Karl Marx _1818-1883_

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					Karl Marx (1818-1883)
            Life and Times
• Born in Trier (Rhineland), Jewish father
  „converted‟ to Christianity
• Studies Law in Bonn, Berlin
• Editor at the „Rheinische Zeitung‟, Exile in
  Paris 1843. Return to Germany in
  aftermath of Revolution 1848
• Exile in London, dies impoverished
        Interlocutors and Influences

                               Bruno Bauer

                                             G.F.W. Hegel
Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872)
• Hegel‟s System: Philosophical Idealism
• Consciousness, Ideas and Geist (Spirit)
• Ideas can change the World
• Young and Old Hegelians
• „The real is the rational, and the rational is
  the real‟
• Religion as a „veiled Truth‟
• The Essence of Christianity (1841)
• Christianity‟s Propositions
     •   God made the World
     •   God made Man
     •   God became Man
     •   God can save Man through Love
• Feuerbach‟s Propositions
     •   Man made the World
     •   Man made God                    Religion as
     •   Man became God                  veiled Humanism
     •   Man can save Man through Love
      Religion Reinterpreted
• From Theology to Anthropology
• „God is nothing else than the nature of
  man purified from that which to the human
  individual appears … an evil‟

• God and Man:
  An inverse

• Religion and Anthropomorphism
     On the Jewish Question
• Bauer: Both, State and Jews need to be
  emancipated from Religion
• Abolition of Religious Identities
• Secularization of the State

    Emancipation of Society from Religion
               Marx‟s Response
• Dig Deeper!
  Political Emancipation vs. Human Emancipation
 (Non-Discrimination, Non-Interference)

• The Lesson from the United States
  A „Secular‟ State and Religious Civil Society
  “Rather we tell them: Because you can be emancipated
    politically without completely and fully renouncing
    Judaism, political emancipation by itself is not human
Religion, Psychology and Politics
            (The LSAT Version)

  God                        Man

  State                      Civil Society

  Citoyen                    Bourgeois

  Heaven                     Earth
             Christianity and State
             as Positive Projections
• Freud: Projection as Coping Mechanism in cases of
  Cognitive Dissonance (Discrepancy between Real and
• Christianity and State: “Opium for the People”
• Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, Morality and…. Reality
• Marx and Rousseau
• Marx vs. Feuerbach
   –    The Essence of Man vs. Ensemble of Social Relations
   –    Interpretation vs. Transformation

       “The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways;
       the point is, to change it”
                                         Theses on Feuerbach (1845)
           Anti-Semitism as
          Negative Projection
• Interpreting Anti-Semitism
• Judaism as Self-Interest, Bargaining, Money
• “The Jews have emancipated themselves
  insofar as the Christians have become Jews”
• Anti-Semitism as the Self-Loathing of the
• Human Emancipation: Overcome „Judaism‟ and
  Reconcile Citoyen/Bourgeois, Civil
  Society/State, Individual/Species Being
    Alienated Labor

The Economic and Philosophic
      Manuscripts 1844
         Dimensions of Alienation


                                           From Nature
From Product

                                       From Men/Women
   From Process
                  From Species-Being   •Capitalists
                    Taylorism Then…
Frederick W. Taylor:

The Worker as “an ox”
and “intelligent gorilla”
(From Principles of
Scientific Management
… And Now
Nature as Productive Factor
The Communist Manifesto

   With Friedrich Engels (1849)
                      The Basic Plot


                           What are
Class Struggle                                           Proletariat

as Motor of History

                          From Ancient to Feudal to Capitalist to
                          Socialist Modes of Production
                             Historical Materialism in a
                     “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but, on
                     the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousness” (587)

A Social Formation

                              Science, Religion, Politics.
                                   Philosophy, Law
                                                                             Mode of Production
                            Relations of Production                                a.k.a.
                                                                                Economic Base

                               Productive Forces
      Praise for the Bourgeoisie
• Development of Productive Forces
  (instruments and means, technology,
  knowledge, natural and human resources)
• Freeing People from the Shackles of
  Feudalism and the “idiocy of rural life”
• Political Centralization
• Capitalism as a Global Phenomenon
• A Revolutionary Force
 Capitalism Headed for a Crisis
• Increased Competition upward Pressure on
  Wages leads to Rationalization in Production
• Unemployment, „Leveling‟ of Classes
• Relative and Absolute Impoverishment
• A Crisis of Overproduction
• Concentration and Centralization of Capital
  (Wal-Mart vs. Joe‟s Hardware)
• Capitalism as a non self-sustaining System
• The Role of the State?
            Instrument vs. Relative Autonomy
    Talking About a Revolution
• Leveling, Impoverishment and Conflict

              Working Class Consciousness and
• Revolutions and their objective and subjective
• The “violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie”
• “What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces,
  above all, is its own gravediggers” (578)
    Commodities and Values
• Commodities: Things produced for market
  exchange vs. subsistence
• Use-Value, Exchange-Value and Value
• Use-Value = Utility
• Exchange Value = Relation
• Value = Amount of Labor socially necessary
  to (re-)produce a commodity
• Surplus-Value?
Capital, Surplus-Value, Exploitation
• Capital is money that undergoes a
  particular pattern of circulation
• C – M – C vs.          M – C – M‟
• Where does the ‘ come from
• Surplus Labor and Surplus Value
                   Surplus Value
          • Worker needs $ 100 to reproduce her labor power

  Pre-Capitalist Setting                    Capitalist Setting
                                    •   Worker is „free‟: No
• Means of Production                   means of p. and ability to
  owned by Producer                     contract
• 5 Hours = 100 Shoes               •   Worker is compensated
• Sale on Market =                      according to value of
                                        labor power ($ 100)
  $ 100
                                    •   Worker works 10 Hours =
• Continue Working,                     200 Shoes
  Reading, Playing?
                                    •   5 Hours of Surplus Labor:
                                        The Source of Profit
     Relative and Absolute Surplus-Value
                  Standard                                     Absolute                   Relative


                                               Surplus Labor
          Surplus Labor

                                                                          Surplus Labor
                             Necessary Labor

                                                                                              Necessary Labor
     Socialism and Communism
• Historical Materialism and Utopia
• The Abolition of Property
• The Dictatorship of the Proletariat
• W(h)ither the State?
• „From Each according to their Ability, to Each according
  to their Need‟
• “…We shall have an association, in which the free
  development of each is the condition for the free
  development of all.” (The Communist Manifesto 1849)
“…While in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive
  sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch
  he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes
  it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to
  hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening,
  criticise after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming
  hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic.” (The German Ideology
       What‟s wrong with Marxism?
•   A Science of Social Relations?
•   The Adaptability of Capitalism
•   Reductionism
•   A Recipe for Totalitarianism?
      Marx, Lenin and the Soviet Union
      Theory and Practice