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chapter 34 -welcome to the 20th century

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					Welcome to the 20th Century
 China – in ruins
 Japan – in progress
 India – in search of self
 Africa- in chains
 Middle East- in revolt
China 1900-WWI
   Enter 20th Century on heels of defeats
    ◦ Sino Japanese War – complete humiliation
    ◦ 100 Days Reform – complete waste of
      resources
    ◦ Boxer Rebellion – end of the dynasty
Sino Japanese War 1895
 Japan was an ancient tributary nation
 Viewed as culturally and racially inferior
 Began when Japan sent troops to Korea
  to support rebels
 King of Korea asked China for help
 Japan forced Korea to declare war on
  China
 First test of Asian military upgrades and
  China failed
Treaty of Shimonoseki
 Ended war
 Li Hung Chang negotiated for Chinese
 Ito Hirobumi for Japan
 China ceded Taiwan, the Pescadores
 Liaotung Peninsula
100 Days Reform
 Led by Qing Emperor Kuang-hsu
 Based on work of K‟ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch‟i
  cha‟ao
 40 reform edicts
    ◦ Stressed 5 relationships
    ◦ Stressed elmination of corruption
    ◦ Called for educational reform –Confucian ethics and
      Western Technology
    ◦ Develop industry specifically steel
Empress – third regency
 Manchus overthrow Kang-hsu and kill his
  supporters
 Empress is named regent for 3rd time
 Killed intellectual calls for reform
    ◦ Only option left was grassroots level
    ◦ Only option left was violence
China failed to meet the western
challenge because
1.   It was still basically self sufficient
2.   Its whole philosophy was tied to worship of the past
     1. Filial piety
     2. Ancestor reverence of Confucian tradition
3.   Too large to conquer – control ports yes interior no
4.   Vast resources but being used in traditional manner
5.   Chinese governmental institutions maintained balance
     of emperor/educated gentry/peasants
6.   An agrarian empire with neither the need, desire, or
     impetuous to change
7.   Self satisfaction
Final decade of Qing
• Slowly, slowly change came to China
• Conservative reform of the government
  • After 1901 became to bring back the 100 Days
    Reforms
  • Students sent aboard
  • Military schools with modern ideas at home
  • Encouraged domestic enterprise
  • Allowed political meetings
• Changes led to nationalism and growing anti-
  Manchu feelings
•Administrative Reform
• Move toward centralization of power and away
  from traditional decentralized form
• New administrative offices set up along side old
  •   Old withered and died
  •   New Tsungli Yamen –Foreign Affairs
  •   Ministry of Internal Affairs
  •   Ministry of the Army
Law Reform
•   Required to end Extraterritoriality
•   1907 Shen Chia-pen
    • Began by trying to keep traditional values
    • Ended with radical reforms on the Japanese
      model
    • Did away with Confucian 5 relationships
    • Made all men equal under the law
    • rejected
Greatest Reform –Education
•   not for the masses for the civil servants
•   Objective to prepare students to take examinations
    • Classical teaching
    • Modern teaching
•   Goal government job
•   Challenged by missionary schools
    •   Western education
    •   Western training in medicine and science
    •   Sons of merchants(forbidden education in old system) and officials
    •   Of 187 students in 1904 only 57 Christian
•   1905 old schools closed and new schools based on Japanese model
    opened
The new Chinese Army
•   Old model
    • Manchu Banners
      • Officers chosen in an Examination system
        •   Horsemanship
        •   Swordsman ship
        •   Hand to hand combat
        •   archery
    • Decentralized Chinese militia
      • Trained soldiers
      • Loyal to man that paid the check
      • Some modern weapons
    • Peiyang Field Force
      • German Trained and armed
      • Led by General Yuan Shih-k‟ai
Yuan Shih-k‟ai
•   Military leader 1900-1911
•   Chooses the right side and each battle between
    Qing and modernization
•   Built 6 divisions of the army
•   Opened 6 military schools
•   Well drilled, highly educated officers and troops
•   Copied by other provincial leaders
•   Japanese and Russian advisors and teachers
    added
Military Schools
•   Became power center for the next
    generation
•   Forged nationalism
•   Forged friendships and rivalries
•   Produced scholar officers
•   Sent to Japan to study and met up with
    exiled anti-Manchu nationalists
•   Inspired by Japan‟s modernization
Constitutional movement
• After Japan with a constitutional monarch
  defeated Russia
• Russia accept Duma
• Move in China to develop a constitutional
  monarchy
    • 1908 Empress announces a 9 year plan to achieve
      constitution
     • She dies
     • 3 yr old Pu-I is named emperor
     • Father Prince Ch‟un rules as regent
        • Staunch Manchu conservative
        • Reforms end
Republican Revolutionary
movement
•   Began with Chinese Students in Japan
•   More closely related by history and
    culture then to west
•   Had faced the same unequal treatment by
    West
•   Quick modernization seen as model
•   Japan wanted to foster Pan Asian
    cooperation against west
Early leaders
•   Liang Ch‟i-Ch‟ao
    •   Classical scholar
    •   Traveled to Hawaii and US
    •   Student of Kang yu wei
    •   Took up Social Darwinism
        • History is nations competing against one another
          for dominance and survival
    • Hope lay in education of the masses
    • Published extensively in Japan
Sun Yat Sen
•   Professional revolutionary
•   Lived in Honolulu, converted to Church of England, Attended Anglican
    school in Honolulu
•   Studied western science in Hong Kong
•   Trained as a doctor
•   Created his own secret society on the Triad model calling for the
    overthrow of the Manchu‟s
•   Planed a revolution for Canton
    • Discovered, escaped to Japan then to England
    • Captured and kidnapped by Chinese in England
    • British demanded his release and he became famous
• Backed by overseas Chinese financially
• Joined the Triads for their network
• 1900 had to formalize his revolutionary plans to compete with other
  groups
Three Principals of the People
•   Sun Yat Sen‟s plan
    • 1 nationalism
      • Anti Manchu
      • Pro Chinese
      • Anti Western
    • 2 democracy
      • 5 powers
        • Legislative, judicial, executive –western
        • Examination and censorial - Chinese
    • 3 socialism
      • Single land tax to encourage investment
      • Not a re-division of land
T‟ung meng Hui 1905
•   Secret society set up in Japan
•   Sponsored by Japan
•   Sun Yat Sen in head position
•   Made up of dissidents from all provinces
•   Uprising attempted but failed by 1909
    losing support and finances
Double ten (10-10)
• Planed uprising discovered by Manchu
• Anti Manchu military in Wuchang began revolt
• Provinces fell by December most under control of Qing
  generals who declared independence
• Sun Yat Sen in Denver at beginning was elected
  president of the Republic
    • Offered to resign and give Yuan Shih Kai his place if you would
      support the revolution
    • Yuan accepted
    • Feb. 12, 1912 Pu‟I abdicated as emperor of China
Yuan Shih Kai
•   Will eventually name himself emperor
    thus betraying another cause 1915
•   Real power fell to provinces
•   Ruled by military generals many of whom
    were trained by Yuan Shih kai‟s military
    school
•   War Lords take the real power
    • Peace in exchange for loss of rights
Japan 1900-1917
•   Had westernized law to end
    extraterritoriality
•   Had created a constitutional monarchy
•   Economy changed little until 1905
    • Gaining Korea and Manchuria after the Sino-
      Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars gave raw
      materials they needed
Economic boom 1905-1913
•   Traditional economy strong
•   Demand for cottons, bicycles part of new
    light industry strong
•   Impetus for growth comes from Military
    • Government expenditures made up 40% of
      Economy
     • Bridges, roads, ports, iron and steel works
     • Ships and guns
Taxes and investment
•   Increased but so did income
•   Foreign investment by
    • General Electric
    • Dunlop _ tires/rubber
    • Foreign purchase of government bonds
     • Used to finance Russo-Japanese war
Major industries
•   Cotton was king
    • Major export
    • Provide ¼ of the world‟s exports
•   Heavy industry was financed by
    government
    • Railroads
•   Shipping
Zaibatsu
   Leading industrial families
    ◦ Government supported
    ◦ Financial aid and privileges to those that took the chance
   Cooperated with needs of government
   Began to dictate government policy dependent of business needs
   Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo and Yasuda big 4
   Kawasaki and Aikawa‟s Nissan important in arms industry
   No monopolies but worked together to control supply and prices
Most firms
   Less then 5 people employed in ½ of industries in 1930
    ◦ No bargaining power
    ◦ Most believed they would return to farm
    ◦ Working conditions were bad
   Landownership
    ◦   Mostly small farmers
    ◦   Rented out the few acres they couldn‟t farm
    ◦   48 % of all farmers tenants of these small farms
    ◦   Farmers Unions formed to protect rights of tenants
Local government
   Buraku – hamlet
    ◦   10 to 70 families
    ◦   Responsible for order
    ◦   Responsible for disaster management
    ◦   Ostracism main punishment for those that broke rules or
        embarrassed the group
   Mayors appointed by prefecture governor
   Elected village council
Diet – legislature
   Votes were tied to loyalty
   Village, prefect, province
   Boss approved all voted
Japanese beliefs
 Emperor was sacred and inviolable
 Japan seen as moral
    ◦ Filial piety
    ◦ Loyalty
    ◦ Family
Modern India
 Marked from the end of the Seypoy Rebellion
 British Crown takes control of the sub-
  continent
    ◦   Pakistan
    ◦   Bangladesh
    ◦   North India
    ◦   Deccan
    ◦   South India
    ◦   Sri Lanka
Problems needing Addressing
   Cry for vengeance by Europeans for the
    slaughter of their friends and families
    ◦ Entire City of Delhi turned out of the city
       Most innocent victims themselves
       Precursor of Khmer Rouge in Phnom Phen in 1970‟s
       Call to destroy the Mosque of Shah Jahan
   Canning (governor-general) called for clemency
       Canning by his actions brought the north under control and
        stopped retributions
Political Change
   East India Company stripped of power and
    Crown takes control
   Controlled by Secretary of State for India-
    responsible to British Parliament
   Governor-general became the Queen‟s Viceroy
    directly accountable to her
   Queen Victoria in the Proclamation of 1858
    called for religious toleration and racial justice
   Legislature with Indian representatives was
    allowed
Economics
 Experts sent from Britain
 Introduced annual budgets
 Income tax
 10% tariff on imports
 Paper currency
 Ended financial deficits
Civil Service
   Remodeled the army
   East Indian company army disbanded
   European element was from regular army
   50/50 European/Native troops
   Officer Corps European
    ◦ Rajputs and Brahmins were not allowed to serve
   Majority from Punjab or Nepal
    ◦ Pathans, Sikhs
    ◦ Gurkhas
Inheritance and Property
 Princes recognized for their support during the
  uprising
 Power of princes was recognized and the were
  allowed to adopt successors
 Bengal Rent Act of 1859
    ◦ Gave occupancy rights to all tenants of twelve years‟
      proved standing
    ◦ Followed by Punjab and Oudh Tenancy Acts 01 1868
Shut the door after the horse
was out
   Emphasis on past errors
   No future planning seen in reforms
   Material progress stressed
   Non interference in Indian Life
   Britain looked to old leaders/ but people turned
    away (Raja‟s)
   People view old leaders as incapable of
    throwing out the British so they turned to new
    leaders
Public Works
   Roads
     ◦ Strategic
     ◦ Commercial
     ◦ Life immortalized in Kim by Kipling
   Railways
     ◦ 200 miles in 1858
     ◦ 25,000 miles in 1900
     ◦ Brought pilgrims to religious festivals
     ◦ Broke down caste taboos
     ◦ Largest and best railway system in Asia
   Irrigation canals
     ◦ Aided in ending famine
Industrialization
   Made possible by railroads
   Coal and iron industry – Bengal and Behar
   By World War II India 6th largest producer of steel
   Rebirth of cotton textile industry
    ◦ By 1914 4th largest exporter
    ◦ New factories developed in Bombay(Mumbai), Gujarat, and
      Madras(Chennai)
   Jute – burlap Calcutta became the worlds#1 supplier
   Plantation industries – need railroads for transportation
    ◦ Tea – by 1900 took over from China as largest exporter
    ◦ Rubber and coffee
   Aided by many Scots that left impoverished homeland for
    employment in India
Education
   New jobs, new lives required an “English” education
   Education in western studies brought advancement and
    material benefits
    ◦ Undermined the caste system as it was education and
      intelligence that determined occupation and social status
    ◦ Largest single Westernizing agency in India
Christian Missionaries
   Catholic in the South
   Protestant in the North
   Major contribution lay in Medical work
    ◦   Schools and colleges
    ◦   Hospitals and dispensaries
    ◦   Moral teachings led to more concern for lower castes
    ◦   Few converts but many impacted
    ◦   Big influence on the lives of women
Religion-Hinduism
   Brahmins realized their whole existence and religion were under attack
    ◦ First reacted by non reaction
    ◦ Then began to form radical groups
       Some moved away from religion to accept Western humanism as is
       End Hindu abuses by ending Hinduism
    ◦ Brahmo Samaj – Ram Mohan Roy
       Tried to eliminated abuses of suttee, idolatry, extreme caste
       Based on the Upanishads – too intellectual for the masses
    ◦ Arya Samaj-Swami Dayananda
       Outright attack on Traditional Hinduism, Christianity and Islam
       Relied on Vedas
       Aryan purity – anti Muslim
    ◦ Ramakrishna
       Taught mediation and withdrawal
       Vivekananda – disciple added social gospel and proclaimed all religions 1
       Vedanta missions
Religion –Islam
   Took a hit to their pride and identity with collapse of the Mogul
    Empire
   Regarded Hindus a idolaters
   Regarded British as infidels
   Turned to conservative reform
    ◦ Militants attacked Sikhs in Punjab
    ◦ Education – Anglo-Oriental college founded by Sayyid Ahamad Khan
The new upper caste
   Created by British
    ◦   Those men that served as aides to the English
    ◦   Learned English and provided advice and cash for British investment
    ◦   Helped British rule
    ◦   Belonged to Brahmin, Banya(mercantile), or Kayasth(ministerial) castes
         Good positions in religious scale but humble not ruling classes
    ◦ Money through service and finance
         Adoption of western clothing and living styles
         Adoption of western ideas
    ◦ Merchants that benefited by British trade
         Sent sons to Britain to be educated
         Sent daughters to school for better marriages
    ◦ Parsi‟s rose in power
         Small Persian minority
         Zoroastrian – neither Hindu nor Muslim
         Bankers in Bombay and western India
Government Employees
   In past Khastyia class were rulers – just below Brahmin
   Work in government and education seen to be high in
    status
    ◦ Government was divine in origin and rulers existed to keep
      dharma(duty and order)
   Indians were high court judges
   New jobs created new positions
    ◦ Prestige
    ◦ Station masters , ticket takers, irrigation masters, customs
      officers, all seen as high job that required respect
Professional groups

   Lawyers
    ◦   Needed for new courts
    ◦   Educated in English
    ◦   First independent profession not tied to caste
    ◦   First group of modern Indians
Growth of this new educated class
threatened in the late 1800‟s
   Afghan war seen as a waste of lives
   Dispatch of troops to Cyprus seen as furthering imperialism
   Lowering the age for examination into the civil service seen as
    giving English an advantage
   Surendranath Banerjea founded nationalistic Indian Association
    ◦ Pushed to reform legal system and have Europeans tried by Indian court
    ◦ Europeans got ½ jury European
   Indian National Congress formed to push for change
    ◦ 1884 mostly lawyers, journalists and school teachers
    ◦ Pledged loyalty to Britain and called for reform
Nationalism
   A new concept for Indians
    ◦ Loyalty was to state or city
    ◦ Orthodox Hindu saw an Arya-varta, land of Aryans excluding Muslims
    ◦ Only Western educated saw themselves as “Indian”
    ◦ Had to grow in India before it could address it colonial master
   Public opinion in Britain supported a move to Indian self
    government
    ◦ Not commercial interest
    ◦ Public interest
    ◦ Western style self government seen as goal
First Fifteen years of Indian National
Congress
   Gentlemen‟s club
   Passed resolutions of the benefits of British Rule
   Agreed with the need to extend self rule
   Agreed to urging more Indian employees in the Indian civil service
   Agreed with idea of lowering import tariffs
   First signs of division were along religious lines
    ◦ Sayyid Ahmad Khan
       Democracy meant majority rule
       Majority rule meant Hindu Rule
    ◦ Maratha Tilak
       Condemned government as pro Muslim
Ideological rift in the Indian National
Congress
   Moderate and Radical
    ◦ Both from Poona
    ◦ Both from same caste
    ◦ Both teachers at Fergusson College
   Gopal Krishna Gokhale
    ◦ Gradual reform
    ◦ Social reform seen as necessary for independence
   Bal Gangadhar Tilak-Lokamanya(savior of the people)
    ◦   Radical called for swaraj, self rule
    ◦   Used anti Muslim feeling
    ◦   Champion of Hindu orthodoxy – keep castes
    ◦   Independence first reform later
Lord Curzon – Viceroy
 Liked the pomp and glamour of his role
 Made state visits and traveled in style
 Foreign policy
    ◦ First to call Afghan leader “His majesty” lending British approval to a “new” royal family
    ◦ Redrew the border between Northwest India (modern Pakistan) and Afghanistan
   Overhauled the bureaucratic machine
    ◦ Reorganized the police force
    ◦ Reorganized the tax system
          Took pressure of land owners
          Listened to complaint that famine was caused by excessive land tax
    ◦ Created the Archaeological Department to find and preserve Indian history
   Divided Bengal
    ◦ Opposed by nationalist
    ◦ Led to problems as division led to religious tension
          Not intentional but ½ Hindu majority, ½ Muslim
1905 Consequences of Bengal Partition
   Terrorist movement
    ◦ Bengal
          Tied to Kali cult
          goddess of destruction
    ◦ Western India
          Tilak leader sentence to 6 yrs. In prison
          made him a hero
   Split in the Congress Party
    ◦ Moderates vs. extremists
          Tilak and radicals take control
          Called for boycott of British goods and passive resistance to government
    ◦ Moderates called for constitutional reform which did not include self rule
   Morely-Minto Reform act
    ◦ Durbar form of government
          Indians assumed executive offices in the higher services
          And Indian legislative councils given more power
    ◦ Well received and diffused Bengal issue
    ◦ Partition of Bengal is revoked in 1911
The scramble for Africa
 Between 1875 and 1900, European powers seized almost the entire
  continent
 Early explorers charted the waters, gathered information on resources
    ◦ Missionaries like David Livingstone set up mission posts
    ◦ Henry Stanley sent by newspaper to explore
    ◦ Leopold II of Belgium to create colony in Congo
   1870s
    ◦ To protect their investments and Suez Canal, Britain occupied Egypt, 1882
    ◦ South Africa settled first by Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) in seventeenth century
          By 1800 was a European settler colony with enslaved black African population
          British seized Cape Colony in early nineteenth century, abolished slavery in 1833
          British-Dutch tensions led to Great Trek of Afrikaners inland to claim new lands
          Mid-nineteenth century, they established Orange Free State in 1854, Transvaal in 1860

        Discovery of gold and diamonds in Afrikaner lands; influx of British settlers

        Boer War, 1899-1902: British defeated Afrikaners, Union of South Africa
The Berlin Conference, 1884-1885
 European powers set rules for carving Africa into colonies
 Occupation, supported by European armies,
 established colonial rule in Africa

   By 1900 all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, was controlled by European
    powers

   Colonial rule challenging and expensive
    "Concessionary companies": granted considerable authority to private companies
    ◦   empowered to build plantations, mines, railroads
    ◦   made use of forced labor and taxation, as in Belgian Congo
    ◦   unprofitable, often replaced by more direct rule
    ◦   Direct rule: replacing local rulers with Europeans--French model
           justified by "civilizing mission“
           hard to find enough European personnel
    ◦ Indirect rule: control over subjects through local institutions--British model
               worked best in African societies that were highly organized
                assumed firm tribal boundaries where often none existed
The Death of the Ottoman
Empire
   Challenges
    ◦ Persian
    ◦ Christian
    ◦ Arab Nationalism
Iran - Persia
 The struggle for control of the Middle
  east
 Boundary issues between Empires
 Sh‟ia vs. Sunni
Christian
   Autonomous states within empire
    ◦ Lebanon
    ◦ Balkans
Arab
 Egypt
 Arab State
 Wahhabism – the Islam Protestant
  reformation
Iran
 In better condition then the Ottoman‟s
 Fewer religious minorities (most all Sh‟ia)
 Ethnic minorities not rebellious
 Shah‟s attempted to modernize and
  centralize powers
 Tried to apply western technology and
  remain independent
Iran and the West
   Russian pressure military
    ◦ Lost territory
       Armenia
       Turkish territories in north
   British pressure economic
    ◦ Accords and concessions
    ◦ British built telegraph in 1864
    ◦ Reuter Concession of 1872
       Exclusive right to develop the mineral resources
       Establish a bank
       Build railroad
Russia vs England in Iran
 Russia forced cancellation of Reuter
  Concession but Britain retained oil rights
  Treaty of 1901
 Persian Constitutional revolution in 1907
    ◦ National assembly
    ◦ Constitutional monarch Shah
   Fear of German expansion caused Russia and
    England to draw up an entente(agreement)
     ◦ Russia got sphere of influence in north
     ◦ England got the south
   When WWI broke out the Russian invasion of North
    Iran was underway
Nationalism in Arab states
   Wahhabism
    ◦ Muhammad ibn „Abd al-Wahhab‟(1703-1787)
      Called for a return to the pure Islam of the Prophet
      Rejected superstitions and false beliefs
      Chief convert Muhammad ibn Su‟ud (Sau‟ud)
          Emir of Dar‟iyya in Najd to be founder of Saudi Royal Family
          Called jihad to purify religion and bring Arabs to Arabia
          Conquered Arabian Peninsula and threatened Syria and Iraq
          Defeated by Ottomans who had the superior artillery
Young Turks constitutional revolution
of 1908 – military officers
 Free elections
 Promise of a new era of freedom and
  brotherhood
 Great hope and greater disappointment
 Western powers took advantage of the loss of
  the Sultan‟s powers
    ◦ Austria-Hungary grabbed
       Bosnia and Herzegovina
    ◦ Bulgaria declared independence
    ◦ Crete announced union with Greece
    ◦ Italy attacked Tripoli and took Libya
Balkan war
   October 1912
    ◦ Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece grabbed land from
      Ottomans
   June 1913
    ◦ Ottomans regained some land when victors
      turned against each other
Coup d‟etat
   Young Turks government overthrown in
    1913
    ◦ Military dictatorship takes its place
    ◦ Joined Central Powers – Germany
World War I
   Last war with Ottomans as a great power
   Turkish warships joined German navy to bomb
    Black Sea ports of Russia
   Sultan called for jihad against their enemies but
    got no support
   At first successful regained land from Russia
   Defeated British/Australian attack at Gallipoli
   After 1917 Russian dropped out but Britain
    advanced from the south
Ethnic Loyalty
   Only 2 groups turned against the
    Ottomans during the war
    ◦ Arabs of Arabia
    ◦ Armenians in Anatolia
    ◦ Most people peaceful but actions of
      nationalist have great impact
Armenia
 Russia formed Armenia brigade
 Many Ottoman Armenians joined
 Armenian guerrilla bands war active
 Rebellion in Van and Zeytun
    ◦ Ottomans decided to deport and relocate the
      Armenians in Anatolia
    ◦ Task of escorting deportees given to local posses
    ◦ More than 1,000,000 Armenians died
    ◦ Starved, beaten and shot
   Government did court martial 1400 soldiers for
    the failure to protect the population
Arabia
 England recruited Saudis
 T.E. Lawrence
    ◦ One of several “Arab” experts sent to recruit
      Bedouins
    ◦ Guerrilla war against the Ottoman troops
    ◦ Cut rail lines
    ◦ Stole herds
    ◦ Promised independence if they aided England

				
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