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Memory and Cognition


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									  Memory and Cognition
Retrieving Memories and the Failure
            of Memory
               Memory Videos
•   Cards:
•   Passes:
                        Quick Review
• What is memory?
• What is the information-processing model?
   – What its 3 basic parts? What does each term mean?
• Where does encoding take place? Why there?
   – What are two ways of encoding?
   – Chunking and Rehearsal (effortful processing like elaborated
     rehearsal—need attention)
• What are the three stages/types of memory? Explain.
• What are the two levels of processing? Explain them.
   – What is an example of deep processing?
• What are the two main parts of LTM?
   – What 2 ways is declarative memory divided?
• What are the 3 types of amnesia we talked about?
          Implicit vs. Explicit Memory
• Implicit Memory—
  memory that you do not
  know you have; memory
  not deliberately learned;
  not conscious of
  – Most procedural
    memories; how to ride a
• Explicit Memory—
  memory that has been
  consciously learned and
  consciously recalled
  – Mostly declarative or
                 Retrieval and Priming
• Retrieval: the recovery of information
• Need retrieval cues for quicker & more accurate retrieval
• Think of a Google search
   – Needs to be specific
• Retrieval Cues: stimuli used to bring a memory into
  consciousness or behavior—smell, emotion, location
• Priming: activating specific associations in our memory
   – Or: providing cues that stimulate memory
   – Guess the words: _ a _ _ a n; t _ _n_s; N _ _ _ e
   – Batman; thanks; Niche
   – Look at this list: frogs, books, trimming, ocean
   – Guess again: t _ im_ _ _ g; f_ _ e _ o _; _oo_ _
   – trimming; freedom; looks
• Can work with incomplete pictures
• Can be incorrect
Types of Retrieval: Recall vs. Recognition
• Think of Essay vs MC
• Recall: reproducing
  previously learned info
• Recognition: ability to
  id that you have seen a
  stimuli before (Ex:
  faces in the computer
   – Cues available so
• Encoding Specificity
  Principle—memory is        Encoding      and Memory
  encoded and stored with
  cues that are related to the
  circumstances in which it
  was formed
  – You only learn things by
    taking MC tests then this is
    the way you will remember
    information…and essay
    would be difficult for you
• Mood-congruent memory—
  more likely to retrieve
  memories that match your         *TOT phenomenon: Tip-of-
  mood                             tongue—inability to recall a
  – If depressed—most              word while knowing it is a
    memories will be sad           memory
       Schacter: 7 sins of memory
• See Handout!!!
Hermann Ebbinghaus: Forgetting Curve
• Transience: long term     *He dealt with meaningless
  memories fade in          material; meaningful stuff fade,
                            but not as quickly
  strength over time
  – Studied this “sin”      *Motor skills, flashbulb
                            memories retained for long time
  – Learned list of
    nonsense syllables
    (KEB, RUZ, etc.)
  – Tried to recall them
    over varying time
  – Rapid initial loss of
    memory, then a
    declining rate of
    loss—forgetting curve
         Advantages of the “7 Sins”
• Transience—helps the brain
  from becoming overwhelmed
• Blocking—allows most
  relevant information to come
  to mind
• Absent-mindedness—a by
  product of our ability to
• Misattribution, bias, and
  suggestibility—occur b/c
  memory is built to deal w/
  meaning and rid of details
• Persistence—help people not
  make same mistakes; shows
  us how much memory is tied
  to emotion

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