Memory and Cognition
Retrieving Memories and the Failure
• What is memory?
• What is the information-processing model?
– What its 3 basic parts? What does each term mean?
• Where does encoding take place? Why there?
– What are two ways of encoding?
– Chunking and Rehearsal (effortful processing like elaborated
• What are the three stages/types of memory? Explain.
• What are the two levels of processing? Explain them.
– What is an example of deep processing?
• What are the two main parts of LTM?
– What 2 ways is declarative memory divided?
• What are the 3 types of amnesia we talked about?
Implicit vs. Explicit Memory
• Implicit Memory—
memory that you do not
know you have; memory
not deliberately learned;
not conscious of
– Most procedural
memories; how to ride a
• Explicit Memory—
memory that has been
consciously learned and
– Mostly declarative or
Retrieval and Priming
• Retrieval: the recovery of information
• Need retrieval cues for quicker & more accurate retrieval
• Think of a Google search
– Needs to be specific
• Retrieval Cues: stimuli used to bring a memory into
consciousness or behavior—smell, emotion, location
• Priming: activating specific associations in our memory
– Or: providing cues that stimulate memory
– Guess the words: _ a _ _ a n; t _ _n_s; N _ _ _ e
– Batman; thanks; Niche
– Look at this list: frogs, books, trimming, ocean
– Guess again: t _ im_ _ _ g; f_ _ e _ o _; _oo_ _
– trimming; freedom; looks
• Can work with incomplete pictures
• Can be incorrect
Types of Retrieval: Recall vs. Recognition
• Think of Essay vs MC
• Recall: reproducing
previously learned info
• Recognition: ability to
id that you have seen a
stimuli before (Ex:
faces in the computer
– Cues available so
• Encoding Specificity
Principle—memory is Encoding and Memory
encoded and stored with
cues that are related to the
circumstances in which it
– You only learn things by
taking MC tests then this is
the way you will remember
would be difficult for you
• Mood-congruent memory—
more likely to retrieve
memories that match your *TOT phenomenon: Tip-of-
mood tongue—inability to recall a
– If depressed—most word while knowing it is a
memories will be sad memory
Schacter: 7 sins of memory
• See Handout!!!
Hermann Ebbinghaus: Forgetting Curve
• Transience: long term *He dealt with meaningless
memories fade in material; meaningful stuff fade,
but not as quickly
strength over time
– Studied this “sin” *Motor skills, flashbulb
memories retained for long time
– Learned list of
(KEB, RUZ, etc.)
– Tried to recall them
over varying time
– Rapid initial loss of
memory, then a
declining rate of
Advantages of the “7 Sins”
• Transience—helps the brain
from becoming overwhelmed
• Blocking—allows most
relevant information to come
• Absent-mindedness—a by
product of our ability to
• Misattribution, bias, and
memory is built to deal w/
meaning and rid of details
• Persistence—help people not
make same mistakes; shows
us how much memory is tied