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					Crystal Palace
The Crystal Palace

 It was a wrought iron(kovácsolt vas) and glass building
 originally erected in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition
  of 1851.
 more than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in the
  Palace's 990,000 square feet of exhibition space to show examples of the
  latest technology developed in the Industrial Revolution.
 designed by Joseph Paxton, the Great Exhibition building was
  1,850 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 408 feet 124 m).
 After the exhibition, the building was moved to a new park in a high,
  healthy and wealthy area of London called Sydenham Hill

 The Crystal Palace was enlarged and stood from 1854 until 1936, when
  it was destroyed by fire. It attracted many thousands of visitors from all
  levels of society.
 The name Crystal Palace (coined by the satirical magazine Punch) was
  later used to denote this area of south London and the park that
  surrounds the site, home of the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre.
The original Hyde Park Building

 The idea of the Crystal Palace originated from Prince Albert
 to hold a British Exhibition of Design and Manufacture, in London
  in 1851
 This was intended as a showcase to the world of British
  Supremacy(felsőbbség).

 The project was engineered by Sir William Cubitt

 In 1850, Joseph Paxton, the Head Gardener of the Duke of
  Chatsworth, offered an alternative proposal.

 Using his experience in designing greenhouses he provided a
  building built of steel and glass, which ultimately become known
  as the Crystal Palace

 At the end of the exhibition it could easily be dismantled (lebont)
  and removed from the Royal Park.
 Full-size, living elm
  trees(szilfa) in the park
  were enclosed within the
  central exhibition hall
  near the 27-foot (8 m)-tall
  Crystal Fountain
  (szökőkút)

 The Crystal Palace was
  built by about 5,000
  navvies (földmunkás)

 The ironwork contractors
  were Fox and
  Henderson.

 The 900,000 square feet
  (84,000 m²) of glass was
  provided by the Chance
  Brothers glassworks in
  Smethwick, Birmingham
 The Crystal Palace also featured the first public conveniences
  (kényelem), the Retiring Rooms, in which sanitary engineer
  (egészségügyi technikus) George Jennings installed his Monkey
  Closets.

 During the exhibition 827,280 visitors paid one penny each to use
  them, and for this they got a clean seat, a towel, a comb and a shoe
  shine. Hence the euphemism "to spend a penny".
Relocation
 Despite some opposition the building was constructed and proved to be
  enormously successful, however when the doors of the exhibition finally
  closed the controversial problem of what to do with the building
  remained.

 The beauty and popularity of the building was evident,Paxton was
  determined that his building should not be lost, funds were secured to
  buy the building and re-erect it on the wooded parkland summit of
  Sydenham Hill.




                                        Relocation commemorative
                                        medallion
 Several localities claim to be the area to which the building was
  relocated. The street address of the Crystal Palace was Sydenham
  SE26 but the actual building and parklands were in Penge.

 At the time of relocation most of the buildings were in Croydon, as
  were a majority of the grounds. In 1899 the county boundary was
  moved, transferring the entire site to Penge Urban District in Kent.

 The site is now within the Crystal Palace Ward of the London
  Borough (város, választókerület) of Bromley.
                                              The new building would be
                                               larger than the Hyde Park
                                               original.

                                              It would serve the function of
                                               a Winter Garden, Exhibition
                                               Hall and Concert Hall, being
                                               filled with great works of art
                                               and education to inform the
                                               masses.




 This was Victorian style leisure for the masses, and was built at a
  time when Museums and Galleries were few.
 The original building grew from three storeys to five, gained a vaulted
  (boltozatos) roof and 50% more capacity, thereby giving a unique
  space for the Londoner to expand their knowledge, whilst relaxing in
  distinguished surroundings.
 The Palace and its grounds took nearly two years to complete and was
  opened by Queen Victoria on November 1854.
 It was extremely successful, resulting in special railway lines being built
  to cope with the masses of day trippers (approximately 2 million per
  year) who flocked there for a cheap days entertainment.
 Despite its' success the Palace was costly to maintain and was never a
  profitable enterprise.

 Other attractions were added to the Palace, including a great marine
  aquarium, Schools of Arts, Science, Literature and Engineering, an
  aviary (madárház), moving picture shows, Ballooning and Firework
  displays.
 The Palaces popularity began to wane (csökken) by the end of the
  century when other forms of entertainment became available.

 The building was used for a variety of purposes, including a navy land
  ship during the first world war, a temporary home for the Imperial War
  Museum, and the water towers served as experimental television
  studios by John Logie Baird
 Joseph Paxton was first and foremost a gardener, and his layout of
  gardens, fountains, terraces and cascades left no doubt as to his ability.
 One thing he did have a problem with was water supply (vízellátás).
  Such was his enthusiasm that thousands of gallons of water were
  needed in order to feed the myriad fountains and cascades which
  abounded in the Crystal Palace park. The two main jets (vízsugár) were
  250 feet (76 m) high.
 Initially water towers were constructed, but the weight of water in the
  raised tanks caused them to collapse.

 Isambard Kingdom Brunel was consulted and came up with the plans
  for two mighty water towers, one at the north and the other at the south
  end of the building. Each supported a tremendous load of water, which
  was gathered from three reservoirs (víztároló), at either end of and in
  the middle of the park.

 Two years later, the grand fountains and cascades were opened, again
  in the presence of the Queen, who got wet when a gust of wind swept
  mists of spray over the Royal carriage.
The Crystal Palace Park

 The grounds in which the Palace was rebuilt were lavished
  (bővelkedik) with as much attention as the building itself. These were
  to be reconstructed as one vast garden, but continued with an
  educational theme.

 Plans were made for a great pleasure park with fountains, water
  cascades (vízesés) and ponds to rival the palace of Versailles.

 The park was given a maze (labirintus), which has now been restored,
  fitted with flower temples, shrubberies (bokor) and statues.


 The palace gone, and the ground of the park devoid of its' temples
  and fountains it now looks very much like any other public park.
 The Palace site remained derelict for many years, only to be come
  classified as the "National Recreation Centre", containing the Crystal
  Palace sports centre.
 This was build in the basin of the great fountains to house the
  Commonwealth Games.

 This complex of buildings is typical of 1960's brutal architecture and is
  totally unsympathetic to the surroundings and history of the park.

 There is however a small museum open on Sundays which displays the
  history of the Palace and the Park.

 The tradition of music in the park continues, with concerts and fireworks
  held there in a specially build concert bowl (stadion) by the lake, on
  Summer Sunday evenings, reflecting the previous great events which
  once took place there.
                On the 30th
                 November, 1936
                 the building caught
                 fire, providing one
                 of the most
                 spectacular blazes
                 seen in London.

                The flames were
                 apparently visible
                 from Brighton,
                 nearly 50 miles
                 away.

 The only remaining structures were
  Brunels water towers, which were
  eventually demolished in 1940's on
  the premise that they would act as
  Landmarks for enemy bombers
  during the second world war.
Future
 Over the years a number of proposals for the former site of the
  Palace have failed to come to fruition.
 Currently two rival plans have emerged, the London
  Development Agency wants to spend £67.5m on developments to
  the park, including new houses and a regional sports centre.
 Recently a private consortium has announced plans to rebuild
  Crystal Palace and use it to house galleries, a snow slope, music
  auditorium, leisure facilities and a hotel.

The current situation
 Work on restoring the park to its full Victorian Glory continues. The
  Concrete and glass box plans may have been scrapped, due to
  extensive opposition, but the historic site still remains under threat
  from inappropriate redevelopment.

 The future still remains uncertain. In the meantime the trees on the
  site continue to mature and the grass continues to grow. Evidence
  of the historic building is now disappearing in the undergrowth, with
  only the terraces remaining as visible evidence of its existence

				
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