages increasingly based on romantic
   love, companionship
 • Children spend most of day at school,
   organized activities
   - adolescents resist parental control
 • Working-class, college-educated women
   juggle family, work

Section 3
Education and
Popular Culture
The mass media, movies, and spectator sports
play important roles in creating the popular culture
of the 1920s—a culture that many artists and
writers criticize.

       Chapter 21 Section 3
• Describe the popular culture of the
• Explain why the youth dominated
  decade came to be called the Roaring

   3       Education and Popular Culture

  Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture
School Enrollments
• High school population increases dramatically in 1920s due to:
  - prosperity
  - higher standards for industry jobs
• Pre-1920s, high school for college-bound students
  (1 million high school students)
• In 1920s, high schools also offer vocational training
  (4 million high school students)
• Before the 1920’s immigrant children spoke some English
• Public schools prepare immigrant children after 1920 that
  speak no English
• School taxes increase as school costs rise sharply
• The cost doubled from 1913-1920, then costs doubles again
  in the 1920’s (2.7 billion a year by 1926)
                                                  Continued . . .


 continued   Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture

 Expanding News Coverage
 • Mass media shapes mass culture; takes
   advantage of greater literacy
 • By 1914, hundreds of local newspapers replaced
   by national chains
 • 1920s, mass-market magazines thrive;
   Reader’s Digest, Time founded
 Radio Comes of Age
 • Radio is most powerful communications medium
   of 1920s
 • KDKA Pittsburgh – first radio station
 • Networks provide shared national experience
   - can hear news as it happens

         7.2 – P:4
• Students should understand that the
  radio helped to spread appreciation
  for new trends in music such as jazz
  to white audiences and promoted a
  shared national culture.
• The movies portrayed materialism
  and racist themes as seen in the
  popular film “Birth of a Nation” that
  fostered a resurgence of the Ku Klux
  Klan (USHC 7.3).
• Advertising spread the mass consumer


               America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams
               New-Found Leisure Time
               • In 1920s, many people have extra money, leisure
                 time to enjoy it
               • Crowds attend sports events; athletes glorified by
                 mass media
               • Sports heros – Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Gene
                 Tunney, Helen Wills, Gertrude Ederle, and
                 Andrew Foster
Lindbergh’s Flight
• Charles A. Lindbergh makes first solo nonstop flight across
  Atlantic                                                                   Map

• Small-town Minnesotan symbolizes honesty, bravery in age of
• Lindbergh paves the way for other pilots
                                                               Continued . . .


 continued   America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams

 Entertainment and the Arts
 • Silent movies already a national pastime
 • Introduction of sound leads millions to attend
   every week
 • Playwrights, composers break away from
   European traditions (Eugene O’Neill – The Hairy
 • George Gershwin uses jazz to create American
 • Painters portray American realities, dreams
   (Edward Hopper)
 • Georgia O’Keeffe paints intensely colored
   canvases of New York

                                                    Continued . . .
          7.2 – P:3

• Art of the period also reflected the
  conflict between tradition and the
  modern world, challenging the
  dominant realist tradition and
  pioneering in expressionist art forms.
• Students should know the work of
  Georgia O’Keefe.


 continued   America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams

 Writers of the 1920s
 • Sinclair Lewis is first American to win Nobel
   Prize for literature
   - criticizes conformity, materialism
 • F. Scott Fitzgerald reveals negative side of era’s
   gaiety, freedom
 • He coined the term, The Jazz Age to describe
   the ’20’s, and wrote The Great Gatsby
 • Edna St. Vincent Millay celebrates youth,
   independence in her poems
 • Writers soured by American culture, war settle in
   Europe                                               Image
   - called Lost Generation
 • Expatriate Ernest Hemingway introduces
   simple, tough, American style (The Sun Also
   Rises and A Farewell to Arms)                                NEXT
           7.2 – P:2
• Literature of the 1920s reflected a
  rejection of the idealism of the World
  War I era and the narrowmindedness and
  shallowness of life in America as well as a
  questioning of the materialism of the
• The expatriate authors of the Lost
  Generation called American cultural
  values into question.
• Students should know the work of Ernest
  Hemingway, H.L. Mencken, and F. Scott
Section 4
The Harlem Renaissance
African-American ideas, politics, art, literature,
and music flourish in Harlem and elsewhere in the
United States.

       Chapter 21 Section 4
• Identify the causes and results of the
  migration of African American to
  Northern cities in the early 1900s.
• Describe the prolific African American
  artistic activity that became known as
  the Harlem Renaissance.

  4       The Harlem Renaissance

 African-American Voices in the 1920s
 The Move North
 • 1910–1920, Great Migration of thousands of
   African Americans
   - move from South to Northern cities
 • By 1920, over 40% of African Americans live in cities
 • Racial tensions escalate in North; about 25 urban
   race riots in 1919
 • African-Americans continue to migrate in large               Chart
   numbers in 1920s

                                                   Continued . . .


 continued   African-American Voices in the 1920s

 African-American Goals
 • National Association for the Advancement of
   Colored People (NAACP)
   - peaceful protests against racial violence
 • NAACP leader James Weldon Johnson fights for     Image

   civil rights legislation with W. E. B DuBois
 • NAACP antilynching campaign leads to drop in
   number of lynchings
 Marcus Garvey and the UNIA
 • Marcus Garvey founds Universal Negro
   Improvement Association (UNIA)
   - believes African Americans should build
   separate society
 • Garvey promotes black pride, black businesses,
   return to Africa


 The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York
 African-American Writers
 • Harlem world’s largest black urban area; people
   from U.S., Caribbean
 • Harlem Renaissance—African-American literary,
   artistic movement
   - express pride in African-American experience
 • Claude McKay’s poems urge blacks to resist
   prejudice, discrimination
 • Langston Hughes’s poems describe difficult
   lives of working class
   - many written in jazz, blues tempo
 • Zora Neale Hurston writes novels that show
   folkways, values of poor, Southern blacks

                                                Continued . . .
            7.2 – P:1
• The migration of African Americans to segregated
  neighborhoods in the cities of the north and
  Midwest brought about a cultural renaissance.
• The Harlem Renaissance brought recognition and
  pride to black artists, particularly musicians, but
  further pointed out their second class citizenship.
• Students should have a good understanding of how
  movement to cities and concentrations of groups
  helped to lead to a renaissance from their
  understanding of the European Renaissance in 7th
  grade and their study of the Southern Literary
  Renaissance in the 8th grade.
• Writers of the Harlem Renaissance [such as James
  Weldon Johnson and Langston Hughes],
  celebrated ties to African cultural traditions and
  black pride and questioned the position of African
  Americans in American life.
Harlem Renaissance


 continued   The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York

 African-American Performers
 • Influence, popularity of Harlem Renaissance go
   beyond black audience
 • Musical comedy Shuffle Along launches movement
   - is popular with white audiences
 • African-American performers win large followings
 • Paul Robeson—major dramatic actor in London,                   Image
   New York

                                                     Continued . . .


 continued   The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York

 African Americans and Jazz
 • Jazz born in early 20th century New Orleans, spreads across U.S.
 • Trumpeter Louis Armstrong makes personal expression key
   part of jazz                                             Image
   - most influential musician in jazz history
   - Known for his astounding sense of rythum and ability to
 • Edward Kennedy ―Duke‖ Ellington—jazz pianist, orchestra
   - one of America’s greatest composers
 • Cab Calloway, Armstrong popularize scat (improvised jazz
 • Bessie Smith—blues singer, perhaps best vocalist of decade
 • In 1927 she became the highest paid African American artist in
   the world
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