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A Guide to Windows 2000 Server

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					                      Chapter 5


    Chapter 5:
Server Installation




                         1
          Learning Objectives
                                           Chapter 5


   Make installation, hardware, and site-
    specific preparations to install Windows
    2000 Server
   Install Windows 2000 Server using
    different methods, including from a CD-
    ROM, from the installation disks, over a
    network, unattended, and from another
    operating system
                                               2
Learning Objectives (continued)
                                              Chapter 5


   Go through a Windows 2000 Server
    installation step by step, and test the
    installation
   Upgrade a Windows NT server and
    domain
   Create an emergency repair disk


                                                 3
Learning Objectives (continued)
                                             Chapter 5


   Install a service pack
   Troubleshoot installation problems and
    uninstall Windows 2000 Server




                                                4
        Installation Preparations
                                                  Chapter 5


   Preliminary steps:
     Information about what hardware
      components are installed
     Determination of which file system to use
     Creation of an Administrator account
     Name of the server
     An installed NIC
     Determine which protocols to install
                                                     5
Example Hardware Components
     Information Form                                        Chapter 5
Hardware Component                             Description
CPU type (Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III,
SMP)
Type of buses (ISA, PCI)
Amount of RAM
Hard disk and adapter type (manufacturer and
model information)
Hard disk capacity
CD-ROM drive and adapter type (manufacturer
and model information)




                                                                6
 Example Hardware Components
  Information Form (continued)                                 Chapter 5

Hardware Component                               Description
Mouse or pointing device
Monitor and monitor adapter (manufacturer and
model information)
Keyboard type
Floppy drive type
Tape drive and adapter (manufacturer and model
information)
NIC (manufacturer, model, specifications)




                                                                  7
Note Specifics of Driver

                            Chapter 5



           Screenshot
       of hardware device
       (Ctrl-Alt-PrtScrn)




                               8
            Troubleshooting Tip
                                                    Chapter 5


   Record the BIOS setup information and save
    it for later troubleshooting in the event that the
    computer’s battery is defective or in case you
    need it to restore one or more BIOS settings
   Try f1 on gateway during gateway screen on
    boot
   A lot of systems tell how to get into setup at
    the beginning of the boot, e.g. “Hit DEL to
    enter setup
                                                         9
        Sample BIOS Setup Screen
                                           Chapter 5




Note
Boot
Order




                                             10
            Figure 5-1 BIOS setup screen
           Troubleshooting Tip
                                                     Chapter 5


   Obtain the latest device drivers before
    you start the installation, such as those
    for the NIC, HAL.dll (for SMP
    computers), SCSI adapters, CD-ROM
    drives, RAID arrays
     Check  device site for latest drivers
     I suggest you let Win2K install its default,
      then a later time install newer drivers
                                                       11
      Make Important Decisions
            in Advance                                     Chapter 5


   How to partition the disk or disks
   What file system(s) to use
   What to name the server
   What password to use for the Administrator
    account
   What protocols to use
   What licensing method to use
   Whether to make the server a DC  (Domain Controller)




                                                             12
       Decide Whether to Set Up
         a Dual Boot System                    Chapter 5


   Other systems that can reside on the
    same server as Windows 2000 Server
    include MS-DOS, Windows 3.x,
    Windows 95, and Windows 98
   If you decide this, you are limited to a
    FAT partition


                                                 13
                Partitioning
                                             Chapter 5


   If you create FAT and NTFS partitions,
    create the FAT partition before you start
    (or leave an existing FAT partition if you
    create a dual boot system)

   You cannot see NTFS systems from a
    FAT booted system

                                                 14
Boot.ini File
                              Chapter 5


                   The Boot.ini file
                    on the system
                    partition
                    contains
                    information
                    about the
                    location of both
                    operating
                    systems in a
                    dual boot
                    configuration




                                 15
         Sample Boot.ini File
                                                               Chapter 5




                  Figure 5-2 Boot.ini file

2 sections:   boot and Operating systems that can be started



                                                                 16
             Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) pathname

                                                                                                        Chapter 5
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional" /fastdetect

•Operating system is is a folder \WINNT
•multi(0)     on a non-scsi disk installed (always has the value 0)
•disk(0)      (always 0 for non-scsi)
•rdisk(0)     on first disk on the channel path. 1 for second disk 2 for third disk, 3 for forth disk
•partition(1) in partition 1


multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(2) \WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional" /fastdetect

•Operating system is is a folder \WINNT
•multi(0)     on a non-scsi disk installed (always has the value 0)
•disk(0)      (always 0 for non-scsi)
•rdisk(1)     on second disk on the channel path.
•partition(2) in partition 2


•scsi(1)disk(2)rdisk(0)partition(1) \WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional" /fastdetect
•Operating system is is a folder \WINNT
•scsi(0)      scsi id = 1
•disk(2)      third disk in the scsi chain
•rdisk(0)                                                                                                 17
•partition(1) in partition 1
              FAT Partitions
                                          Chapter 5


   Windows 2000 will format a 2 GB or
    smaller partition as FAT16 and a
    partition larger than 2 GB as FAT32




                                            18
                 Server Naming
                                                 Chapter 5


   Use a name that is easy to type
     No   to NJrt1242
   Make the name descriptive of the server’s
    function or of the organization
     NCOMPRIME

   Select a name that is easy to remember and
    use
   Make sure the name is not already used on
    the network

                                                   19
        Administrator Password
                                                Chapter 5


   Use a “strong” or difficult-to-guess password
    for the critical Administrator account
   Characteristics of a strong password:
      Over seven characters long
      Has a combination of letters, numbers, and
       symbols m1ch@el m!cha3l
      Includes at least one symbol in characters
       two through six

                                                    20
           Protocol Selection
                                         Chapter 5


   Consider using the default TCP/IP setup
    as a starting point and add other
    protocols later as needed




                                              21
           Licensing Methods
                                             Chapter 5


   Per server licensing: A server software
    license based on the maximum number
    of clients that log on to the server at one
    time
   Per seat licensing: A server software
    license that requires that there be
    enough licenses for all network client
    workstations
                                                  22
         Initial Server Installation
                                                        Chapter 5


   Standalone server: A server that is not a
    member of a domain, but that is a member of an
    existing workgroup or that establishes its own
    workgroup, such as in peer-to-peer networking
   Member server: A server that is a member of an
    existing Windows 2000 domain, but that does
    not function as a domain controller
              type of server can be later set up as a
        (Either
        domain controller)

                                                          23
           Installation Options
                                              Chapter 5


   CD-ROM only
   Floppy disk and CD-ROM
   Network installation
   Installation from an existing operating
    system
   Unattended installation

                                                24
         Installation Programs
                                           Chapter 5


   Use Winnt.exe from scratch (installation
    disks or CD-ROM) and from computers
    already booted from MS-DOS or
    Windows 3.x
   Use Winnt32.exe from computers
    already booted from Windows 95/98,
    Windows NT, or Windows 2000 (for an
    upgrade)
                                               25
                    Command-line Switches
                         for Winnt                                                                        Chapter 5
Switch               Purpose
/?                   Lists the switches for Winnt
/a                   Initiates the accessibility options for those who have visual, hearing, or movement
                     disabilities
/e:command           Executes a command after the Windows portion of the setup, such as to start a program or
                     open the Control Panel
/i:initialization    Specifies that you are using an initialization file other than the default, Dosnet.inf (this
filename             initialization file shows where installation files are located)
/r:foldername        Creates an optional folder of files copied from the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM (the
                     folder remains after the installation is completed)
/rx:folder           Creates an optional folder of files copied from the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM (the
                     folder is deleted after the installation is completed)




                                                                                                              26
                       Command-line Switches
                        for Winnt (continued)                                                                     Chapter 5
Switch                    Purpose
/s:drive:\folder          Use a path for the installation files other than the current path
/s:\\ server\share\folder
/t:drive\folder           Copy the temporary files used by the installation to a specified location (otherwise they are
                          copied to the target drive of the installation)
/u:script file            Used in an unattended installation to specify the name of the script file containing
                          installation commands and should be used with the /s command
udf:id                    Enables a uniqueness database file to be used with an unattended installation so that
                          particular information in the script can be changed, such as the name of the server (id
                          specifies the name of the database file, such as udf:install.dbf)




                                                                                                                      27
                  Command-line Switches
                      for Winnt32                                                                           Chapter 5
Switch             Purpose
/?                 Lists the switches for Winnt32
/checkupgradeonl   Creates only a report to tell you if the computer is compatible with Windows 2000 (the
y                  report is called Upgrade.txt for computers running Windows 95/98 and Winnt32.log for
                   computers running Windows NT 3.51 or 4.0)
/cmd:command       Executes a command before the Windows portion of the setup is completed and just
                   after you have provided configuration information
/comdcons          Adds a Recovery Console option to the BOOT.INI file so that you can fix problems with
                   an installation
/copydir:folder    Creates a special subfolder in the final Winnt directory, usually implemented for
                   information specific to that installation, such as to store specialized drivers for use only
                   during the installation (the folder is deleted after the installation is completed)




                                                                                                                  28
                    Command-line Switches
                    for Winnt32 (continued)                                                                       Chapter 5
Switch             Purpose
/copysource:folder Creates a special subfolder in the final Winnt directory, usually implemented for information
                   specific to that installation, such as to store specialized drivers for use during the installation or
                   to store for later use (the folder is retained after the installation is completed)
/debug level:file  Creates a file to help you debug installation problems, on the basis of the level you specify
                   (Winnt32.log is the default if no file is specified; levels are 0=major errors, 1=errors,
                   2=warnings, 3=information, 4=detailed information)
/m:folder          Enables you install files from the default installation folders on the CD-ROM and from a folder
                   you specify with the /m command – if the installation finds two files of the same name, it uses
                   the file in the folder specified by /m
/makelocalsource Copies the CD-ROM source files to the same disk that is designated for the Winnt folder
                   (enabling you to later install additional services or components from your local hard disk)




      Debug Log


                                                                                                                      29
                      Command-line Switches
                      for Winnt32 (continued)                                                                Chapter 5
Switch                      Purpose
/noreboot                   Does not automatically reboot after files are copied to the hard disk, enabling you to
                            run a command in the interim such as to check the dates on driver files for the most
                            current versions
/s:drive:\folder            Uses a path for the installation files other than the current path – also enables you to
/s:\\ server\share\folder   copy files from two or more sources by specifying multiple /s commands
/syspart:drive              Enables you to copy the files used by setup to a hard drive, remove the hard drive,
                            and install it in another computer (can be used by computer manufacturers who
                            install the first phase, but leave the second phase of the installation to the purchaser
                            to specify parameters unique to her or his site like the server name; must be used with
                            /tempdrive)




                                                                                                                 30
                    Command-line Switches
                    for Winnt32 (continued)                                                                   Chapter 5
Switch                            Purpose
/tempdrive:drive                  Temporary files and the final Windows 2000 system files are copied to the drive
                                  specified, such as to drive D: in /tempdrive:D
/unattend                         Enables you to upgrade a version of Windows 2000 to a later version, using the
                                  parameters already in place for your current version
/unattend [seconds]:script file   Used in an unattended installation to specify the name of the script file containing
                                  installation commands (the seconds parameter is used to create an interval
                                  between when the setup files are copied and the computer reboots so you can
                                  interrupt to enter a command)
udf:id                            Enables a uniqueness database file to be used with an unattended installation so
                                  that particular information in the script can be changed, such as the name of the
                                  server (id specifies the name of the database file, such as udf:install.dbf)




                                                                                                                  31
         CD-ROM Installation
                                         Chapter 5

   Set the computer’s BIOS to boot first
    from CD-ROM
   Insert the Windows 2000 Server CD-
    ROM
   Turn the computer off and then back on
    (you may need to press Enter to boot
    from CD-ROM)
   After Winnt.exe starts, follow the
    instructions on the screen               32
           Floppy Disk and
         CD-ROM Installation                Chapter 5


   Set the BIOS to boot first from drive A:
   Power off the computer
   Insert Setup Disk #1 and the CD-ROM
   Turn on the computer, booting from the
    Setup Disk #1
   After Winnt.exe starts, insert Setup Disk
    #2 and follow the on-screen instructions
                                                33
Making Copies of the Setup Disk
                                           Chapter 5


   Format 4 floppy disks
   Insert the Windows 2000 Server CD-
    ROM
   Click Start and then click Run
   Enter the drive letter of the CD-ROM
    and the path \bootdisk\makebt32.exe
   Click OK
   Follow the on-screen instructions
                                             34
           Network Installation
                                               Chapter 5


   Copy the installation files from the Windows
    2000 Server CD-ROM which are in the folder
    \I386
   Share the host’s folder and set appropriate
    permissions
   Map the host’s shared folder from the target
    server computer
   Run Winnt.exe or Winnt32.exe from the
    shared folder
   Follow the on-screen instructions              35
     Installation from an Existing
           Operating System                        Chapter 5

   Boot the computer to use its existing
    operating system
   Insert the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM
   Click Start, click Run, enter the drive letter of
    the CD-ROM and the path to the Winnt.exe or
    Winnt32.exe file, such as \I386\winnt32 plus
    any switches
          D:\ENGLISH\WIN2000\SERVER\I386>
   Follow the on-screen instructions

                                                        36
             Installation Tip
                                           Chapter 5


   If you install Windows 2000 from MS-
    DOS, you can reduce the installation
    time from several hours to under an
    hour if you start the SMARTDRIVE
    utility before running Winnt.exe




                                             37
         Unattended Installation
           Over the Network                             Chapter 5


   Create an answer file using Setup
    Manager or Notepad
   Use the /s and /u (or /unattend) switches
    to specify the location of the installation
    files and of the answer file such as:
     Winnt32   /s:\\mainserver\I386 /unattend:unattend.txt
   Use a uniqueness database and the
    /UDF switch to further customize the
    unattended installation                               38
         Unattended Installation
             via CD-ROM                      Chapter 5


   An alternative to a unattended network
    installation is to create an answer file to
    use along with booting via the CD-ROM,
    but name the file, Winnt.sif




                                                  39
         Creating Duplicate
       Unattended Installations         Chapter 5


   Use Sysprep.exe to clone computers that
    have the same hardware configuration
   Use Syspart.exe to clone computers that
    have different hardware configurations




                                          40
Installation Troubleshooting Tip
                                               Chapter 5


   If Setup starts, but does not find mass
    storage, restart the installation, press F6
    as soon as possible and load the
    manufacturer’s driver (such as for a SCSI
    adapter)
   If Setup does not start because you are
    using an SMP computer, restart the
    installation, press F5, and provide the
    computer manufacturer’s Hal.dll             41
            Installation Part 1
                                              Chapter 5


   When the Windows Setup starts, it
    inspects the computer hardware and
    loads drivers and then presents a
    screen on which to press Enter to start
    the installation




                                                42
 Installation Part 1
    (continued)                      Chapter 5




                                       43
Figure 5-3 Beginning setup options
            Installation Part 1
               (continued)                    Chapter 5


   Read the licensing agreement and
    press F8
   Select the partitioned or unpartitioned
    disk space on which to install Windows
    2000



                                                44
              Installation Part 1
                 (continued)        Chapter 5




Figure 5-4
 Detecting
 partitions
                                      45
            Installation Part 1
               (continued)                  Chapter 5


   Select the file system to use, FAT or
    NTFS
   Setup automatically checks the disks,
    copies files, and reboots into the
    graphical mode



                                              46
                                  Quick Quiz

                                                                                   Chapter 5

You have a 1 GB partition that you want to format for FAT. What version of FAT will
   Windows 2000 use to format this partition?
Answer: FAT16
The ___________________ file contains information about the location of both operating
   systems in a dual-boot system.
Answer: Boot.ini
When the ARC path starts with multi(), this means that
Answer: the operating system is located on a non-SCSI or on a SCSI disk with the BIOS
   enabled

   . The password auto!2#rank is an example of a _____________________ password.
Answer: strong
Which Winnt32.exe command enables you to create a log from which to analyze
   installation problems?
Answer: /debug level:file


                                                                                         47
            Installation Part 2
                                          Chapter 5


   Setup gathers and verifies information
    about the computer, such as the
    keyboard and pointing device
   Setup next enables you to configure
    regional and keyboard settings, such as
    the language that you use


                                              48
            Installation Part 2
               (continued)                Chapter 5


   Enter your name and the name of your
    organization
   Enter the product key which is obtained
    from the back of the Windows 2000
    Server CD-ROM jewel case



                                              49
       Installation Part 2
          (continued)                          Chapter 5




                                                 50
Figure 5-5 Name and organization information
           Installation Part 2
              (continued)                  Chapter 5


   Select the licensing mode
   Enter the name of the server and the
    Administrator account’s password
   Select the Windows 2000 components
    to install



                                             51
   Installation Part 2
      (continued)                    Chapter 5




                                       52
Figure 5-6 Windows 2000 components
              Installation Part 2
                 (continued)                    Chapter 5


   If there is an installed modem, provide the
    Modem Dialing information
   Verify the date and time
   Select the network configuration option,
    such as Typical settings in order to install
    TCP/IP
   Specify whether the computer will start off
    in a workgroup or domain (if in a domain,
    provide the account and password)            53
            Installation Part 2
               (continued)                 Chapter 5


   Wait for Setup to install components and
    files and then click Finish




                                               54
Installation Part 2
   (continued)                     Chapter 5




                                     55
Figure 5-7 Installing components
       Log On and Test the Server
                                           Chapter 5


   Press Ctrl+Alt+Del, enter Administrator as
    the account name, and enter the
    Administrator password you specified
    during the installation
   Look for the Windows 2000 Configure Your
    Server dialog box, which provides one
    method for continuing to configure the
    server
                                             56
Configure Your Server Tool
                                         Chapter 5




                                           57
   Figure 5-8 Configuration dialog box
       Testing the Desktop Icons
                                          Chapter 5


   Test the desktop icons and other
    preliminary functions of the server




                                            58
        Desktop
                                  Chapter 5




                                    59
Figure 5-9 Windows 2000 Desktop
    Upgrading a Windows NT 4.0
        Server and Domain               Chapter 5


   Coordinate a time for the upgrade
   Backup each server that will be
    upgraded
   Upgrade the PDC first
   Upgrade the BDCs one at a time
   Upgrade using Winnt32


                                          60
    Upgrading a Windows NT 4.0
    Server and Domain (continued)          Chapter 5


   Select the Upgrade to Windows 2000
    (recommend) option
   Follow the directions in the Windows
    2000 Setup




                                             61
Upgrading a Windows NT 4.0
Server and Domain (continued)                  Chapter 5




                                                 62
    Figure 5-10 Selecting the upgrade option
    Upgrading a Windows NT 4.0
    Server and Domain (continued)          Chapter 5


   When the Active Directory Wizard starts,
    specify if you want to join an existing
    domain tree or forest, or start a new one
   Establish the appropriate default domain
    and other group policies
   Convert the domain to native mode after
    the last BDC is upgraded and there are
    no more Windows NT servers
                                                63
          Troubleshooting Tip
                                          Chapter 5


   Create an emergency repair disk for
    each newly installed or upgraded server
   Update the emergency repair disk every
    time you implement an important
    change on a server, such as after
    installing new hardware, drivers, and
    software

                                              64
           Troubleshooting
         Installation Problems                Chapter 5


   The first step is to avoid problems
    through your advanced preparations
     Purchase    components listed on the HCL
     Test all hardware before you start the
      installation
     Run the computer’s diagnostics before
      starting
     Run a comprehensive test of the hard disk
      before starting
                                                  65
         Troubleshooting a Windows
             2000 Server Setup                                                         Chapter 5


Problem Description        Solution Steps
Installation fails when    Make sure you have previously created an account in the domain
connecting to the domain   and provided the right domain name. Also, make sure the
controller                 computer is connected to the network, that the domain controller
                           and DNS server are working, and that you are using the right
                           protocol.




                                                                                          66
     Troubleshooting a Windows
    2000 Server Setup (continued)                                                                Chapter 5

Problem Description           Solution Steps
A problem is reported with    Restart the installation and press F5 as soon as possible to load the
HAL.DLL or you see a stop     HAL.DLL from a floppy disk.
message 0x000000A
Irql_Not_Less_Or_Equal.
The installation fails when   Go back to configure network settings. Make sure you have
installing the network        installed a protocol that is appropriate for your network and that
components.                   you have provided all the information needed to set up the
                              protocol. Check the network interface card to ensure it is working.
                              Reseat or replace the card and start Setup again. Use the
                              diagnostic software provided with the card to test for problems. If
                              this does not work, try a card from a different manufacturer, in
                              case there is a hardware incompatibility.
                                                                                                      67
        Troubleshooting a Windows
       2000 Server Setup (continued)                                                             Chapter 5
Problem Description              Solution Steps
A problem is reported with       The BOOT.INI file needs to be changed to indicate where to find
NTOSKRNL.EXE or in               Windows 2000 (if other than on the primary system drive) or
finding NTLDR.                   NTLDR is not on the drive used to boot (called the system drive).
A device driver is not           Obtain the most recent driver from the manufacturer.
available in Setup for a given
component, such as a NIC,
sound card, video card, or
other adapter.
A STOP message appears           Start the installation again. If the STOP message appears a second
during the installation.         time, record the message and consult a Microsoft technician.
Computer locks up                Check the IRQ and I/O settings for conflicts among hardware
                                 components and cards (check the NIC and any specialized cards in
                                 particular).                                                         68
              Service Packs
                                           Chapter 5


   Check Microsoft’s Web site for the latest
    information about service packs and the
    option to download them
   For more control, install service packs
    using the Update command



                                                69
         Windows Service Pack
           Update Switches                                                        Chapter 5
Switch   Purpose
-f       Close all programs when the operating system shuts down prior to
         rebooting
-n       Disable the backup of old files used to uninstall the service pack
-o       Automatically copy new files over the old OEM files
-q       Install using the quiet mode so that the user does not have to respond
         to prompts during the installation
-u       Install using the unattended mode
/?       List the available switches




                                                                                    70
             Uninstalling
         Windows 2000 Server                 Chapter 5


   Backup the server files
   Use the disk management utilities in the
    new operating system to delete the
    Windows 2000 partition, re-partition the
    drive, and format it (or start a Windows
    2000 installation and delete the partition
    via Windows 2000 Setup)
   Install the new operating system
                                                 71
           Chapter Summary
                                            Chapter 5


   Before you install Windows 2000
    Server, make sure the computer’s
    components are on the HCL
   Make decisions in advance about how
    to complete the installation options,
    such as how to partition the disk and
    what file system to use

                                              72
           Chapter Summary
                                          Chapter 5


   Use the appropriate installation option,
    such as installing from CD-ROM, from
    the installation diskettes, over the
    network, from another operating system,
    or unattended
   Make an emergency repair disk after
    you finish the installation

                                               73
                            KeyTerms
                                                                           Chapter 5

   answer file – A text file that contains a complete set of instructions for
    installing Windows 2000 in the unattended mode.
   basic input/output system (BIOS) – A program on a read-only or flash
    memory chip that establishes basic communications with components
    such as the monitor and disk drives. The advantage of a flash chip is
    that you can update the BIOS.
   client access license (CAL) – A license to enable a workstation to
    connect to Windows 2000 Server as a client.
   dual-boot system – A computer set up to boot from two or more
    different operating systems, such as Windows 2000 Server and MS-
    DOS.
   emergency repair disk (ERD) – A disk that contains repair, diagnostic,
    and backup information for use in case there is a problem with
    Windows 2000.
   format – An operation that divides a disk into small sections called
    tracks and sectors for storage of files.
                                                                                 74
                              KeyTerms
                                                                                    Chapter 5

   Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) – A set of program routines that enable an
    operating system to control a hardware component, such as the processor, from
    within the operating system kernel.
   member server – A server that is a member of an existing Windows 2000
    domain, but that does not function as a domain controller.
   partition – A process in which a hard disk section or a complete hard disk is set
    up for use by an operating system. A disk can be formatted after it is partitioned.
   per seat licensing – A server software license that requires that there be
    enough licenses for all network client workstations.
   per server licensing – A server software license based on the maximum
    number of clients that log onto the server at one time.
   slip streaming – Installing only a specific portion of a service pack instead of
    the entire update.
   standalone server – A server that is not a member of a domain, but that is a
    member of an existing workgroup or that establishes its own workgroup, such as
    in peer-to-peer networking.
   uniqueness database file (UDF) – A text file that contains an answer set of
    unique instructions for installing Windows 2000 in the unattended mode and that
    is used with an answer file.                                                        75

				
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