KGS Based Control for Parking Brake Cable Manufacturing System by ijcsiseditor


									                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011


                          MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

                          *Geeta Khare & **Dr. R.S. Prasad

Abstract:                                              centralized and distributed digital control
                                                       and its pros and cons have been studied.
In   today’s     competitive    production
                                                       Here an attempt is made to overcome the
environment, process industries, demand a
                                                       disadvantages of above system to improve
totally integrated control and optimization
                                                       efficiency as well as profit level by going
solution that can increase productivity,
                                                       into minute details from root to top level
reliability and quality while minimizing
                                                       i.e. on line operator up to management or
cost. Automation     is a step     beyond
                                                       supervisor level, the system named as
mechanization.      For    automation      of
                                                       KGS        i.e.     Kaleidoscopic         Governing
production plant either centralized or
                                                       systems.          Paper presents, the technical
distributed control system are used. There
                                                       viability of ‘KGS’ system how it is
are standardized approaches and standard
                                                       efficient in various ways to optimize
hardware & software available worldwide
                                                       output, improve profit margin and reliable
as per the requirement.     Investment in
                                                       for output prediction in the operation of
process control system is also an important
                                                       manufacturing of PBC Cable which is
factor in improving product quality and
                                                       used in automobile sector.
lowering production cost while providing a
competitive edge to industries, which has              Keywords:             -    Distributed        Control
forced to others to improve their process              systems, KGS, Conduit, Abutment, PBC
control technology. Various aspects of

*Geeta Khare, Principal, S.S.J.P, Asangaon, email
**Dr.R.S.Prasad, Professor & Director, R.R.I.M.T., Lucknow

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                     (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                     Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

                           MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

Previously, industrial plant equipment,             efficiency, operator efficiency and asset
such as pumps, motors and pneumatics,               optimization.       The ability to control the
was reliable and kept water flowing or              process with accuracy, flexibility and high
machines opening, having no intelligence            availability is more important than ever to
and generally no interface apart from some          increasing       quality,      productivity         and
minimal manual controls. As technology              providing       a     sustainable       competitive
developed, sensors and actuators were               advantage. It enables distributed control
added and closed loop control systems               applications and devices that deliver
created, so simple interfaces informed the          maximum reliability, survivability and
operator about temperature or revolutions           responsiveness.
per minute, whilst data loggers and
                                                    The DCS largely came about due to
recorders provided history on graph paper.
                                                    increase availability of micro computers
Automation     is    a      step   beyond           and the proliferation of microprocessor in
mechanization, provided human operators             the world of process control. In the
with machinery to assist them with the              industry      reliable    process       are    crucial
muscular requirement of work, automation            success. To stay competitive a plant must
greatly decreases the need for human                function smoothly and efficiently at all
sensory and mental requirements as well.            times, delivering the best possible return
Centralization process control combined             on investment at the lowest possible costs.
with increased mechanization has resulted           The use of DCS is becoming popular and
in improve productivity.                            useful to control complex process in the
                                                    industry that involves multiple variables
For automation of production plant either
                                                    and      control      loops.           EMERSON,
centralized or distributed control system
                                                    YOKOGAWA,                    FOXPRO                 and
are used. Automation plays an increasingly
                                                    HONEYWELL have widely used DCS
important role in the world economy. It
                                                    system in the industrial process for
has a notable impact in a wide range of
                                                    automatic control. The DCS acts as a
industries beyond manufacturing. Process
                                                    significant and critical role in human
system as a part of full plant automation
                                                    supervisory control of automated plant
should be designed to improve production

                                                                                ISSN 1947-5500
                                                  (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                  Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

    applied in diverse complex industries such                   requirement.            Various        aspects        of
    as    power   plant,   refinery,        chemicals,           centralized and distributed digital control
    pipeline and manufacturing and many                          and its pros and cons have been studied
    more. There are standardized approaches                      and disadvantages of these systems are
    and    standard     hardware        &    software            improved in KGS system.
    available     worldwide        as       per     the
    KGS System:
    The advancement in embedded technology                       ensures fast commissioning as all the cards
    is used to take care of local parameters. It                 of compatible.
    gives full facility to local operator to                •    It    ensures      a    significant       boost       in
    interact with the process using keyboard &                   productivity throughout the entire life
    LCD display. The settable alarm method                       cycle of the plant.
    & alert message reduce operating skills &               •    It is designed to provide higher plant
    breakdown time. It has enough memory to                      availability and productivity.
    take care of data. The data memory will be              •    Reduce plant down times as well as
    refreshed every time & data of interest of                   operating and maintenance cost as only
    management will be sent to a pc through                      card replacement in worst case.
    simple Ethernet data highway. The pc                    •    No skilled man power is required so all
    memory if not enough to take care of all                     process control components reduce down
    data of interest then it can be transferred to               time in the case of problem or other events
    special data storage element. The data of                    and minimize production losses.
    interest of respective department is also               •    There is no single point of decision
    stored at the PC of that department. We                      making and therefore there is no single
    have provided simple embedded controller                     point of failure.
    at each control section which not only                  •    Increased       reliability     with       decreased
    takes care of its own section to optimize                    communication costs.
    system but at the same time communicates
                                                            •    DCS delivers the needed response time,
    with supervisory pc and alerts for present
                                                                 and      enhances        system        survivability
    status by giving data. This gives benefits
                                                                 increases reliability and lower cost.
    in following way.
                                                            •    A simple PC can acquire data for MIS
•   It ensures simple and fast engineering and
    no probability of programming errors and
                                                            •    Date transparency up to the managerial
                                                                 level in real time.

                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500
                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                           Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

•   Resolution can be increased.
    Parking brake system:                                 tremendous brake force i.e.                50-pound

    The rear disc brake system consists of a              individual the power to stop a two-ton

    solid rear disc brake rotor and a single              vehicle, when the parking brake is release,

    piston rear disc brake caliper. The rear              pressure against the piston is released the

    brake pads and linings are held in position           rear brake pads and linings return to their

    between the rear disc brake caliper and the           unapplied position.            A broken cable

    rear disc brake rotor by two guides, and an           indicates brake failure which should be

    M springs. It is not necessary to remove              replaced.        In picking a replacement

    the rear disc brake caliper completely to             primary consideration are quality, material

    replace the rear brake pads and linings,              and     compatibility       with     car’s     model.

    which can be removed simply by pivoting               Superior parking brake cables are outfitted

    the rear disc brake caliper on its rear disc          with weather resistant rubber or plastic.

    support bracket.     Hydraulics power is              Experimentation:
    provided to the rear disc brakes by a rear            The Parking Brake Cable (PBC) system of
    wheel brake hose attached to the rear disc            automobile        component        industry        with
    brake caliper. Replaceable copper washers             centralized controller is shown in fig. (1).
    on either side of the rear wheel brake hose           The KGS scheme is implemented for PBC
    fitting prevent brake fluid leakage. To stop          Line is shown in fig (2) which solves the
    the car from rolling down on an inclined              present problem they are facing with
    plane, need a well maintained parking                 centralized control system.                  In KGS
    brake also known as hand brake or                     scheme 10 controllers CP 1 to CP 10 are
    emergency brake. The parking brake is                 used.      The controller have two cards:
    connected to the main brake system                    Microcontroller and input – output with
    through the parking brake cable. A broken             power              supply              respectively.
    brake cable disconnect the parking the                Microcontroller card has hardware with
    brake to the system. The most common                  suitable software for respective unit.                 It
    problem of hand brake is broken brake                 also has communication port for PC
    cable which will disconnects the parking              interface to provide data to PC.             The real
    brake to the system.     While pulling the            Time clock is an optional feature. All units
    lever it transfers force to the brake fluid           have same microcontroller and input-
    which travels through the cable. The fluid            output cards so they are compatible to each
    amplifies the minuscule force applied to

                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                 Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

      other.            The only change in software             program required for each stage.
     Conduit cutting 

     Conduit deburring 

     Conduit pilling 
                                                Conduit shaping section 
  Sleeve insertion                                                            Centralized controller 

     White abutment pressing  

     Black abutment pressing (2NOS)                                                                Fig 1.: centralized 
      prosess                                                                                                  system 
     Metal abutment pressing 

          Cable pilling 

                                                Abutment section
     T ‐  end pressing (1) & (2) 

     Ring pressing  


 Conduit cutting                                                      Cp 1
 Conduit deburring                                                    Cp2 
                                        Conduit shaping section
 Conduit pilling                                                      Cp3 

Sleeve            insertion                                              Cp3                      Fig 2.: KGS 
 White abutment pressing                                           Cp4 
 Black abutment pressing (2NOS) 
  Metal abutment pressing               Abutment section

       Cable pilling 
                                       Pressing section

  T‐ end pressing (1) & (2)                                           Cp8

  Ring pressing  


                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

In manufacturing of parking brake cable it             Cable pilling removes unnecessary sleeves
goes under number of operations from                   it is optional process and if required only it
conduit cutting to fitting.                            is used.
                                                       Third stage – pressing section. T end
First stage – conduit shaping section;
                                                       fitting and ring fitting which are used for
cutting takes place and its length is
                                                       cable clamping to the support.
decided on the basis of model of vacant
                                                       Finally, the traction; is tested for checking
and an application which is the most
                                                       load bearing capacity of cable. The cable
important parameter and its acceptable
                                                       is stressed by pneumatic action and load
tolerance is ± 1mm.
                                                       cell will indicate actual load. If it breaks
Conduit deburring         - the ends of the
                                                       below set value alarm becomes on which
conduit are smooth and by removing extra
                                                       indicate that cable is faulty and to be
material left at the time of cutting and the
surface is clean so and abutment can be
fitted reliably.                                       Results & Conclusion:
Conduit pilling end part sleeve is removed
                                                  •    The experimental results show the system
and cleaned.
                                                       functionality and performances.                 Verify
Second stage – next operation is related to
                                                       the closeness of the two results, the KGS
abutment fitting.      Abutments are the
                                                       system have been found to be in very good
plastic and metal parts fitted on conduit for
                                                       agreement with the target value. By using
proper grip and movement limiting.
                                                       KGS Production efficiency for CAR 1 is
Three types of abutments like white, black
                                                       improved by 22% and CAR 2 efficiency
and metal are used in normal cases.
                                                       by 15% with reference to existing control
White abutment is fitted on one end where
                                                       system. From table 1 & 2 it is observed
as black abutment is on another end &
                                                       that CAR 1 maintenance takes only 5 cable
metal is fitted near the tip of the conduit of
                                                       times while for CAR 2 it is 20 cable time.
the both ends.
                                                       The KGS system shows positive impact on
                                                       efficiency and reliability of the plant
                                                       which are shown in graph 1 & 2.

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                          Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

            Target value 100/day                                     Target value 700/day

                                                                    Existin                               KGS 
        Existing                               syste        Day        g    Differenc        Proble       syste
Days    system      Difference     Problem     m            s       system  e                m            m 
   1         100              0    N             100            1       700             0    N               700
   2         100              0    N             100            2       700             0    N               700
   3          80            ‐20    M              95            3       650           ‐50    M               680
   4         100              0    N             100            4       700             0    N               700
   5          88            ‐12    M              95            5       573           ‐27    M               680
   6          75            ‐25    M              95            6       615           ‐85    M               680
   7           0           ‐100    H               0            7         0          ‐700    H                 0
   8           0           ‐100    M              95            8         0          ‐700    M               680
   9         100              0    N             100            9       700             0    N               700
  10         130             30    N             130           10       777            77    N               777
  11         100              0    N             100           11       710            10    N               710
  12         105              5    N             105           12       730            30    N               730
  13          32            ‐68    R              32           13       412          ‐288    R               412
  14           0           ‐100    H               0           14         0          ‐700    H                 0
  15          50            ‐50    M              95           15       570          ‐130    M               680
  16          96             ‐4    R              96           16       660           ‐40    R               660
  17          50            ‐50    M              95           17       620           ‐80    M               680
  18          31            ‐69    M              95           18       280          ‐420    M               680
  19          82            ‐18    M              95           19       600          ‐100    M               680
  20          43            ‐57    M              95           20       175          ‐525    M               680
  21           0           ‐100    H               0           21         0          ‐100    H                 0
  22         114             14    N             114           22       810           110    N               810
  23          81            ‐19    R              81           23       550           150    R               550
  24          79            ‐21    R              79           24       800           100    N               800
  25         102              2    N             102           25       700             0    N               700
  26          76            ‐24    M              95           26       615           ‐85    M               680
  27         118             18    N             118           27       500          ‐200    R               500
  28           0           ‐100    H               0           28         0          ‐700    H                 0
  29          30            ‐70    M              95           29       230          ‐470    M               680
  30          95             ‐5    R              95           30       750            50    N               750
  31          75            ‐25    R              75           31       730            30    N               730

            Table 1: PBC – CAR 1                                     Table 2 : PBC – CAR 2


                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011




                                                                                                                     EXISTING SYSTEM
                                                                                                                     KGS SYSTEM


                   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

                                            Graph 1 : PBC CAR –1





                                                                                                                        EXISTING SYSTEM
                                                                                                                        KGS SYSTEM 


                   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

                                             Graph 2 : PBC CAR -2

                                                                                           ISSN 1947-5500
                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

• The net effect of reduced machine down
times resulting in higher productivity of
operators and less defects.
• Process system has provided us with the              [1]      Bela G Liptak, “Process Control,” 3rd 
ability to achieve higher production levels            Edition, Butterworth Heinemaun  
                                                       [2]      Sanjeev gupta &S.C.Sharma Selection 
with the same amount of resources.                     and application of advance control systems 
                                                       Journal of scientific & Industrial Research – 
• It can design, develop and produce the
                                                       April 2005 
product according to customer’s request.               [3]      Bela G Liptak. “Process Measurement 
                                                       And Analysis” Third Edition, Butterworth, 
• There is flexibility to change standard              Heinemaun 
control strategies in the process with the             [4]      The Operator as IPL – Author, User 
                                                       Centered Design Services, LLC, USA, 
option   of   readjusting     the   controller         Hydrocarbon Engineering        September 
parameters.                                            2005 
                                                       [5]      Control System Design – Graham C, 
                                                       Goodwin, Steford F Graebe, Mario E Salgado.  
The system is applicable to any plant by
                                                       Prentice Hall.csd. 
proper selection of embedded controller.               [6]      The Engineering tool 
                                                       [7]      Resources, Tools and Basic 
Interaction and decoupling of control loops
                                                       information for Engineering and Design of 
can be programmed as per requirements.                 Technical Applications. 
KGS system offers a highly innovative                  y
distributed control system that helps the              [9]
industry not only stay competitive but                 [10]
improve competitiveness over the long                  rake_Cables_
term – by optimizing, productivity, plant              [12]
availability, reduced downtimes and costs.             [13]
It is designed for the future to guarantee
compatibility with ongoing innovations. It
saves money during system upgrades.

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500

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