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The Blueprint of Music
          Why do we have form?
   Form is a way to organize music in a way that
    makes more sense to the performer and the
   Form is a key part in helping with
    communicating music.
Types of Forms in Music
 There are many different types of forms in
 music – some range from relatively simple
 to incredibly complex.
 The forms we will discuss are: binary (AB),
 ternary (ABA), canon, round, theme and
 variation, fugue, rondo, and sonata allegro.
 Overall structures (larger forms) include:
 symphony, concerto, sonata, and suite.
             Binary Form (AB)
   Binary Form or AB form is the MOST used
    form in all pop, rock, country, and some rap
   Prefix bi- means TWO – so Binary Form is
    any song that has two main parts.
   Music on the radio is mostly binary because
    those two parts are:
    verse and chorus
       Ternary Form (ABA)
 Ternary    Form or ABA form is a form
  that has 3 distinct parts.
 The “A” section returns at the end in
  its entirety to form the ABA
 Think of it like a sandwich with the
  first slice of bread being A,
  meat/cheese being B and the bread
  returns again with A.
 A canon and round are essentially the
  same thing.
 To perform a canon/round, one group of
  musicians will begin playing at the
  beginning of a piece and once they reach
  a certain spot, another group begins at the
 Ex. Row Row Row Your Boat
         Theme and Variation
• Theme and variation is one of the easiest forms
  to recognize when you hear it.
• First, a theme is played – then as the piece
  progresses, that same theme continues to be
  played, but the composer changes it slightly
  (perhaps adding more notes, taking away notes,
  changing harmonies) to create variations.
• Each variation of that theme is usually separated
  into a section all its own (meaning there are
  usually moments of silence between each
   The fugue is one of the more complex forms in music,
    but they can also be relatively simple.
   In a fugue, there is a main theme/melody called a
    “subject.” A fugue begins with just ONE voice playing or
    singing that subject.
   The one voice plays all the way through the subject and
    once it is finished, another voice enters playing the
    subject again while the original voice plays harmonic
   Once that second voice finishes the subject, another
    voice enters at the beginning of the subject.
   The piece continues on with different voices trading
    around the subject until it finally ends with one last
    statement of the subject.

 Rondo form is quite simply a form where
  a section keeps coming back.
 A common layout for rondo form is
  ABACA – the “A” section is stated at the
  beginning then comes back two more
  times exactly the same as before. The
  two middle sections (“B” and “C”) are not
  only different from A, but also different
  from each other.
           Sonata Allegro Form
   Sonata allegro form is a more in-depth version
    of Ternary Form (ABA)
   Sonata allegro form has 3 main sections (ABA)
    but each of those sections has a specific name.
   The first “A” (A1) is called the “exposition”
   “B” is called the “development”
   Second “A” (A2) is called the “recapitulation”
   Each section has a specific purpose/job
     Sonata Allegro Form Cont…
   The Exposition states the two main themes of
    the piece of music.
   The Development takes those two themes and
    (similar to the variations from theme and
    variations) changes them to create new material
    that sounds different but recognizable at the
    same time.
   The Recapitulation restates the two main
    themes from the Exposition almost exactly the
    same way they were heard before in the
     Sonata Allegro Form contd.
   Sonata allegro form is the most used and
    frequently seen form in classical music.
   It is used as parts of symphonies, concertos,
    sonatas, and on its own as well.
   Composers such as Mozart and Haydn made this
    form very popular and later Beethoven
    revolutionized the form making it his own.
              Larger Forms
Symphony – a large orchestral work usually made up of
4 movements.
1st Movement is Fast and usually in “sonata allegro”
2nd Movement is slow/lyrical
3rd Movement is dance-like
4th Movement is either very fast and brilliant or very
dramatic and heroic.
Symphonies are one of the major forms used by
composers: most classical composers composed at least
ONE symphony – some composers such as Haydn
wrote over 100 in their lifetime.
A  concerto is a specific form written for a
  solo instrument with an orchestra
 The concerto has 3 movements usually
  following a format of Fast, Slow, Fast.
 The first movement of a concerto is also
  normally in “sonata allegro” form.
   A sonata (not “sonata allegro form”) is a
    piece of music written for a solo instrument
    to play by itself (with no one else except
    maybe a piano).
   A sonata has 3 movements just like a
    concerto usually following the format of
    Fast, Slow, Fast.
   The first movement of a sonata (just like a
    concerto and symphony) usually uses the
    “sonata allegro” form.
A suite is usually a collection of 5
short pieces (usually dances).
They vary in tempo from movement
to movement but usually start Fast
and end Fast.

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