2nd Semester Final Review 1. Describe in detail the structure of DNA. 2. Describe why DNA and its behavior are such an important component of life. 3. What is Transcription? Describe what happens in detail. 4. What is Translation? Describe what happens in detail. 5. Describe who discovered DNA was the material that makes “genes”. 6. What are alleles and how do they affect the genotype and phenotype of an organism? 7. Describe what meiosis accomplishes. 8. Why are gametes important? 9. Describe the difference between Dominance, Co-dominance and Incomplete Dominance. 10. What is a Polygenic trait? 11. What are Sex-linked or x-linked traits and how do they affect the genotype and phenotype of different humans. 12. What is a genetic disorder and what causes them? 13. What is biotechnology and why is it important? 14. What is a Polymerase Chain Reaction? What current biotechnology uses this technique? 15. Describe what Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are, how they are produced, and how they affect your food supply on a daily basis. 16. What are bioethics and indicate some current scientific issues that fall into this category. 17. Who was Charles Darwin and what was his background? 18. What is natural selection and why is it important? 19. How do adaptations take place and why are they important? 20. Describe how mutations produce the processes of adaptation and evolution. 21. What is fitness and what is the true scientific meaning of “Survival of the Fittest”? 22. Describe how selective pressures affect a population of any species. 23. What is speciation and what is required for it to take place? 24. Describe Taxonomy and its origins. 25. How is the current biological taxonomic naming system organized? 26. What are the seven classic Linnaean taxa that are still used to classify organisms? 27. Describe why the current model of biological domains and kingdoms could change. 28. Describe the Prokaryotic domains of life. 29. Describe the organization of the eukaryotic domain of life. 30. How is the Kingdom protista organized and what are their characteristics? 31. What are Fungi and what are their characteristics? 32. Describe the ancestry of plant species. 33. Describe important events in land plant adaptation. 34. What reproductive strategies do most plants use and why are they more successful? 35. What are animals and why are they different than the other eukaryotic kingdoms? 36. Describe in detail the important characteristics of each major group found in the different invertebrate phyla of the animal Kingdom. 37. Describe how the vertebrate animals are alike and their important characteristics. 38. What are the major biological classes found in the vertebrate phylum? 39. Describe important adaptations in each of the classes found in the vertebrates.