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ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN APPLIANCES

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN APPLIANCES Powered By Docstoc
					     ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN
         APPLIANCES
Energy-efficient appliances typically cost more than than
less efficient models.
Look for Energy Stars label.
Use appliances during off-peak hours:
       winter – peak generating costs 4:00 – 8:00 pm
       summer – peak generating costs 11:00 am – 8:00 pm
OVENS AND RANGES
         Gas – 60 % loss in energy,
          but heat is distributed more
          evenly.
         Electric – 40 % loss in
          energy.
         Ovens that cycle on/off are
          more efficient.
         Self-cleaning ovens have
          more insulation and retains
          heat very well. Self-clean
          uses a LOT of energy and
          should only be used during
          off-peak hours.
Comparison table of the energy costs
of cooking the same meal by several
              methods
            Appliance               Temperatu              Time         Energy     Cos
                                       re                                           t*
         Electric oven                   350ºF              1 hr.       2.0 kWh    16¢
         Convection                      325ºF              45          1.39 kWh   11¢
         Oven                                               min.
         Gas oven                        350ºF              1 hr.        0.112     7¢
                                                                         therm
         Cooktop/frying                  420ºF              1 hr.       0.9 kWh    7¢
         pan
         Toaster oven                    425ºF              50           0.095     8¢
                                                            min.         kWh
         Crockpot                        200ºF             7 hrs.       0.7 kWh    6¢
         Microwave                      "High"              15          0.36 kWh   3¢
         oven                                               min.
         *Cost assumes 8¢/kWh for electricity and 60¢/therm for gas
         (Source: ACEEE, Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, 1999)
                  CLOTHES WASHERS
 A considerable amount of hot water is used for washing clothes.
    Choose a machine that uses the fewest gallons of water per
    pound of clothes and one with H,M & L settings for water level
    control.
   Pre-soak heavily soiled clothes.
   Use appropriate volume of water for load.
   Use less detergent than recommended.
   Use a low-warm water temperature for washing and cold cycle
    for rinsing.
   Use during off-peak hours.
   Follow maintenance instructions and clean regularly.
WASHING MACHINES
                CLOTHES DRYERS
A dryer evaporates water from clothes and minimizes wrinkling by
tumbling the clothes.
Water evaporation requires large amounts of heat.
Select a dryer with an automatic timer and a variety of cycles to
adjust temperature to different fabrics.
Only run full loads.
Don’t over dry clothes!
Dry clothes outside on clothesline whenever possible.
Vacuum lint from motor housing 3-4 times per year.
CLOTHES DRYER
                   DISHWASHERS
Dishwashers use less hot water than washing dishes by hand, but
requires the water to be 20 degrees F hotter.
Omit the use of heat during the drying cycle.
Buy a dishwasher with an energy saving switch.
Wash only full loads during off-peak hours.
Use less detergent than required.
Clean filter screen regularly.
Follow maintenance instructions.
                  DISHWASHERS




Make sure dishes are rinsed
thoroughly before running load!
      REFIGERATOR-FREEZERS
 The larger the unit, the more
    energy required to maintain
    desired temperature.
   Refrigerator should be kept
    between 38-42 degrees F.
   Manual defrost freezers use the
    least amount of energy,
    typically 55-60% less!
   Buy a model with extra
    improved insulation.
   Buy one with a seasonal
    energy-saving switch. Saves
    15% of annual operating costs.
   Top/bottom freezers are more
    energy efficient than side by
    side models.
 CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING
Central air conditioners (central ACs)
are rated according to their seasonal
energy efficiency ratio (SEER). This is
the cooling output divided by the power
input for a hypothetical average U.S.
climate. The higher the SEER, the
more efficient the air conditioner. The
national efficiency standard for central
ACs took effect in 1992, requiring a
minimum SEER of 10. New standards,
set to take effect in 2006, will raise the
SEER requirement to 13, an
improvement of 30% relative to 10-
SEER units. Many older central ACs
achieve SEER ratings of only 6 or 7.
      SIMPLE THINGS YOU CAN DO
      TO CREATE A BETTER , MORE
       ENERGY EFFICIENT WORLD!
1.   Look for Energy Stars labels.
2.   Turn off the lights when you leave a room.
3.   Buy compact fluorescent light bulbs.
4.   Shut doors behind you so that heat does not escape.
5.   Seal windows and doors to prevent air drafts.
6.   Make sure your refrigerator is an energy star product
     because it uses the MOST electricity out of all
     appliances.
7.   Use toaster oven or microwave instead of oven when
     possible.
          AIR POLLUTANTS FROM
                COOLANTS
Ozone (O3) in the stratosphere forms when HQE UV photons break
apart diatomic O2(g) molecules forming reactive free radicals O. The
free radicals combine with other diatomic molecules of O2 to from
O3.
Importance: Each ozone molecule in the stratosphere can absorb a
UV photon with a wavelength less than 320 nm.. This energy
absorption prevents potentially harmful UV rays from reaching the
earth’s surface.
          OZONE DESTRUCTION
Chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) emitted from refrigerators,
and air conditioners and include freons are highly stable molecules in the
troposphere.
HQE UV photons in the stratosphere split chlorine radicals from CFC’s
by breaking the C-Cl bond.
The Cl radicals are very reactive and can participate in a series of
photochemical reactions that destroy O3 by converting it to O2. When free
radicals of O combine to orm diatomic molecules of oxygen they prevent
additional atoms of O3 from forming.
Every Cl radical can destroy on average 100,000 O3 molecules!
     HOW DOES THE OZONE
        LAYER THIN?
 Winter at the poles is sunless with steady winds that
  blow in a circular pattern forming a huge swirling
  mass of very cold air “polar vortex winds”.
 When sun appears on the horizon, droplets of water
  form ice crystals that collect CFC’s and form Cl and
  ClO molecules that combine to form Cl2O2 molecules
  that store up in vortex. The spring sunlight breaks
  these up and releases large numbers of Cl molecules
  that begin to attack O3 molecules.
 Ozone thinning is worse over south pole than north
  pole.
OZONE THINNING
  IMPACTS TO HUMAN HEALTH
    FROM OZONE THINNING
As O3 layer in stratosphere continues to thin, more UV-B
radiation will pass through the stratosphere into the troposphere
and cause squamous cell cancer and cataracts in humans.
Other human health issues include suppression of the immune
system,, lower yields of key crops, serious decline in
phytoplankton and forest productivity, and deeper penetration of
UV radiation into lakes disrupting ecosystem structure and
function.
OZONE HOLE?
                    SOLUTIONS
 It will take 50-60 years to return to 1975 levels and 100-200
  years to return to 1950 levels.
 Use substitutes such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFC’s); less
  Cl molecules and have shorter lifespan in stratosphere. Can
  still cause O3 depletion. Other substitutes are
  hydrofluorocarbons (HJFC’s), propane, and butane.
 Developing nations can us HC technology to leap ahead of
  Industrialized nations. HC’s cannot be patented!
 Implement plans and policies to deter CFC useage.
            MONTREAL PROTOCOL
1987 – 36 nations met in Montreal to develop a treaty to cut emissions of
CFC’s by 35% between 1989 and 2000.
1990 – 93 countries met in London
1992 - 92 nations met in Copenhagen
1997 – 92 nations met in Montreal once again and adopted a protocol
accelerating the phase out of key ozone-depleting chemicals.
BEST EXAMPLE – global cooperation in response to serious threats to
global environmental security. Developing nations set up over $250 million
fund to help developing nations not use CFC’s and phase it out early in their
transition to a developing nation.
MONTREAL PROTOCOL
              MARGARET MEAD
“The atmosphere is the key
symbol of global
interdependence. If we
can’t solve some of our
problems in the face of
threats to this global
common, then I can’t be
very optimistic about the
future world!”