States of Consciousness

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					States of Consciousness
•       Definition
    •     Awareness of the environment and our own sensations,
          thoughts, and feelings at a given moment

•       3 Levels
    •     Conscious - alert and aware to your surroundings

    •     Preconscious - information that could be consciously ready,
          but that is not continuously available at the conscious level.
          ex. driving a car in a familiar area....tip-of-the-tongue

    •     Subconscious - information that is not easily accessible. Freud
          says repressed desires...Freudian Slip
        Consciousness (Continued)
• Modes of Consciousness
  • Normal, Waking Consciousness

  • Active Mode
     • involves planning, making decisions, & acting upon these decision.
       Includes long & short term goals and when acquiring knowledge.

  • Passive Mode
     • A less focused awareness of the environment
     • Example: Listening to music not analyzing it.
     • Daydreaming - turning attention away from external stimuli to
       internal thoughts and imagined scenarios.
     • Average high school student daydreams 1.5 hours a day
     • Is daydreaming all bad?
                 Biological Functions
•       Circadian Rhythms
    •      Cyclical changes in biological functioning
    •      Cycle lasts approximately 24 hours
    •      Large changes take place in body temperature, blood pressure, urine volume
    •      Clues/Programming due to clocks, sun, temperature outdoors

•       Ways to Throw Off Your Circadian Rhythms

    •      Isolation
          • If isolated from time cues, fall into a 25 hour rhythm. In studies, people
               fell asleep one hour later, woke-up one hour later.

    •      Jet Lag
          • A disturbance of the biological clock caused by traveling over many time
          •    For time zone shifts of 5 hours or more, can take several days to
               recover....Help by getting 5-hour doses of sun early each morning
             Biological Functions (Cont.)
•       Ways to Throw Off (Continued)
    •     Mild even when switch from or to daylight savings time

•       Owls vs. Larks Theory
    •      Larks - morning people.
          • Their temperature peaks before noon and have higher overall
    •      Owls - evening people
          • Temperature peaks in the late afternoon and performance peaks
               in the evening
          • Stereotyped as lazy
    •      Note to can accomplish as much in one hour in the
           morning as you can in 3 hours after midnight
• Background Information
  – We spend 1/3 of our lives asleep.
  – Average adults – 8 Hours, Teenager - 9+ Hours, Newborn – 16+
  – Record for least sleep is 70 year old English woman who sleeps
    only one hour a day

• Stages Of Sleep
  – Stage 1 - Transition from wakefulness to sleep
     • Onset is Sudden
     • Usually lasts 5-10 minutes
     • Body jerks as muscles relax and reflex
     • Wake up easily from this stage
    Stages of Sleep (Continued)
• Stage 2
   – rapid bursts of activity in the brain
   – Commonly experience sleep spindles
• Stage 3
   – brain activity increase, breathing slows, become relaxed
   – Sleepwalking occurs here.
• Stage 4
   – Deep Sleep
   – To go through all 4 stages takes about 90 minutes then to REM
• REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement)
   – Characterized by eyes rolling around in sockets and increases in
     brain activity
   – Most, but not all dreaming occurs during REM sleep
         REM Sleep (Continued)
• Functions of REM Sleep
   – Stimulate the developing brain
   – Newborns spend about 50% of sleep time in REM sleep
       • dream about 8-9 hours a day
   – Adults are helped to process events and sort/integrate memories
     formed during the day
• Why do we Sleep? Not entirely for sure why.
   – Repair and Restoration Theory
       • sleep allows us to recover from our daily activities
       • during sleep, the body increases its rate of cell division and the rate
         it produces protein.....growth
   – Evolutionary Theory of Sleep
       • an “evolutionary program” shuts us off during a dangerous
       • Humans are not adapted to night living...lions are
               Sleep Deprivation
• Lack of sleep is related to negative effects like
    weariness, poor concentration, irritability, and
    lapses in attention
•   Weight gain has been linked to lack of sleep due
    to changes in hormonal levels in the body
•   3rd day get tense & irritable.....4th day paranoia
    sets in
• Record is 11 days without sleep
• Australian Study compared sleep deprived
    drivers to drunk drivers on a driving simulator.
     – Found that after 24 hours a sleep deprived
       driver, drives like a legally drunk driver
• Mental experience during sleep that includes vivid visual images
• Everyone dreams, but many do not process the dreams so they
   cannot be remembered

• Nightmares
    – Bad dreams that occur during REM sleep, in which a series of
      events produce anxiety
    – Most people have 2 a month
    – Eliminating Nightmares
      a. Write down the dream in detail
      b. Change the dream any way you wish in detail
      c. Mentally rehearse the changed dream before you fall asleep
          Freudian View of Dreams
•       Called dreams the “Royal Road to the Unconscious”
    –     dreams are the expression of all the thoughts and impulses
          that we find unacceptable during our waking hours
    –     dreams are our unconscious minds seeping through
    –     someone sexually frustrated would have highly erotic dreams,
          while an unsuccessful person would dream about great

•       Two Components
    –     Manifest - the surface or what you remember
    –     Latent - the hidden meaning
    –     Examples
animals - in general represent all our biological needs

   *ape - remembered wisdom
   *bear - power and possessiveness in a relationship
   *bobcat - refined female sexuality....warning to be sensitive to
   mood swings
   *bull - sex drive and drive towards parenthood
   *cow - giving of ourselves to others (usually female to male)
   *dog - devotion to a loved one.......aggression(if teeth showing)
   *horse - general.. is pleasurable energy and exuberance
   *lion - the power of our physical strength, temper, etc.
   *monkey - foolishness and thoughtlessness
   *mouse - minor irritations, fears, or worries
   *pig - physical hunger and needs
   *rabbit - sexuality
   *rat - physical sickness or anxieties about health
   *sheep - being led into situations
   *wolf - fear
                  Sleep Disorders

• Insomnia -chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
   –   difficulty falling asleep initially
   –   difficulty remaining asleep
   –   persistent early-morning awakening
   –   about 15% of the population complains of this
• Sleep Apnea
   – Individuals stop breathing during sleep
   – Can occur 1 to 100 times a night
   – Two Types: Obstructive and Central
• What happens during
  obstructive sleep apnea?
• Risk Factors
  –   Family History
  –   Excess Weight
  –   Large Neck
  –   Male
  –   Ethnicity
  –   Abnormalities in Airway
  –   Smoker
  –   Alcohol Use
           Sleep Disorders (Continued)
• Narcolepsy
   – fall asleep at random throughout the day
   – attacks can last 10 to 20 minutes
   – fall into a deep REM sleep
   – can awake experiencing strong emotions from a realistic dream
• Somnambulism
   –   combines aspects of waking and sleeping
   –   able to see (impaired), walk, and talk
   –   usually during stages 3 & 4 so not acting out dreams
   –   No known cause or cure, more common in kids
• Night Terrors
   – violent episodes of panic that may last 15 to 20 minutes
   – victims scream and thrash about in terror, but when awake, don’t
     remember why
        Circadian Rhythm Disorders
• Circadian Rhythm Epidemic
•   Because of our hectic lifestyles, we don't get the sleep nature intended, and as a result, circadian
    related disorders are reaching epidemic proportions. For example, studies show that we only
    average 21 minutes of effective sunlight a day, far less than just a few decades ago. This may be
    one reason why the rate of depression and related disorders has doubled over the last 50 years,
    and sleep disorders have tripled during the same time.

•   This epidemic intensifies in the fall and winter when we lose even more sunlight. Most sleep and
    depression sufferers report worse problems in winter, and The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    estimates that 6% of Americans suffer from a depression known as Seasonal Affective Disorder
    (SAD), while another 14% have a milder form, called Winter Blues. Almost 18% of Americans
    suffer from depression and anxiety. In the US, over 65 million people suffer from circadian
    related disorders.

         Altered States of Consciousness
• Meditation
  – Methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of thoughts undertaken to
    reduce the activity of your nervous system
  – Types: Respiration (Zen), Dancing/Prayer (Sufism), Sound (Mantra)
  – Why Use? Reduces stress, Control urges (drug abuse), Peace of mind
  – Effects: Lowers metabolism and reduces the activity of the nervous system
• Hypnosis
  – Characterized by narrowed attention and increased suggestibility.
  – Not everyone can be hypnotized. Most important reason is if you want to
     and believe
  – Effects:
  1. Anesthesia
     Can withstand treatments that would normally cause considerable pain
  2. Sensory distortions & hallucinations
     Can make you hear sounds or see things that are not there
  3. Disinhibition- reduce inhibitions that would normally prevent subjects from
     acting in ways that they would see as immoral or unacceptable.
  4. Therapy
           Psychoactive Drugs
• Chemical substances that change moods and
•   Why are they used?
•   Substance use, abuse, and dependence
     – Abuse - a pattern of use that diminished ability to
       fulfill responsibilities
     – Dependence - compulsive use that often results in
       tolerance and/or withdrawal
        • Tolerance - higher drug doses are needed to
           produce the original effects
        • Withdrawal - Unpleasant symptoms following
           discontinuance of the drug
          Drug Classifications
• Depressants
  – Alcohol
  – Opiates (opium, morphine, heroin)
     • Relaxes/dulls the senses
     • withdrawal symptoms are chills, skin rash,
  – Barbiturates (downers, tranquilizers)
     • used to treat epilepsy and arthritis
     • small dosages can cause lightheadedness, silliness,
       poor motor skills
     • large doses lead to slurred speech, aggressive
Depressants (Continued)
• Opiates
  – Opium, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, heroin
  – Relaxes and dulls the senses
  – Pain Control
  – Withdrawal symptoms include severe dysphoria,
    sweating, nausea, Vomiting and pain
  – Depending on the opiate, withdrawal is different for
    each one. Heroin is fast and severe.
  – Can be very addictive to avoid withdrawal or because
    of psychological addiction.
•   Produce feelings of optimism & boundless energy
•   Caffeine
•   Nicotine
•   Amphetamines
     – Euphoria rush followed by “crashing”
•   Cocaine
     – Strongest addictive drug
     – Freud believed it freed your mind and brought about
       creative thinking
•   LSD, PCP, Marijuana
•   Distorts visual and auditory perceptions
•   Naturally occurs in some mushrooms & fungi
•   More subtle and delayed effects
•   Few side effects......tolerance builds fast
•   Marijuana – classified as a mild hallucinogen
     – Reverse Tolerance – seen in some instances
       but hard to prove based on dosages