VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 22 POSTED ON: 7/6/2011
ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN APPLIANCES Energy-efficient appliances typically cost more than than less efficient models. Look for Energy Stars label. Use appliances during off-peak hours: winter – peak generating costs 4:00 – 8:00 pm summer – peak generating costs 11:00 am – 8:00 pm OVENS AND RANGES Gas – 60 % loss in energy, but heat is distributed more evenly. Electric – 40 % loss in energy. Ovens that cycle on/off are more efficient. Self-cleaning ovens have more insulation and retains heat very well. Self-clean uses a LOT of energy and should only be used during off-peak hours. Comparison table of the energy costs of cooking the same meal by several methods Appliance Temperatu Time Energy Cos re t* Electric oven 350ºF 1 hr. 2.0 kWh 16¢ Convection 325ºF 45 1.39 kWh 11¢ Oven min. Gas oven 350ºF 1 hr. 0.112 7¢ therm Cooktop/frying 420ºF 1 hr. 0.9 kWh 7¢ pan Toaster oven 425ºF 50 0.095 8¢ min. kWh Crockpot 200ºF 7 hrs. 0.7 kWh 6¢ Microwave "High" 15 0.36 kWh 3¢ oven min. *Cost assumes 8¢/kWh for electricity and 60¢/therm for gas (Source: ACEEE, Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, 1999) CLOTHES WASHERS A considerable amount of hot water is used for washing clothes. Choose a machine that uses the fewest gallons of water per pound of clothes and one with H,M & L settings for water level control. Pre-soak heavily soiled clothes. Use appropriate volume of water for load. Use less detergent than recommended. Use a low-warm water temperature for washing and cold cycle for rinsing. Use during off-peak hours. Follow maintenance instructions and clean regularly. WASHING MACHINES CLOTHES DRYERS A dryer evaporates water from clothes and minimizes wrinkling by tumbling the clothes. Water evaporation requires large amounts of heat. Select a dryer with an automatic timer and a variety of cycles to adjust temperature to different fabrics. Only run full loads. Don’t over dry clothes! Dry clothes outside on clothesline whenever possible. Vacuum lint from motor housing 3-4 times per year. CLOTHES DRYER DISHWASHERS Dishwashers use less hot water than washing dishes by hand, but requires the water to be 20 degrees F hotter. Omit the use of heat during the drying cycle. Buy a dishwasher with an energy saving switch. Wash only full loads during off-peak hours. Use less detergent than required. Clean filter screen regularly. Follow maintenance instructions. DISHWASHERS Make sure dishes are rinsed thoroughly before running load! REFIGERATOR-FREEZERS The larger the unit, the more energy required to maintain desired temperature. Refrigerator should be kept between 38-42 degrees F. Manual defrost freezers use the least amount of energy, typically 55-60% less! Buy a model with extra improved insulation. Buy one with a seasonal energy-saving switch. Saves 15% of annual operating costs. Top/bottom freezers are more energy efficient than side by side models. CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING Central air conditioners (central ACs) are rated according to their seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER). This is the cooling output divided by the power input for a hypothetical average U.S. climate. The higher the SEER, the more efficient the air conditioner. The national efficiency standard for central ACs took effect in 1992, requiring a minimum SEER of 10. New standards, set to take effect in 2006, will raise the SEER requirement to 13, an improvement of 30% relative to 10- SEER units. Many older central ACs achieve SEER ratings of only 6 or 7. SIMPLE THINGS YOU CAN DO TO CREATE A BETTER , MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT WORLD! 1. Look for Energy Stars labels. 2. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. 3. Buy compact fluorescent light bulbs. 4. Shut doors behind you so that heat does not escape. 5. Seal windows and doors to prevent air drafts. 6. Make sure your refrigerator is an energy star product because it uses the MOST electricity out of all appliances. 7. Use toaster oven or microwave instead of oven when possible. AIR POLLUTANTS FROM COOLANTS Ozone (O3) in the stratosphere forms when HQE UV photons break apart diatomic O2(g) molecules forming reactive free radicals O. The free radicals combine with other diatomic molecules of O2 to from O3. Importance: Each ozone molecule in the stratosphere can absorb a UV photon with a wavelength less than 320 nm.. This energy absorption prevents potentially harmful UV rays from reaching the earth’s surface. OZONE DESTRUCTION Chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) emitted from refrigerators, and air conditioners and include freons are highly stable molecules in the troposphere. HQE UV photons in the stratosphere split chlorine radicals from CFC’s by breaking the C-Cl bond. The Cl radicals are very reactive and can participate in a series of photochemical reactions that destroy O3 by converting it to O2. When free radicals of O combine to orm diatomic molecules of oxygen they prevent additional atoms of O3 from forming. Every Cl radical can destroy on average 100,000 O3 molecules! HOW DOES THE OZONE LAYER THIN? Winter at the poles is sunless with steady winds that blow in a circular pattern forming a huge swirling mass of very cold air “polar vortex winds”. When sun appears on the horizon, droplets of water form ice crystals that collect CFC’s and form Cl and ClO molecules that combine to form Cl2O2 molecules that store up in vortex. The spring sunlight breaks these up and releases large numbers of Cl molecules that begin to attack O3 molecules. Ozone thinning is worse over south pole than north pole. OZONE THINNING IMPACTS TO HUMAN HEALTH FROM OZONE THINNING As O3 layer in stratosphere continues to thin, more UV-B radiation will pass through the stratosphere into the troposphere and cause squamous cell cancer and cataracts in humans. Other human health issues include suppression of the immune system,, lower yields of key crops, serious decline in phytoplankton and forest productivity, and deeper penetration of UV radiation into lakes disrupting ecosystem structure and function. OZONE HOLE? SOLUTIONS It will take 50-60 years to return to 1975 levels and 100-200 years to return to 1950 levels. Use substitutes such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFC’s); less Cl molecules and have shorter lifespan in stratosphere. Can still cause O3 depletion. Other substitutes are hydrofluorocarbons (HJFC’s), propane, and butane. Developing nations can us HC technology to leap ahead of Industrialized nations. HC’s cannot be patented! Implement plans and policies to deter CFC useage. MONTREAL PROTOCOL 1987 – 36 nations met in Montreal to develop a treaty to cut emissions of CFC’s by 35% between 1989 and 2000. 1990 – 93 countries met in London 1992 - 92 nations met in Copenhagen 1997 – 92 nations met in Montreal once again and adopted a protocol accelerating the phase out of key ozone-depleting chemicals. BEST EXAMPLE – global cooperation in response to serious threats to global environmental security. Developing nations set up over $250 million fund to help developing nations not use CFC’s and phase it out early in their transition to a developing nation. MONTREAL PROTOCOL MARGARET MEAD “The atmosphere is the key symbol of global interdependence. If we can’t solve some of our problems in the face of threats to this global common, then I can’t be very optimistic about the future world!”
"ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN APPLIANCES"