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Dissecting the Canon Visual Subject Co-Popularity Networks in Art

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Dissecting the Canon Visual Subject Co-Popularity Networks in Art Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                                          International Workshop on Challenges and Visions in the Social Sciences, Semper‘s lecture hall of ETH Zurich (Switzerland), August 18-23, 2008 (http://www.soms.ethz.ch/workshop2008/index).




                                             Dissecting the Canon: Visual Subject Co-Popularity Networks in Art Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Maximilian Schich1 with Sune Lehmann2 and Juyong Park2
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Bibliotheca Hertziana (Max-Planck-Institute for Art History), Rome, Italy (www.biblhertz.it)
                                                                                                                                                                                             2. Center for Complex Network Research, Northeastern University, Boston/MA, USA (www.barabasilab.com)




       Introduction                                                                                                                                                             Canons are tails within tails!                                                                                                                                         Visual Subject Co-Popularity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Discussion
          In Art History and Archaeology scholars use documents                                                                                                                     Extrapolating from this result the general canon of art                                                                                                               Extending from the question of popularity and canon,                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Our approach generalizes the question of canon in art
       to study objects together with their meaning, related                                                                                                                    history can be seen as the head of the long tail distribution of                                                                                                       we present a new way to explore the related phenomenon                                                                                                                                                                                                                     research using the concept of co-popularity, which also
       people, locations, times and events. Within this effort                                                                                                                  object popularity, where the sub-canon of given specialized                                                                                                            of visual subject co-popularity. Starting from a classified/                                                                                                                                                                                                               applies to the not so well known part of the long tail.
       Art History has been defined as the ‘history of all man-                                                                                                                 areas appears as the head of a self-similar sub-tail of the                                                                                                            annotated image dataset, we propose a method, which                                                                                                                                                                                                                            By introducing the network paradigm in art research we
       made things’ (Kubler, 1962), which implies a focus on the                                                                                                                whole distribution.                                                                                                                                                    combines a bipartite community finding algorithm and a                                                                                                                                                                                                                     open the door for numerous applications on a wide range
       dynamics of interrelated objects – the growth of what can                                                                                                                    In the examples below we size object images according                                                                                                              method for the production of scalable image matrices in                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of art and archaeology related datasets. Besides shedding
       be seen as the ‘coral reef of culture’ (Gombrich, 1979).                                                                                                                 to their documentation frequency, which provides us with a                                                                                                             order to construct 2-dimensional overviews.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                light on the structure of the canon of art, the resulting
          An important question in this domain is the definition                                                                                                                limiting condition of what objects are contained in various                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       image matrices can also be used to investigate a canon’s
       or emergence of ‘canon’, i.e. the set of most popular objects,                                                                                                           canons emerging from the documents:                                                                                                                                       In order to find interesting areas in the whole network                                                                                                                                                                                                                 dynamics, facilitating the reconstruction of the mostly
       which everybody knows or supposedly should know                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 we apply a community detection algorithm for overlapping                                                                                                                                                                                                                   implicit network of visual citation.
       in a given area – like for e.g. Da Vinci’s ‘Mona Lisa’ and                                                                                                                  The first example shows the long tail of Non-                                                                                                                       bi-cliques introduced by Lehmann et al. (2008), which                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In addition our approach has the potential to augment
       Botticelli‘s ‘Venus’ in painting or the Colosseum and the                                                                                                                Architectural Sculpture in analogy to the + plot and the                                                                                                               generalizes on the k-clique community finding algorithm                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the usual one-dimensional results of image databases and
       Pantheon in architecture.                                                                                                                                                blue entries in the hitlist on the left:                                                                                                                               for one-mode networks by Palla et al. (2005).                                                                                                                                                                                                                              search engines by placing the found image information
          In this poster we show that canons are identical with the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       In a second step these communities are then visualized                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in a two-dimensional image matrix, which enables the
       most popular items over a distribution of popularity, which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     using a method for the production of scalable image matrices                                                                                                                                                                                                               comparison of multiple classification criteria in multiple
       happens to be highly heterogeneous. As a consequence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     blob   introduced by Schich (2008). Here, node information of a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             painting            blob                           blob                                                                                                                                                                                                              images within the context of the network structure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      painting              blob
       we can explore the meaning of canon by looking at co-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           bi-partite classification network is placed in the location
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 section 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          using 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      By section a bi-clique community finding algorithm our
       popularity of visual objects in general, no matter if the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                fish   of the links in the adjacency matrix of the network, fish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  fish                           as                                                                                                                                                                                                               method overcomes thefish   problem of picking the right area
       objects belong to the head or the tail of the popularity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  section
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       shown below 2 our simple paintings example and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in the section 2 containing a large amount of information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          network,
       distribution.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bowl   monument-document network in the CENSUS dataset:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                section 3        bowl                           bowl                                                                                                                                                                                                                      still being
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  while section 3 useful to the human eye. The approach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bowl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  discovers hidden relationships in the data in a reproducible
           New research in the area of co-popularity has been fa-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 manner, which otherwise can only be deduced by individual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            classification criterion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        classification criterion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           including subdivisions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          including subdivisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (for e.g. a monument)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (for e.g. a monument)

       cilitated recently with the emergence of relevant datasets,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        document or object                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      document or object
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cognitive efforts and which up until now could not be
       in which tags and other classifications have been used to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         including subdivisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                painting 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                       including subdivisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  painting 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  visualized in an objective form.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               classification/document                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 classification/document

       classify a large number of images and image segments.                                                                                                                                                                                   edge including n links
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                between (sub-)nodes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                painting 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       edge including n links
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        between (sub-)nodes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  painting 2
       The work in these projects is either done manually by                                                                                                                                                                                         images
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of document
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              images
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of document                                            Future work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (sub-)nodes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (sub-)nodes
       human editors (Russell 2008, Schich 2007), automati-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     painting 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The current results are a starting point to explore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  painting 3
       cally with the help of pattern recognition algorithms (e.g.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                further issues, such as the superconnected core of co-
       http://www.definiens.com) or by human computation,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The figures a-c provide a proof of concept for our                                                                                                                                                                                                                     popularity which seems to be a common feature of the
       i.e. in a collaborative effort in the form of games such as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     method: First a community of monuments and documents                                                                                                                                                                                                                       investigated classification networks in art research. We
       Peekaboom (Ahn 2006).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           as found by the bi-clique community finder a is visualized                                                                                                                                                                                                                 will approach this issue by combining algorithms looking
           The data produced by these efforts can be understood                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        much clearer as an adjacency matrix b. After permutation                                                                                                                                                                                                                   for dense communities, like the one used in the present
       as bi-partite networks connecting image documents and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and filtering, the images of subordinate document nodes                                                                                                                                                                                                                    poster, with other algorithms breaking the core into pieces
       classification criteria. Moreover image documents as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            are finally placed in the location of the links c.                                                                                                                                                                                                                         in order to allow for targeted bottom up recombination of
       well as the classification criteria may feature additional                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The resulting image matrix obviously indicates                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fragments.
       information in the form of trees or ontologies. The figure                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      some reasons of co-popularity of otherwise unrelated                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Another issue is the ambivalent nature of superordinate
       below shows a simple example, where paintings and their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         monuments - in our case all monuments except for the                                                                                                                                                                                                                       document and object entities, which the image matrix
       classified segments are represented as simple trees, which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      two superprominent river gods were located in close                                                                                                                                                                                                                        method deals with, but for which community finding
       are connected to classification criteria via the classification                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 topographical proximity around 1550.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       algorithms have to be adapted.
       link:
                                                              blob      painting                                                                        blob                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Rivergod Marforio                                                                                         Aristogeiton                       Boy with Vase                 Nile          Crouching Venus                   Venus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rivergod Marforio (statue) 151330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rivergod Marforio (statue) 151330




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (statue)                                                                                               (statue)                           (statue)             (group of statues)       (statue)                     (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Crouching Venus (statue) 151527
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Crouching Venus (statue) 151527




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     151330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     151330                                                                                                151504
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           151504                               151509
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                151509                  151520
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        151520               151527
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             151527                       157758
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          157758

                                                                             section 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Boy with Vase (statue) 151509
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Boy with Vase (statue) 151509
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Nile (group of statues) 151520
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Nile (group of statues) 151520




                                                              fish                                                                                      fish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Aristogeiton (statue) 151504
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aristogeiton (statue) 151504




                                                                             section 2

                                                              bowl           section 3                                                                  bowl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Venus (statue) 157758
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Venus (statue) 157758
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monuments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monuments




           As shown in at least two studies (Russell 2008, Schich
                                   classification criterion
                                  including subdivisions
       2007), such bi-partite classification networks usually belong
                                  (for e.g. a monument)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               60144
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60144                                                                                                  60293
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             60293                               61706
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 61706                   61203
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         61203                61296
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              61296                        60185
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           60185
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anonymus Cantabrigensis:                                                                                     unattributed:                    Da Carpi, Girolamo:      Aldroandi, Ulisse:   Aldroandi, Ulisse:              unattributed:
       to the scale-free class of networks, characterized by a highly
                                         document or object
                                       painting 1
                                        including subdivisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cambridge, Trinity Coll.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cambridge Sketchbook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Berlin, SMBPK, Kupferstichkabinett
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Heemskerck Album II
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Torino, Bibl. Reale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Contraffazioni
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aldroandi 1562
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (1562)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Aldroandi 1556
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (1556)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Berlin, SMBPK, Kupferstichkabinett
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Heemskerck Skb. I

       heterogeneous connectivity distribution. Hence methods
        classification/document
        edge including n links
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (post 1550-ante 1562)                                                                                       (undated)                          (1549-1553)              [text only]          [text only]                   (undated)



       developed in network science can be used to process art
         between (sub-)nodes
                                       painting 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Re
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Re




              images
       research data in search for better definitions of a canon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cN




           of document
           (sub-)nodes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Documents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      o




                                                                     painting 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           x x                                                x x                                               60144       Anonymus Cantabrigensis: Cambridge, Trinity Coll. / Cambridge Sketchbook / (post 1550-ante 1562)
           In this poster we analyze a classic dataset of art research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   x x x                                                  x                               x               60293       unattributed: Berlin, SMBPK, Kupferstichkabinett / Heemskerck Album II / (undated)
       collecting ancient art and architecture and their Western                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         x   x                                                x x                               x               61706       Da Carpi, Girolamo: Torino, Bibl. Reale / Contraffazioni / (1549-1553)
       Renaissance documentation since 1947 (CENSUS 2005):                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               x x x                                                x x                               x               61203       Aldroandi, Ulisse: Aldroandi 1562 / (1562) [text only]
           As we can see in the plot below, there is a clear long                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        x x x                                                x x                               x               61296       Aldroandi, Ulisse: Aldroandi 1556 / (1556) [text only]

       tail of monument popularity, no matter if we look at the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         x x x                                                x x                               x               60185       unattributed: Berlin, SMBPK, Kupferstichkabinett / Heemskerck Skb. I / (undated)                                                                                                                                                                b
       Number of Renaissance Documents •, the Number of
       Depictions/Descriptions in the Documents or the Total
       Number of Links Including Overpopulation                (where                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c
       single depictions are linked to multiple monument parts).
           In addition the long tail emerging from the Number
       of Documents can be dissected into tails of different
       character, such as Non-Architectural Sculpture + and
       Everything Else x. The hitlist below gives a clear idea
       how Non-Architectural Sculpture, Architecture and
       Sculptural Architecture combine to the general canon of
       ancient monuments in Western Renaissance.

                 1                                                                                                                                                                       1
0000                  1                               10               100           1000                                                                        10000                       1               10                 100                    1000




              0,1                                                                                                                                                                    0,1




            0,01                                                                                                                                                                   0,01




          0,001                                                                                                                                                                   0,001
                                                                                                                                                                                    The second example presents the top 30 monuments of
                                                                                                                                                                                the sub-tail of Statues Identified as Venus or Aphrodite at
                                                                                                                                                                                some point in history. Again the long tail appears in the •
        0,0001
                                                                                                                                                                                plot on the left:
                                                                                                                                                                                0,0001

        IN-degree of Ancient Monuments
       Disections of IN-degree (Number of Renaissance Documents)                                                                                                                Disections       of IN-degree (Number of Renaissance Documents)
                                                                                         Renaissance documents




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Renaissance documents




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Renaissance documents




        dark blue: Ancient of linked Renaissance
       dark blue: Number Monuments in general Documents                                                                                                                         dark blue:       Ancient Monuments in general
                                                                                                                 occurence in documents




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  occurence in documents




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              occurence in documents




        blue:
       blue +:      Occurence in Renaissance Documents
                    Non-architectural sculpture                                                                                                                                 blue +:          Non-architectural sculpture
                                                                                                                                                          link overpopulation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          link overpopulation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     link overpopulation




                    (i.e. number of depictions/descriptions)
       light blue: Statues of Venus/Aphrodite                                                                                                                                   light blue:      Statues of Venus/Aphrodite
                    Total number of links (including overpopulation)
        light blue: All except non-architectural sculpture
       orange x:                                                                                                                                                                orange x:        All except non-architectural sculpture
                                                                                                                                          total links




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           total links




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       total links




        NodeID       Ancient Monument                                                                                                                                           NodeID   Ancient Monument (non-architectural sculpture)                                         NodeID                                                                 Ancient Monument (statues of Venus/Aphrodite)
        150908       Arch of Constantine (triumphal arch)                                144                     360                      764             112%                  219823 Laocoon (group of statues)                                        98 156 156 0%          156661                                                                 Female Figure (statue)                           15 17 17 0%
        150770       Pantheon (temple)                                                   134                     629                      1131            80%                   150776 Horsetamers (group of statues)                                    75 107 108 1%          156022                                                                 Venus Felix (group of statues)                   15 16 16 0%
        150940
        150792
                     Arch of Septimius Severus (triumphal arch)
                     Colosseum (amphitheatre)
                                                                                         114
                                                                                         100
                                                                                                                 329
                                                                                                                 457
                                                                                                                                          754
                                                                                                                                          642
                                                                                                                                                          129%
                                                                                                                                                          40%
                                                                                                                                                                                151697 Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius (equestrian statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                150779 Apollo Belvedere (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         61 94 94 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         58 66 66 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                154662
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                158421                                                                 Acknowledgements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus Belvedere (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus Genetrix (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 15 15 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 9 9 0%
        219823       Laocoon (group of statues)                                          98                      156                      156             0%                    234323 Regisole (equestrian statue)                                      49 80 80 0%            156203                                                                 Venus ex Balneo (statue)                         8 8 8 0%
        151057       Column of Trajan (honorific column)                                 90                      261                      363             39%                   151625 Bacchic Sarcophagus (sarcophagus)                                 45 75 75 0%            151527                                                                       The Method Producing Scalable Image Matrices has0% filed as a patent with Bibliotheca Hertziana (Max-Planck-Institute for Art History) in Rome. The present work is part of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Crouching Venus (statue)                         7 12 12 been
        150958       Arch of Titus (triumphal arch)                                      89                      264                      372             41%                   151526 Torso Belvedere (statue)                                          42 53 53 0%            159346                                                                 method‘s further development with the help of7 extraordinary fund of the Max-Planck board. The current results on the canon of sculpture in the Renaissance are valuable in the ongoing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         an 7 7 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus (statue)
        150812       Baths of Diocletian (thermae)                                       80                      314                      506             61%                   153508 Vitellius (bust)                                                  40 40 40 0%            156208                                                                 Crouching Venus with Tortoise (statue)           6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       project with Prof. Ebert-Schifferer and her team at 7 7 0% Hertziana dealing with Repoussoir figures in paintings by Annibale Carracci and Caravaggio. We thank Stiftung Archaeologie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bibliotheca
        150826       Basilica of Constantine (basilica)                                  78                      198                      268             35%                   155031 Hercules (statue)                                                 36 51 51 0%            157758                                                                 Venus (statue)                                   6 7 7 0%
        150784       Temple of Mars Ultor (temple)                                       75                      159                      338             113%                  155719 Spinario (statue)                                                 35 36 36 0%            151588                                                                 in Munich for (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Diana of Ephesos providing us with the CENSUS5 7 data. Our regards also go to Prof. Arnold Nesselrath and the CENSUS team for continuing over 60 years of tradition with the BBAW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2005 7 0%
        150776       Horsetamers (group of statues)                                      75                      107                      108             1%                    155402 Lupa Capitolina (statue)                                          33 34 34 0%            157183                                                                 CENSUS (2006...). Finally special thanks go to5Prof. Albert-László Barabási whose inspiration Linked everything together.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus Anadyomene (statue)                            6 6 0%
        151227       Forum of Nerva (forum)                                              74                      172                      273             59%                   151330 Rivergod Marforio (statue)                                        32 37 37 0%            161469                                                                 Nude Female Torso (statue)                       5 6 6 0%
        150844       Baths of Caracalla (thermae)                                        70                      275                      506             84%                   155401 Horses of San Marco (group of statues)                            29 31 31 0%            156882                                                                 Goddess (statue)                                 5 5 5 0%
        150890
        151328
                     Theatre of Marcellus (theatre)
                     Temple of Antoninus and Faustina (temple)
                                                                                         70
                                                                                         62
                                                                                                                 205
                                                                                                                 160
                                                                                                                                          366
                                                                                                                                          228
                                                                                                                                                          79%
                                                                                                                                                          43%
                                                                                                                                                                                151737 Nile (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                151738 Tigris (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         27 32 32 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         26 30 30 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                158343
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                156207
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       References
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus Medici (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Crouching Venus (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 8 8 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 6 6 0%
        151697       Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius (equestrian statue)            61                      94                       94              0%                    152035 Apollo (statue)                                                   25 32 46 44%           156732                                                                 VenusG. Kubler (1962): The Shapes of Time. Remarks on the History of Things. New Haven/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (statue)                                  4 5 5 0%                                           L. von Ahn, R. Liu, M. Blum (2006): Peekaboom: A Game for Locating Objects in
        150779       Apollo Belvedere (statue)                                           58                      66                       66              0%                    151520 Nile (group of statues)                                           24 41 41 0%            156684                                                                 Venus (statue) University Press.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       London: Yale                                     4 4 4 0%                                      Images. CHI 2006 Proceedings. April 22-27, 2006, Montréal, Québec, Canada. http://www.
        151259       Mausoleum of Hadrian (sepulchral monument)                          57                      125                      142             14%                   151521 River God Tiber (group of statues)                                24 28 28 0%            157516                                                                 Ceres (statue)                                   4 4 4 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             E.H. Gombrich (1979): The Sense of Order. A Study in the Psychology of Decorative        peekaboom.org
        151930       Temple of Minerva (temple)                                          56                      149                      212             42%                   153877 Apollo Farnese (statue)                                           24 25 25 0%            159373                                                                 Venus (statue)                                   4 4 4 0%
        150806       Septizonium (facade)                                                56                      118                      124             5%                    155419 Trophy with Cuirass (statue group)                                22 26 26 0%            159632                                                                 Art. (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       VenusOxford: Phaidon, pp. 209-210.               4 4 4 0%                                           M. Schich (2007): Rezeption und Tradierung als Komplexes Netzwerk. Der CENSUS
        151038       Temple of Castor and Pollux (temple)                                55                      153                      207             35%                   151514 Antinous Belvedere (statue)                                       21 22 22 0%            156204                                                                 VenusG. Palla, I. Derényi, I. Farkas, and T. Vicsek 8 0% Uncovering the overlapping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (statue)                                  3 8 (2005):                                   und visuelle Dokumente zu den Thermen in Rom. (Diss.) HU-Berlin 2007.
        234323       Regisole (equestrian statue)                                        49                      80                       80              0%                    156663 Hercules Farnese (statue)                                         21 22 22 0%            157182                                                                 Venus Binding her Sandal (statue)                3 8 8 0%
        151320       Temple of Saturn (temple)                                           46                      110                      145             32%                   151507 Hercules and Telephos (group of statues)                          20 23 23 0%            161753
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       community structure of complex networks in nature and society. Nature, 435:814, 2005.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus (statue)                                   3 5 5 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           B.C. Russell, A. Torralba, K.P. Murphy, W.T. Freeman (2008): LabelMe: a database and
        151322       Curia Julia (curia)                                                 45                      95                       112             18%                   158989 Funerary Monument (relief)                                        20 23 23 0%            155784                                                                 VenusCENSUS (2005): Census of Antique Works 4 4 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Santa Croce (statue)                      3   of Art and Architecture Known in the      web-based tool for image annotation. To appear in the International Journal of Computer
        151625       Bacchic Sarcophagus (sarcophagus)                                   45                      75                       75              0%                    152103 Ariadne (statue)                                                  20 22 22 0%            156750                                                                 Leda and the Swan A. Nesselrath, Verlag Biering & Brinkmann / Stiftung Archäologie, Munich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Renaissance. ed.   (statue)                      3 4 4 0%                                      Vision. Revised January 2, 2008. http://labelme.csail.mit.edu/
        151065       Temple of Serapis (temple)                                          44                      120                      175             46%                   155687 Piping Marsyas (statuette)
        150785       Forum Augustum (forum)                                              43                      90                       129             43%
                                                                                                                                                                                      Note: In both cases above for each monument we show a directly20 20 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         20
                                                                                                                                                                                155420 Trophy with Fur Mantle (statue group)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                157973
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             attached photo or an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         19 23 23 0%            161783
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Venus (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1997-2005. http://www.dyabola.de
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Torso of Venus (statue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 4 4 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 4 4 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           M. Schich (2008): Method for producing scalable image matrices. PCT/EP2007/006900
        151046       Forum of Trajan (forum)                                             42                      82                       90              10%                   image Funerary Altar of T. Julius Aug. Mnester (funerary indicate that the monument is untraced,
                                                                                                                                                                                153320 of the first document. Question marks eitheraltar)                19 20 20 0%            157560                                                                 VenusCENSUS (2006...): Census of Antique Works of3Art and Architecture Known in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (statue)                                  3 3       0%                                  WO/2008/017430 http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?WO=2008017430.
        151526       Torso Belvedere (statue)                                            42                      53                       53              0%                    i.e. lost since the Renaissance, only verbally documented or without image
                                                                                                                                                                                151533 Capitoline Pan (statue)                                           19 19 19 information at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0%          158982                                                                 Venus (statue) Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Renaissance.                                     3 3 3 Wissenschaften and Humboldt-                 S. Lehmann, M. Schwartz and L.K. Hansen (2008): Biclique communities. Phys. Rev.
        151143       Basilica Aemilia (basilica)                                         41                      117                      176             50%                   156185 Seated Nymph (statue)                                             19 19 19 0%            159376                                                                 Sea Goddess (statue)                             3 3 3 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                the first document in the database.                                                                                                                                    Universität zu Berlin. http://www.census.de                                                                                                                                                                                                                                E 78, 016108
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 http://www.schich.info/pub/2008/Schich-2008-ETH-Poster.pdf

				
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