The Roaring Life of the 1920s Americans confront changes in society as women enter new roles and the mass media gains a growing audience. The Harlem Renaissance signals the flourishing of African-American culture. Duke Ellington, U.S. musician and composer. NEXT Chapter 21 Objectives • Understand such issues as Prohibition, the changing role of women, and the influence of the Harlem Renaissance. The Roaring Life of the 1920s SECTION 1 Changing Ways of Life SECTION 2 The Twenties Woman SECTION 3 Education and Popular Culture SECTION 4 The Harlem Renaissance NEXT Section 1 Changing Ways of Life Americans experience cultural conflicts as customs and values change in the 1920s. NEXT Chapter 21 Section 1 Objectives • Explain how urbanization created a new way of life that often clashed with the values of traditional rural society. • Describe the controversy over the role of science and religion in American education and society in the 1920s. 7.3 – P:1 • Students must know that although the 1920s are often thought of as a care-free boom time, American society was divided by the trauma of change and not everyone experienced prosperity. • The social changes were the result of industrialization, immigration and urbanization. • By 1920, more than half of the American population lived in cities. • The increasing emphasis on science and the experiences of the war years also contributed to social change. • The result of these changes was often social conflict between traditional American conservatism and modern scientific liberalism. SECTION 1 Changing Ways of Life Rural and Urban Differences The New Urban Scene • 1920 census: 51.2% of Americans in communities of 2,500 or more • 1922–1929, nearly 2 million people leave farms, Chart towns each year • Largest cities are New York, Chicago, Philadelphia - 65 other cities with 100,000 people or more • In 1920s, people caught between rural, urban cultures - close ties, hard work, strict morals of small towns - anonymous crowds, moneymaking, pleasure seeking of cities Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued Rural and Urban Differences The Prohibition Experiment • 18th Amendment launches Prohibition era - supported by progressive reformers Chart - religious groups - Anti – Saloon League - Women’s Christian Temperance Union - rural South, West - native born Protestants • Prohibition—production, sale, transportation of alcohol illegal • Government does not budget enough money to enforce the law (understaffed and overwhelmed) Speakeasies and Bootleggers • Speakeasies (hidden saloons, nightclubs) become fashionable • People distill liquor, buy prescription alcohol, sacramental wine • Bootleggers smuggle alcohol from surrounding countries Continued . . . NEXT 7.3 – P:5 • As a result of anti-German sentiment and grain shortages during the war years, the temperance movement, which had been advocating prohibition in order to preserve American culture in the face of immigration since the 1830s, was finally successful on a national scale. • The 18th amendment prohibited the sale and distribution of alcohol, but not its consumption. • Compliance was often a matter of class, ethnic background and religious affiliation. Soon illegal sources were filling the demand and speakeasies proliferated in cities and ethnic communities. • Neither the federal nor the local governments had the manpower to stop this illegal trade or the organized crime that grew as a result of the bootlegging business. • The 21st amendment passed in 1933 repealed the 18th amendment and ended prohibition. Prohibition SECTION 1 continued Rural and Urban Differences Organized Crime • Prohibition contributes to organized crime in Image major cities • Al Capone controls Chicago liquor business by killing competitors • By mid-1920s, only 19% support Prohibition • Many liberals, conservatives, immigrants, and intellectuals opposed Prohibition on the grounds they did not want the government meddling in their lives • People were tired of sacrificing and wanted to enjoy life • 18th Amendment in force until 1933; repealed by 21st Amendment • Prohibition was worse than the problem it was supposed to fix NEXT Al Capone SECTION 1 Science and Religion Clash American Fundamentalism • Fundamentalism—movement based on literal interpretation of Bible • Fundamentalists skeptical of some scientific discoveries, theories - reject theory of evolution • Believe all important knowledge can be found in Bible • Fundamentalist preachers lead religious revivals in Image South, West - Billy Sunday holds emotional meetings - Aimee Semple McPherson uses showmanship while preaching on radio Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued Science and Religion Clash The Scopes Trial • 1925, Tennessee passes law making it a crime to teach evolution • American Civil Liberties Union backs John T. Scopes challenge of law • Clarence Darrow, most famous trial lawyer of day, defends Scopes, • Supports scientific thinking and Darwin's theory of evolution • Fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan is special Image prosecutor • Scopes trial—debates evolution, role of science, religion in school • Belief in the literal interpretation of the Bible - national sensation; thousands attend • Bryan admits Bible open to interpretation; Scopes found guilty – verdict was later overturned NEXT 7.3 – P:6 • Conflict between traditional religious beliefs and science also caused anxiety in the 1920s. • A revival movement at the beginning of the century led to the development of religious fundamentalism which believed in the literal truth of the Bible. • Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution challenged that belief. • The Scopes Trial, also known as the Monkey Trial, was the result of a Tennessee state law that forbade the teaching of evolution in public schools. • A young biology teacher purposefully defied the law in order to bring a test case, was arrested and defended by the American Civil Liberties Union. • The clash of two famous lawyers, Clarence Darrow for the defense and William Jennings Bryan for the state, resolved nothing. • Although the teacher was fined, both sides believed that they had won the argument that continues to this day. 7.3 – P:7 • The conflict between social conservatives who advocate conformity to a traditional moral code and liberals who advocate individual rights took place in the 1920s and continues today. • Students should understand the positions of both conservatives and liberals in the 1920s. Section 2 The Twenties Woman American women pursue new lifestyles and assume new jobs and different roles in society during the 1920s. NEXT Chapter 21 Section 2 Objectives • Explain how the image of the flapper embodied the changing values and attitudes of young women in the 1920s. • Identify the causes and results of the changing roles of women in the 1920s. SECTION 2 The Twenties Woman Young Women Change the Rules The Flapper • Flapper—emancipated young woman, adopts Image new fashions, attitudes, bright colors, short dresses, skin toned stockings, kiss proof lipstick, boyish jet black short hair, pumps • Many young women want equal status with men, become assertive, rebellious,independent • Middle-class men, women begin to see marriage as equal partnership - housework, child-rearing still woman’s job The Double Standard • Elders disapprove new behavior and its promotion by periodicals, ads • Casual dating begins to replace formal courtship • Smoking and drinking in public, dancing with abandon • Women subject to double standard (less sexual freedom than men) - must observe stricter standards of behavior NEXT 7.1 – P:3 • Although the flapper is an icon of the 1920s and her freedom helped to change attitudes towards the role of women, most women continued the traditional roles as wife and mother. • This traditional role was reinforced by advertising. SECTION 2 Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work New Work Opportunities • After war, employers replace female workers with men • Female college graduates become teachers, nurses, librarians • Many women become clerical workers as demand rises • Some become sales clerks, factory workers • Few become managers; always paid less than men Continued . . . NEXT 7.3 – P:2 • The role of women changed somewhat during the 1920s. • Women had taken new jobs while men were fighting, but many gave them up as soon as the soldiers returned. • Having advocated for suffrage since the Seneca Falls convention of 1848 and winning it in many states (particularly in the West), women finally won the right to vote throughout the United States with the passage of the 19th amendment. • However, women did not significantly make politics more moral as they had promised to do in their campaign for suffrage (Students do not generally understand the word suffrage, confusing it with suffering) and women most often voted as their husbands did. • Women did not win new opportunities in the workplace and continued to be concentrated in the few occupations in which they had made inroads since the Civil War, as teachers, nurses, telephone operators and secretaries. • They also continued to be employed as domestic servants, factory workers and sweatshop laborers. • Working women made less money than their male counterparts. • Movement to the cities during the war nurtured new sexual attitudes and aroused public anxiety about the decline of moral values. • The iconic image of the flapper represented this change but posed little threat to the traditional roles of wife and mother. SECTION 2 continued Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work The Changing Family • Birthrate drops partly due to more birth- control information • Manufactured products, public services give Image homemakers freedom • Housewives can focus more on families, pastimes, not housework • Marriages increasingly based on romantic love, companionship • Children spend most of day at school, organized activities - adolescents resist parental control • Working-class, college-educated women juggle family, work NEXT Section 3 Education and Popular Culture The mass media, movies, and spectator sports play important roles in creating the popular culture of the 1920s—a culture that many artists and writers criticize. NEXT Chapter 21 Section 3 Objectives • Describe the popular culture of the 1920s. • Explain why the youth dominated decade came to be called the Roaring Twenties. SECTION 3 Education and Popular Culture Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture School Enrollments • High school population increases dramatically in 1920s due to: - prosperity - higher standards for industry jobs • Pre-1920s, high school for college-bound students (1 million high school students) • In 1920s, high schools also offer vocational training (4 million high school students) • Before the 1920’s immigrant children spoke some English • Public schools prepare immigrant children after 1920 that speak no English • School taxes increase as school costs rise sharply • The cost doubled from 1913-1920, then costs doubles again in the 1920’s (2.7 billion a year by 1926) Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture Expanding News Coverage • Mass media shapes mass culture; takes advantage of greater literacy • By 1914, hundreds of local newspapers replaced by national chains • 1920s, mass-market magazines thrive; Reader’s Digest, Time founded Radio Comes of Age • Radio is most powerful communications medium of 1920s • KDKA Pittsburgh – first radio station • Networks provide shared national experience - can hear news as it happens NEXT 7.2 – P:4 • Students should understand that the radio helped to spread appreciation for new trends in music such as jazz to white audiences and promoted a shared national culture. • The movies portrayed materialism and racist themes as seen in the popular film “Birth of a Nation” that fostered a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan (USHC 7.3). • Advertising spread the mass consumer culture. SECTION 3 America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams New-Found Leisure Time • In 1920s, many people have extra money, leisure time to enjoy it • Crowds attend sports events; athletes glorified by mass media • Sports heros – Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Gene Tunney, Helen Wills, Gertrude Ederle, and Andrew Foster Lindbergh’s Flight • Charles A. Lindbergh makes first solo nonstop flight across Atlantic Map • Small-town Minnesotan symbolizes honesty, bravery in age of excess • Lindbergh paves the way for other pilots Continued . . . NEXT Lindberg SECTION 3 continued America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams Entertainment and the Arts • Silent movies already a national pastime • Introduction of sound leads millions to attend every week • Playwrights, composers break away from European traditions (Eugene O’Neill – The Hairy Ape) • George Gershwin uses jazz to create American music • Painters portray American realities, dreams (Edward Hopper) • Georgia O’Keeffe paints intensely colored canvases of New York Continued . . . NEXT 7.2 – P:3 • Art of the period also reflected the conflict between tradition and the modern world, challenging the dominant realist tradition and pioneering in expressionist art forms. • Students should know the work of Georgia O’Keefe. SECTION 3 continued America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams Writers of the 1920s • Sinclair Lewis is first American to win Nobel Prize for literature - criticizes conformity, materialism • F. Scott Fitzgerald reveals negative side of era’s gaiety, freedom • He coined the term, The Jazz Age to describe the ’20’s, and wrote The Great Gatsby • Edna St. Vincent Millay celebrates youth, independence in her poems • Writers soured by American culture, war settle in Europe Image - called Lost Generation • Expatriate Ernest Hemingway introduces simple, tough, American style (The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms) NEXT 7.2 – P:2 • Literature of the 1920s reflected a rejection of the idealism of the World War I era and the narrowmindedness and shallowness of life in America as well as a questioning of the materialism of the 1920s. • The expatriate authors of the Lost Generation called American cultural values into question. • Students should know the work of Ernest Hemingway, H.L. Mencken, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Section 4 The Harlem Renaissance African-American ideas, politics, art, literature, and music flourish in Harlem and elsewhere in the United States. NEXT Chapter 21 Section 4 Objectives • Identify the causes and results of the migration of African American to Northern cities in the early 1900s. • Describe the prolific African American artistic activity that became known as the Harlem Renaissance. SECTION 4 The Harlem Renaissance African-American Voices in the 1920s The Move North • 1910–1920, Great Migration of thousands of African Americans - move from South to Northern cities • By 1920, over 40% of African Americans live in cities • Racial tensions escalate in North; about 25 urban race riots in 1919 • African-Americans continue to migrate in large Chart numbers in 1920s Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 4 continued African-American Voices in the 1920s African-American Goals • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) - peaceful protests against racial violence • NAACP leader James Weldon Johnson fights for Image civil rights legislation with W. E. B DuBois • NAACP antilynching campaign leads to drop in number of lynchings Marcus Garvey and the UNIA • Marcus Garvey founds Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) - believes African Americans should build separate society • Garvey promotes black pride, black businesses, return to Africa NEXT SECTION 4 The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York African-American Writers • Harlem world’s largest black urban area; people from U.S., Caribbean • Harlem Renaissance—African-American literary, artistic movement - express pride in African-American experience • Claude McKay’s poems urge blacks to resist prejudice, discrimination • Langston Hughes’s poems describe difficult lives of working class - many written in jazz, blues tempo • Zora Neale Hurston writes novels that show folkways, values of poor, Southern blacks Continued . . . NEXT 7.2 – P:1 • The migration of African Americans to segregated neighborhoods in the cities of the north and Midwest brought about a cultural renaissance. • The Harlem Renaissance brought recognition and pride to black artists, particularly musicians, but further pointed out their second class citizenship. • Students should have a good understanding of how movement to cities and concentrations of groups helped to lead to a renaissance from their understanding of the European Renaissance in 7th grade and their study of the Southern Literary Renaissance in the 8th grade. • Writers of the Harlem Renaissance [such as James Weldon Johnson and Langston Hughes], celebrated ties to African cultural traditions and black pride and questioned the position of African Americans in American life. Harlem Renaissance SECTION 4 continued The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York African-American Performers • Influence, popularity of Harlem Renaissance go beyond black audience • Musical comedy Shuffle Along launches movement - is popular with white audiences • African-American performers win large followings • Paul Robeson—major dramatic actor in London, Image New York Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 4 continued The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York African Americans and Jazz • Jazz born in early 20th century New Orleans, spreads across U.S. • Trumpeter Louis Armstrong makes personal expression key part of jazz Image - most influential musician in jazz history - Known for his astounding sense of rythum and ability to improvise • Edward Kennedy ―Duke‖ Ellington—jazz pianist, orchestra leader - one of America’s greatest composers • Cab Calloway, Armstrong popularize scat (improvised jazz singing) • Bessie Smith—blues singer, perhaps best vocalist of decade • In 1927 she became the highest paid African American artist in the world NEXT Jazz This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.