Biology 242 – Lab: Lab Practical Exam #2 TOPIC REVIEW SHEET I. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A. Identify Larynx, Trachea, 1º Bronchi, and Lungs in a Cat; Larynx, Trachea, 1º , 2º, 3º Bronchi on the Torso models; entire Bronchial Tree on a Diagram; all structures on the Larynx Model. B. Understand how to work Spirometry problems (given certain values, know the equations to solve for others.) C. Know how to reason out a patient’s Acid-Base Balance Status when given: Blood pH; pCO2, [HCO3-] (Three words: ▪ Compensated/Uncompensated; ▪ Respiratory/Metabolic; ▪ Acidosis/Alkalosis…unless the example were to be BOTH respiratory (or metabolic) acidosis (or alkalosis). D. Review what a Spirometer is: an instrument used to measure different volumes of air involved in breathing and Spirometry Exercises: Direct measurement of 1) TV (Tidal Volume): amount of air exhaled (or inhaled) during normal, quiet breathing. 2) ERV (Expiratory Reserve Volume): amount of air that can be forcibly breathed out after normal expiration. 3) IRV (Inspiratory Reserve Volme): amount of air which can inhaled following normal TV inhalation. 4) VC (Vital Capacity): maximum amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled immediately following a maximal inhalation. (Remember: VC = TV + IRV + ERV) 5) In addition to the direct measurements described above, you should be able to calculate four other measurements of lung capacity: a) RV (Residual Volume), b) FRC (Functional Residual Capacity), c) IC (Inspiratory Capacity), and d) TLC (Total Lung Capacity). a) RV: Remember, the lungs are NEVER completely emptied, always containing ≈ 1,200 ml (adults). Obviously, this measurement cannot be obtained by conventional spirometry. b) FRC: This is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after normal exhalation (FRC = ERV + RV) c) IC: The amount of air which can be inhaled after normal expiration (IC = TV + IRV) d) TLC: This is the amount of air contained in the lungs after a maximal inhalation (TLC=TV+IRV+ERV+RV) E. Know Respiratory System Terminology: Exhale/Expiration/Exhalation; Inhale/Inspiration/Inhalation; Spirometer/Spirometry; 4 Volumes (TV, IRV, ERV, RV); 4 Capacities (IC, VC, FRC, TLC) F. Be able to draw (or schematically represent) a Spirogram showing the four divisions of the respiratory air; and their relationship to the four capacities. (Refer to Fig. 23.17, P. 869 of the Tortora text) II. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Digestive System ANATOMY: A. Review all parts of the GI Tract, Accessory Organs of Digestion*, and the associated Mesenteries. *Accessory digestive structures: Teeth, Tongue, Salivary glands-3 major pairs, Liver, (cystic) Gall Bladder, Pancreas B. Be able to ID each of the above in situ in the cat C. Be able to ID each of the above on a Torso Model or on any given individual model D. Be able to interpret structures or parts of structures on a diagram E. Refer, again, to the midsagittal plane (hemisection view) Diagram of the Mesenteries F. Know all portions of the “Biliary Tree”: Hepatocytes → Bile canaliculi → Bile Ductules → Bile Ducts → larger and larger Bile Ducts → Right + Left Hepatic Ducts which merge to form the Common Hepatic Duct which, in turn, joins with the Cystic Duct (from the (cystic) Gall Bladder) to form the Common Bile Duct. G. The Common Bile Duct joins with the Main Pancreatic Duct (aka Duct of Wirsung) to form a dilated structure known as the Hepatopancreatic Ampulla which opens onto an elevation of the duodenal mu- cosa called the Major Duodenal Papilla. The opening of this Hepatopancreatic Ampulla is regulated by the action of the Hepatopancreatic Sphincter (aka Sphincter of Oddi) H. As per the Homework Assignment, know to recognize/label ALL PARTS of a Liver Lobule Diagram. I. As before, you are responsible for identifying the following Veins: Hepatic Portal Venous System includ- Ing “SSPIG”: Splenic V, Superior Mesenteric V, Pancreatic V, Inferior Mesenteric V and Gastric V which flow together (the Splenic and Superior Mesenteric are the two that are the easiest to see) to form the very large Hepatic Portal Vein which enters the Liver at the porta hepatis. J. Be able to ID the Azygous V (only on the R) and the Hemiazygous V (only on the L) – these drain venous blood from the posterior of the thoracic body wall and ultimately drain into the SVC. K. Know the “layers” of the GI Tract: Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, and Serosa and the modifications (both microscopic and gross) of each of these layers in the various regions, ie: Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine (aka Colon), etc.) For example: What are rugae, haustra, epiploic appendages, etc. Biology 251 – Lab: Lab Practical Exam #2 TOPIC REVIEW SHEET – continued Page Two Digestive System PHYSIOLOGY: A. Digestive Chemistry Experiments 1. Carbohydrate Properties and Tests 2. Protein Properties and Tests 3. Lipid Properties and Tests Refer to your Digestive Chemistry Tests Summary Sheet for details about each of the individual ex- periments that were performed. As per the Summary Sheet, know the name of the test (ie, its reagent); the substrate for each test; the enzyme(s) involved – if any; and what a “positive result” for each ex- periment “looked like”. Be able to explain WHY a result would be positive (or negative.) B. What are the functions of gastric rugae; intestinal circular folds, villi and microvilli, the Pyloric Sphinc- ter; the ileoceal sphincter; the submucosal plexus (or plexus of Meissner) and the myenteric plexus (or plexus of Auerbach); what is chyme? And at what pH’s do the various digestive enzyme’s work best?